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Les indépendances en Afrique

 | 
Odile Goerg
, 
Jean-Luc Martineau
, 
Didier Nativel

Deuxième partie. Contestation et envers de la fête : acteurs et partis politiques

Independence in Epe (Nigeria): political divisions leading to a dual celebration

Oluwasegun Mufutau Jimoh

Texte intégral

Map 1. – Western Nigerian: the movement of Kosoko in 1851 from Lagos Island to Epe.

1In Epe, the independence celebration day was one that brought about great expectations and hope to the people. The people of Epe, like others in many parts of Nigeria, felt the time of imperial domination was over. It signaled the beginning of a new era. This era, they hoped, was to be theirs, i.e. their time to be in charge of their affairs and make decisions pertaining to them. However, the independence celebration was coloured by historical rivalry between the two different communities occupying the geographical space of Epe.

2British intervention in what was to become Nigeria first manifested itself in Lagos, which was bombarded by the British anti-slavery Naval Squadron in 1851 on the pretext of stopping the slave trade (Ajayi, 1961). Then, by the 1890s, through the signing of treaties of “friendship” with local chiefs and direct military action, what is now southern Nigeria became part of the British empire as “underdeveloped estates”, in the words of Joseph Chamberlain, the then British Secretary of State for the Colonies. Therefore, direct annexation of Lagos took place in 1861 and the one of Epe in 1892 (Ajayi, 1961). Situated about 77 kilometers from Lagos city, Epe is one of the towns that were incorporated in 1892, following the defeat of the Ijebu kingdom by the British. Epe was later incorporated into the Lagos Colony as part of the British Protectorate. Located on the northern shore of the Lagos Lagoon, Epe is bounded in the north by Ijebu-Ode, the capital of the former Ijebu kingdom, and in the east and west by Ikorodu and Lekki lagoon respectively. By 1952, the town was placed under the administrative jurisdiction of the Western Region government under the leadership of Obafemi Awolowo, the first Premier of the Western Region. The town also served as one of the divisional headquarters of the Western region. At independence in 1960, the population of the town was approximately 20,000. The major occupations of the people were fishing, boat making and agriculture. At independence, the town could boast of two industrial sites set up by the AG regional government: Epe Plywood and Epe Boat Yard.

3British domination of Nigeria came to an end on the 1st of October 1960, when Nigeria became a sovereign state and, three years after, became a republic. The quest for independence dominated the forefront of Nigeria’s political scene from 1955. This politicking pitched different communal groups against each other. Lagos at that time was a centre of intense political activities. However, while the perceptions, aspirations and expectations of independence in the urban centers have been substantially documented, the feelings and expectations of the people at the grassroot and the periphery have not been fully explored by professional historians. Epe gives a good example of the feelings of these peripheral, unexplored communities and of their ambiguities.

Epe: a dual community

  • 1 Lagos society was plunged into conflict following the forceful eviction of Oba Akitoye, the king, (...)

4The political configuration of Epe on the eve of independence in 1960 was rooted in the historical development of the town. Although the town was founded by the Ijebu, with the British attack of Lagos in 1851, the town received the Awori refugees from Lagos under the leadership of the deposed king, Kosoko1. The emergence of this group of Awori led to the polarisation of the town. Consequently, this development has affected the direction of political development in the community up to the present day. Like many other Yoruba towns, the historical origin of Epe is not devoid of disputes. There are two conflicting versions of Epe’s tradition of origin. The first version is the Huraka tradition, while the second is the Alara tradition.

  • 2 Poka is a small community located in the northern axis of the town.
  • 3 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, Epe, 12 March 2010. He is also the offic (...)
  • 4 Ibid.
  • 5 The town derived its name from black ants called epe. The forest is infested with a lot of these a (...)
  • 6 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010.
  • 7 Ibid.
  • 8 However, attempts by the author to locate the family associated with Alara in Epe yielded little r (...)

5The Huraka tradition, which was probably recorded in Epe itself and in Poka2 (Oguntomisin, 1999: 1-3), says that Huraka, a hunter from Ile-Ife, was the first settler of Epe3. According to this tradition, Huraka had founded Poka before migrating to Epe4. Huraka was said to have left Ile-Ife with a group of hunters on a hunting expedition. This expedition ultimately led Huraka and his group of hunters to Poka. While in Poka, his favorite hunting ground was a strip of forest located between Otien River to the north and the lagoon to the east and west, which he called Oko-Epe5. Oko-Epe has since been corrupted to Epe (Oguntomisin, 1999). It was from Poka that Huraka was instructed by Ifa oracle to cross the Otien River and settle down in Epe. According to Chief Olufowobi, this was probably in the 13th century6. Thereafter, Huraka left Poka to live in Epe where he was at different times joined by other settlers, among whom was Alara, a prince who came with his royal attendants from Ile-Ife, namely Lugbesa, Agbaja, Ofuten, Ramepe, Ogunmude and Oloja Sagbarafa from Ijebu-Ode7. These people were said to have settled in different locations in Epe, except Alara, who did not remain in Epe for long. Rather, he left his four sons in Epe before proceeding to Ilara where his descendants remain today8.

  • 9 This was submitted to the colonial official during the reorganisation of the districts in 1939. Th (...)

6The second version of Epe’s tradition of origin is the Alara tradition. This tradition is contained in a written account submitted by Oba Adesanya, the Alara of Ilara, a town located a few kilometres to the north-east of Epe, to the Colonial District Officer of Ijebu-Ode in 19399. It claimed that the founder of Epe and many villages beyond the lagoon was the Alara Adesowon, a prince from Ile-Ife. He migrated from Ile-Ife and travelled via Benin to Epe (Adefuye, Agiri & Jide, 1987). On his way, he was said to have settled some of his followers in different places which later developed into villages such as Abigi, Ilagbo, Igbogun, Ise, and Ibeju among others (Oguntomisin, 1999: 3-8). According to this tradition, the Alara did not stay permanently in Epe, for he was later ordered by his oracle to leave Epe for Ilara. But while doing so, he left behind his four sons whom he instructed to take charge of the town. It is pertinent to note that these traditions of origin, although somewhat stereotyped and chronologically vague, revolved around two founding fathers with whom others later settled. However, none of the founding fathers is remembered to have been buried in Epe. While the Alara left Epe for Ilara, Huraka’s remains were said to have been buried in Poka and his burial site has since become a sacred shrine.

