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Les Houillères entre l'État, le marché et la société

Sylvie Aprile
Matthieu de Oliveira
Béatrice Touchelay
et al.

3.1. L’emprise étatique et l’empreinte du politique

The role of the state and private enterprise in the development of the Japanese coal industry in the Meiji era (1868-1912)

Takashi Imano e Trevor Boyns

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The mining of coal in many countries has been affected by two important, and related legal factors: the system of land ownership and the system of mineral (or royalty) ownership. Whether or not land and mineral ownership lay in the same hands was an important factor which influenced the development of coal mining in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In Britain, the private ownership of land also extended to the coal resources which lay under that land, but elsewhere in Europe there was often a divorce between land ownership and mineral ownership. The report of the British Royal Commission on Mining Royalties in 1890 emphasised these differences1, noting that in France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Luxembourg, all minerals, including coal, had been taken into state ownership since landownership was so fragmented that mining activity would have otherwise been heavily constrained. With fragmented land holdings, developing large-scale, modern mines would have be...

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