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Le livre et ses espaces

Alain Milon
Marc Perelman

Résumés en langues étrangères

Texte intégral

1Espace du livre, espace du sujet

2The space of the book constitutes a topological paradox: its modest volume contrasts with the book’s role of inscribing limits that found reality as a whole. The objective reality portrayed by the book’s signifiers is structured by the perspective of the subject who is absent from the world represented. However, modern writing shows the referential illusion dissimulating a dimension of inhumanity. The anticipatory progression of syntax terminates by means of a retroactive movement that produces the spatial nature of the letter. Simultaneously, a limitless dimension is circumscribed, pointing to the enigma that causes writing.

3Llewellyn Brown

4Topique et utopie du livre au Moyen Âge : le texte (im)possible

5During the Middle Ages the book, that powerful reflexive device, situated at the heart of a new linguistic and narrative system which will still be seeking to legitimate its position in the domain of scriptural activity all through the 12th and 13th centuries, is the lieu commun par excellence, the place for an eternally diverse recognition, always differentiated because established on the basis of a topic and utopian relationship with the revealed truth. In fact, the dialectical relationship between the poetic word and the book approaches aporia, as the presence evoked by the text is normally anchored on a foundational and paradoxical absence. The mise à distance of the book/source, just as the deconstruction of the textual authority imposed by this rhetorical gesture just as much as the numerous appeals to the dialogic art of continuation and gloss, seem to suggest that the nature of medieval writing (as of all writing, no doubt) is precisely to escape the material and symbolic closure of the book, and to explode the very space of the book itself.

6Carlos Carreto

7De l’espace du livre à l’espace de l’œuvre : la consécration du fait littéraire à la Renaissance

8The settingup of printed volumes entitled “Œuvres” in the french Renaissance attests an editorial strategy aiming at making the author appear as an authority figure. This feature insures the legitimacy – and perhaps the value – of the published book and contributes to the emergence and consecration of the modern writer figure. The analysis of all the “Œuvres” published in Paris between 1500 and 1545 shows that material and paratextual processes partaking of this institutionalization can also set as authors some figures which are only a posteriori constructs coming from the editorial authority.

9Anne Réachngô

10L’image dans l’espace visuel et textuel des narrations illustrées de la Renaissance : morphologie du livre, topographie du texte et parcours de lecture

11The renewal and the evolutions in Renaissance printers’ techniques have an impact on the making up of the printed book and on its page setting, contributing to define a new space, a visual one, in which pictures play specific roles. This article will deal with these roles and their functions through the study of an array of illustrated fictions; it will enlighten the place they occupy within the interior architecture of the book and thus ponder on how they influence and reshape the way we read and we understand the text that goes with them. We will therefore show how images are used to focus on some aspects of this type of narration, how they transfix or generate topoï at stake within this type of fiction and finally how they open up on an essentially mnemonic reading.

12Trung Tran

13Espace liminaire du livre de théâtre au xviie siècle et espace du frontispice

14In the 17th century, the preliminary space in a theatre book was a versatile segment containing a frontispiece placed near the start of the book, a dedication, and a preface to the reader about the dramatic piece. The frontispiece, in all its typological diversity, facilitate the reader’s entry into the fictional world (frontispiece as architectural character) and also maintains the multiple relationship with the various preliminary textual elements (the image of patron evoked in the dedication) or the text itself (illustrations depicting text or the scene/ show). In conclusion, as a didactic function (as long as it conjures emblems or an allegorical frontispiece), it buffers the text with a metaphorical importance.

15Catherine Guillot

16Le livre : réflexions/réfractions dans Glas de Derrida et Rhizome de Deleuze et Guattari

17This article draws a comparison between Rhizome (Deleuze, Guattari, 1976) and Glas (Derrida, 1974), two philosophical texts which explore our ways of thinking about occidental text (its rhetorical harmonious and unifying composition inherited from Plato and Aristotle) and put into question our inherited vision of the book. Written during a period of time in which the book medium knew prodromic technological challenges, Rhizome and Glas converge to unveil a new form of text, recognised as nomadic, forking, mobile, multiple, non organic, etc. Nonetheless the method chosen in these two works to advocate new models of text shows discrepancies. Glas, seemingly inspired by the model of Mallarmé’s reflexion on The book, chooses to make “visible” the internal changes of writing by displaying the “double page”, destroying the usual “column”, cutting the text into “pieces” (“morceaux”), thus confronting the reader with a non linear dialog between extracts of Genet and Hegel’s works that promotes a “disjointed way” of reading (strabic). Deleuze and Guattari reject such visible means and emphasize conceptual exposition. The turnedintoconceptmetaphora rhizoma implies different qualities exposed through several oppositions (eg. “calque” vs “carte”; or the three categories, “arbre/ radicelle/ rhizome”). Finally, the article also aims at defining the rhetorical style of the two essays: epitaphic (Glas) versus enthusiastic (Rhizome). In this point of view, new forms of thinking and viewing the book appear to be dependant on the persuasion of style, understood as a tool for epistemic change.