  • 10 The Osugbo Iwase is the judicial arm of government in pre-colonial and post-colonial society of Ij (...)

7However, apart from the sharp discrepancy in the tradition of origin about the founder or first settler, the two versions are only slightly different in details. This slight difference, it has been argued, arises, perhaps, from the tendency of the descendants of Huraka and the Alara to manipulate the tradition to favour their claims. Although it may be difficult to determine which of the versions is more acceptable, what can be clearly extrapolated from them is that Epe was a meeting place for hunters, fishermen and adventurers from Ile-Ife, Ijebu-Ode and Benin, and that Epe was one of the subordinate towns of Ijebu-Ode under the jurisdiction of the Awujale of Ijebu-Ode. As far as the institutions are concerned, Epe was ruled like other Ijebu towns and its political institutions were firmly in the hands of the Osugbo Iwase10 which regulates the day-to-day activities of the people. However, the arrival of the Awori elements from Lagos led to the relegation of this institution to the background. The immigrants completely dominated the political machinery of the town. This development entrenched the division of the town and, consequently, its political development.

Political institutions of Epe strongly responsible for the division

  • 11 Among the members of the council were the Lotu, heads of each quarter, and the Jagun Oba, head of (...)
  • 12 Interview with 95-year-old Pa Osidina, at his residence in Noforija, 20 April 2010.

8Generally, the council called Osugbo Iwase in each of the subordinate towns of Ijebu-Ode (Oguntomisin, 1999: 1-8) was closely supervised by the Awujale (king) through his special messenger, the Agurin, who monitored and reported the Igbimo Osugbo to the Awujale whenever the former exceeded its powers. However, tradition has it that in some cases, the Igbimo Osugbo could overrule the Awujale and could also take some actions without any recourse to him. The official ruler of Epe was the Oloja who ruled with the advice of the Osugbo Iwase, whom he had to consult before taking any decision on matters affecting the town. Other members of the Oloja’s administrative council were the Balogun (War Captain), Otun Balogun (Commander of the right wing of the Army), Osi Balogun (Commander of the left wing) and the Seriki (Head of the Vanguard, also a Muslim title). These were the chief military officers of the town. The Agbon (head of the young men) was also a notable member of the Council11 (Oluyomi, 1989). He was the custodian of the drums used for summoning town meeting and rallies. Also, representing women were the Erelu, the Iyalode and the Iyaloja. They equally represented the interest of market women. Paramount to the political institutions of Epe was the role of Regberegbe12, who represented the different segments of the youth.

  • 13 While the Osugbo plays a very prominent role in the Ijebu section of the town, the Baale of the Ek (...)

9Epe was divided into Itun (wards), which was typical of the Yoruba system of administration. Each ward head was responsible for maintaining law and order in his ward. He settled minor cases and passed the decisions of his ward on any matters to the Oloja in Council. Appeals were made from the ward court to the court of Oloja or the Osugbo in Council (Oguntomisin, 1999). However, following the arrival of the fleeing Awori elements from the troubled kingdom of Lagos, the political institution of the town which had hitherto been under the control of the Ijebu was altered. Like in many other composite towns in the Yoruba region, the Lagos migrants evolved new political institutions. Unlike the Ijebu, the political institutions were not based on Epe historical heritages. It was a combination of Islamic system and Awori institutional structures13. This development affected the independence celebration in Epe in 1960.

10With the British bombardment of Lagos in 1851, Kosoko, the Lagos monarch who was driven into exile by the British authority, found refuge in the Ijebu town of Epe, which was under the rule of the Awujale of Ijebu-Ode. The circumstances that led to this conflict have been well documented by existing studies, so its details need not delay us here (Smith, 1969: 3-25). However, one significant effect of this troubled episode of Lagos history is that it created a lot of political upheaval in the adjourning communities on the eastern frontiers. The most affected community is the Ijebu town of Epe. The arrival of Kosoko, the ousted king of Lagos to the town in 1851, changed the power equation of the town as the town was thenceforth administered by the refugees, based on their imported Awori political institution (Maan, 2007). This created inter-group tensions between the refugees, later known as Eko Epe people, and the Ijebu Epe, who were the original inhabitants of the town. The Ijebu initially accommodated the Awori migrants based on the mutual understanding that they would return to Lagos after they might have settled their dynastic dispute with the British and Akitoye in Lagos. However, this was not to be, as the migrants later dominated the economy of the town to the exclusion of the indigenous elements. This created animosity between the two groups which later manifested itself in dual political institutions. However, on the basis of available evidence, there is no doubt that Kosoko reigned and administered the town before he went back to Lagos in 1863 (Oguntomisin, 1979). Throughout his sojourn in Epe, Kosoko was in absolute control of the town’s political and economic institutions.

  • 14 Posu was the successor to Kosoko at Epe. He signed a treaty of protection with the British in 1863

11The changing pattern of trade in Lagos, coupled with the threat of the French, forced the British to sign a peace treaty with Kosoko in 1854, which allowed him to return to Lagos (Jimoh, 2001). Ironically, while the treaty ended the crisis within the royal families in Lagos, it created serious intergroup tensions in Epe, which subsequently shaped the socio-economic development of the town right into independence in 1960. From 1862, when Kosoko returned to Lagos, to 1892, when the British bombarded Ijebu-Ode into submission, the relationship between the Ijebu Epe and the Eko Epe deteriorated. After the reign of Posu14 and the ascendancy of the Iyanda Oloko, the Ijebu Epe lost the control of the town politically and economically.

  • 15 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010.

