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A Quarter-Century of Normalization and Social Role Valorization

 | 
Robert J. Flynn
, 
Raymond Lemay

Part 10: Indexes

Subject index

Texte intégral

Acceptance of differences, 186, 376

“Activation” of persons with severe disabilities, 85

Activism: personal, 11; social, 456, 460, 484

Activities, 38; of daily living, 27, 50; frequency of, 282, 283; and integration, 274-5, 278, 281, 284-288, 290, 295, 332; interest in, 283; leisure, 23, 28-9, 35, 41, 43, 377, 403, 414-5, 428-9, 432; preferred, 280, 282-3; sporting, 38; variety of, 282-3; youth, 40

Adaptive behavior, 260, 284, 287

Adjustment: personal, 254-5, 259, 265. See also Community

Advocacy, 11, 193, 372, 437, 439, 448, 449, 457-8, 492; citizen, 96, 396, 484. See also Conferences and congresses

Aging, 8-10, 52, 142-3, 365, 428, 433, 445, 448, 450-1, 494

Alliances: strategic, 396, 444, 451, 452, 456, 484, 493

Antidehumanization, 53

Arche (L’), 74, 97

Associations and organizations, 22, 23, 25, 30, 42, 448, 458; ALA Foundation, 31, 39, 42; American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD), 56, 98, 76, 78, 80-1, 89, 97; American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), 4, 198; American Psychological Association, 53; Associations for the Mentally Retarded, 363, 463; Bishop Bekkers Institute 66; British Council of Organizations of Disabled People (BCODP), 168, 171; British Mental Health Society, 27; British Parents Association, 41; California Association for Retarded Children, 79; Campaign for Mental Handicap Education and Research Association (CMHERA), 441; Canadian Association for Community Living (CACL), 11, 57, 65, 90, 456; Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded, 9, 57, 65, 90, 437, 456; Canadian Council on Poverty, 438; Cerebral Palsy Association of America, 77; Children’s Psychiatric Research Institute (CPRI), 42; Children’s Aid Society of Prescott-Russell, 4; Children’s Society, 444; Comité européen pour le développement de l’intégration sociale (CEDIS), 457; Commonwealth Department of Community Services, 450; Commonwealth Government, 448; Commonwealth Minister for Community Services, 449; Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service, 447; Committee on the Rights of Persons With Handicaps, 449; Community Health Evaluation of Service Systems (CHESS), 447; Community Involvement Council of Southwestern Ontario,190; Community and Mental Handicap Educational and Research Association (CMHERA), 441, 442; Council of Canadians with Disabilities, 189, 191; Danish National Service for the Mentally Retarded, 67; Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS), 8, 168; Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, 484; Disabled Peoples International (DPI), 168; Dutch National Association for the Care of Mentally Retarded, 66; Eastern Nebraska Community Office of Retardation (ENCOR), 41, 75, 88, 360, 442-3, 448; Education for Community Initiatives (ECI), 375; European League for the Mentally Handicapped, 25, 31; Federation of the Blind, 23; G. Allan Roeher Institute, 11, 42, 80, 88, 361, 366, 435, 437-8, 456, 463, 502; Geneva Association for Intellectually Handicapped Persons, 460; Governor’s Citizens’ Committee on Mental Retardation, 80; Handicap Associations Central Committee (HCK), 30; Handicap Sports Association, 42; House of Commons, 443; Institut canadien français pour la déficience mentale, 456; Institute of higher learning for staff training, 26; Institut québécois pour la déficience mentale (IQDM), 456; International Association for Sports for the Mentally Handicapped (INAS-FMH), 38; International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (IASSMD), 31, 35, 41, 59, 61, 109; International Bureau of Education, UNESCO, 67; International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped (ILSMH), 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 48-9, 56, 78-9, 81, 184, 191, 396, 457; International Para-Olympic Committee (IPC), 38; International Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, 35; International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), 42; Israeli Parent Association (AKIM), 35; Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), 365; Joint Commission on Mental Health of Children in the US, 65; Kennedy Foundation International Award, 73; LEV (Danish organization of parents of retarded people), 396; Liberty, 443; Ministère des Affaires Sociales, 458, 469; Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux, 458, 464, 469; Ministry of Community and Social Services of Ontario, 43; Ministry of Education of Quebec, 464; Ministry of Family and Welfare, 464; Ministry of Health of Ontario, 42-3; Ministry of Health and Social Services, 458, 464, 469; Ministry of Social Affairs, 26; Minnesota Association for Retarded Children (ARC), 33, 61, 67; National Association for Retarded Children (NARC), 31, 34, 36, 48, 50, 61-2, 65, 69, 70, 72, 77-9, 81, 83, 87, 89, 96; National Association of Superintendents of Public Residential Facilities, 94-95; National Council on Intellectual Disabilities, 448, 451; National Health Service, 442; National Institute on Mental Retardation (NIMR), 11,42, 80, 88, 90, 361, 366, 435-8, 456, 463, 502; National Parents Association, 439; National Research Council, 402; Nebraska Psychiatric Institute, 69, 87; New York State Department of Mental Hygiene, 75; New Zealand Institute of Mental Retardation, 447; New Zealand Society for Intellectually Handicapped Citizens (IHC), 448; Nordic Parent Association, 25; North American Social Role Valorization Development, Training and Safeguarding Council, 86; Norwegian Department of Employment, 402-3; Norwegian Ministry of Social and Health Services, 401; Norwegian National Association for the Mentally Retarded (NFPU), 398; Norwegian National Housing Bank, 419; Office des personnes handicapées du Québec (OPHQ), 271, 458, 465-6; Office for the Handicapped, 271, 458, 465-6, 470; Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children, 53, 80; Pennsylvania State Office of Mental Retardation, 72, 90; People First, 44, 396; President’s Committee on Mental Retardation (PCMR), 35-7, 43, 65, 69-74, 77-9, 84, 447; President Kennedy’s Committee, 24; President’s Panel on Mental Retardation, 31, 69; Royal Board of Education, 24; Royal Commission of Enquiry on Education, 464; Royal Medical Board, 22; Royal Social Board, 22; Save the Children, 31; Schonell Institute, 447; Secrétariat à la Famille, 458; Secretary’s Committee on Mental Retardation, 64; Southern Regional Education Board, 65; Standards and Monitoring Service (SAMS), 447, 449; Supreme Court of Canada, 187, 439; Swedish Association for the Developmentally Disturbed (also referred to as FUB), 18, 22-6, 30-1, 36, 38-40, 66, 181, 396; Swedish Board of Education, 23, 30; Swedish Handicap Sports Association (SHIF), 38; Swedish Institute for the Handicapped, 20, 66; Swedish Parliament, 24, 30; Swedish Red Cross, 11, 20-1, 23, 25; Swedish Sports Federation, 38, 41; Training Institute for Human Service Planning, Leadership and Change Agentry, 353, 364, 451, 460, 479; Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS), 168; United Nations, Department of Public Information, 3, General Assembly of, 25, 40, 81, 184; United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 21; Uppsala University Centre for Handicap Research, 44, 400; Vermont State Department of Mental Health, 242; World Games for the disabled, 41; World Health Organization, 3, 169

