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Whence They Came

Barbara Roberts


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Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa


Bauer, Martin, F. D. Millar, Sound Division.

Bruce, John, F. D. Millar, Sound Division.

Rees, David, F. D. Millar, Sound Division.


R. B. Bennett Papers, MG 26K.

Young Women’s Christian Association Papers, MG 281.

Public Records

Department of Justice, RG 13.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police, RG 18.

Department of National Defence, RG 24.

Department of Citizenship and Immigration, RG 26.

Department of Interior, Department of Immigration and Colonization, RG 76.

Published Reports


Department of Interior, Annual Reports, 1892-1919.

Department of Immigration and Colonization, Annual Reports, 1919-1935.

House of Commons Debates, 1900-1938.

Senate Debates, 1900-1938.


Department of Labour, Report, Special Paper Number 23, 1930.

Great Britain

Parliamentary Papers.

United States

The Immigration Commission, The Immigration Situation in Canada, presented by Mr. Dillingham, 61st Congress, 2d Session, Senate Document No. 469, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1910.

Provincial Archives of Manitoba

Manuscript Group 1312, Bracken papers.

Provincial Archives of Ontario

Attorney-General’s Department, Record Group 4.

Winnipeg City Archives

Winnipeg City Council, Minutes of Council, 1929-1936.

Winnipeg City Council, Council Papers, 1929-1936.

Winnipeg Unemployment Relief Committee, Minutes, 1932-35.

Winnipeg Free Press Archives

Winnipeg City Council Scrapbooks, 1929-1935.

Newspapers and Periodicals

Canadian Forum, 1931-34; Canadian Labor Defender, 1930-1935; Labor Defender, 1935; Montreal Gazette, 1922-31; Ottawa Citizen, 1933; Ottawa Evening Journal, 1922; Saturday Night, 1934; Toronto Globe, 1974; Winnipeg Free Press, 1931-33; Winnipeg Tribune, 1933.

Published Articles

Bryce, Peter. “Social Ethics as Influenced by Immigration.” Papers and Reports of the American Public Health Association, Vol. XXXIII, Part I, 1906.

Bryce, Peter. “Immigration in Relation to the Public Health”. Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery, April 1906.

Byron, William. “The Menace of the Alien”. Maclean’s, Vol. 32, No. 10, 1919.

Clarke, C. K. “The Defective and Insane Immigrant”. University of Toronto UniversityMonthly, Vol. 8, 1907-08.

McLaughlin, Allan. “How Immigrants are Inspected”. Popular Science Monthly, February 1905.

Pimlotte, Ralph. “Closing Relief Camp Sparks Riot”. Briarpatch, January-February 1983.

Pimlotte, Ralph. “Life in Saskatoon during the ‘Hard Times’”. Briarpatch, March 1983.

Pound, Roscoe. “Social and Economic Problems of the Law”. Annals of the AmericanSociety of Political and Social Sciences, Volume 137, Number 225, March 1928.

Rex v Buck et al., Ontario Court of Appeals, Mulock CJO. Dominion Law Reports (1932)3.

Scott, Frank. “Immigration Act: False Arrest, Illegal Treatment of Arrested Person”. Canadian Bar Review, January 1936.

Scott, Frank. “The Trial of the Toronto Communists”. Queen’s Quarterly, August 1932.

Stevenson, J. A. “The Problem of the Foreigner in Canada”. Westminster Review, September 1913.

Wade v Egan et al., Manitoba Court of Appeal, Prendergast CJM. Canadian CriminalCases 193 Vol. 54.

Published Books

Abella, Irving, and David Millar, eds. The Canadian Worker in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Beeching, William, and Phyllis Clarke, eds. Yours in the Struggle: The Reminiscences of Tim Buck, Toronto: NC Press, 1977.

Biais, Hervé. Les Tendances Eugenistes au Canada. Montréal: L'Institut familial, 1942.

Bradwin, Edmund. The Bunkhouse Man. A Study of Work and Pay in the Camps of Canada,1903-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Clark, Jane Perry. Deportation of Aliens From the United States to Europe. New York: AMS Press, [1931], 1968.

Coats, E. W., ed. Poverty in the Victorian Age: Debates on the Issues from 19th Century Critical Journals. Volume II. English Poor Laws, 1834-70. London: Gregg, 1973.

