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El siglo de Oro en escena

 | 
Odette Gorsse
, 
Frédéric Serralta

La vida es sueño y la ópera: Life is a Dream de Lewis Spratlan y James Maraniss (1975-1978)

Luciano García Lorenzo

Texte intégral

  • 1 Iglesias de Souza, 1991-1996, vol. III, p. 883.

1En 1906, y según nos da noticias Luís Iglesias de Souza en su obra El teatro lírico español, se estrenó en Figueras (Gerona) una versión operística de La vida es sueño, del maestro Cristòfor Taltabull1.

  • 2 Ver Maione, 2002.

2Años más tarde, y en plena época fascista, se lleva a cabo otra versión operística de la obra calderoniana, en este caso por uno de los compositores y musicólogos italianos más relevantes de la época. Se trata de La vita è sogno de Gian Francesco Malipiero, que se estrenó el 14 de enero de 1943, en el Teatro San Carlo de Nápoles2.

  • 3 Se celebraron las representaciones los días 18 y 19 de julio en el Corral de Comedias y fueron muy (...)

3En julio de 2003, Tomás Marco presenta en Almagro, y en el marco de su Festival, Segismundo,«Ópera de bolsillo» basada en textos de La vida es sueño, con insertos de otros textos de Platón, René Descartes y Alberto Lisa3.

  • 4 Este conjunto musical desarrolla sus actividades desde hace casi treinta años principalmente en el (...)
  • 5 A ello y a un comentario entusiasta de la obra se refiere Charles Michener en The New Yorker, April (...)

4A esta última obra dedicaremos nuestra atención próximamente, pero en este trabajo lo hacemos a otra ópera, desconocida en España y no tenida en cuenta hasta ahora por los especialistas calderonianos y mucho menos por los musicales. Se trata de Life is a Dream, ópera en tres actos compuesta por Lewis Spratlan entre 1975 y 1978, con el fin de que fuera estrenada en el New Haven Opera Theatre, y con libreto de James Maraniss. La ópera finalmente no pudo ser presentada porque la Compañía de este Teatro se disolvió antes de que pudiera llevarse a cabo el estreno. Años después, concretamente el 28 de enero de 2000, pudo escucharse el Segundo acto de esta composición en el Buckley Recital Hall de Amherst College, en Massachussets (Estados Unidos), y dos días después, el 30 de enero, en el Paine Hall de Harvard University. Fue programada e interpretada por «Dinosaur Annex Music Ensemble»4, bajo la batura, como director invitado, de J. David Jackson. Life is a Dream obtuvo el premio Pulitzer de música del año 20005.

5Lewis Spratlan nació en Miami y se formó en Yale University. Ha dirigido y enseñado, entre otros lugares, en Tanglewood, Yale Summer School de Música y Arte y, desde 1970, en Amherst College. Como compositor, su música ha sido interpretada en numerosas ciudades del mundo, desde New York a Londres y Moscú; en esta última ciudad, su obra Penelope’s Kness fue presentada bajo la dirección de Emin Katchaturian.

  • 6 Es autor del libro On Calderón, 1978.

6James Maraniss, por su parte, es profesor de Literatura española en Amherst College y ha dedicado su atención principalmente al teatro español del Siglo de Oro y más concretamente a Calderón6.

  • 7 Adelaida Crapsey nació en Brooklin, New York, en 1878 y murió en Rochester, también del Estado de N (...)

7Ofrecemos, a continuación, una serie de materiales referentes a esta época y a su estreno, cuyo Programa estuvo compuesto, además, por la presentación de Sojourner (1999), para diez intérpretes, también de Spratlan y dirigida por Scout Wheeler, Director artístico de «Dinosaur Annex» y prestigioso compositor y director, y Three Songs From Images (1971), para piano y orquesta, del propio Spratlan y que abrió el Concierto. Los textos de estas Canciones son «Moth» de Adelaida Crasey, «Oyster», de Ariake Kambara y «Bells», de E. E. Cummings7.