Asylum, 20, 59-60, 69, 442, 464

Attitudes, 243; attitude change, 10, 29, 41, 54, 235, 372, 377, 380-2, 397; need for new, 23, 372; positive, 8, 372

Autonomy, 89, 252, 259, 265, 415, 422

Barriers, 186, 188, 190, 192, 241, 249

Benefactors, 281

Choice in everyday life, 8, 266, 388

Citizen, 61, 62

Citizenship status, 397, 418, 439, 443, 461

Clubs, 19, 29, 30, 35, 38, 39, 192

Collective responsibility versus individual choice, 417

Community, 8, 25-7, 37, 40, 42, 193, 249, 459; access to, 249, 258; adjustment to, 249, 254, 277, 279, 284, 285, 296; associations, 378; political economy of, 164; residences, 57, 94-5, 242, 248; transition to, 9, 42, 166, 242, 361, 369, 461. See also Community living; Community services

Community living, 184, 243, 250, 377, 428, 432, 484

Community services, 5, 8, 23, 24, 26-7, 33, 34, 39, 42-5, 54-5, 59, 61-5, 67-8, 81-2,84, 93, 95, 120, 184, 189, 190, 192, 241-2, 247, 249, 262, 278, 280, 365, 371, 377-8, 428-9, 459, 460, 463-5, 467, 478; care, 9, 23, 35, 64, 265, 398-400, 402, 438, 448, 450-452; Community Demonstration Programme (CCDP), 8; versus community supports, 378; competencies of staff in, 242-9; comprehensive, 63, 78, 88; COMSERV, 437, 442, 448; coordination, 42-3, 55, 63; critique of, 377, 477; decentralizing of, 402, 437, 463; differences among residents of supportive apartments, group homes, and natural family homes, 24, 26-7, 252-7, 259-265, 278, 280; dispersion of, 57, 63, 71, 75, 78, 360; diversification of, 63; education, 9, 23, 24, 26-30, 42, 55, 56, 64, 98, 120, 198, 205, 207, 242, 343,377,380, 382, 400, 402, 413, 428-9, 438-9, 464, 466-8; employment, 23, 24, 305-314, 402-3, 438; family home, 252-6, 259-264; family residential resources, 24, 468; and family support services, 430; financial support to, 242, 428, 468; goal of, 249; group homes, 8, 24, 26, 39, 57, 89, 247-250, 252-6, 259-263,438, 465, 468, 476; versus hospitals, 8, 9, 21; housing, 428; improvements to, 6, 21, 382, 383-391; individualized, 439; and integration, 371, 375, 378; international aspect of, 25; and mental health, 52-3, 62, 64-5, 93; and mental retardation, 280; for older people, 445; programs for persons with mental retardation, 11; Project Re-Ed, 53; quality of, 272-4, 277-8, 317-344; reform of, 58, 81, 249, 377-8, 387-9, 449; rehabilitation centers, 464-5; residential, 8,9,23,35,52, 56-7, 59, 65, 70-1, 73, 79, 80, 93, 121, 242, 249, 250, 255-6, 264, 277-280, 282-4, 286-288, 293-4, 296-7, 447, 449, 464, 467-8, 496; service system, 11, 63, 78, 109, 249, 267, 361, 456, 465, 468, 484; supervised appartments, 252-265; and support, 428; vocational, 252-3, 260, 309, 355, 365; vocational rehabilitation, 305

Competencies, 7, 35, 187, 206, 208-14, 243-9, 401, 498; person-oriented, 7; of residence managers, 248, 277-8

Competency enhancement, 10, 222, 397, 403

Conferences and congresses, 23, 30, 56, 79; of the Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded, 57; Family Focus Conference, 439; of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (IASSMD), 35, 41, 59, 61; International Conference in Reykjavik (Iceland), Beyond Normalization: Towards One Society for All, 3, 95; International People First Conference, 191; Jerusalem Congress of the International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, 25; Malmö, 396; of the Minnesota Association for Retarded Children, 33; Montreal Congress of the International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, 43; of the National Association for Retarded Children (NARC), 61; National Citizen Advocacy Conference, 451; Ottawa Conference: Twenty-Five Years of Normalization, Social Role Valorization, and Social Integration, 4, 6, 11, 45, 437, 440, 491; Stockholm Symposium of the International League on Legislative Aspects of Mental Retardation, 25, 35; for young adults with mental retardation, 40-1