18Hélène Campaignolle-Catel

19La page : entre texte et livre

20Throughout the frame of the page and the layout, human beings have made the connection between writing, space and themselves. They have personified the book by an anthropomorphic vocabulary, extending their body and mind, whereas the text has been reified by an artificial layout to be accessible. The materiality contaminates the way one talks about reading and writing so that it is tempting to quantify the text as if its quality could be measured. However it is not enough to talk about an appropriation. The text is beyond the human desire to be in control of it throughout the page.

21Valérie Lelièvre

22« Sauver le texte de son malheur de livre » ?

23« Saving the text from its misfortune of being a book »: Levina’s sentence, mentioned by Blanchot in « The writing of the disaster » does not refer to the uselessness of some books or to the book overload. It rather refers to the idea that the book area is also an aera of denial and failure. Failure of the text to assert itself in face of the book, and failure of the book that quickly senses its weaknesses as compared to the text. But why is it necessary to study the multiple areas of the book ? Isn’t the text, by nature, part of the book ?

24Alain Milon


26Deleatur, that it’ll be destroyed!
This two ways work in whitch the word seeks without ceasing to ressource itself at the drawing has the virtue of an act of resistance.
The Drawings decline the module of the architecture: the cube, this place of lonelyness and enclosure that agglomerates itself nowadays in bars and towers; they decline the decline of what already is leaned to its end: “The construction that postulates the eradication of the presence of the other one, wrote the architect, Henri Gaudin, goes to its own destruction”.
This déconstruction of the architectural tradition finds at its term nor the nihil but the vacuus, the void, the hollow, the white that sustains pure forms in the space as black signs do on the page. Because to the reverse of an architecture seized by the technique and by the economy, some nothing and some void is needed to reside.
The part of art has always been the part of fire.

27François Warin et Daniel Roth

28L’espace des notes en bas de page chez Henri Michaux ou l’inscription d’un savoir expérimental

29In Henri Michaux’s books on drugs experiences, namely Connaissance par les gouffres, Les grandes épreuves de l’esprit et Misérable miracle, the specific and unconventional relationships between text and footnotes contribute to an experimental knowledge. It is one among other aspects of the page lay within a broader conception of the book as an autonomous and practical space open to clinical observations of language disfonctioning and temporary alienation. The textfootnotes relationships are the means through which the author translates into words a mental process physically experienced and conveys it to the reader : the reading movements of to and fro between text and footnotes requested from the reader reproduce the dynamics of mental disorder.

30Brigitte Ouvry-Vial

31L’illustration, une ouverture dans la page vers des ailleurs du texte : étude de l’adaptation de Louis-Ferdinand Céline par Jacques Tardi

32Obviously, the production of Céline is particularly interesting for an illustrator, as it shows a great variety of places: cities, jungles, seas, plains... not only marking out his subject with a precision that the academic language can not offer, Céline also finds a way to give an insight into a magical and disquieting beyond. The fantastic genre only from time to time comes out in the novels, but is actually discreetly present in every part of them. This “overtext” is an interesting place to explore for an illustrator. The text supplies the essential material which is emotion. But illustration is a difficult art, as adaptation often means to betray the original message. It calls for a deep thinking about the relationship between text and image. The part of drawing is not so much enabling to visualize the story, characters and places as making its way through the interspaces of the text. In a way, the function of illustration is to enlarge the vision instead of reproducing it.
Jacques Tardi is a major figure in the landscape of the twentieth century French comics. He is famous for his adaptation of Céline’s novels. His work is an opportunity for us to put forward the question of the presence of two discourses at the same time, that of the author and that of the adaptator, with two different ideological intentions. We’ll point out the interest of Tardi’s contribution to the knowledge of Céline’s universe, showing as well the danger of his personal interpretation.