Fraser, C. F. Control of Aliens in the British Commonwealth of Nations. London: Hogarth, 1940.

Haythorne, George and L. C. Marsh. Land and Labour. A Social Survey of Agriculture and the Farm Labour Market in Central Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1941.

Horn, Michiel, ed. The Dirty Thirties. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1972.

Magrath, C. A. Canada’s Growth and Some Problems Affecting It. Ottawa: Mortimer, 1910.

Murphy, Emily. The Black Candle. [Toronto: Thomas Allen, 1922] Toronto: Coles, 1973.

National Council of Women of Canada. Report of the International Congress of Women, Toronto, June 24-30, 1909, Volume II. Toronto: National Council of Women, 1910.

Nicholls, George. A History of the Irish Poor Law. [London: John Murray, 1856] New York: Augustus Kelley, 1967.

Nicholls, George. A History of the Scotch Poor Law in Connexion With the Condition of the People. London: Murray, 1856.

Ryan, Oscar. Deported! Canadian Labour Defense League, 1932.

Smith, W. G. A Study in Canadian Immigration. Toronto: Ryerson, 1920.

Van Vleck, William. The Administrative Control of Aliens. A Study in Administrative Law and Procedure. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1932.

Wakefield, E. Gibbon. Letters from Sydney and Other Writings. London: Dent, 1929.

Young Women’s Christian Association. Our Unfolding Purpose. Report of the World’s Y.W.C.A. Stockholm: Y.W.C.A., 1914.


Unpublished Graduate Theses and Essays

Bacchi, Carol. “Liberation Deferred. The Ideas of English Canadian Suffragists, 1877-1918.” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, 1976.

Boudreau, Joseph. “The Enemy Alien Problem in Canada, 1914-1921.” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Los Angeles, 1964.

Dick, Lyle. “Deportation under the Immigration Act and the Canadian Criminal Code, 1919-1936.” Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Manitoba, 1978.

Drysteck, Henry. “Deportation of European Immigrants during the Administration of R. B. Bennett.” Unpublished M.A. essay, Carleton University, 1976.

Goeres, Michael. “Disorder, Dependency and Fiscal Responsibility: Unemployment Relief in Winnipeg, 1907-42.” Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Manitoba, 1981.

Millar, F. David. “Shapes of Power. The Ontario Labour Relations Board, 1930-1970.” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, York University, 1981.

Millar, F. David. “The Winnipeg General Strike, 1919: A Reinterpretation in the Light of Oral History and Pictorial Evidence.” Unpublished M.A. thesis, Carleton University, 1970.

Usiskin, Roseline. “Toward a Theoretical Reformulation of the Relationship Between Political Ideology, Social Class, and Ethnicity: A Case Study of the Winnipeg Jewish Radical Community, 1905-1920.” Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Manitoba, 1978.

Unpublished Articles and Papers

Adams, Ron. “The Anticommunist Role of the RCMP in the Depression.” Unpublished paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Historical Association, London, 1978.

Buckley, Suzann. “The Impact of World War I upon Canadian Public Health Reform.” Paper presented to the conference of the Canadian Association for American Studies, McMaster University, October 1977.

Carpenter, Louise. “Deportation of Immigrants during the Depression.” Unpublished paper, University of Manitoba, 1973.

McMullan, John. “Law, Order and Power: Theory, Questions, and Some Limits to Social History of Crime in Early Modern England.” [np], 1985.

Millar, F. David. “Chronology of Labour and Welfare Law in Ontario, 1867-1977.” Not published, 1977.

Millar, F. David. “Real Incomes in Manitoba.” Not published, 1984.

Roberts, Barbara. “Social Policy, Female Dependence and the Living Wage.” Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Women’s Studies Association, Learned Societies, Ottawa, 1982.

Roberts, Barbara and David Millar, “Living with Less: Trends in Women’s Earnings.” Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Western Association of Sociology and Anthropology, Regina, 1984.

Published Articles

Adams, Ron. “The 1931 Arrest and Trial of the Leaders of the Communist Party of Canada”. Canadian Historical Association, 1977.

Avery, Donald. “Canadian Immigration Policy and the ‘Foreign’ Navvy, 1896-1916”. Historical Papers, 1972.