Conservatism corollary, 39, 75, 118, 119, 152, 153, 185, 496

Consumer, 191-2; action, 191, 193; movement, 191-4, 458; participation, 193, 437; rights of, 192, 194

Control: over one’s life, 422; over quality, 39

Countries, regions, or states/provinces: Africa, 457; Asia, 169; Australia, 4, 6, 10, 364-5, 433-4, 447-452; Austria, 20, 25, 64; Belgium, 25, 65, 271, 272, 364, 458-9; Britain and UK, 3, 4, 6, 8, 25, 59, 61, 62-5, 166, 169, 171, 364, 433, 434, 441-6; British Columbia, 438-9; British Commonwealth, 41; California, 25, 57, 281; Canada, 6, 11, 29, 36, 41-4, 57, 63, 84, 187-9, 190-3, 305, 36 4, 366, 433, 435, 437-440, 452, 455-6, 458, 460; Connecticut, 57; Denmark, 24, 26, 28, 31, 38, 55, 61, 64, 65, 67, 69, 83-6, 94, 114-6, 181, 190, 192, 360, 396-8, 402, 404; Eastern Europe, 65; England, 31, 42, 109; Europe, 4, 53, 55, 63-5, 67, 455, 458-461; Finland, 44, 65; France, 25, 35, 41, 53, 65, 364, 448-460; Germany, 11, 39, 55, 64; Hungary, 11, 20; Iceland, 364; Iowa, 34; Ireland, 25, 443; Israel, 35; Italy, 64; Japan, 44; Manitoba, 439; Mauritius Island, 457; Minnesota, 33, 41, 61; Nebraska, 11, 34, 35, 38, 41, 58, 63, 68, 69, 75, 89, 94, 365, 369, 370, 448, 463; Netherlands, 31, 55, 64-5; New Brunswick, 438; New Foundland, 438; New Jersey, 34; New York, 75; New Zealand, 4, 6, 364-5, 433, 435, 447-452; North America, 4, 58-9, 95, 235-6, 366, 368, 427, 449, 451, 452, 457, 459, 461, 469; Norway, 6, 24, 364, 396-404, 416-7, 419; Ontario, 11, 36, 42-44, 188, 189, 193, 437-9; Oregon, 282; Pennsylvania, 81, 365, 483, 485; Poland, 41; Quebec, 271, 276, 286-288, 437-8, 455-461, 463, 468; Réunion, 467; Saskatchewan, 437, 438; Scandinavia, 4, 25, 35, 38, 59, 61, 62, 64, 82, 84, 155, 181-7, 189-194, 395-405, 407, 411-422, 449, 452; Scotland, 64; Soviet Union, 64; Spain, 25, 364; Sweden, 6, 11, 20-42, 44, 56, 64-6, 84-6, 89, 114-6, 181-2, 184, 192-3, 360, 397, 398, 400, 402, 407-410; Switzerland, 25, 31, 64, 364, 458, 460; USA, 11, 25, 29, 31-3, 35-8, 43, 53, 55, 62-81, 169, 271, 305, 364, 433, 435, 438, 455, 458, 485; Tennessee, 53; Vermont, 7, 241-267, 277-280; Wales, 401, 444; Washington, DC, 36-7; Wisconsin, 31, 34, 41; Yugoslavia, 35.

Dehumanization, including dehumanizing, 33, 49, 56, 59-2, 84, 87. See also Institutions

Deindividualization, 88

Deinstitutionalization, 3, 10, 32, 36, 40, 93, 166, 288, 289, 295, 365, 375-7, 399, 402, 413, 415, 428, 442-3, 458-460, 490, 491. See also Integration

Devaluation, 219-222, 226, 235, 306, 368, 405, 445, 479, 491, 494-496; devalued people, 61, 125-6, 133, 134, 219, 227, 305-314, 356-9, 364, 368-372, 479, 491, 494, 496; and identity, 233, 306; and people with intellectual disabilities, 305-314; and preventing people from being cast into devalued roles, 131, 313, 381; and rejection, 137-9; and roles, 60, 62, 91-2, 117-119, 175, 176, 306, 371, 387-8, 390-1, 422, 426; and social status, 132-139, 305, 306, 427; societal, 133-136, 142; and vulnerability, 314. See also Perceptual processes; Roles

Developing person, 61, 81

Developmental model, 61, 75, 243, 247, 427

Deviancy, 62, 75, 117-9, 186, 227, 355; deviancy image juxtaposition, 59. See also Roles

Dignity, 21, 33, 53, 60, 62, 77, 84, 264, 361

Disability or persons with disabilities, 5, 8, 9, 22, 27, 30, 37, 39, 42-3, 163-5, 168-9, 176, 186, 191-4, 426, 428, 450-452; adults with mental retardation, 22, 23, 24, 27-8, 30-1, 35, 40, 44, 247, 251, 253, 257, 258, 429, 467; blindness, 30, 40; cerebral palsy, 11, 21-3, 30, 37, 40; children and adolescents, 8, 21, 27-9, 31, 33, 35, 53, 56, 438, 443-4, 459-460; deafness, 30, 40, 63; developmental, 3, 5, 24, 27, 272-289, 456, 470; Down’s syndrome, 26, 370; epilepsy, 475; intellectual, 5, 21, 22, 23, 28-31, 35, 44-5; with an impairment, 123, denial of impairment, 490, 491; making their own decisions, 449; mental retardation, 8, 9, 17-18, 22, 24, 29, 31, 33, 34-5, 37-9, 42-45, 48-50, 53, 55-8, 60-3, 65, 68, 71, 74, 77, 80-1, 91, 93, 220-1, 242-267,271-289, 365, 399, 400, 427, 447-8, 464, 467; multiply disabled, 27, 40; physical, 5, 8,30,164,176, 445; psychiatric, 5, 64, 65, 272, 289-296; schizophrenia, 10; sensory, 206-208; severe, 26; types of, 40