33Laurie Viala

34Le livre comme espace d’absorption : processus d’homogénéisation dans le livre d’art

35André Masson et son univers, by Michel Leiris and Georges Limbour, was published in 1947, in the “Les Grands Peintres par leurs amis” series. At first sight, this book seems to intensify the distinctive heterogeneity of art books: to the heterogeneity of texts and images, it adds the heterogeneity of texts. But in doing so, it also opens up the way to a certain homogenization, which is achieved by establishing several links: links between texts, between authors, and between the book and the entire collection. Studying the collection will thus allow us to view it as one place where the internal unity of art books is constituted.

36Ivanne Rialland

37L’espace plastique du livre : autour de Jazz de Matisse

38The space of the book is a space that since the existence of writing draws the attention of artists. It is a material space which opens the possibility to express oneself on the surface of the edition. At the same time it is an estetical space that inspires the artists, who find therein a support for their creations, support that bypasses the dimensions of the book to become a work of art. For centuries the images in the books gave an important informatiion often replacing the text. Thus, the book is not only a source of readable information, but also a plastic source of information. In the start of the 20th century the art of writing and the visible art (plastic) are intimatly related. The word is imagined in the form of plastic art, whilst the image is considered a literary association. If Juan Gris and Magritte imagined their paintings as texts, Sonia Delaunay made her “poetic” dresses, decorated with the verses of her friends Louis Aragon, Vladimir Maiakovski and Tristan Tzara, whilst Jean Cocteau associated his poems with images in the form of calligramms. For Picasso the space of the book is not only the one of images, but also the one of conception. He uses for instance books or newspapers as the principal persons. He mixes them into his “live” still lives, in his “trompes l’oeil” where the artist equally presents words as plastc art. Picasso is inspired by the creation of the book.
Matisse is an artist for whom the book is a work of art in full. The research of Matisse finds its roots in the Middle Ages, a period when images were just as rich in information as the texts. The artists of the Middle Ages found an equilibrium between the visual art and the Book. Their creations are the dreams come through of Matisse for the decorative arts.

39Olessia Koudriavsteva

40Le livre de poésie et son morcellement : Sol absolu de Lorand Gaspar

41Since Mallarmé’s Coup de dés, many poets have broken up the page layout in order to overcome the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign. In a different manner, the poet Lorand Gaspar put a large number of blank spaces in all his works during the seventies to disrupt the linearity of poetic discourse and reconsider the relationship between man and space. A new concept of the book of poetry as a breathing space and rhythm became prevalent. The myth of the book as a « monster of totality » (Roland Barthes) disappeared. Blank spaces were signifiers in their own right.

42Jérôme Hennebert

43Circonfigurations autour d’Espèces d’espaces de Georges Perec et de La Maison des feuilles de Mark Z. Danielewski

44In an effort to link together narration, reflection and architectural elaboration, Espèces d’espaces and La Maison des feuilles, proceed from an original attempt to delimit and represent what constitutes the centre and the foundation of the place – the living in : space. Associating structural configuration, organization and diversity of speeches, narrative elaboration and textual devices, Georges Perec’s atypical essay and Mark Z. Danielewski’s experimental novel eventually show the intimacy of the place – space – as an imperceptible and unappropriable outside; the writing holds up the void – the unspeakable – in which it originates just as the place holds up the uninhabitable as its reverse.

45Frédéric Yvan

46Le texte littéraire comme espace ambigu. Identité topologique, « trous noirs » et expérience esthétique « inquiète » dans l’œuvre de Perec et Calvino

47Il saggio analizza la presenza di un’identità figurale e plastica nell’organizzazione espressiva dei romanzi La vie mode d’emploi et Le città invisibili. Si rileva un effetto di motivazione trasversale: lo spazio del testo si presenta come il risultato della proiezione di tratti topologici appartenente ad una figura pregnante del piano del contenuto (il puzzle o la scacchiera). grazie a questo isomorfismo, si può conferire ai due testi una sorta di oggettalità, fino ad applicarvi una prensione impressiva. Inoltre, si mostra come la presenza di una “casella vuota” nello spazio del testo ne rivela la natura ambigua, dando luogo ad un’esperienza estetica che si può a buon diritto definire “inquieta”.

48Daniel Panosetti

49Les métamorphoses de l’espace poétique : autour de Pierre Reverdy

50After Mallarmé and his coup de dés, an important place was given by some poets to the space of the page on which the poem is written, to the space of the double page and of the book as a whole. In Reverdy’s poetry, the white of the page and the line both play a part in the composition and also in the interpretation. This article shows how the space of the page is the place where the form is being constructed, where new connections appear, and a réflexion is made possible. It implies a conception of poetry as a constantly renewed experimentation with form, as a perpetually offcenter movement.