Avery, Donald. “Continental European Immigrant Workers in Canada, 1896-1919: From Stalwart Peasants to Radical Proletariat”. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 12, 1975.

Avery, Donald. “Sam Scarlett”. Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1978.

Boudreau, Joseph. “The Enemy Alien Problem in World War I”. Alberta Historical Review, Winter 1964.

Brown, R. C. “Whither Are We Being Shoved? Political Leadership in Canada during World War I”. In J. L. Granatstein and R. Cuff, eds. War and Society in North America. Toronto: Thomas Nelson, 1971.

Buckley, Suzann. “British Female Immigration and Imperial Development”. Hecate: Women’s Interdisciplinary Journal, January 1977.

Burawoy, Michael. “The Functions and Reproduction of Migrant Labour: Comparative Material from South Africa and the United States”. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 81, No. 5, March 1976.

Cashmore, Ernest. “The Social Organization of Canadian Immigration Law”. Canadian Journal of Sociology, Fall 1978.

Comack, Elizabeth. “The Origins of Canadian Drug Legislation”. In Thomas Fleming, ed. The New Criminologies in Canada. State, Crime, and Control. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Drystek, Henry. “The Simplest and Cheapest Mode of Dealing with Them: Deportation from Canada before World War II”. Histoire sociale, November 1982.

Fraser, Blair. “The Built-in Lie behind Canada’s Search for Immigrants”. Maclean’s, Vol. 78, 19 June 1965.

Godler, Zlata. “Doctors and the New Immigrants”. Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol. XI, No. 1, 1977.

Haythorne, George. “Harvest Labor in Western Canada: An Episode in Economic Planning”. Quarterly Journal in Economics, Vol. XLVII, August 1973.

Horn, Michiel. “Keeping Canada Canadian: Anticommunism in Toronto, 1928-29”. Canada. An Historical Magazine, September 1975.

Horn, Michiel. “Free Speech within the Law: The Letter of the 68 Toronto Professors, 1931”. Ontario History, March 1980.

Imai, Shin. “Deportation in the Depression”. Queen’s Law Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1981.

Katz, Leslie. “Some Legal Consequences of the Winnipeg General Strike”. Manitoba Law Journal, Vol. 4, 1970.

Katz. Michael. “Origins of the Institutional Stat”. Marxist Perspectives, Winter 1978.

Kitsuse, John and Aaran Cicorel. “A Note on the Uses of Official Statistics”. Social Problems, Fall 1963.

Lai, Chuen-Yan David. “A ‘Prison’ for Chinese Immigrants”. Asianadian, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1980.

Laine, Edward. “Finnish Canadian Radicalism and Canadian Politics: The First Forty Years, 1900-1940”. In Jurgen Dahlie and Tissa Fernando, eds. Ethnicity, Power and Politicsin Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1981.

MacKenzie, J. B. “Section 98, Criminal Code and Freedom of Expression in Canada”. Queen’s Law Journal, Vol. 4, No. 11, 1972.

Magubane, Bernard. “The ‘Native Reserves’ (Bantustans) and the Role of the Migrant Labour System in The Political Economy of South Africa”. In A. Idris-Soven, E. Idris-Soven, and M. Vaughan. The World as a Company Town. Multinational Corporations and Social Change. The Hague: Mouton, 1978.

Makahonuk, Glen. “The Saskatoon Relief Camp Workers’ Riot of May 8, 1933: An Expression of Class Conflict”. Saskatchewan History, Spring 1984.

Makahonuk, Glen. “The Saskatchewan Coal Strikes of 1932: A Study in Class Relations”. Prairie Forum, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1984.

Makahonuk, Glen. “Class Conflict in Saskatoon during the ‘Red Decade’”. Briarpatch, May 1983.

McKillop, Brian. “The Communist as Conscience: Jacob Penner and Winnipeg Civic Politics, 1934-35”. In R. McCormackand I. MacPherson, eds. Cities in the West. Ottawa: Mercury Series, Museum of Man, 1975.

McNaught, Kenneth. “Political Trials and the Canadian Political Tradition”. University of Toronto Law Review, 1975.

Morton, Desmond. “Sir William Otter and Internment Operations in Canada During the First World War”. Canadian Historical Review, March 1974.