Discrimination, 187, 189, 235, 466

Education, 6, 10, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 35, 54, 58, 86-7, 97, 385; and adults, 39; community education, 6, 382 of severely handicapped children, 58; segregated, 57, 89, 93; special, 10, 64, 89, 200, 205, 207, 402, 430, 438. See also Community services

Efficacy of behavioral, educational and psychological interventions, 9-10

Employers, 307, 308, 309; and hiring of persons with intellectual disabilities, 308-313; and perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities, 305, 310, 312-3; satisfaction of, 310

Employment: supported, 305, 313, 402-3, 429, 484, 496; and cost-saving, 308; as recognition of right to work, 308. See also Community services; Programs

Empowerment, 210, 214

Environment, 17, 27, 63, 64, 85, 92, 186, 259, 261-5, 267; homelike, 21, 26-7, 33, 62, 75, 386, 496. See also Quality of life.

Ethics, 18, 44, 267, 306, 311, 440, 498

Eugenics, 52, 64

Evaluation, 8, 36, 417, 447, 450, 463, 469, 478. See also PASS and PASSING

Expectancies, 56, 63, 219-236; and devalued roles and identities, 235; and Normalization, 234; and Social Role Valorization (SRV), 234. See also Roles

Families, 11, 22, 27, 430, 458. See also Associations; Community services

Friends, 261, 276, 279, 282-5. See also Social system

Friendships, 250, 266, 279, 283

Funding, 21, 53, 55-7, 459, 465, 478

Gender, 228-9, 235. See also Roles

Good life, 7, 387, 418. See also Social Role Valorization (SRV)

Group dynamics, 19, 20, 22, 30, 35

Hospitals, 23, 24, 26, 438, 441, 465; in Europe, 64; Faribault State Hospital, 33, 36; Maudsley, 442; Pacific State Hospital (California), 281; St. Elizabeth’s, 20; psychiatric, 465; state, 23, 24, 26. See also Associations and organizations; Institutions

Housing standards, 402, 419

Humanization, 60, 62, 85

Human services, 51, 52, 58, 62-8, 96, 122-3, 170-1, 220, 360, 366, 379, 459,461,478, 481, 492, 496, 498, 499; See also Community services; Normalization; PASS; PASSING

Identities, 61, 219-236, 421, 422; of persons with disabilities, 171; of persons with mental retardation, 61; and roles, 231, 421. See also Devaluation; Expectancies; Roles

Image, positive, 445

Image degradation, 59, 414, 427

Image enhancement, 10. See also Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV); Roles

Image juxtaposition, 84, 427. See also Deviancy

Image transfer, 59

Impairment, 23, 31, 41, 45, 135, 165, 168, 490, 491; international classification of, 3. See also Disability; Roles

Inclusion, 97. See also Integration

Independence (personal), 8, 22, 29-30, 39, 187, 191, 199, 200, 203, 206, 208, 210, 214, 243, 249-250, 252, 259, 265, 267, 280, 282, 361

Independent living, 171, 261; and group homes, 8; and programs, 476

Individualism, 369, 415, 492-3, 497

Individualization, 89, 243, 249, 266

Institutionalism, 60

Institutionalization, 52

Institutions, 18, 23-28, 31-2, 34, 36, 39, 42-3, 44, 57, 60, 165, 166, 415, 448, 494; and aging, 53; alternatives to, 24; American, 31, 33, 36-9, 42, 48-50, 56; Arkansas Children’s Colony, 57; “better” or “model” institutions, 52-3, 57-8, 60-1, 64, 79, 81, 94, 95; Central Colony (Madison, Wisconsin), 36; for children and adults, 23; closing of, 34, 438; Connecticut, 57; continuing to be built, 465; criticism of, 11, 24, 26, 33, 69; Danish, 24, 26, 114, 116; day centers, 468; decrease in number of persons placed in, 465, 467; dismantling of, 84; defense of, 40; as dehumanizing, 57; European, 455; and exclusion, 165; mental, 59-60; Michigan, 56; Minnesota, 34, 59; Missouri, 57; moving out of, 415, 438, 448, 455, 475; Nebraska, 58; New York State, 57; rebuilt, 57; reform of, 25, 48-50, 58, 401, 402, 428; smaller, 25-6, 57, 74, 75, 93, 94-5, 448; Smith Falls (Ontario), 42-3; social, 497; state, 448; Swedish, 23-4, 33-4, 38, 64, 116; Tennessee, 57; “total institutions”, 59, 62; transformation of, 458; Washington State, 57