51Isabelle Chol

52Le livre cubique : enjeux métafictionnels et autocommentaires critiques chez Kundera

53Seguendo l’antica metafora che lega libri e labirinti, questo studio si propone di analizzare la rielaborazione degli archetipi testuali nell’opera di Milan Kundera. Attraverso un métissage discorsivo metafinzionale che intreccia narrazione e critica, l’autore sembra voler introdurre una terza dimensione nel supporto bidimensionale del libro cartaceo, inteso come costrittivo labirinto unicursale. Kundera è cosciente dell’estrema importanza della lettura nel processo di « ricreazione » del testo letterario e vi accorda una grande attenzione, tanto che si ha spesso l’impressione che l’autore stia leggendo il suo testo in modo critico, dietro la propria spalla. Il risultato è una sorta di libro “cubico”, da leggere non solo rectoverso, ma nella sua tridimensionalità metatestuale.

54Ilaria Vitali

55Autour de Fuites de Le Clézio

56J. M. Gustave Le Clézio’s Le livre des fuites takes its interest in the study of procedures by which fiction and writing interact within a space through a roundabout and yet common way: the road. The concern here is the process and the channel, the space of the book and the space in the book due to the technique of the magic block, space, always potential like the road.

57Jean-Marie Kouakou

58L’atelier de L’Âge de la parole : pratique dialogique du recueil chez Roland Giguère

59In 1965, frenchcanadian poet Roland Giguère published L’Âge de la parole, a collection of six miscellany selected amoung the poetry he has published between 1949 and 1959. Making (physically and metaphorically) this great book, Giguère, also known as one of Québec’s best artists, was redefining his vision of poetry but also his idea of the book itself. Major modifications (withdrawal of the numerous drawings and images that once were part of the books’ identity – giving it an artisanal and experimental look that constituted a small revolution in québec’s history of literature – and various inner book changes) then appeared to tranform substantially the original booklets in a volume that not only became the reference in the poet’s corpus, but an area propicious to rutpure, recreation and opening. This article wants to come back on those changes, in order to show that, contrarily to his author, a book is never totally fixed nor still, and therefore an open space, a living stage.

60Catherine Morency

61Flâneries et contraintes : promenades textuelles dans Les Ruines de Paris et Le Méridien de Paris de Jacques Réda

62This article discusses Les Ruines de Paris (1977), a collection of wandering fragments of poetic prose by Jacques Réda, published at a time of great upheaval in the Parisian landscape, and Le Méridien de Paris (1997), detailing Réda’s physical travels through the imaginary (and very linear) space of François Arago’s 19th century Paris meridian. In the 1977 text, the reader’s textual flânerie follows the physical wanderings, pauses and epiphanies of the author. In Le Méridien de Paris, the constraints and overlinearity of Réda’s project hinder the improvisation necessary for real flânerie, so that the physical space covered remains closed off to poetic enrichment.

63Dervila Cooke

64Livre et possession : présentation commentée des comportements typologiques de P.L. Courier et du Marquis Taccone

65Auf der Suche nach einer funktionellen Definition des Buches wird mittels zweier extremen biographischen Erfahrungen den besitzergreifenden Bezug analysiert, den man damit (mit ihm) aufbauen kann. Exemplarisch wird der Fall (von) P.L. Courier vorgenommen, mit seiner gut dokumentierten, egoistischen Neigung, Bibliotheksbestände zu konfizieren, um sich die für ihn lebenserfüllenden Exklusivität der (ihrer) schriftstellerischen Ausnutzung zu sichern. Dann follgt das Beispiel seines Freundes, des neapolitanischen Marquis Taccone, der monomanisch Bücher – die er nicht las – ankaufte, bis es ihn zum Ruin führte. Seine Zwangslust, Bücher zu besitzen war im Unterschied zu Courier rein kontemplativer Natur. Taccone hielt auch seine Sammlung er für andere stets offen. Dieser Sonderbezug zum Buch lässt sich nur anhand magischesoterischer und psychologischer Betrachtungen beleuchten. Beide Beispiele zeigen wie das Buch kein übliches Gegenstand ist, sondern mit uns eine komplexe Verbindung herstellt, die über unsere eigene Persönlichkeit als (Nicht)Nützer immer Tiefgründiges verrät.