8Por lo que se refiere a Life is a Dream, el reparto del Segundo acto representado fue, por orden de aparición:

9Clotaldo: David Ripley

10Basilio: John Check

11Clarín: William Hite

12Segismundo: Allan Glassman

13Servant: Donald Wilkinson

14Astolfo: Brian Chuch

15Estrella: Eileen Ruby

16Rosaura: Christina Bouras

17También actuó, en la parte coral, «The Amherst College Concert Choir» dirigido por Mallorie Chernin.

18La Orquesta estuvo compuesta por 6 violines primeros, 6 violines segundos, 4 violas, 4 violonchelos, 2 bajos, 1 arpa, 1 piano, 1 flauta, 1 flauta alta y 1 pícolo (con un intérprete), 1 oboe y 1 cuerno inglés (con un intérprete), 1 clarinete y 1 clarinete bajo (con un ejecutante), 1 bajón, 2 cuernos franceses, 1 trompeta, 1 trombón y 2 percusionistas.

19En las Notas al Programa aparece un texto en torno a la versión operística de la obra calderoniana. Aunque sin firma, creemos que la primera parte de este comentario pertenece a Maraniss, ya que se refiere al contenido de La vida es sueño y a otros aspectos de carácter fundamentalmente literario. Creemos importante recordar algunas afirmaciones relacionadas con la traducción de Maraniss: «In making a libretto one had to deal with Calderon’s elaborate Baroque poetic language, which itself carries much of his views of life. What had to be done with the plays was to cut most of the rhetorical filigree, to use a modern English poetic language both plain and expressive-worthy to be set to music, just a little more complicated and formal than regular speech. Though much condensed, the libretto is essentially faithful to Calderon’s play, with its operatic sense of timing and its organically evolving dramatic situations».

20La segunda parte de esta Nota seguro que la escribió el compositor, pues toda ella se refiere a la música con comentarios y explicaciones de carácter fundamentalmente técnico, muy precisos y esclarecedores: «The music of Life is a Dream hangs very much on is verbal language. Vocal lines mostly follow the rhythm and contour of spoken English, at times heightened, at times plain. The orchestra functions variously: in moments of intensity it sometimes illustrates or elaborates the action, sometimes undercuts it or provides ironic commentary, and sometimes establishes links with earlier musical/dramatic ideas. A variety of traditional forms (dances, marches, a madrigal, a lament) provide musical oases stable, rounded moments —in a texture which is otherwise highly open-ended, full of change, and reflecting the hero’s character, somewhat wild. Consonant with Calderon’s intricate verbal edifices, the music on occasion builds itself into grand, symmetrical designs which, as in the original, virtually consume the characters. But the prevailing musical discourse tends to proceed as in life, always unfolding, with the occasional reiteration for emphasis. This is enabled by an unmetered, quasi-recitative technique which slips in and out of the texture with very little fuss, allowing for quick and unobtrusive musical gear-shifting. The instrumental forces are modest: single woodwinds, two French horns, a single trumpet and trombone, piano, harp, percussion, and strings».

21Por lo que se refiere a la caracterización musical de los personajes, el compositor se detiene en los principales y afirma: «Each of the characters is linked to a thumbprint musical style, drawn quite directly from dramatic function. Segismundo’s musical language is in general highly inflected, wide in range and full of the torment suggested by dissonant intervals and erratic rhythms; Basilio’s relies upon projection of a great 12-tone construction that stands for his fundamental belief in the givens of the universe; Clotaldo’s conveys sympathy through a high degree of consonance and rhythmic evenness; Rosaura’s is contained, temperate, measured; Astolfo’s and Estrella‘s is pompous and bloated with rethorical figuration; Clarín is buffo, clipped and constantly linked with his namesake trumpet».

22En fin, y ese es uno de los objetivos más importantes de este trabajo, ofrecemos a continuación el texto del Segundo acto de esta composición sobre la obra calderoniana, precedida por la sinopsis de los tres actos de la ópera, tal como las ha resumido el autor del libreto. Dejando para otra ocasión el análisis más detenido de esta versión, diremos que Maraniss respeta al máximo el texto de Calderón, aunque, naturalmente, debe prescindir de partes de la obra de don Pedro; por lo que se refiere a los personajes del segundo acto del texto, todos ellos están presentes en este segundo acto de esta ópera, estrenada en el marco de las actividades que, en el año 2000, se celebraron para recordar a Calderón.