Integration, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 34, 44, 55, 63, 71, 75, 77, 94, 97, 120-2, 186, 190-1, 197, 214, 222, 227, 243, 251, 257, 259, 261, 265, 278, 371, 390, 398, 400, 412, 413-6, 422, 438-9, 495, 496; and acculturation, 288-9; versus assimilation, 288-9; into the community, 4, 210, 277, 278, 290-1, 371, 375, 378; and community living, 272, 284-5, 287; correlates (including antecedents and consequences) of, 273, 287, 288, 292-5, 297, 343; as corollary of Normalization and Social Role Valorization, 271; definitions of, 271-280, 282, 284-7, 288-9, 296-7; and deinstitutionalization, 288-9; and disability, 271-296; of persons with and without disabilities, 291; extent of, 290-2; versus inclusion, 274-5, 285, 496; functional, 276; and legislation, 271; levels of, 291; versus mainstreaming, 275; and maladaptive behaviour, 284, 287; versus marginalization, 288-9; and Normalization-related competencies of residential service managers, 278; organizational, 276; personal, 276; personal social integration and valued social participation, 274-5, 296-7; physical, 3, 252-3, 256-7, 260, 266, 273-4, 276-8, 280-3, 284, 291, 296, 413, 415-6; and satisfaction with living situation, 278-280; social, 6, 49, 50, 234, 256-8, 260, 263, 265-7, 271, 273-4, 276-288, 290-6, 338-9, 323, 336-7, 339, 341, 368, 371-2, 375-8, 380, 413, 457-8, 460-1, 465, 467-8; physical more satisfactory than social, 278, 295-6, 322-3; physical versus social, 272-4, 276, 278, 286-7, 296-7, 323-4, 376, 461, 496; psychological, 291, 295; and psychological well-being, 287; and quality of life, 285-6; “real”, 274-5, 296-7, 386; and satisfaction with living situation, 278-280; versus segregation, 288-9; in social living, 34; societal, 276, 413; styles of, 286-8; suggestions for research on, 296-7. See also Legislation

Interaction, 371-2, 381; as dimension of action, 119-123, 354-5, 371-2, 381; and social valuation, 154, 197, 371-2, 381-2. See also Normalization; Roles; Social interaction

International: perspective, 25; exchange, 442; relations, 22. See also Associations and organizations; Conferences and congresses; Countries, regions, or states/provinces

Interpretation, as dimension of action, 354-5

Journals: American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76; American Journal of Psychiatry, 86-7, 355; British Journal of Mental Subnormality, 41, 44; Community Mental Health Journal, 88; International SR V Journal, 502; Mental Retardation, 88, 89, 90, 497-8

Language, 27; common, 27; need for new, 23. See also Normalization; Normalization and Social Role Valorization

Legislation, 23, 24-8, 33, 37, 43, 45, 48, 50, 83, 89, 187-8, 312-4, 398; in Australia: Disability Services Act, 449, 452, The Law and Persons With Handicaps, 449; in Belgium, 271-2; in Canada: Canadian Charter of Rights and Liberties, 438, Canadian constitution, 187, 189, Charter of Rights in Quebec and in Canada, 438, Quebec Education Act, 466, 468; Declaration of General and Specific Rights of the Mentally Retarded, 81; for the defense of rights, 399, 429-430, 439, 443, 465, 493; in Denmark, 24, 397-8, 401; Human Rights Code, 189; implementation of, 18, 27; role in social change, 399; in Sweden: 24, 37, 43, 188, 398, 408-410, Acts of Parliament, 407, Act for Services to the Mentally Retarded, 408, Act on Supports and Services for Persons With Certain Disabilities (LSS), 409, Health and Medical Services Act (HSL), 409, Social Services Act (HSL), 409, Swedish Law on Care for the Mentally Retarded, 398, Universal Human Equality (SOU), 408; in UK: Community Care Act, 443-4, Liberty, Human Rights organization, 443; in USA: 271, Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act Amendments of 1987 (Pub. L. No. 100-146), 271

Living: conditions, 417-420, 439, 461; real life, 373, 383; standards, 419-420. See also Normalization

Marxism, 52, 55, 58, 163, 176-7

Materialist social theories, 52, 163, 170-2; and disability, 164-5

Medical model, 53, 54

Mental retardation, 22, 29, 31; and integration, 271-2, 278, 280, 289; friendships of, 279. See also Assessment of; Associations and organizations; Community services; Conferences and congresses; Disability; Government policy; Identities; Journals; Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV); Rights

Model coherency, 63, 71, 73, 75-6, 362, 389, 416. See also PASS

Modernism, 497, 500

Moral treatment, 82

Mortification process, 59

Movements, including reform movements, 5, 6, 28, 31, 44, 61, 375, 396, 398, 400, 402, 439, 445, 447, 456, 457, 484, 496. See also Associations and organizations; Consumer; Parents; Rights

Multidisciplinary assessments, 55

Nazism, 54, 64

Normal or normality, 25, 27, 34, 92, 118, 185. See also Normalization

Normalization, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 35, 37-45, 408; adaptation of, 414; alternatives to, 422; and age-appropriateness, 75, 496; application of, 44, 53, 387; as applied to profoundly and severely disabled persons, 41; articulation of, 30; basis of, 184; as basis of social policy in: Quebec, 271, in Vermont, 277-280; changing the person versus changing the environment, 117, 120, 122, 170, 172, 185-7; coherency of, 28; components of, 28, 45; as a concept, 398-9; controversies about, 5,74-6, 163-172, 182, 289, 358-9; definitions by Nirje, 13, 55, 87, 114, 176, and by Wolfensberger, 118; in Denmark, 114-116, 404; description of, 45, 72; as distinguished from Social Role Valorization (SRV), 7; and empirical support for, 280; of the environment, 186; environmental normalization and adaptive behaviour, 332-4; as a goal or as a means, 288, 398; as an effective guide, 385-391; and expectancies, 234; as guide for laws, 45, 397, 400; as a guiding framework, 45,441; evolution and acceptance of, 58, 70, 82-3, 86, 182, 184, 267, 408, 416; formulation of by Nirje, 11, 17-8, 22, 59, 71, 74, 75, 80, 82, 83, 84, 91, 92, 112-113, 118, 182; formulation of by Wolfensberger, 11, 58, 59, 60, 74, 75, 82, 84, 86, 87-93; generalizability of, 86; history of, 17-45, 51-97; impact or influence of, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 44-45, 73, 74-6, 82-7, 91, 93-5, 96, 181, 241, 249, 359, 364, 401-5, 434, in francophone Europe, 457, in raising consciousness, 496; implementation of, 8, 96, 241-267, 360, 365-8; implications of, 118, 408: interaction dimension of, 221, 371-2, interpretation dimension of, 121, 123, 221, 372; levels of, 119-121, 183-4, 354-5; lifestyle Normalization, 256, 259, 264, 277, 280, including satisfaction with, 254, 258, 260, 265, 267; meaning of, 36, 92, 185, 194; misconceptions of, 44, 96, 448, 456, 462; Nirje’s versus Wolfensberger’s approach, 91; and as normal an existence as possible, 24, 35, 58, 61, 81, 83, 118, 181-2, 386-390; and normal patterns or conditions of life, 17, 25, 32, 76, 92, 181, 185, 397, 401; and normal rhythm of day, week and year, 17, 34, 35, 41, 60, 92, 197, 398-9, 495; and norms, cultural versus statistical, 197; in North America, 219, 231; opposition to, 95-96; origins of, 181, 184, 193-4, 407-410, 427, 457; of the person, 92-3, 185; as precursor of Standard Rules, 3; and reforms, 58, 59, 61, 69, 80, 96, 386, 419; reformulation of, 219; research on, 7-10, 277-280, 411-422; and residence managers’ competency in, 277, 278; and teaching and training of, 56, 60, 95-6, 378, 383, 385-6, 484; in Scandinavia, 183-7, 189, 191, 194, 219, 395-407, 411-422; in Sweden, 37, 114-6, 407-8; transfer of, from Scandinavia to North America, 63-8; as useful internationally, 45. See also Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV)