12Economically, the Eko Epe people had placed themselves on the strategic position along the shores of the lagoon; this enabled them to serve as middle men between the Ijebu and Europeans on the coast. The year 1875 was a decisive year in the history of the Ijebu struggle to regain the political and economic structures of their town which had hitherto been lost to the Eko, following their arrival in 1851. By 1875, the Ijebu resuscitated the institution of Oloja which had been quiescent since the arrival of Kosoko, the deposed king of Lagos. Some of the erstwhile traditional institutions were resuscitated; the institution of Osugbo and the Regberegbe, the age grade system, were revived. All these happened during the reign of Oloja Sagbarafa. This period has been appropriately christened by Oluyomi Philip (1989) as an era of Ijebu nationalism. Although his periodisation may be discussed, the struggle can be categorized into three phases, namely: 1875-1892, 1892-1960 and 1960 to the present day. The first period has been explained, while 1892 to 1960 was the period when the political consciousness of the Ijebu was re-awakened. This was evident in their demand for a separate Native Authority from the British colonial government. In the latter part of the second phase, the political struggles of the two camps continued. This was evident in their choice of political parties15. While the majority of the Ijebu people were found in the Action Group, the Ekos were divided: some went to the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons which metamorphosed into the National Council of Nigeria Citizen, in 1959 (NCNC).

The emergence of two political leaders and the intensification of rivalry

  • 16 The British recognition of the Eko Baale might be a reward for the role they played in the British (...)
  • 17 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010: The Ijebu Epe felt betray (...)
  • 18 Burahimo Edu’s son, S.L. Edu was to later champion the cause of Eko Epe people (Oyeweso, 1996)

13The advent of a British political administration in Epe dealt a decisive blow to the political setting of the town. The British recognition of Baale of the Eko Epe people at the expense of the Ijebu Epe was to further aggravate the rivalry between the two communities16. This rivalry continued until independence in 1960. On the eve of independence, the town was strongly polarized. The two poles were represented by prominent indigenes of the town, namely, Adeyemi Tobun and S.L. Edu. The polarisation of the town, though rooted in the pre-colonial history of the town, was further heightened by British colonial policy. The fallout of this policy was the emergence of dual political institutions of governance. Consequently, the independence celebration in the town followed this pattern. The British bombardment of Ijebu-Ode in 1892 created a permanent disunity among them17. The attempt by the British to remove trade barriers along the Lagos–Ijebu-Ode route prompted them to resort to force to open a new trade route to hinterland. The British expedition was launched in 1892 through Epe (Losi, 1921). At a time when technology was still primitive, the means of transportation was basically human portage. It is against this background that the British approached the people of Epe to help them carry their munitions luggage from the sea side to the hinterland. The Ijebu, in solidarity with their kith and kin in Ijebu-Ode, deserted the town before the British came, while the Eko under Burahimo Edu readily assisted the British18. This singular act by the Eko infuriated the Ijebu and, consequently, they declared the Eko a sworn enemy.

  • 19 The Ijebu were regarded by the British as obstructionists to free flow of trade.

14By 1897, the District Officer in charge of Epe inaugurated a joint Native Council for the town – this was under Governor Henry E. McCallum. But unlike what had happened in the past, the new Council had the two Baale as members. However, the actions of the British colonialists may have been informed by the recognition of the growing frustration of the Ijebu people, which they felt might lead to open confrontation. Meanwhile, the pathological hatred which the British had for the Ijebu was brought to bear on the choice of who would head the Council19. The British favoured the Eko over the Ijebu, although the Ijebu were more numerous than the Eko in terms of population. This demographic advantage of the Ijebu was jettisoned when the choice of who would head the Native Council Authority was made. By 1902, following the passage of Ordinance no 18 of 1901, the colonial Governor of Lagos Colony, W. MacGregor, set up a Provincial Council. The composition of the council was in favor of the Eko. Again, the Baale of the Eko was appointed to head the council. The composition of the council worsened the already bad relationship between the Eko and the Ijebu. This was due to the fact that the council meetings were held in the house of Burahimo Edu, who had not been forgiven for his role in the British bombardment of Ijebu-Ode in 1892.

15The first open confrontation between the Eko and the Ijebu occurred in 1912. The death of Oluwo from Ijebu camp sparked offthe crisis. This followed the disagreement over the right of passage for the funeral procession for Oluwo, as demanded by tradition of the Ijebu Kingdom. One of the major fallouts of this clash was the creation of Araromi market, an evening market meant for the Eko Epe alone, because the Ijebu prevented the Eko from trading in the Ayetoro market, which was situated within the Ijebu quarter. From 1912 to 1940, when direct elections were first conducted in the town council, the relationship between the two communities deteriorated.

  • 20 The formation of the Epe Descendants Union, rather than ensuring unity, further aggravated the riv (...)

16However, by 1942, a new generation of inhabitants had emerged. This generation saw things differently. With their western education, they sought to unite the town. Their effort manifested itself in the creation of the Epe Descendants Union in April 1942. The primary focus of this union was to foster unity among the people of Epe so as to enhance development. However, the association did not live up to its potentials before rivalry crept in and consigned it to the dustbin of history20. By 1950, another union had emerged to champion the cause of the Ijebu. Ijebu Parapo (Ijebu Together) was formed in 1950 and headed by Chief Tobun Adeyemi, who later emerged as the leader of the Ijebu Epe people. It was this trend that led to the polarisation of party politics during independence period.

  • 21 Initially S.L. Edu belonged to the NCNC but he had not realized the popularity of the Action Group (...)
  • 22 Apparently, these two men exploited the political conflict in the town to their own advantage. Whi (...)
  • 23 The non-recognition of the Eko Baale might not be unconnected with fact that Chief Awolowo realize (...)

17Following the British grant of self-government to the Western region in 1957, the political consciousness of the Epe people was further aroused, when S.L. Edu contested elections into the Federal House of Representatives. Edu, an Eko man, whose father had aided the British destruction of Ijebu-Ode in 1892, rose on the popularity of the Action Group among the Ijebu to win the election into the Federal House of Representatives. However, as at the time Edu won the election, the people were united for common purpose, they wanted the British out. Following the expiration of S.L. Edu’s21 tenure, Adeyeni Tobun, an Ijebu man, became the Representative of Epe people at the Federal level under the platform of the Action Group (AG), the dominant party among the Ijebu. However, by 1957, the age-long rivalry had re-surfaced again. The problem had to do with the question of which of the < was to be recognised by the Western Region government. Following the grant of regional self-government to the Western Region, the two groups had approached Chief Obafemi Awolowo, the Premier of the Region, to recognise their kings. Both parties established a lobby group under the two political gladiators: Adeyemi Tobun for the Ijebu, and Chief S.L. Edu for the Eko22. The issue of recognition again polarised the town along the old rivalry. The Western Region government never recognised the Baale of the Eko23.