Bibliographie

Referencias bibliográficas

Iglesias de Souza, Luis, El teatro lírico español, A Coruña, Diputación, 1991-1996.

Maione, Paologiovanni, «“Senza luogo né tempo in un mondo de fantasia”: La vida es sueño en la entonación de Gian Francesco Malipiero (1941)», en Calderón 2000. Homenaje a Kurt Reichenberger en su 80 cumpleaños, ed. Ignacio Arellano, Kassel, Reichenberger, 2002, vol. II, pp. 549-567.

Maraniss, James, On Calderón, Columbia (Missouri), University of Missouri Press, 1978.

Annexes

LIFE IS A DREAM

Opera in three acts after Calderón’s La Vida es Sueño

Music by Lewis Spratlan

Libretto by James Maraniss

SYNOPSIS

ACT I

The opera’s hero is a prince, Segismundo, who must attempt to live in a world from which he was removed at birth. His father, Basilio, a pedantic and frightened king, interprets the portents at Segismundo’s birth to mean that the boy would become a violent and tyrannical ruler; in order to protect himself and his subjects he exiles the prince to a remote wilderness tower, there to be educated by Clotaldo, a nobleman, but to be kept ignorant of who he is and of those emotional refinements that come from living in human society. Basilio, when Segismundo comes of age, has second thoughts. Maybe the stars were wrong. Or perhaps will is stronger than fate. Basilio orders that the prince be drugged and brought to court. If he is good he will remain and inherit the throne; if not, he will be drugged once again and sent back to the tower, where he will be made to believe that what he saw was only a dream.

ACT II

Clotaldo recounts to the king how Segismundo was given a potion and brought to the palace. Segismundo, still in a daze but heaped with princely adornments, is born in on a litter. Clotaldo and the entourage welcome him to court; dancers entertain him, Clarín does a magic trick, and the court choir sings to him. Segismundo, awake at last, exclaims at his new surroundings. Clotaldo tries to explain how this all came about, but is immediately set upon by Segismundo for his past treatment. A servant scolds him for his lack of respect and is threatened by Segismundo. Astolfo, Segismundo’s cousin and pretender to the throne, introduces himself and is greeted coolly. Once again the servant begins to instruct Segismundo and is further threatened. Estrella, another ambitious cousin, appears; Segismundo is aroused and ardently kisses her hand. The servant scolds yet again; Segismundo snaps, grabs the servant, and hurls him off the balcony to his death on the rocks below. Amid the general horror Basilio appears and, for the first time, father and son meet face to face. After a fierce confrontation Basilio admonishes, «Be humble, for perhaps you’re dreaming even while awake.» Segismundo ponders his situation and recognizes that he is a «man who is also a beast.» The act closes with his sudden attraction and overbearing approach to Rosaura, Clotaldo’s daughter, an unhappy noblewoman whose fate is linked to his. A fight ensues, first with Clotaldo, then with Astolfo. After Segismundo is subdued Basilio appears once again. This climatic encounter between father and son leaves Segismundo spent and confused and Basilio convinced that there remains no choice but to return Segismundo to exile. Segismundo falls limp; he is dragged from court, followed slowly by the entourage. Rosaura remains alone to muse on his sad quandary.

ACT III

As Segismundo awakens from his stupor he begins to doubt his ability to discern reality. His memories of the splendour of the court are vivid - but perhaps, as he is repeatedly told, it was all a dream. Basilio’s subjects, aware now of the lively spirit and boldness of their prince, are prepared to forgive him his wildness in court and proclaim him successor to the throne in preference to rule by the distrusted foreigners Astolfo and Estrella. A rebel army forms and seeks out Segismundo at his tower, where they urge him to join and lead the revolt which will overthrow his father and give him the throne. Segismundo is at first aroused by the thought of triumph and vengeance for his treatment but collapses again into uncertainty, agreeing at last, and with much urging, to take on the fight. At the moment of his triumph, again unsure of his very existence, he relents. Basilio, mistaking Segismundo’s collapse of identity for humility, declares him fit to rule and proclaims, for reasons of state, plans for his marriage to Estrella. Segismundo, bleached of will and self, acquiesces, a «good» prince renouncing his love for Rosaura for the sake of social order which may be only a dream.