Peterson, T. “Ethnic and Class Politics in Manitoba”. In Martin Robin, ed. Canadian Provincial Politics. Toronto: Prentice Hall, 1972.

Petryshyn, J. “R. B. Bennett and the Communists”. Journal of Canadian Studies, November 1974.

Petryshyn, J. “Class Conflict and Civil Liberties: The Origins and Activities of the Canadian Labor Defense League, 1925-1940”. Labour/Le travailleur, Autumn 1982.

Rasporitch, Anthony. “Tomo Cacic: Rebel without a Country”. Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1978.

Rea, Ed. “The Politics of Class: Winnipeg City Council 1919-1943”. In C. Berger and R. Cook, eds. The West and the Nation. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976.

Repo, Satu. “Lakehead in the 1930s – A Labour Militant Remembers” [Einar Nordstrom]. This Magazine, July/August 1979.

Roberts, Barbara. “A Work of Empire: Canadian Reformers and British Female Immigration”. In L. Kealey, ed. A Not Unreasonable Claim: Women and Reform in Canada, 1880s-1920s. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1979.

Roberts, Barbara. “Doctors and Deports: The Role of the Medical Profession in Deportation Policy and Practice, 1900-1936”. Canadian Ethnic Studies, January 1987.

Roberts, Barbara. “Ladies, Women and the State: Managing Female Immigration, 1880-1920”. In Jacob Muller, Roxana Ng and Gillian Walker, eds. Management of Dissent: Community Organizing and the State. Forthcoming, 1988.

Roberts, Barbara. “Sex, Politics and Religion: Controversies in Female Immigration Work in Montreal, 1880-1920”. Atlantis. A Journal of Women’s Studies, Fall 1980.

Roberts, Barbara. “Shovelling Out the Unemployed: Winnipeg City Council and Deportation, 1930-35”. Manitoba History, Fall 1983.

Roberts, Barbara. “Shovelling Out the ‘Mutinous’: Political Deportation from Canada before 1936”. Labour/Le travail, Autumn 1986.

Smith, David Edward. “Emergency Government in Canada”. Canadian Historical Review, December 1969.

Smith, Dorothy. “The Social Construction of Documentary Reality”. Sociology Inquiry, Vol. IV, No. 4, 1975.

Sumner, Colin. “The Ideological Nature of Law”. In Piers Beirne and Richard Quinney, eds. Marxism and Law. New York: John Wiley, 1982.

Thane, Pat. “Women and the Poor Law in Victorian and Edwardian England”. History Workshop Journal, No. 6, Autumn 1978.

Thomas, Robert. “Citizenship and Gender in Work Organisation: Some Considerations for Theories of the Labor Process”. Marxist Inquiries, American Journal of Sociology Supplement, Volume 88, 1982.

Thompson, John. “The Political Career of Ralph H. Webb”. Red River Valley Historian, Summer 1976.

Trachtenberg, Henry. “The Winnipeg Jewish Community and Politics: The Inter-war Years, 1919-1939”. Manitoba Historical and Scientifíc Society Transactions, Vol. 35, 1978/79-1979/80.

Published Books

Abella, Irving and Harold Troper. None is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948. Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1982.

Angus, Ian. Canadian Bolsheviks. The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada. Montreal: Vanguard, 1981.

Avakuvomic, Ivan. The Communist Party in Canada. A History. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1975.

Avery, Donald. Dangerous Foreigners: European Immigrant Workers and Labour Radicalism in Canada, 1896-1932. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979.

Bercuson, David. Confrontation at Winnipeg: Labour, Industrial Relations, and the General Strike. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s, 1974.

Bercuson, David. Fools and Wise Men: The Rise and Fall of the One Big Union. Toronto: McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1978.

Berger, Carl, and Ramsay Cook, eds. The West and the Nation. Essays in Honour of W. L. Morton. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976.

Betcherman, Lita Rose. The Little Band. Ottawa: Deneau, 1983.

Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capital. The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review, 1974.

Browne, Lorne and Caroline. An Unauthorized History of the RCMP. Toronto: Lorimer, 1978.

Castles, S. and G. Kosack. Immigrant Workers and Class Structures in Western Europe. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Clark, S. D. The Position of the French-Speaking Population in the Northern Industrial Community. Report to the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 1966.