18By 1958, the town had been polarised along political lines. The preparation for independence was more intense among the Ijebu than the Eko. The reason was that the Eko felt that they would be under the new council which was going to be dominated by the Ijebu. Their fear was expressed through their votes in the 1959 federal elections. While the Ijebu voted for Awolowo and his Action Group party, the Eko, in retaliation against the non-recognition of their Baale, voted for the NCNC, a rival political party. Furthermore, 1960 was a turning point in the political rivalry of the two camps, as preparations for independence reached a climax, and the two formidable personalities emerged on the eve of independence, Adeyemi Tobun, who Awolowo described as the “Strong man of Epe politics” (Oyeweso, 1996), and Chief S.L. Edu. These two men became the rallying points for the two opposing camps during and after independence.

Independence day celebration in Epe

  • 24 See D.O. Esizimetor p. 161-188.
  • 25 Interview with Pa Osiyemi, a 95-year-old retired primary school teacher, at his residence, Noforij (...)

19October 1st 1960 was laden with emotion. The night before this historic day, bells tolled, guns boomed, not from the war front but to commemorate the dawn of freedom. Sirens wailed and people were happy. When the Union Jack, the symbol of colonialism, was lowered, and replaced with the green and white flag, the pride of the new nation, there was tumultuous ovation, fireworks and furious partying that went on until the dawn of the next day. Central to this day was the adoption of the new national anthem “Nigeria we hail thee; our own dear native land; though tribe and tongue may differ, in brotherhood we stand”24. This time was a turning point for the Epe people and the Nigerian people; not just a turning point, but also a milestone25. After years of colonial rule, the Nigerian people took charge of their destiny in 1960. They hoped in the exuberance of all good things to come and the people of Epe approached independence in a spirit of patriotic hope and great expectations.

20Ironically, all the rivalries that had characterized the historical trajectory of the town were jettisoned on the eve of independence, when the preparation became intense. According to a 95-year-old resident of Epe, Pa Osiyemi, a member of the defunct Ation Group, the preparation for independence was intense:

“We were all happy, because, Awolowo had promised us that with independence, we would all enjoy. So, we were all looking forward to independence. I had prepared early enough to leave my fishing village to the town.”

21It was a celebration that cut across different segments of society. The Epe people, who were very close to the new nation’s capital, were very anxious to see the birth of the new Nigerian nation.

  • 26 Interview with 85-year-old Pa Ajise at his residence in Eyindi Epe, April 2010.
  • 27 The non-attendance to the Igunuko Masquerade was attributed to religious obstacles but the trick c (...)
  • 28 However, out of the three musicians mentioned, only Ligali Mukaiba has a record of independence ce (...)
  • 29 Interview with Alhaja Elewuro, 81-year-old at her residence, Bado Isale Epe, April 2010.
  • 30 Bado was a major quarter in Eko Epe community.
  • 31 “We are finally free from European enslavement.”

22According to Pa Kolawole Ajise, an octogenarian, Epe town was not as big then as it is now. The streets were very narrow and had no major government establishments, except Epe Government Grammar School. But this did not stop the people from looking forward to independence with excitement and hope. Prior to independence, the town was divided into two camps. But as independence approached “we were all united for a common purpose. All sectional rivalries were jettisoned, we were all happy, the atmosphere was very great”26. Contrary to this account, the Eko Epe people never took part in the traditional ceremonies organized by the pro-A.G. Ijebu in 1960. For instance the Eko Epe attended neither the Egungun dance at Ita-Opo nor the Igunuko Masquerade, despite the fact it was organised by the Oshodi Tapa family, who was the leading family in Eko Epe section. But the Igunuko Masquerade remained an AG event. Indeed, the organizers commissioned this very family to stage the Igunuko because it was one of the few families in the Eko area who supported Action Group27. Nevertheless, according to Pa Kolawole Ajise, the town was agog with great expectations and rejoicing. On one hand, one confession on everybody’s lips was the activity of the Igunuko masquerades of the Oshodi Tapa family. They were clad in national colours of Green, white and Green. Forty of them were on parade at Popo-Oba square and Oke-Oyinbo. On the other hand, popular local musicians in Epe, Ligali Mukaiba, as well as Agirigbadi and Alhaja Elewuro performed severally and at different locations in anticipation of independence28. The people celebrated independence together, but behind this smiling peace, the rivalry continued. The local musician that was invited officially was an Ijebu man, Ligali Mukaiba, while the Elewuro, an Eko man, was excluded from the official circle. This apparently contradicted the peaceful facade painted by some of my respondents. The absence in the official circle of Elewuro, who was from Eko section of the town, is a pointer to the fact that all was not well within the community. It is important to note that these two men represented the two opposing camps. Alhaja Elewuro, who was a market leader at that time, claimed that, a night before the main celebration, bells tolled, gun boomed and people were rejoicing in the streets as they kept a date with destiny29: “It was a festival, every family in Bado area of Epe was very much busy30.” They participated in different ways while some went for family attire, others cooked food for the families who could not afford it. The popular Oluwo market witnessed a lot of activities. According to her, her husband, who was not known to be a voluptuary, was so happy that he sent one of his sons to buy him a bottle of “Seaman’s Schnapps”. When she asked her husband why, her husband said “haa, ati kuro ni oko eru31. This was the feeling of an average family who could understand what independence meant but some witnesses claimed that, although they were aware of the importance of that day, it made no sense to them as they went about their normal duties.

  • 32 Interview with Pa Oluwo, 78-year-old, a chieftain of Osugbo confraternity, Epe, 16 April 2010.
  • 33 The Oke-Balogun area was predominantly dominated by Eko Epe migrants. The Ijebu were at Ita-Opo mo (...)
  • 34 Interview with Alhaji Akodu, a 76-year-old fisherman in his house at Afuye Street, Epe, 14 April 2 (...)
  • 35 Oke Oyinbo means Europeans quarters.