ACT II

(ENTER BASILIO AND CLOTALDO)

Clotaldo

Sire, what you directed has been done.

Basilio

Clotaldo, tell me how it happened.

Clotaldo

It was like this:
I went to him
with the calming mixture you prescribed,
made of enervating herbs
whose tyranny and secret force
soften the will, steal speech and reason,
transform into a living corpse
the man whose potency, whose sense, whose violence
is put to rest when he drinks of it.
I spoke to him a little while
about the studies he had pursued
in Nature’s school
of skies and mountains, where he learned
his rhetoric from the birds and beasts.
To lift his spirit to the task
you’ve set before him, I remarked
upon the swiftness of the mighty eagle,
its scorn for the regions of the wind,
its home in the fiery spheres, a lost
and straying comet, feathered lightning bolt.
Extolling its lofty flight, I said:
«He is the monarch of the birds;
it is his right to take precedence
over them.»
This was too much
for Segismundo. Swelling with
wrath and high ambition, he said:
«Then even in the unsure
republic of the birds, there must
be one to whom the others swear
obedience. It consoles me that
my vassalage here is kept by force.
With freedom I’d bow to none.»
Seeing him maddened by this theme
(so near to his own pain) I made
him drink the potion. Scarcely had
it passed his lips when he fell weakly
to the ground, a shiver coursing through
his limbs and veins - so cold it made
his life seem doubtful.
Your men arrived.
They placed him in a coach, took him
to the royal chamber, where
he will find majesty and grandeur
suited to his person. They set
him down upon your bed, and when
his lethargy has gone, they’ll serve him
as you ordered, as their king.
And if my loyalty deserves reward,
let it be this: tell me, sire,
why have you brought him senseless
to the palace?

Basilio

Clotaldo, you have done well.
This doubt of yours is just,
and I’ll answer it.
If Segismundo were to know
today that he’s my son, yet find
himself tomorrow reduced again
to chains and misery, he would be certain
to despair. What consolation
could he have?
So I have
left a way of telling him
that everything he saw was a dream
[A BAND IS HEARD APPROACHING]
and now, though he might see himself
obeyed, and afterwards returned
to prison, he will understand
that he has dreamed it all.

Clotaldo

I could convince you that your plan
will fail, but it’s late for that.
From what I hear, the prince has awakened
and approaches us.

Basilio

I must retire. Go to him.
Help him to find the truth
in this confusion.

Clotaldo

Should I tell him the whole truth?

Basilio

Yes. He then may perceive
the danger he must prepare himself
to overcome.

(EXIT BASILIO)

(ENTER CLARÍN)

Clarín

Just to get in here for a look
it cost me four beatings from a guard
so blond his beard appeared to grow
from the gold lace of his uniform.

Clotaldo

Clarín, what’s new?

Clarín

It’s new that Rosaura trusts in you
to aid in her vengeance, and that she
dresses like a women again.
It’s new that she has changed her name,
let it be known that she’s your niece,
become a lady to the fair Estrella.
Now she awaits the time and place
when you can act on her behalf.
More news: because she is now your niece,
she’s favored like a queen, yet there is one
who came with her who dies of hunger.
Who remembers him? Somebody should,
for he’s a clarion; his hollow notes
may be heard by all the court
if he is left alone. This reveille
is seldom the most welcome music.

Clotaldo

You’re right, and you may work for me.

(ENTER SEGISMUNDO WITH ENTOURAGE AND SERVANTS, DRESSING HIM ELABORATELY)

Clotaldo

Welcome, my Prince.

Entourage

All hail Segismundo.

Clotaldo

The people have prepared
an entertainment for you.

(ENTER DANCERS, WHO PERFORM A RUSTIC DANCE. CLARÍN DOES A TRICK. DANCING RESUMES. GENERAL APPLAUSE. A SMALL SINGING GROUP GATHERS)

Singers

What have I done
that’s worthy of
a gift of love
I’ve never known?
What thing has won
possession of
me, lost to love
and newly found?

