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Environmental Protection versus Trade Liberalization : Finding the Balance

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Sandra L. Walker

III. Product versus production regulation

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This paper analyzes the treatment of environmental regulation under international trade law according to whether the measure is product-related or production-related. The reason for this dichotomy is that while the same rules are applicable to each, different issues arise according to the category. Product-related environmental measures address the harm to the environment which the product may cause in use or at the end of its useful life43. Examples of such measures would include those which regulate pesticides, car emissions, discarded refrigerators or air conditioners containing CFCs, as well as product packaging. Regulation of the use and disposal of such products may cause certain restrictions on trade. For instance, a ban on the use of CFC refrigerators by some countries would mean that countries still producing such items would find such markets closed. Regulations aiming to limit the amount of waste from packaging might require the use of certain kinds of packaging or recycl...

© Presses de l’Université Saint-Louis, 1993

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