23The Epe people were mostly full of happiness and great expectations. There were great expectations because the politicians had told them that with independence, they would be catered for32. These hopes were further stimulated by the commissioning, on the eve of independence, of a newly constructed road between Epe and Molajoye, Igbodu and Temu by the government of the Western Region under the leadership of Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Therefore, the atmosphere in Epe was filled with more optimism and ebullient hope. Arguably, this was due to the long suffering under colonialism. Many felt that the sky was the limit once the meddlesome colonialists departed. On the eve of independence, the people trooped into Oke-Balogun33 Central Mosque to offer prayers. Those who had not been to the mosque for a while were not left out. According to Alhaji Akodu34, the mosque was filled to capacity and people had to barricade the main Oke Balogun Road: “My own daughter was taken away by the organising committee for days; she was taken to Lagos for independence parade”. Some others were camped in Oke Oyinbo35. Epe, being one of the provincial headquarters of Lagos colony, was not far from the centre of attraction. The people, although they had limited western education, were very much aware of the importance of independence. The very thought of independence aroused within the Epe people certain feelings of ecstasy. Those who were alive to witness this momentous and memorable event were much delighted. It is, however, safe to say that people were elated by the thought of having independence even though they had not done any serious thinking about what the future would portend. According to Alhaji Oluwo, a 76-year-old cleric in Epe, the people were very much involved because the general belief was that, with independence, “we were going to witness rapid change in infrastructures, education and industries”. Based on these expectations, both literate and illiterate people were happy.

  • 36 Interview with Alhaji Anifowoshe, 77-year-old, Epe, 15 April 2010.
  • 37 Most Ijebu Epe chiefs did not attend the ceremony in Popo-Oba, except Chief Johnson Agiri, who was (...)
  • 38 The road from Epe to Molajoye was commissioned by the Western Region government. Interview with 85 (...)
  • 39 Interview with Pa Anifowoshe, 18 April 2010. Unfortunately Pa Anifowoshe died before the interview (...)

24“The celebration started on 26th of September, when we woke up to new feelings. The whole of my street was agog36.” Although, some of the Epe people were illiterate, most of them were aware of the fact that white, ajele, is a symbol of colonialism, a common disease to everybody. According to Pa Oluwo, even a deaf man could sense that the atmosphere was unusual. In the run-up to Independence Day in Epe, the center of attraction was Saint Michael Church, Popo-Oba37. The pupils were there to rehearse for the celebration in order to prepare for the great day. With the commissioning of new roads38, people were very excited by the prospect of self-rule. According to Pa Anifowoshe, “the worst indigenous government is better than the best foreign rule39”. By 29 September 1960, the town had assumed a “never-to-be-forgotten-day look”. They were all anxious for the day. The message on everybody’s lips was that “yes, indeed, we are free”. The mood of the celebrations was captured in the lyrics of a song by the popular local musician, Ligali Mukaiba. The opening stanza of the song “Ominira wole de, e je ka jo e je ka yo” meant “finally, independence is here let us rejoice and be happy”. According to him:

  • 40 Extract from his album titled Ominira meaning “Independence”.

“It was a great independence, those who were not there missed a lot. I saw people’s heads like water; aircraft were roaming, in the sky in breath-taking acrobatic displays. On the field, students and the boy scouts were many, neatly dressed, and the soldiers were at stand still. The motorcyclists were marvellous, guns were booming not from the war front, but that of celebration. In fact, those that were barren wished they had not come into this world, because the children were marvellous, full of exuberance and joy. It was a great day, I was there40.”

  • 41 Ita-Opo Central Mosque is situated along Ijebu-Ode road and owned by the Ijebu Epe community while (...)
  • 42 Interview with 86-year-old Alhaji Ajenia, in his house Oke Balogun area of Epe, 17 April 2010.
  • 43 At independence and three decades after independence Epe Plywood Industrie Ltd and Epe Boat Yard w (...)
  • 44 Interview with Alhaji Omo Dudu at his residence, no 3 Safico Street, Epe, April 2010. He lamented (...)

25On the eve of Independence Day, 30 September 1960, which coincidentally was a Friday, the people had trooped into Oke Balogun and Ita-Opo Central Mosque41 to offer prayers. According to Alhaji Ajenia, the whole place was like a “Mecca”. The nearby Secretariat of the Divisional Authority was filled with people. Various school children came from the countryside to take part in the ceremony. It was a celebration that would never be forgotten by the people42. The people were of the opinion that with independence, their fortunes would be turned around. Their optimism was reinforced by the industrial performance43 of the Regional government under the leadership of Obafemi Awolowo: by 1960, the famous Epe Plywood Industries was on the verge of being completed, while the Epe Boat Yard was almost ready for operation44.

26At about 12.05 am on 1 October 1960, the Union Jack, the British flag and symbol of colonial domination, was lowered and the new green and white national flag was hoisted. The town was ruptured with jubilation. The people wriggled their agile bodies as they danced into independence.

Photography 1. – Under this tree, Epe people gathered to celebrate the independence on 1st October 1960.

  • 45 The Regberegbe in Ijebuland are part of political institution in Ijebuland.
  • 46 Expect Igunuko, the majority of this masquerade was from the Ijebu Epe section.
  • 47 A “never-to-be-forgotten-day”. Pa Yab, who bought a new bicycle to commemorate independence, lamen (...)

27It was a beautiful Saturday for the Epe people. As early as 7.00 am, the Local Authority headquarters were full of activity. The people partied all through the night. The day of independence witnessed different march-pasts and drama shows by the school children. The regberegbe (age-groups) were not left out45. From Popo Oba square to Oke Oyinbo, the major roads swarmed with people, exotic lighting and masquerades clad in national colours of green and white46. Music was supplied by Ligali Mukaiba, the maverick local musician. Market women and men were gaily dressed. In the euphoria of independence, one of the leading photographers in Epe at that period, Pa Yab, bought a new bicycle to celebrate what he called an Alumabgagbe Ojo47.

Photography 2. – Out of cheer optimism and excitement, this old man bought this bicycle to commemorate independence, and the bicycle is still in use in 2010.

  • 48 Nureeni Egberongbe was the Chairman of Epe divisional council during independence period.

28The acrobatic displays from motorcyclists were splendid. Traditional masquerades like Jigbo, Igunu, Epa and Agbo were a delight to watch. The road from Egberongbe48 house to Oke Oyinbo was filled with cheering crowd waving the green and white flag. Mr. Billy, who was the colonial presiding officer, drove to the venue of the ceremony in majestic grandeur.