Segismundo

Oh heavenly God, what do I see?
I in this sumptuous palace?
I among silks and brocades?
I at the center of a circle of servants
So finely liveried?
I, awake from a sleep
in so elegant a bed?
I in the midst of so many,
eager to help me dress?
This cannot be a dream.
I know I am awake.
Am I not Segismundo?
Heaven, tell me my mistake.
Tell me what fancy overcame
my brain’s defense, to put me here.
Whatever it was, I’ll not refuse
to be obeyed, and to be served.

1st Servant

How melancholy he is!
(aside to Clarín and 2
nd Servant)

2nd Servant

In his place, who wouldn’t be?

Clarín

I wouldn’t be!

2nd Servant

Go up to him and say something.

1st Servant (to Segis.)

Shall they sing again?

Singers

«Hmm»

Segismundo

No.

2nd Servant

You seem so shocked; I thought they
might amuse you.

Segismundo

These singing voices don’t divert me
from my pain. The military band
that played before was what I like to hear.

Clotaldo

Your highness, let me be the first
to kiss your hand in homage and obedience.

Segismundo (aside)

That’s Clotaldo, but how can it be
that one who bullied me in prison
now gives me such respect?
What’s happening to me?

Clotaldo

Your reason and your speech must bear
a thousand doubts in this confusion
brought you with your new estate.
Now I will free you if I can
from all of them. You are the prince
and heir of this empire.
You have been hidden and retired
so that the kingdom might escape
a tragedy foretold by the stars
for that time when the sovereign laurel
rests upon your brow. Hoping you will
belie the stars (it can be done

Entourage

Even the most
by one whose heart is great) they have
unbending fate can
removed you while your senses slept
only sway our wills.
from tower to palace. Here your royal
father and my king will tell
you all the rest.

Segismundo

You infamous, vile traitor!
What more than who I am must I
find out before I start to show
my power and my pride? Why have
you betrayed your country
in denying me the rank that is my due
by reason and by law?

Clotaldo

Pity me!

Segismundo

Pity me!
You played at treason with the law,
at sycophancy with the king,
at cruelty with me, and so
the king, the law and I condemn
you now to die in my bare hands.

2nd Servant

But my Lord...

Segismundo

Don’t interfere.
By God, if you get in my way I’ll kill you!
I’ll throw you out the window!

2nd Servant

Run, Clotaldo!

Clotaldo

Poor Segismundo!...
In his arrogance he does not know
that he is dreaming! (EXIT CLOTALDO)

2nd Servant (to Segis.)

You should know that he took orders from the king.

Segismundo

No one should obey an unjust order
from the king, and I’m his prince!

2nd Servant

It’s not for him to inquire if a law is just.

Segismundo

You must be mad to argue with me.

Clarín

The prince is right, and you
are in the wrong.

2nd Servant

Who gave you the right to speak?

Clarín

I took it on my own.

Segismundo

Who are you?

Clarín

I am the biggest meddler on earth.

Segismundo

You are the only one in this new world
who has pleased me.

(ENTER ASTOLFO)

Astolfo

A thousand times, O prince, the day is blessed
on which our kingdom dawns with joy
and splendor at the sunrise of
your reign. And though the laurel
crowns your brow too late, yet may
it never wither there.

Segismundo

God save you.

Astolfo

Only your not knowing me
excuses this discourtesy.
I am the duke Astolfo,
your cousin and your equal.

Segismundo

If I say ‘God save you’, is that not
a kindness? Since you take
such note of who you are, next time
I’ll say ‘God save you not.’

2nd Servant

My lord, consider that the mountains

(to Astolfo)

where he lived have done this to him.
He is this way to everyone.

(to Segis.)

Sire, the duke prefers...

Segismundo

I couldn’t bear the way he came
and spoke so pompously. Now he
puts his hat back on his head.

2nd Servant

He is a grandee.

Segismundo

I am grander.

2nd Servant

Nonetheless, there should be more
respect between you than among the rest.

Segismundo

Who asked for your opinion?

(ENTER ESTRELLA)

Estrella

Welcome, your highness. As the throne
desires and receives you, may
your reign, August and eminent
in spite of all bad omens, be
the sum of centuries, not years.

