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Le changement climatique

 | 
Isabelle Roussel
, 
Helga-Jane Scarwell

Annexes

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Annexe 1 : Les principales mesures de la loi Grenelle 1Le projet de loi "Grenelle 1" a été adopté définitivement le jeudi 23 juillet par le Parlement. Voici les principaux points de ce premier volet.

-Climat :
La lutte contre le changement climatique est inscrite comme un objectif central du texte, avec la confirmation de l'engagement de diviser par quatre les émissions françaises de gaz à effet de serre entre 1990 et 2050.
- Santé :
Création le 1er janvier 2012 d'un carnet de santé du salarié avec l'exposition aux substances dangereuses.
- Bâtiments :
A partir de 2012, les constructions neuves devront présenter une consommation d'énergie primaire inférieure au seuil de 50 kwh par mètre carré et par an. Ce seuil pourra être "modulé" pour l'électricité, à 85 % d'origine nucléaire en France.
Objectif d'isolation dans les logements sociaux. Avis simple et non plus conforme des architectes des Bâtiments de France pour autoriser les travaux dans les zones de protection du patrimoine. -
- Transport :
Construction de 2.000 km de lignes ferroviaires nouvelles à grande vitesse d'ici 2020.
Mise en place d'une taxe poids-lourds, ou "éco-redevance" à compter de 2011 sur le réseau national. Une étude gouvernementale devra être faite pour autoriser la circulation de poids lourds jusqu'à 44 tonnes (contre 40 actuellement)
- Énergie :
La part des énergies renouvelables dans la consommation d'énergie finale devra atteindre 23 % en 2020.
Les ampoules à incandescence seront retirées de la vente à compter de 2010.
"Contribution climat énergie", ou taxe carbone. > ;
- Déchets :
Réduction de la production d'ordures ménagères de 5kg par personne et par an pendant 5 ans. Diminution de 15 % d'ici 2012 de la quantité de déchets résiduels à incinérer ou stocker.
- Agriculture :
La surface agricole cultivée en agriculture biologique devra atteindre 20 % en 2020 (6 % en 2012). Le crédit d'impôt en faveur de l'agriculture biologique sera doublé dès 2009.
Par ailleurs, un plan d'urgence pour la préservation des abeilles sera mis en place.
- Biodiversité :
Élaboration d'une "trame verte", ou corridor écologique facilitant la circulation des espèces - plantes et animaux - qui devra être "prise en compte" dans les documents d'urbanisme et les schémas d'infrastructure.
Le principe de "compensation" de la perte de biodiversité est retenu, visant à "rétablir les effectifs des espèces ou variétés menacées et les superficies des milieux auxquels il a été porté atteinte".
- Impact environnemental des infrastructures :
La loi retient le renversement de la charge de la preuve : pour les décisions publiques susceptibles d'incidence "significative" sur l'environnement, les procédures de décision privilégieront les solutions respectueuses de l'environnement, "en apportant la preuve qu'une décision plus favorable à l'environnement est impossible à un coût raisonnable".

Annexe 2 : Les principales mesures du projet de loi Grenelle 2.

Voici les principaux points du projet de loi Engagement national pour l'environnement, dit Grenelle 2, adopté le jeudi 8 octobre par le Sénat,
- Bâtiment et urbanisme :
Objectif : amélioration de la performance énergétique des bâtiments, modification du code de l'urbanisme
- obligation de mention de performance énergétique dans les annonces immobilières
- attestation obligatoire de normes énergétiques à l'achèvement des travaux
Obligation d'engager des travaux d'amélioration énergétique à compter de 2012 et dans un délai de 8 ans pour catégories de bâtiments définies par décret
- les documents d'urbanisme devront avoir des objectifs environnementaux
- autorisation de dépassement des règles de densité pour les bâtiments à haute qualité énergétique ou avec équipements d'énergie renouvelable
- rétablissement de l'avis conforme de l'architecte des Bâtiments de France pour permis de construire dans les zones de patrimoine protégé mais avec procédure plus rapide
- majoration de loyer autorisée si les travaux permettent une réduction des charges locatives
- autorisation donnée au gouvernement de légiférer par ordonnances en matière d'urbanisme.
-Transports :
- mesures en faveur des transports collectifs
- autorisation de péages autoroutiers automatiques
- modulation des péages selon les émissions de gaz à effet de serre pour les poids-lourds
- expérimentation de péages urbains dans les villes de plus de 300.000 habitants.
- Énergie et climat :
Objectif : réduction de la consommation énergétique et prévention des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES)
- élaboration des schémas régionaux climat-air-énergie
- obligation pour les entreprises de plus de 500 salariés d'établir un bilan social et environnemental.
- Énergies renouvelables :
- éoliennes soumises en 2011 au régime des installations classées pour la protection de l'environnement (ICPE) rendant leur implantation plus difficile.
- Biodiversité :
- interdiction de la publicité sur les pesticides pour les jardiniers amateurs, renforcement de l'encadrement des produits phytosanitaires
- protection des zones de captation d'eau potable
- création d'un certificat à haute valeur environnementale pour les produits agricoles
- création d'une trame verte et d'une trame bleue
- obligation d'implanter une bande enherbée de 5 m de large le long des cours ou plan d ' eau
- création d'un écolabel pour la pêche en mer
- obligation pour les primeurs d'indiquer le nom des variétés
- définition d'une politique génétique semence et plants dans le code rural.
- Risques, santé et déchets :
- mesures de lutte contre la pollution lumineuse et les nuisances sonores
- renforcement de la surveillance de la qualité de l'air-déclaration obligatoire des nano particules
- diverses mesures relatives aux déchets et emballages
- interdiction des téléphones portables en maternelle, primaire et collège et de leur publicité auprès des jeunes jusqu'à 14 ans
- réglementation des panneaux publicitaires
- Coût Carbone :
- étiquetage obligatoire du coût carbone des produits et emballages.

