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Figurines de terre cuite en Méditerranée grecque et romaine

 | 
Arthur Muller
, 
Ergün Laflı

1.2. Quelques thèmes

Terracotta Female Musicians from the Sanctuary of Fontana Calda (Sicily)

Musiciennes de terre cuite du sanctuaire de Fontana Calda (Sicile)

Angela Bellia

Résumé

In the Sanctuary of the Fontana Calda in Butera (central-south Sicily) was brought to light a sacred deposit. The discovery, made in the 1950s, revealed, among many other things, hundreds of single statuettes of aulos, tympanon, kymbala, and harp players, and groups of aulos and tympanon players. They can be dated between the end of the 6th c. and the beginning of the 3rd c. BC. Many other places in Sicily have yielded these particular types, especially sanctuaries like Fontana Calda that were dedicated to “chthonic” divinities. The representations seem to refer to ceremonies where the protagonists were exclusively women, with the musical instruments perhaps evoking exact episodes of myth and the sorrowful search by the mother of Kore, who had been abducted by Hades. Music was the background in every moment of the sacred ritual of which the female musicians of Fontana Calda offer a rich and singular repertory.

Dans les années 50 on a mis au jour dans le sanctuaire de Fontana Calda (Sicile centrale) un dépôt constitué de centaines de figurines de joueurs d’aulos, de tympanon, de cymbales, de harpe, ainsi que des groupes de joueurs d’aulos et de tympanon ; elles datent d’entre la fin du vie s. et le début du iiie s. Des figurines comparables ont été retrouvées sur de nombreux autres sites de Sicile et en particulier dans des sanctuaires qui étaient comme celui de Fontana Calda consacrés à des divinités chthoniennes. Ces figurines semblent renvoyer à des cérémonies dont les protagonistes étaient exclusivement des femmes : les instruments de musique pourraient évoquer des moments précis du mythe et de la quête de Déméter à la recherche de sa fille Korè enlevée par Hadès. Les musiciennes de Fontana Calda donnent une image variée de la musique qui accompagnait tous les instants du rituel.

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Extrait du texte

Fontana Calda is a locality near Butera, a few kilometres north of Gela and is identified with the ‘Sicana’ Omphake (fig. 1).1 In the autumn of 1951, the archaeologist Dinu Adamesteanu discovered a votive deposit belonging to a sanctuary located outside the old town centre but still connected to it.2 The place of worship, situated under the rock of Butera that overlooks Fontana Calda, is dominated by two cliffs between which flows the torrent Comunelli, a gorge where spring waters meet. Adamestanu’s excavations were on the eastern bank of the torrent, in a vineyard where, at the foot of a retaining wall built to restrict any sliding of the land, he found fragments of statuettes and terracottas.3

Fig. 1. – The Central South of Sicily.

Image

Traces of burning on some of the finds from the votive deposit made Adamesteanu think that there must been a rural shrine and that the site, being outside the town and near the stream, might have been dedicated to a cult associated with water as long ago ...

Auteur

Università di Bologna, Italia.

© Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2015

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540