*

  • 49 Achebe, 1966; Festus Iyayi, 1979; Ayi Kwei Amah, 1968; Soyinka, 1972 and 1974.

29However, many respondents point to the fact that, whereas in the immediate post-independence period, electricity and other social amenities were what the people of Epe took for granted, now it has become a luxury. Fifty years after the attainment of independence, there are no motorable roads, standard healthcare delivery system, standard school and government cannot guarantee security of life and properties. Corruption has become our national value. However, it is apt to say that the people were only adumbrating the general social problem that has bedeviled the Nigerian state. The people were daily contending with the cruelty and brutishness of life defined more by needless deprivation in the midst of suffusing wealth. The hope and the aspiration of the people, which were expressed by a week-long celebration at independence, have since turned into a mirage. Years after, Nigeria was described by Obafemi Awolowo as “a mere geographical expression”. Wole Soyinka is of the opinion that “Nigeria remains a bundle of contradiction, because, it negates what other people want and the result is what nobody wants49”.

30With independence, people thought that in no distant time, the country would become an eldorado, a famed giant that would be an example for other nascent countries in Africa to emulate. But fifty years after, Nigeria is still grappling with question of leadership. And with the benefit of hindsight, a majority of Epe people attributes their post-independence quandary to bad and visionless leaders. Various literatures coming out of Africa in the post-independence period give credence to the views expressed by most Epe people. The dawn of 21st century witnessed the obvious collapse of hopes and excitement which characterised the independence period. Few decades after independence, the people of Epe, like their compatriots in other parts of Nigeria, witnessed a sheltering of their post-independence aspirations. The hopes of the people have given way to disillusionment.

Bibliographie

SOURCES

Interviews

Interviews: Particulars of Informants.

Alhaji Ajenia, 86 years, religious leader Oke Balogun Epe, April 2010.

Alhaji Anifowoshe, 77 years, Transporter Araromi Street Epe, 5th April 2010.

Alhaji Akodu, 76 years Fisherman, Afuye Street Epe, April 2010.

Alhaja Elewuro, 81 years, Trader, Bado Isale Epe, April 2010.

Bishop Ogunsanwo, 72 years, retire Bishop of Anglican Church Epe, Iraye-Oke, Epe, May, 2010.

Chief Olufowobi, 85 years, The Jagun Oba of Epeland, Kalesanmi Epe, April 2010.

Chief Kunle Tobun, 72 years, community leader, Tobun close, Iraye-Oke, Epe, 17th April 2010.

Mr. Nureeni Egberongbe, 70 years old, April 2010.

Mr. Onabajo, 70 years old, retired teacher, Noforija Epe, April 2010.

Madam Adeboshin, 59 years old, Trader, No 2 Awe Street, Epe, 2d May 2, 2010.

Madam Tunwashe, 81 years old, Odoegiri Epe. Odo-Egiri, Epe 25th April 2010.

Mr. .M.A, Shittu, 77 years old retiree, No 2 Oke-Oriwu, Iraye Oke Epe, 7th May 2010.

Mrs. Akorede, 64 years old, Trader, Oluwo market Epe, 4th April 2010.

Nureeni Sarumi, 45 years, former employee of Epe Plywood, 8th May 2010.

Nojeem Olokodana, 50 years, Fisherman, Oko Orisan, Epe, 12th May 2010.

Pa Oluwo, 78 years old, Herbalist, Epe, 30th April 2010.

Pa Ajise, 85 years, old, Fisherman, Eyindi Street, Epe, April 2010.

Yab, late 80s, Photographer, Odo-Egiri, Epe, April 2010.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Achebe Chinua, A man of the People, London, Heinemann, 1966.

Adefuye Ade, Agiri, Babatunde & Osuntokun, Jide (eds), History of the Peoples of Lagos State, Lagos, Lantern Books, 1987.

Aderibigbe A.B. (ed.), Lagos: The Development of an African City, Lagos, Longman, 1975.

Ajayi Jacob F. Ade, “Expectations of Independence”, Daedalus, Journal of America Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 111, no 2, Spring 1982.

Ajayi Jacob F. Ade, Milestone in Nigerian History, Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1962.

Ajayi Jacob F. Ade, “British occupation of Lagos 1851-1861: A critical Review”, Nigeria Magazine, no 69, 1961.

Akinola G.A, Leadership and the Postcolonial Nigerian Predicament, Ibadan, Department of History, University of Ibadan, Monograph Series no 1, 2009.

Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautiful Ones are not Yet Born, Nairobi, East African Publishing, 1968.

Bamgbelu O.E., Politics in Epe 1862-1940: An Account of the Struggle by the Indigenous Ijebu to Regain Political Power from the Immigrant Lagos Elements, M.A. Project. Department of History, University of Ibadan, 1984.

Iyayi Festus, Violence, London, Longman, 1979.

Jimoh Oluwasegun M., From Conflict to Cooperation: Kosoko British Relation, 1832-1872: A re-appraisal, M.A. Dissertation, University of Ibadan, 2010.

Jimoh Oluwasegun M., Kosoko British Relation in Perspective 1832-1872: A Re-Appraisal, Unpublished M.A Dissertation, History Department, University of Ibadan, 2001.

Lawal Olakunle, “The Mahin and early Lagos”, Odu, A Journal of African History, no 38, 1991.

Lawa Olakunle, Britain and Decolonization in Nigeria, 1945-1960, Unpublished Ph. D History Thesis, University of Ibadan, July 1991.

Losi J.B., History of Lagos, Lagos, C.M.S., 1921.

Maan Krist, Slavery and the Birth of an African City, Lagos, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 2007.

Oguntomisin G.O., New forms of Political Organization in Yorubaland in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: A Comparative Study of Kurunmi’s Ijaye and Kosoko’s Epe, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, 1979.

Oguntomisin G.O., The Transformation of a Nigerian Lagoon Town: Epe, 1852-1942, Ibadan, John Archer Publishers, 1999.

Olukoju Ayodeji, Infrastructure Development and Urban Facilities in Lagos, 1861-2000, New Jersey, African World Press, Inc., 2004.

Oluyomi Philip, Origin and The Development of Epe from Earliest Times to 1966, Unpublished B.A. Project, University of Ibadan, 1989.