Dahlie, Jurgen and Tissa Fernando, eds. Ethnicity, Power and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1981.

Ditton, Jason. Controlology. Beyond the New Criminology. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Dreisziger, N. et al. Struggle and Hope. The Hungarian-Canadian Experience. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.

Fleming, Thomas, ed. The New Criminologies in Canada. State, Crime, and Control. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Garraty, John. Unemployment in History. Economic Thought and Public Policy. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.

Gatrell, Victor et al., eds. Crime and the Law Since 1550. London: Europa, 1980.

George, Dorothy. London Life Before the Eighteenth Century. Evanston, Illinois: Harper and Row, [1925] 1964.

Graham, Roger. Arthur Meighen. Volume I. The Door of Opportunity. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1960.

Hall, Stuart et al. Policing the Crisis. Mugging, the State, and Law and Order. London: Macmillan, 1978.

Harney, Robert et al., eds. The Italian Immigrant Woman in North America. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1978.

Haythorne, George. Labor in Canadian Agriculture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Higgins, E. G. and F. A. Peake. Sudbury Then and Now: A Pictorial History 1883-1973. Sudbury: Chamber of Commerce, 197[-].

Higham, John. Strangers in the Land. Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925. New York: Atheneum, 1971.

Hodgetts, J. F. The Canadian Public Service. A Physiology of Government, 1867-1970. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973.

Idris-Soven, A. et al. The World as Company Town. Multinational Corporations and Social Change. The Hague: Mouton, 1978.

Ivanov, Y. M. Agrarian Reform and Hired Labour in Africa. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1979.

Kamin, Leon. The Science and Politics of I.Q. Potomac, Maryland: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974.

Kealey, Linda, ed. A Not Unreasonable Claim. Women and Reform in Canada, 1880s-1920s. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1979.

Konvitz, C. R. Civil Rights in Immigration. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1953.

Kornbluth, Joyce, ed. Rebel Voices: An IWW Anthology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1964.

The Labour Collective. Women at Work. Ontario, 1850-1939. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1974.

Lindstrom-Best, Varpu, ed. Finns in Ontario, Special Issue of Polyphony: Bulletin of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario, Fall 1981.

Lloyd, P.C. Africa in Social Change. Changing Traditional Societies in the Modern World. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967.

Marshall, Dorothy. The English Poor Law in the Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, [1926] 1969.

McCormack, A. R. Reformers, Rebels, and Revolutionaries. Western Canadian Radical Movements, 1899-1919. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979.

McNaught, Kenneth. A Prophet in Politics. A Biography of J. S. Woodsworth. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1959.

Morton, J. In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: A History of the Chinese in British Columbia. Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1974.

Oxley, Geoffrey. Poor Relief in England and Wales, 1601-1834. London: David and Charles, 1974.

Palmer, Bryan. A Culture in Conflict. Skilled Workers and industrial Capitalism in Hamilton, Ontario, 1860-1914. Montreal: McGill-Queen's, 1979.

Piva, Michael. The Condition of the Working Class in Toronto, 1900-1921. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1979.

Preston, William. Aliens and Dissenters. Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933. New York: Harper, 1963.

Quinney, Richard. Class, State, and Crime. On the Theory and Practice of Criminal Justice. New York: Longmans, 1977.

Rasporich, Anthony. For a Better Life. A History of the Croatians in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.

Rea, Ed. Parties and Power: An Analysis of Winnipeg City Council, 1919-1975. Winnipeg: City of Winnipeg, 1976.

Rodney, William. Soldiers of the International. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968.

Sawatsky, John. Men in the Shadows: The RCMP Security Service. Toronto: Totem, 1980.

Teeple, Gary, ed. Capitalism and the National Question in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Therborn, Goran. What Does the Ruling Class Do When It Rules? State Apparatuses and State Power under Feudalism, Capitalism and Socialism. London: N.L.B., 1978.

Thompson, E. P. The Making of the English Working Class. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968.

Upton, A. The Communist Parties of Scandinavia and Finland. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1973.

Warwaruk, Larry. Red Finns on the Coteau. Saskatoon: Core Communications, 1984.

Watson, Louise. She Never Was Afraid. The Biography of Annie Buller. Toronto: Progress, 1976.

Weisbord, Merrily. The Strangest Dream. Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1983.

© Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press, 1988

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