Segismundo (to Clarín)

Who is this goddess
at whose feet the sun surrenders
all the color of its setting? Who is she?

Clarín

She is your cousin, Estrella.

Segismundo (to Est.)

But she is the sun!
Though I welcome your kind wishes, I
feel blessed past all deserving in
just seeing you. Your being adds
a brilliance and delight to the
most scintillating star. What has
the sun to do, if you arise
each day? Oh! Let me kiss your hand.
In its snowy cup the dawn drinks purity.

Astolfo (aside)

I am lost!

2nd Servant

Sire, it isn’t right
to be so bold, especially in front of

Segismundo

Haven’t I told you not to meddle with me?

2nd Servant

I only say what’s just.

Segismundo

All this annoys me. Nothing is just
if I don’t want it.

2nd Servant

But, sire, I just heard you say
that one should follow and obey
only what is right and just.

Segismundo

You also heard me say I’d throw
you off this balcony if you made me mad.

2nd Servant

You can’t do that to me.

Segismundo

No? Well I’ll try it!

Astolfo

What is this?

Estrella

Go and stop him!

(SEGISMUNDO PICKS UP 2ND SERVANT IN HIS ARMS AND HEAVES HIM OUT THE WINDOW)

Segismundo (returning)

He fell from the balcony
right into the sea. You see,
it could be done!

Astolfo

You should control your temper, prince.
You are in a palace, as different from the wilds
as men are from the beasts.

Segismundo

Your righteousness may help you lose
the head you hand your hat on.

(EXIT ASTOLFO) (ENTER BASILIO)

Basilio

What has happened here?

Segismundo

Nothing. A man displeased me, so I threw
him from the balcony.

Clarín (to Seg.)

Be careful, that’s the king.

Basilio

So quickly has your coming cost
a human life?

Segismundo

He said I couldn’t do it,
so I tossed him off and won the bet.

Basilio

It grieves me, prince, that your first act
of freedom, which I hoped would show
forewarned discretion, should instead
be a grave homicide. Can I embrace
you, knowing that your arms are schooled
in murder? Who can regard without some fear
the naked blade that has been used
to give a mortal wound? Who can
feel nothing when he sees the bloody
place where a man has been killed?
The bravest will recoil from such
a scene. So I, who see before me
in your arms the instruments
and in this place the theater
of death, will not embrace you now.

Segismundo

I have lived ‘till now without you.
Do you think I should miss the kind embrace
of a father who has taken me
from his side to have me raised
a beast, and then, as if I were
a monster, sought my death? You have
deprived me of my humanness; what do
I care that you now keep me from your arms?

Basilio

Would to heaven and to God
I’d never made a man of you.
I would not hear you speak.
I would not see you dare.

Segismundo

You feeble tyrant! What can you give
that is not mine by nature’s law?
How will your death improve my state
more than is merely just? I am
a prince by birth. I should be paid
by you for every year you kept
me from life, and liberty and honor.
You should be thankful that I don’ t
hold you to the account you owe me.

Basilio

Heaven keeps its word: you are barbarous and bold.
I appeal to heaven now to see you, insolent and proud.
Though you are undeceived, and know
your place is here, where you are given
precedence over all, you should
take warning: be humble, for perhaps
you’re dreaming even while awake.

(EXIT BASILIO)

Segismundo

Could I be dreaming, though I see
myself awake? Can’t be? It cannot be;
I have believed and even touched
all that I’ve seen, all that I am.
And though today you may regret
my liberation, it will do
no good, for I know who I am.
You can sigh and be sorry but you cannot
cancel my birthright to the throne.
If you saw me once surrendered
to my chains, it was before
I was informed of who I was,
but now I know, and know as well
that I am a man who is also a beast.

(ROSAURA ENTERS, DRESSED AS ONE OF ESTRELLA’S LADIES IN WAITING)

Entourage

Poor Segismundo; he does not know that he is dreaming.

Clarín

What has most delighted you
of all that you’ve seen in this new life?

Segismundo

I could foresee it all, except for one thing,
and that is women’s beauty.
Once, I read
that the achievement of God’s greatest work
is Man, a small world to himself.
How much more effort was it then
to make a woman —a brief heaven— [HE SEES ROSAURA]
and to enclose that loveliness
in a descent from heaven to earth.