Oyeweso Siyan, Journey from Epe: biography of S.L. Edu, Lagos, West African Book Publishers, 1996.

Passim Herbert & Jones-Quartey J.A.B. (Eds), Africa: The Dynamics of Change, Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1963.

Soyinka Wole, The Interpreter, London, Fontana, 1972.

Soyinka Wole, Madam the Specialist, London, Oxford University Press, 1974.

Smith Robert, “To the Palaver Island: War and Diplomacy on the Lagoon in 1852-1854”, Journal of Historical Society of Nigeria, vol. 1, p. 3-25, 1969.

Smith Robert, The Lagos Consulate, 1851-1861, London, Macmillan, 1978.

Falola Toyin, “Annotated Work of T.O. Avoseh ‘History of Epe and Its Environs’”, History in Africa: A Journal of Method, Leiden, Africa Studies Associations, vol. 22, 1995.

Annexes

ANNEXE. Documents iconographiques

Photography 3. – The last official residence of Mr. Billy, the last Colonial Officer who conducted the independence ceremony on 1st of October 1960.

Photography 4. – An uncompleted boat at Epe boat yard.

Photography 5. – One of the workshops at Epe Boat yard.

Photography 6. – Entrance to the Epe Boat Yard workshop.

Photography 7. – An indication of post independence tragedy.

Photography 8. – Opened on Independence Day.

Photography 9. – Bought on Independence Day.

Photography 10. – This industry was established by the Western Region government in 1965 as part of the industrialization of the west in post independence period. The process for its establishment started in 1959, but it was not fully operational until 1965. Attempt by the author to take photograph of the interior was rebuffed by security men.

Notes

1 Lagos society was plunged into conflict following the forceful eviction of Oba Akitoye, the king, by another claimant to the throne. Prince Kosoko, a legitimate claimant to the throne, had been bypassed by the kingmakers headed by the powerful Eletu Odibo. In 1845, the prince successfully evicted his uncle, Akitoye, from the throne. However, his uncle was restored to the throne, following the bombardment of the kingdom by the British naval forces. The deposed king fled with his followers to Epe in 1851, thereby creating a bi-community.

2 Poka is a small community located in the northern axis of the town.

3 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, Epe, 12 March 2010. He is also the official historian of the Ijebu Epe.

4 Ibid.

5 The town derived its name from black ants called epe. The forest is infested with a lot of these ants that is why the hunter usually referred to this forest as epe forest. The name Epe is an abbreviation of Oko-Epe.

6 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010.

7 Ibid.

8 However, attempts by the author to locate the family associated with Alara in Epe yielded little result as only the Tobun family was located. However, one of the descendants of the Tobun family, Chief Kunle Tobun, confirmed their ties to Alara.

9 This was submitted to the colonial official during the reorganisation of the districts in 1939. The full report can be found at the National Archives Ibadan [NAI], RG/C5 NAI, Epe District file.

10 The Osugbo Iwase is the judicial arm of government in pre-colonial and post-colonial society of Ijebuland. It is headed by the Apena. This body served as a check to the prodigality of any Awujale in Ijebu society.

11 Among the members of the council were the Lotu, heads of each quarter, and the Jagun Oba, head of king warriors. For more details on the indigenous people of Epe (Bamgbelu, 1984).

12 Interview with 95-year-old Pa Osidina, at his residence in Noforija, 20 April 2010.

13 While the Osugbo plays a very prominent role in the Ijebu section of the town, the Baale of the Eko (i. e. Awori) is more an Islamic leader than an historical political ruler.

14 Posu was the successor to Kosoko at Epe. He signed a treaty of protection with the British in 1863.

15 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010.

16 The British recognition of the Eko Baale might be a reward for the role they played in the British destruction of Ijebu-Ode.

17 Interview with Chief Olufowobi, the Jagun Oba of Epeland, 12 March 2010: The Ijebu Epe felt betrayed by the attitude of the Eko Epe who aided the British in the destruction of Ijebu-Ode in 1892. It is instructive to note that Epe was one of the towns under the jurisdiction of Awujale, the paramount king of Ijebu Kingdom. Although the town was placed under Lagos Colony, the people still regard Ijebu-Ode as their spiritual home until today.

18 Burahimo Edu’s son, S.L. Edu was to later champion the cause of Eko Epe people (Oyeweso, 1996)

19 The Ijebu were regarded by the British as obstructionists to free flow of trade.

20 The formation of the Epe Descendants Union, rather than ensuring unity, further aggravated the rivalry because the two opposing camps could not agree on who should be the leader. Some members of this group, who were to later play a leading role in Epe, were S. L. Edu or Agiri Johnson.

21 Initially S.L. Edu belonged to the NCNC but he had not realized the popularity of the Action Group. He switched over to the Action Group as the Ijebu were mainly Action Groupers.

22 Apparently, these two men exploited the political conflict in the town to their own advantage. While they played a leading role in the pre-independence politics of the town, their descendants have continued to participate in any government in power. Although the two were of the same political party, Action Group, the majority of the Eko were in the NCNC.

23 The non-recognition of the Eko Baale might not be unconnected with fact that Chief Awolowo realized that if he recognized the Eko Baale, the Ijebu might vote for the opposition party, which was NCNC. He was the leader of the Action Group, the party that controlled the Western Region; he preferred going with the Ijebu because of their numerical strength.

24 See D.O. Esizimetor p. 161-188.

25 Interview with Pa Osiyemi, a 95-year-old retired primary school teacher, at his residence, Noforija Epe (April 2010), however when asked to comment on post colonial Nigeria, Pa Osiyemi could not comment, all he could say was: “It is rather unfortunate to have been born into an enclave like this.” Attempts to comment further was disrupted by tears. His wife, who was one of the pupils who took part in the march-past on independence day, 1 October 1960, said that looking ahead, all what she could see is gloom. The mood of this elderly couple was aptly captured by Ruben Abati, a columnist, “An average Nigerian looks ahead, all he could see is sadness, he takes a look at its neighbor, what he found are lines of pains and anguish etched on faces that have been tuned into maps of sorrow by poverty and wants”, Ruben Abati, The Guardian, 10 August 2003.