Normalization, writings on: Application of the Normalization Principle: Comments on Functional Planning and Integration, 43; Basis and Logic of the Normalization Principle, 17, 18, 44; Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, 4, 17, 18, 26, 34, 37, 38, 39, 43, 51, 58, 61, 62, 64, 68-74, 72-4, 76-82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 109, 110, 111, 154, 168, 220, 359; Christmas in Purgatory, 36-7; Normalization Principle and Its Human Management Implications, 4, 182; Normalization Principle: Implications and Comments, 41; Normalization Principle Papers, 17; Normalization Principle-25 years Later, 17; Principle of Normalization in Human Services, 3, 76, 82, 87-93, 220, 355, 364, 399, 447, 457, 480, 491; Setting the Record Straight: A Critique of Some Frequent Misconceptions of the Normalization Principle, 44; Toward Independence, 39, 44

Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV): application of, in Quebec, 271, 286-7; comprehensive bibliography on, 507-546; continued interest in, 4; continued vitality of, 6; critiques of, 11-2; current situation of, 457; evolution of, 5, 12; formulations of, 456, 489; future of, 6, 489-502; historical relationship, 219-236; history of, 4; impact or influence of, 3, 6, 272, 317, 338, 355, 439, 450, 460-3, 477, in countries: Africa, 457, Australia and New Zealand, 6, 447-452, in Canada, 6, 437-440, 455, 458, 460, in Europe, 455, 458-460; in francophone countries, 6, 455-462, in Mauritius Island, 457, in North America, 459, in Réunion, 457, in Scandinavia, 395-405, in Sweden and Norway, 6, 411-422, in the UK, 3, 6, 441-6; impact, in raising consciousness, 461, 479, on aged care, 450, on evaluation techniques, 459, on institutional care system, 401, internationally, 4, 6, on legislation and policies, 448-450, 456, personal, 475-481, 483-5, on practice, 449-450; implementation of, 499; implications of, through the interaction dimension or “personal competency enhancement”, 354-6, 371-2, 491, 495, through the interpretation dimension or “social image enhancement”, 354-6, 371-2, 403, 491, 495; influence of, in mental retardation and developmental disabilities, 272, 338; international prominence of, 317; language of, 449-450; in mental retardation, 3, 401, 463; misconceptions of, 404, 457, 489-491; multiple perspectives on, 8, 11-12; as a new form of discourse, 463; new leaders, 484, objections to, 492; opponents of, 499; origins of, 463; procedural evidence in favor of, 6, 9-10, validating evidence in favor of, 6-10; promotion of, 457-460; relationship between the two, 219-236; relevance of today, 495, 497-502; teaching of, 450; and training, 363-4; as transcending culture and time, 500; translations of, 455; writings and research on, 51, 59, 359, 435, 460, 470, 490. See also Normalization; Social Role Valorization (SRV)

Ombudsman, 22, 26, 40, 42

Opportunities, importance of, 24, 256, 266, 391; and leisure, 23, 28, 29, 35; and work, 305. See also Roles

Oppression, 5, 164-5, 167, 168, 170, 172, 177-8, 388, 490

Ordinary life, 441, 443

Outcomes, 7, 9; valued outcomes measured by Residential Outcomes System (Oregon), 282

Parents, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 31, 34, 37, 40, 41, 56, 63, 275, 361, 396; associations of, 22, 25-6, 30, 31, 33, 40, 96, 186, 396, 437, 439; views of on institutions, 24. See also Associations and organizations

PASS (Program Analysis of Service Systems), 6, 75, 80, 86, 90, 96, 121, 123, 197, 214, 242, 246, 359, 360, 362, 364, 386, 389, 390, 396, 398, 401, 404, 428, 435, 441, 442, 447, 455-7, 463, 476, 478, 480, 484, 495, 496; description of (PASS 3), 319; factor analyses and/or subscales of, 319-320, 322, 324-6, 328-332, 343; internal consistency of, 318, 320, 322, 329; as measure of structural and functional aspects of services, 342-3; research with/on: PASS 1, 317, 318, PASS 2, 317, 318, PASS 3, 96, 273, 317, 318-329, adaptations of PASS 3, 332-4, short forms of PAS S 3, 329-333; use of, 317-319, 344; interrater reliability of, 323, 325, 327, 329-331, 343; validity (discriminative, predictive, concurrent, factorial or construct) of, 318-324, 326-332, 343