Rosaura

The prince is here. I must go back.

Segismundo

Hear me woman. Wait for me. [TURNS HER AROUND]
I know you; I’m sure of it. Who are you?

Rosaura

A mere unhappy lady in Estrella’s starry train.

Segismundo

Oh, no. You are the Sun. She lives
in the light she takes from you.

Rosaura

I am grateful for your favor, but
my reason is so dulled
that I can’t speak.

Segismundo

Why do you choose to miss my meaning?

Rosaura

I ask that you allow me to
[STARTS TO LEAVE]

Segismundo

To run away is not to ask;
it is to take.

Rosaura

Then let me take.

Segismundo

You’ll turn my courtesy to wrath.

Rosaura

Your anger will not injure me.

Segismundo

It will. I am inclined to do
what can’t be done. Today I threw
a servant from that balcony.
He said I couldn’t do it, but
he was mistaken. So are you.

(to Clarín

Get out of here and close the door.
[EXIT ALL EXCEPT SEGISMUNDO AND ROSAURA]

and servants)

Let no one enter. [HE GOES AFTER IN AN ATTEMPTED RAPE.]

Rosaura

No!

(ENTER CLOTALDO)

Clotaldo

My lord!

Segismundo

You dare offend again,
you withered fool? Why are you here?

Clotaldo

I’m here to say that you should be
more gentle, if you want to reign,
for if your cruelty persists
you’ll find that you have dreamed all this.

Segismundo

I think I’ll kill you, then we’ll see
if this is dreamed or if it’s true.

(ENTER ASTOLFO, WHO DRAWS HIS SWORD TO FIGHT WITH SEGISMUNDO, THEN ESTRELLA, COURTIERS, AND FINALLY BASILIO)

Basilio

Your swords are drawn; what’s happened?

Astolfo

Nothing, my lord, now that you’re here.
[THEY SHEATHE]

Segismundo

Much, my lord, although you’re here.
I tried to murder this old man.
And even your grey head may be
before my feet, when I’m avenged
for the way you’ve brought me up.

Basilio

Before that happens, you’ll go back
to sleep, where you will believe
that what you’ve seen here,
like all worldly pleasures, was a dream.

(SEGISMUNDO FALLS LIMP. SOLDIERS DRAG HIM OUT. ALL OTHERS THEN EXIT SLOWLY, EXCEPT ROSAURA)

Rosaura

Alone, and sad, and in disorder,
Segismundo will awake;
The victim of his life itself,
With too much life within to die,
With too much pain within to live—
So hard to bear, so hard to know the truth,
Or what it is to love.

END OF ACT II

Notes

1 Iglesias de Souza, 1991-1996, vol. III, p. 883.

2 Ver Maione, 2002.

3 Se celebraron las representaciones los días 18 y 19 de julio en el Corral de Comedias y fueron muy bien recibidas por la crítica y el público.

4 Este conjunto musical desarrolla sus actividades desde hace casi treinta años principalmente en el área de Massachussets con especial atención a la música del siglo xx y a compositores contemporáneos. Para más información: www.dinosaurannex.org

5 A ello y a un comentario entusiasta de la obra se refiere Charles Michener en The New Yorker, April 24-May 1, 2000, p. 66.

6 Es autor del libro On Calderón, 1978.

7 Adelaida Crapsey nació en Brooklin, New York, en 1878 y murió en Rochester, también del Estado de New York, en 1914. Entre otras notas distintivas de su poesía, sigue en parte de ella la influencia del kaiku y tanka de la poesía japonesa. El verdadero nombre de Kambara Ariake era Kambara Hayao, nacido en Tokio, en 1876. Novelista y poeta, introduce la forma del soneto en el estilo tradicional de la poesía japonesa. Murió en 1952, con un enorme reconocimiento en Japón. Edgard Estlin Cummings (1894-1962) nació y vivió en New England, Estados Unidos. Excelente poeta, es una de las referencias fundamentales de la poesía norteamericana del siglo xx.

Auteur

© Presses universitaires du Midi, 2006

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