26 Interview with 85-year-old Pa Ajise at his residence in Eyindi Epe, April 2010.

27 The non-attendance to the Igunuko Masquerade was attributed to religious obstacles but the trick consisting in this preferential treatment of this Oshodi Tapa family did not convince the majority of the Eko.

28 However, out of the three musicians mentioned, only Ligali Mukaiba has a record of independence celebration which was recorded thirteen years later. Others were said to have performed but their record could not be traced. Even a visit to their families yielded no result. However, Ligali Mukaiba was the official musician. He was a leading traditional musician in Epe from the mid 1950s to late 1980s.

29 Interview with Alhaja Elewuro, 81-year-old at her residence, Bado Isale Epe, April 2010.

30 Bado was a major quarter in Eko Epe community.

31 “We are finally free from European enslavement.”

32 Interview with Pa Oluwo, 78-year-old, a chieftain of Osugbo confraternity, Epe, 16 April 2010.

33 The Oke-Balogun area was predominantly dominated by Eko Epe migrants. The Ijebu were at Ita-Opo mosque. This is a manifestation of rivalry between the two communities despite official claims to the contrary. The Eko Epe people settled along the coastline of the community while the Ijebu were uphill.

34 Interview with Alhaji Akodu, a 76-year-old fisherman in his house at Afuye Street, Epe, 14 April 2010.

35 Oke Oyinbo means Europeans quarters.

36 Interview with Alhaji Anifowoshe, 77-year-old, Epe, 15 April 2010.

37 Most Ijebu Epe chiefs did not attend the ceremony in Popo-Oba, except Chief Johnson Agiri, who was a long standing member of the Church. The church was located within the Eko Epe community.

38 The road from Epe to Molajoye was commissioned by the Western Region government. Interview with 85-year-old Lateef Jimoh, the author’s uncle, who at that time was a school teacher at Epe, 18 April 2010.

39 Interview with Pa Anifowoshe, 18 April 2010. Unfortunately Pa Anifowoshe died before the interview was completed.

40 Extract from his album titled Ominira meaning “Independence”.

41 Ita-Opo Central Mosque is situated along Ijebu-Ode road and owned by the Ijebu Epe community while the Oke Balogun Central Mosque is located in Oke Balogun and owned by the Eko Epe community.

42 Interview with 86-year-old Alhaji Ajenia, in his house Oke Balogun area of Epe, 17 April 2010.

43 At independence and three decades after independence Epe Plywood Industrie Ltd and Epe Boat Yard were the leading employers of industrial labour in Epe and its environs. But the two companies are now moribund and years after independence people are lamenting the closure of those companies. Epe Boat Yard is now a sanctuary for animals. Only the workshop building is now evidence of its existence, the place is now a historical relic. According to M.A. Shittu: “We have failed as a people, fifty years after independence, what have we got? Nothing, the last fifty years have been characterized by coups and counter-coups, religious and ethnic conflicts, unhealthy competition over resources, policy summersault and visionless leadership. Independence from foreign power has now turned to internal colonialism. The leaders who emerged after the golden era of first republic were not responsible, or how do we explain the liquidation of once thriving Epe Plywood factory and Epe Boat Yard? It’s a tragedy.” The failures of these companies were attributed to the bad policies, corruption and insatiability of the political class. This view has also been corroborated by G.A. Akinola (2009): “Discounting the problems and tendencies created by colonial rule, perhaps no other factor is as implicated in the human condition and generally deplorable state of affairs in postcolonial Nigeria as the failure, or indeed lack of leadership.”

44 Interview with Alhaji Omo Dudu at his residence, no 3 Safico Street, Epe, April 2010. He lamented the post-colonial tragedy of the nation. According to him, fifty years ago, the Epe people were full of hope and expectations, not just because the colonial masters were departing but because the government of the Western Region had shown commitment to improve the lot of the people. Fifty years down the line, those expectations have not been met, dreams have been ruined, hopes dashed and the people are disappointed. The reality on ground is that of disillusionment and lack of basic social amenities. To some, independence has now turned into a curse.

45 The Regberegbe in Ijebuland are part of political institution in Ijebuland.

46 Expect Igunuko, the majority of this masquerade was from the Ijebu Epe section.

47 A “never-to-be-forgotten-day”. Pa Yab, who bought a new bicycle to commemorate independence, lamented that “fifty years after, we are not free as a people”. He pointed to his bicycle as evidence of his glorious past and aspirations in the 1960s, while a dilapidated building beside his house reminds him of post-independence tragedy. Perhaps this sordid state of the nation might have informed the opinion of Professor Adebayo Adedeji in 1979, “How have we come to this sorry state of affairs in the post-independence years, which seemed, at the beginning, to have held so much promise”. For more see Ajayi, 1982.

48 Nureeni Egberongbe was the Chairman of Epe divisional council during independence period.

49 Achebe, 1966; Festus Iyayi, 1979; Ayi Kwei Amah, 1968; Soyinka, 1972 and 1974.

Table des illustrations

Légende Map 1. – Western Nigerian: the movement of Kosoko in 1851 from Lagos Island to Epe.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 145k
Légende Photography 1. – Under this tree, Epe people gathered to celebrate the independence on 1st October 1960.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 211k
Légende Photography 2. – Out of cheer optimism and excitement, this old man bought this bicycle to commemorate independence, and the bicycle is still in use in 2010.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 147k
Légende Photography 3. – The last official residence of Mr. Billy, the last Colonial Officer who conducted the independence ceremony on 1st of October 1960.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 96k
Légende Photography 4. – An uncompleted boat at Epe boat yard.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 60k
Légende Photography 5. – One of the workshops at Epe Boat yard.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 146k
Légende Photography 6. – Entrance to the Epe Boat Yard workshop.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 197k
Légende Photography 7. – An indication of post independence tragedy.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 93k
Légende Photography 8. – Opened on Independence Day.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 246k
Légende Photography 9. – Bought on Independence Day.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 113k
Légende Photography 10. – This industry was established by the Western Region government in 1965 as part of the industrialization of the west in post independence period. The process for its establishment started in 1959, but it was not fully operational until 1965. Attempt by the author to take photograph of the interior was rebuffed by security men.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pur/docannexe/image/112286/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 107k

Auteur

Doctorant en histoire, université d’Ibadan, Nigeria

© Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2013

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540