PASSING (Program Analysis of Service Systems’ Implementation of Normalization Goals), 6, 86, 197, 214, 246, 359, 360, 362-5, 367, 386, 389, 390, 401, 428, 435, 441,442, 448, 450-2, 455-7, 463, 469, 481, 495, 496; description of, 334-5; factor analysis and/or subscales of, 335, 338-9, 341-3; internal consistency of, 335-6, 339; interrater reliability of, 335-6, 343; as measure of structural and functional aspects of service, 342-3; research on, 273-4, 317, 326-8, 334-341; use of, 317, 318, 344; validity (discriminative, predictive, concurrent, factorial, or construct) of, 337-9, 341, 343

Perceptual process, 131, 154, 175, 176, 220-1, 306, 313, 356, 428, 445, 455; and employers, 310, 312-3;and need for change, 427; perceiving is judging/evaluating, 131, 139, 306, 427; and social devaluation, 132-139, 306, 427. See also Roles

Policy: government, 397-401, 416, 443, 456, 458, 466; legislation, 448-450; public, 192-3, 241, 267-7, 448-450; social, 165, 265-6, 267, 271, 365, 371, 416, 418, 438, 443, 460; welfare, 458

Prejudice, 54

Programs: assessment of, 243, 246-250; community, 11, 23, 33, 252, 259; and deinstitutionalization, 10, 365; education, 35, 468; and institutions, 26; physiotherapy, 21; school, 35, 200, 205; and residential care, 35; segregated, 190, support, 468, 476; and supported employment: 305, 308-9, 311-4; Swedish, 33, 35; training, 23, 25. See also Community services; Independent living

Psychiatric: audiences, 53. See also Associations and organizations; Disability; Hospitals; Journals; Reports.

Psychologists or psychiatrists, 11, 22, 26, 29, 35, 39, 53, 62, 87

Psychotherapy, 53, 54

Quality of life (QOL), 5, 9, 176, 197-214, 250, 414, 416, 420, 421; and integration, 285-297, 339; measurement of, 285, 325, 327, 331, 335-6, 339; and normalized environments, 285, 324; physical and social integration as indicators of, 282; predictors of, 200, 264, 285-6. See also Integration

Refugees, 11, 20-1, 37. See also Associations and organizations Regional centers, 57, 77, 94

Rehabilitation, 42, 117, 165, 465. See also Associations and organizations; See also Community services

Reports: in Australia: Beecham Report, 449, Giles Report, 450, McCoy Report, 449, McLeay Report, 450, New Directions, 448-9, Rees Review, 450, Richmond Report 449; in Canada: Bédard Commission Report on Psychiatric Services (Quebec), 463, Present Arrangements for the Care and Supervision of Mentally Retarded Persons in Ontario, 43; in UK: Jay Report on “Mental Handicap Nurse Training”, 444

Residential Outcomes Systems (Oregon), 282

Respect for individual, 8, 17, 61, 62, 243, 264

Rights, 11, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 37, 44, 55, 61, 62, 87, 96, 155, 183-5, 191, 192, 194, 264, 369, 397-8, 413, 438, 444, 492-4; to be different, 187; Canadian Charter of Rights and Liberties, 438; of children to sue, 443-4; of citizens, 397; Citizen’s Charter, 443; Committee on the Rights of Persons With Handicaps, 449; of consumers; Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act Amendments of 1987 (Pub.L.N° 100-146), 271; to education, 26, 30, 466; and equality, 11, 440; Human Rights Commission, 465-6, 470, Access of Children Identified as Mentally Retarded Within the Regular School System, 466; Jerusalem Declaration of the Rights of the Mentally Handicapped, 25; to make own choices, 190-2, 193-4, 440; of persons with mental retardation, 26, 398; and motto “From charity to Rights”, 25; movements in favor of, 55, 94, 96; same as others’, 45, 84, 185; to self-determination, 22, 39, 89, 183; to treatment and services, 24, 397; to vote, 439; to work, 308, 310, 313-4, 402-3; United Nations, General Assembly of, Declaration of General and Specific Rights of the Mentally Retarded, 81, Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled (1975), 25, 184, Declaration on the Rights of the Mentally Handicapped (1971), 25, 398; Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons, 81; Declaration of the Rights of Persons with Mental Retardation (1971), 184, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 81; and welfare state, 493; See also Associations and organizations; Consumers; Legislation

Roles: 5, 7, 126-131, 219-236; and aging, 10; and devaluation, 128-131, 136, 220, 227-231, 233, 235, 313, 381, 476; and deviancy, 221, 227, 233; and education, 129, 370-2; as existential security, 232; and expectancies, 221, 234-5; and gender, 142-3, 234, 235; of human being, citizen, developing person, 61, 127, 221, 233, 306; and image enhancement, 143-5, 147-9, 154-6, 372, 381; and importance of context, 139-140; and importance of social connections, 233; and integration, 222, 3 71; as life defining, 220, 227, 231; as more powerful than impairments, 222, 476; negative, 7, 306; and opportunities, 232, 383; of parents, 437; and perceptions, 136, 154, 175, 221, 313; and personal competency, 144-149, 154-6; and positive effects, 233; and prevention of being cast into devalued roles, 131, 313, 381; social, 5, 10, 125-131, 142-3, 148, 219-223, 225, 235-6, 296-7, 400; and social change, 399; and social valuation, 5-6, 7, 59, 127-130, 139, 142-3, 154-5, 186-7, 219, 222, 227, 306, 310, 312-3, 371-2, 381, 387, 426, 484; socio-sexual, 221, 228-9; of the state, 397; and strategies, 222; theory, 5, 219, 221, 225-6; 233-6; and wellbeing, 233; and work, 128, 129, 313

