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The Forgotten Peace

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Michael Small

Appendix 1. Images of the conference

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1One of the most remarkable sources of information about the Niagara Falls Peace Conference is the archive of newspaper clippings and cartoons assembled by the Argentine mediator, Rómulo S. Naón. This archive contains several hundred pages of clippings from newspapers all over North America, starting in late April and running until mid-July, 1914. (Unfortunately, it does not contain any Mexican or South American clippings). The archive has been pasted into pages in a scrapbook. The name of the newspaper in which the photograph or cartoon appeared and its date are usually listed beside each image. The scrapbook was microfilmed in Buenos Aires and a copy of the microfilm was borrowed for this study from the Yale University Library. The following pages of cartoons from the archive provide an impression of how the conference was depicted visually and metaphorically by the newspapers of the era.

2Figure 1 is an image from the beginning of the conference in which the conflict between the United States and Mexico is symbolized as a fight between Uncle Sam and Huerta, who is recognizable by his bullet head and the bloody dagger he holds in his hand, suggesting his role in the murder of Madero. On Uncle Sam’s shoulder is the dove of peace—a recurring image used by many different cartoonists throughout the conference.

3Figures 2, 3, and 4 display a trend in many American cartoons of the period of “infantilizing” Mexico or the main Mexican actors in the conflict, either by depicting them as schoolboys or even infants to be scolded or nursed, either by Wilson, Bryan or Uncle Sam.

4Figure 5 offers another recurring theme: the “feminization” of peace, depicting as a woman labeled “South America” appealing to the unbending figure of Huerta. Figures 6 and 7 focus on the mediation and the novel fact of three South American countries offering to settle a North American conflict.

5Figures 8 to 12 are a series of cartoons using moving water as a metaphor for the turbulent context of the conference. Water imagery was an obvious choice for cartoonists given the backdrop of the Niagara River and Niagara Falls. It is also intriguing to see how more than one cartoonist linked water with the dove of peace, by drawing directly on the biblical story of Noah’s Ark.

6Finally, Figures 13 to 21 are a series of more explicitly political cartoons which comment on different issues or phases in the mediation, such as Huerta’s resignation, Carranza’s refusal to participate, the search for a provisional President, the impasse reached in the middle of the conference, the hypocritical American approach to the arms embargo, Villa’s rebellion against Carranza and the final “indefinite suspension” of the mediation while hostilities continued in Mexico.

7In contrast to the reams of rather breathless written coverage given to the conference by contemporary newspapers, these cartoons offer more incisive visual impressions of what was actually going on, demonstrating the old adage that a picture can be worth a thousand words.

FIGURE 1. New York Times (April 26, 1914)

FIGURE 2. Washington Times (April 27, 1914)

FIGURE 3. New York Herald (May 1, 1914)

FIGURE 4. New York Sun (June 4, 1914)

FIGURE 5. New York Tribune (April 27, 1914)

FIGURE 6. Minneapolis Journal (May 8, 1914)

FIGURE 7. World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska). (May 2, 1914)

FIGURE 8. Philadelphia Record (June 22, 1914)

FIGURE 9. Brooklyn Daily Eagle (June 19, 1914)

FIGURE 10. Evening Sun (New York City) (July 2, 1914)

FIGURE 11. Washington Star (April 28, 1914)

FIGURE 12. Philadelphia Inquirer (June 24, 1914)

FIGURE 13. Winnipeg Tribune (June 1, 1914)

FIGURE 14. New York Tribune (June 6, 1914)

FIGURE 15. Philadelphia Inquirer (June 6, 1914)

FIGURE 16. Pittsburgh Dispatch (June 11, 1914)

FIGURE 17. Philadelphia Record (June 14, 1914)

FIGURE 18. Pittsburgh Dispatch (June 18, 1914)

FIGURE 19. New York Tribune (June 20, 1914)

FIGURE 20. San Francisco Chronicle (June 26, 1914)

FIGURE 21. New York Tribune (July 1, 1914)

Table des illustrations

Légende FIGURE 1. New York Times (April 26, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 194k
Légende FIGURE 2. Washington Times (April 27, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 214k
Légende FIGURE 3. New York Herald (May 1, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 218k
Légende FIGURE 4. New York Sun (June 4, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 202k
Légende FIGURE 5. New York Tribune (April 27, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 240k
Légende FIGURE 6. Minneapolis Journal (May 8, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 181k
Légende FIGURE 7. World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska). (May 2, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 181k
Légende FIGURE 8. Philadelphia Record (June 22, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 188k
Légende FIGURE 9. Brooklyn Daily Eagle (June 19, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 303k
Légende FIGURE 10. Evening Sun (New York City) (July 2, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 297k
Légende FIGURE 11. Washington Star (April 28, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 272k
Légende FIGURE 12. Philadelphia Inquirer (June 24, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 218k
Légende FIGURE 13. Winnipeg Tribune (June 1, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 281k
Légende FIGURE 14. New York Tribune (June 6, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Légende FIGURE 15. Philadelphia Inquirer (June 6, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 224k
Légende FIGURE 16. Pittsburgh Dispatch (June 11, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 195k
Légende FIGURE 17. Philadelphia Record (June 14, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 179k
Légende FIGURE 18. Pittsburgh Dispatch (June 18, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Légende FIGURE 19. New York Tribune (June 20, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 235k
Légende FIGURE 20. San Francisco Chronicle (June 26, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 258k
Légende FIGURE 21. New York Tribune (July 1, 1914)
URL http://books.openedition.org/uop/docannexe/image/210/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 165k

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