Annexe 3 : note of the Copenhagen Accord of 18 December 2009.

Advance unedited version
Decision - /CP.15
The Conference of the Parties,
Takes note of the Copenhagen Accord of 18 December 2009.
Copenhagen Accord
The Heads of State, Heads of Government, Ministers, and other heads of the following delegations present at the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen : [List of Parties ]
In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention as stated in its Article 2, Being guided by the principles and provisions of the Convention, Noting the results of work done by the two Ad hoc Working Groups, Endorsing decision x/CP.15 on the Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action and decision x/CMP.5 that requests the Ad hoc Working Group on Further Commitments of Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol to continue its work, Have agreed on this Copenhagen Accord which is operational immediately.
1. We underline that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. We emphasise our strong political will to urgently combat climate change in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. To achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, we shall, recognizing the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius, on the basis ofequity and in the context of sustainable development, enhance our long-term cooperative action to combat climate change. We recognize the critical impacts of climate change and the potential impacts of response measures on countries particularly vulnerable to its adverse effects and stress the need to establish a comprehensive adaptation programme including international support.
2. We agree that deep cuts in global emissions are required according to science, and as documented by the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report with a view to reduce global emissions so as to hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, and take action to meet this objective consistent with science and on the basis of equity. We should cooperate in achieving the peaking of global and national emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that the time frame for peaking will be longer in developing countries and bearing in mind that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries and that a low-emission development strategy is indispensable to sustainable development.
3. Adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change and the potential impacts of response measures is a challenge faced by all countries. Enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required to ensure the implementation of the Convention by enabling and supporting the implementation of adaptation actions aimed at reducing vulnerability and building resilience in developing countries, especially in those that are particularly vulnerable, especially least developed countries, small island developing States and Africa. We agree that developed countries shall provide adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources, technology and capacity-building to support the implementation of adaptation action in developing countries.
4. Annex I Parties commit to implement individually or jointly the quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020, to be submitted in the format given in Appendix I by Annex I Parties to the secretariat by 31 January 2010 for compilation in an INF document. Annex I Parties that are Party to the Kyoto Protocol will thereby further strengthen the emissions reductions initiated by the Kyoto Protocol. Delivery of reductions and financing by developed countries will be measured, reported and verified in accordance with existing and any further guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties, and will ensure that accounting of such targets and finance is rigorous, robust and transparent.
5. Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention will implement mitigation actions, including those to be submitted to the secretariat by non-Annex I Parties in the format given in Appendix II by 31 January 2010, for compilation in an INF document, consistent with Article 4.1 and Article 4.7 and in the context of sustainable development. Least developed countries and small island developing States may undertake actions voluntarily and on the basis of support. Mitigation actions subsequently taken and envisaged by Non-Annex I Parties, including national inventory reports, shall be communicated through national communications consistent with Article 12.1 (b) every two years on the basis of guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties. Those mitigation actions in national communications or otherwise communicated to the Secretariat will be added to the list in appendix II. Mitigation actions taken by Non-Annex I Parties will be subject to their domestic measurement, reporting and verification the result of which will be reported through their national communications every two years. Non-Annex I Parties will communicate information on the implementation of their actions through National Communications, with provisions for international consultations and analysis under clearly defined guidelines that will ensure that national sovereignty is respected. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions seeking international support will be recorded in a registry along with relevant technology, finance and capacity building support. Those actions supported will be added to the list in appendix II. These supported nationally appropriate mitigation actions will be subject to international measurement, reporting and verification in accordance with guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
6. We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries.
7. We decide to pursue various approaches, including opportunities to use markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote mitigation actions. Developing countries, especially those with low emitting economies should be provided incentives to continue to develop on a low emission pathway.
8. Scaled up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding as well as improved access shall be provided to developing countries, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, to enable and support enhanced action on mitigation, including substantial finance to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD-plus), adaptation, technology development and transfer and capacity-building, for enhanced implementation of the Convention.
The collective commitment by developed countries is to provide new and additional resources, including forestry and investments through international institutions, approaching USD 30 billion for the period 2010. 2012 with balanced allocation between adaptation and mitigation. Funding for adaptation will be prioritized for the most vulnerable developing countries, such as the least developed countries, small island developing States and Africa. In the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, developed countries commit to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion dollars a year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries. This funding will come from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance. New multilateral funding for adaptation will be delivered through effective and efficient fund arrangements, with a governance structure providing for equal representation of developed and developing countries. A significant portion of such funding should flow through the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund.
9. To this end, a High Level Panel will be established under the guidance of and accountable to the Conference of the Parties to study the contribution of the potential sources of revenue, including alternative sources of finance, towards meeting this goal.
10. We decide that the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund shall be established as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention to support projects, programme, policies and other activities in developing countries related to mitigation including REDD-plus, adaptation, capacity-building, technology development and transfer.
11. In order to enhance action on development and transfer of technology we decide to establish a Technology Mechanism to accelerate technology development and transfer in support of action on adaptation and mitigation that will be guided by a country-driven approach and be based on national circumstances and priorities.
12. We call for an assessment of the implementation of this Accord to be completed by 2015, including in light of the Convention. s ultimate objective. This would include consideration of strengthening the longterm goal referencing various matters presented by the science, including in relation to temperature rises of 1.5 degrees Celsius.

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