Satisfaction, 208-214, 285, 414, 421; with living situation, 249, 258, 277, 278, 282, 285; of employers, 310; personal, 8, 260-1, 263, 265-6, 414; of residents, 249, 254, 257, 259-260, 263-4; with social support, 279, 281; and work, 252, 259-260, 263-4. See also Integration; Social contact; Social network; Social support

Security, 200, 203, 208. See also Roles

Segregation, 24, 45, 96, 120, 191, 193-4, 241, 390, 412, 415, 416, 494. See also Integration

Self-advocacy, 44, 89, 390, 420. See also Advocacy

Self-determination, 17, 20, 29-30, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 184-5, 191, 194, 199, 214, 369, 396, 408-9, 415, 420, 422, 496, 501. See also Rights

Self-esteem, 199, 200, 201, 203, 205-8

Social change, 17, 31, 58, 427; strategies for, 1 I, 378-383, 500. See also Legislation, Roles

Social climate, 293, 339

Social contact(s), 8, 29, 273-5, 285, 293; measurement of, 283; satisfaction with, 279

Social engineering, 461, 485

Social guide, 283

Social interaction, 8, 225, 273-277, 279-280, 283, 285, 287, 290, 293, 343, 355, 371, 372; definition of, 281; measures of, 281

Social life/lives: of persons with mental retardation, 280; and social integration, 280-3, 296

Social network, 8, 276-7, 279, 280, 283-6, 294, 296-7, 378; and activity patterns, 283; balance between stress, support, and, 279; composition of, 279, 281, 287; definition of, 277, 281; measurement of, 279, 281; multiplexity of, 279; of persons with and without mental retardation, 279, 281; reciprocity and, 279, 281; satisfaction with contacts and, 279; size of, 279, 281, 287

Social relationships, 276-7, 279-281, 287, 297, 343; definition of, 277; efforts to increase or improve, 282-3; stability of, 280-1

Social Role Valorization (SRV): and aging, 10; in Australia and New Zealand, 451; concepts of, 398, 434; critiques of, 358-9, 445, 452; definition of, 125; in comparison with the Normalization definition, 219, 355; different widths of, 130; evolution of, 96, 426; and expectancies, 234-5; formulation of, 5, 86, 96, 156-7; and key hypothesis, 7, 134, 142, 371; impact of, 3, 7, 425-435; implementation of, through obstacles, 365-8, 431-3; and movements close to, 425; and North American Social Role Valorization Development, Training and Safeguarding Council, 4, 86, 502; and obstacles to dissemination, 368-9; and the Ottawa conference, 491; pedagogies for, 381-3: consciousness raising, 381-3, 386, 427, engaging in constructive action, 381-3, positively experiencing personal contact, 381-3, combination of approaches, 382-3, contextual learning, 382-3; potential of, 501; premises of, 131-4; and its relationship to Normalization, 219-236, 355; and roles, 235; in Scandinavia, 395-407; and teaching of, 152-6, 363, 382, 383, 433-4; as a tool for utilizing and enhancing positive values and traditions, 425; and training, 363-4, 372, 381-2, 397, 433, 451. See also Normalization; Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV)

Social support, 277, 279-281, 283, 285, 296, 297; and adjustment to community life, 279; definition of, 280; functions of, 280-2; measures of, 280, 284; objective versus subjective measures of, 279-280; received from social network, 279, 280, 281, 294; satisfaction with living situation, 279-280; and well-being, 279-280

Social systems, 353-6, 365-371, 377-380, 387; levels of, 353-6, 365-9, 371, 377, 378, personal level, 355, 368-9, 371, family and friends level, 355, 365, 371, 378, social policy level, 365, 371

Social valuation/devaluation, 132; consequences of, 135-8; continuum of, 127, through imitation, 154; various parties involved in, 132-3. See also Devaluation; Interaction; Roles

Staff members, 23, 26, 36, 42, 56, 94, 97, 263; assisting employers, 309; competencies of, 25, 33, 242-9, 261, 267, 277, 278, 404; education or quality of, 25, 33; evaluation of, 246-7; managers, 7, 242-9, 277, 278; training of, 48, 242-3, 262, 461, 484; paid service versus life-sharing, 96

Stereotypes, 221, 229-230, 382, 427

Stigma, stigmatized persons, 59

Stress, 234, 277, 296; and adjustment to community life, 279; and support, 279. See also Social network, 280

Support, 200-1, 203, 207-8, 378-9, 428; home, 468; and independent living, 476; individual, 403; and network, 439; and training, 484; valued, 205, 206, 208. See also Social support

Supported living, 377, 496

Training, 6, 10, 26, 29, 39, 41, 42, 43, 60, 353-373, 397, 401, 403, 435, 441; of community members, 6, 380-2; and differences between Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV), 363-4; and events, 364, 479; impact of, 353, 358-9, on recipients, 477-481; importance of, 372, 435; and instructors, 484; limits of, 370; method for, 484; offered by universities, 460; participation of people, 364-6, 369; of the public, 370-2, 379-380; of residents, 261-2; and sponsorship, 366-7

Unconscious or unconsciousness, 152, 226, 382, 431, 496

Valuation, 122, 141, 222; continuum, 127; through imitation, 154; and importance of interaction, 154, 372-4, 381-2. See also Interaction; Roles; Social valuation/devaluation

Voluntary associations, 380-1

Welfare state, 415, 416. See also Rights

Well-being, 198, 263, 259, 264, 277, 279, 285, 287, 297. See also Integration; Social support

Work satisfaction, 252, 259-260, 263-4

Workshops, 23, 29, 33, 451, 479; sheltered, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 31, 476, 484

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