66Dominique J. M. Soulas de Russel

67Entre Crystal Palace et livin-groom : la bibliothèque

68The library is subjected to an indepth analysis by the author. The text focused in the objectivization of a sociological type. It highlights the glass house and the ideology of transparency and the links between them, which are echoed by the professed visual attractiveness. The emblematic “glass walls” – distinctive of a sense of great openness are experienced. Oftrepeated dramatic spaces play a pregnant role, while cultivating the attractive power of images : iconic “huge glass facades”. Designs would reflect the organization of both individual and interrelated functions of “21st century library”. They would be inviting persons who have not used library facilities. The new techniques and media challenge the definition of the library, which is subjected to the antinomy of the bygone past and of the inescapable future. Semiology overdetermines the ups and downs of libraries. The considerable metaphorical density of the discursive elements employed to expound the doctrine of the “fuzzy library” inclines one to view it as an ideology. In fact, the text, which is linked to a solid testimony, dwells on the socalled “social room” and the mixeduse facilities. This turns out not to be gratuitous: we shall not reduce libraries to the level of a civic demonstration. In conjunction with the critic of the ideology anchored to the libraries, the author produces different kinds of semantic effects. All in all, the text – avoiding nonconformist conformism – gets the right grammage to strike a balance between the contradictory definitions of the library: this dialectics takes us away from the current doxa. The author fends off the danger of fascination with this: let’s have done with the overwhelming “mediagenic” trend.

69Raymond Delambre

70L’espace urbain du polar français

71City is a set of fiction quite frequent since the 17th century. Sometimes real, sometimes fictitious, it is submit to the plot and can differ from its original model to comply with the writer needs. In the 19th century, fictions vary and develop its relation with city. The detective story transforms subsequently the city on a real character who acts on the plot. So, how city is describe to become an essential component of the fiction? What will be the results about the reader and how articulate the relation between real space and fictional space ?

72Estelle Riquois

73Le livre comme espace en action

74Taken in their spatial dimension, books raise the issue of the definition of the words “book” and “space” as well as that of their relationship.
A book can be restricted to its positive dimension, i.e. a collection of pages that bear a textual content, as an object that can relate to unusual uses depending on its shape and its substance as emphasised by Alberto Manguel. Yet, it can also be considered in its phenomenological dimension as a space in its own right. This space, folded, must be opened, spread out and activated by the reader. A book is therefore to be considered as a fourdimensional space, which often sadly materialises as a mere twodimensional space where the 3D volume of a book bears a meaning and generates uses and the symbolic (4D) value encompassed within the boundaries of a pale “invitation to travel” wherever the study of its consequences on the social link demonstrate its effectiveness. The study of books in action in the unique, standardised and constrained environment of the Paris Metro just shows how pertinent the link between the book space and the urban space is. Much like the town envisaged by the Chicago school, books appear like a horizon in motion activated by different readers in different locations. It hijacks the routine uses of the places it goes through, thus redefining the sensitive ecosystem of territories and transforms the reader inasmuch as he is transformed by reading. Thus, the book space does define itself as a space in motion, altogether united and split, consistent and porous. We will illustrate our position through the introduction of two cultural events at the SaintGermain des Prés Metro station centred on books as objects. We will attempt to show, thinking out of the box, how books blend into the urban mosaic figure, a synthesis between macro units and micro sequences – to the extent where they redefine the global space where they are hosted. From the station of books to the book station, from the mosaic city to the open book city, there might be just one step.

75Eloi Le Mouel

76Le livre interactif comme espace monté

77The subject of this text is the numerical technogies in so far as they structure our experience of the space, and form the emergence of a new kind of space. Therefore, what is this new space ? What is its essence? In order to try to think and to identify this new space, the starting point of our process will be the analysis of a few artistic experimentations studied as much from creation viewpoint as spectator’s one. The presupposition of this choice of art, as possibility to think this new space, is that, inside art, every thing appears just as it is, from its essence, without outside definition.

78Xavier Sense

79L’espace du livre et l’espace de l’œuvre : la dissociation argumentative comme architectonique de l’espace littéraire

80This study considers Maurice Blanchot’s The Space of Literature as an argumentation in favour of the idea that the (literary) work creates a space. One of the main characteristics of this space is that it takes the author and the reader to an out of time world, a crossroads where numberless ways open in front of each of them. Taking one way means giving up another, which makes any such decision painful. One of the most interesting concepts in argumentation theory, dissociation, is used throughout the article. It brings to light argumentative moves by which Blanchot distinguishes between real space and the space of literature as lived by the author and the reader, respectively.

81Anca Gâta

© Presses universitaires de Paris Nanterre, 2007

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