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L'institution du langage

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Michel Seymour

Index

Texte intégral

A

Analytique (énoncé), 27

Anti-individualisme social, 28, 38, 40

Anti-réalisme, 199, 211, 216, 221, 223, 406, 410

Application, 19-20, 35-36, 93-98, 101-102, 107, 108, 115, 116, 119, 123-124, 145, 161-162, 164, 166, 169-171, 173-174, 177-178, 180, 184, 186-187, 280-281, 335-336, 345, 366, 385, 391, 398, 404, 406, 409

Arbitraire du signe, 8, 75, 217, 243, 245, 297, 353-354, 399, 402

Assertabilité (conditions d’), 21-23, 25, 29, 33, 45, 64, 67, 99-100, 131, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 143-144, 146-150, 154, 160, 183-184, 191-192, 194, 196, 197-199, 210-212, 214-221, 223, 321, 332, 336-337, 363, 405, 413-414

Atomisme, 25-27, 29, 45, 52-59, 102, 105, 107, 299, 303, 305, 319, 364, 377, 384-388, 397-398

Austin, J., 61

B

Background, 278-283

Baker, G., 15-16, 34, 63-64, 93-94, 106, 172, 174, 182-185

Behaviorisme, 10, 26, 129-130, 139-140, 161, 313, 347

Bennett, J., 257

Berkeley, G., 26

Bilgrami, A., 105

Blackburn, S., 189, 193-197

Bloomfield, L., 8

Boghossian, P., 34, 215-218

Bloor, D., 8, 89, 98-99, 208, 345

Bouveresse, J., 200

Brandom, R., 8, 142-143, 149-150

Burge, T., 38-40

C

Carnap, R., 357, 384, 399-400, 403

Carroll, L., 398, 402-403

Causalité, 140-141, 194, 204, 262-263, 268, 270, 277

Cavalli-Sforza, L., 8

Church, A., 8

Chomsky, N., 8, 14-15, 37, 106, 260, 289

Cognitif (contenu), 22-24

Collectivisme méthodologique, 36-37, 41

Collectif (bien), 7-8

Compétence, 10, 14, 194, 196

Comportement nouveau/standardisé, 17, 95

Compositionalité, 105, 386

Compréhension, 19-21, 36, 66, 95-96, 98, 100-101, 103-110, 112-113, 115-116, 118, 121-123, 126-129, 131, 133-134, 137-142, 147, 159-174, 176, 178-183, 186-200, 203-204, 217, 223, 228, 243, 278, 288, 312, 314-315, 318, 322-323, 345, 366, 370, 376, 378, 407-408

Conception institutionnelle/communautaire du langage, 7-10, 12-15, 19, 21, 28-34, 36-38, 40-41, 45, 59, 63, 68-69, 76, 84-85, 87-89, 93, 95, 98-101, 103, 104-107, 111, 130, 138-146, 148-151, 156-157, 160, 168, 172, 174, 176, 179-181, 184-186, 188, 192, 194, 195-210, 212, 225, 228, 239, 258, 261, 263, 280, 282, 290, 293-296, 298, 302, 319, 322-323, 334-337, 342-347, 349, 351, 376, 379-383, 385, 402, 404, 407, 414

Constitutive/normative (règle), 16-19, 92, 133, 155-160, 184, 191, 208, 216, 227, 323-324, 336-337, 340, 342-343, 347, 391-392, 399

Constructivisme, 208

Contenus de pensée, 40

Contextualité (principe de), 52-53, 153-155, 157, 161, 193, 325, 339, 353

Contingent, 10

Conventionnalisme, 7-8, 11-12, 29-30, 39, 71-76, 84, 88-89, 95, 98, 102, 126, 130, 147, 217, 222, 227-229, 243-244, 246, 248-249, 255, 257-258, 281, 291, 293, 295-296, 302-309, 317, 321, 323, 331-332, 336, 338, 340-345, 353-354, 357, 384, 387, 392-393, 397-405

Correspondantisme, 222, 387, 389

D

Davidson, D., 8, 14-15, 28, 56-57, 105, 224, 298-309, 312-315, 318, 323, 364, 384, 391-396, 407, 413

Davies, D., 190, 198

Deacon, T., 8

Décitation, 212-214, 218-219, 317-318, 394, 400-401, 412-413

Définition ostensive, 83, 100-101, 339, 347, 364-365, 367-370, 376-378, 380-381

Définitions-stéréotypes, 21, 27, 29, 100, 102, 144, 148, 153, 158, 321-325, 333-336, 339, 340-342, 347, 349-350, 363-381, 406-410

Déflationnisme, 190, 198-199, 210-216, 221-224, 389, 400, 406-407, 410-414

Démonstration (activité de), 22

Dénotation, 47, 49, 52-53, 55, 57-58, 228, 231-233, 236, 238-240, 242, 244, 251, 299, 304, 335, 350, 386, 388

Dewey, J., 26, 31

Dialecte, 19, 27-29, 31, 40, 45, 52, 84, 86, 88, 130, 293-295, 298, 305, 371

Diamond, C., 63

Disposition, 20, 114-116, 118-119, 126, 128, 133, 136-137, 139-141, 168, 170, 179, 187, 196, 288-289, 346

Donnellan, K., 262

Doute sceptique, 36, 97, 113, 139, 198

Duhem, P., 358, 362

Dummett, M., 8, 23, 34, 64, 107, 243, 257, 384, 407-409, 410, 412

E

Éliminationisme, 14

Empirisme, 22-23, 26, 30-31, 56, 130, 378-380, 393, 395

Énoncé, 12, 21-22, 47, 53, 55-56, 58, 61, 64, 99-100, 102, 130, 133-139, 141, 143-148, 151-156, 160, 164-165, 181-183, 186, 190-194, 197-199, 200, 206, 208-209, 211, 214, 216-222, 242, 251, 255, 266, 278-283, 288-302, 305, 307, 314, 319, 322-328, 330-337, 339-344, 347, 349-366, 370-373, 375-377, 381-383, 385-395, 398, 400-405, 407-414

Énonciation, 12, 24-26, 66, 93-94, 135-139, 151, 154, 156-157, 190-191, 278, 280-282, 301, 308-309, 324-325, 328, 330-331, 334, 339, 341, 343, 381, 383, 394, 395

Essentiel, 10, 30

Exprimabilité (principe d’), 152-156, 163, 230, 235, 247-248, 258, 278, 280-281, 283-284, 286-288, 397

Extensionnalisme, 55-57, 386, 394-395, 399, 405

Externalisme, 260, 277

F

Field, H., 391

Fodor, J., 8, 25, 26, 106, 257, 260, 299

Frege, G., 8, 11, 13, 15, 46, 53, 55, 57, 76, 105, 107-108, 210, 227-232, 234, 236-246, 248-249, 251, 257-262, 264, 279, 298, 359, 384-390

G

Gödel, K., 397

Goodman, N., 21

Geertz, C., 8

Gilbert, M., 8

Glock, H.-J., 204-205

Grice, P., 8, 61, 257

H

Hacker, P., 15-16, 34, 63-64, 93-94, 106, 172, 174, 182-185

Hacking, I., 34, 64, 402

Hanfling, O., 63

Hare, R., 59, 62

Hauser, K., 203

Henkin, 397

Hobbes, T., 26, 107

Holisme, 8, 25, 27-29, 57, 105, 130-131, 151, 152, 154, 156-157, 207, 208, 224, 298-307, 309, 314, 318-319, 323, 336, 340, 347-351, 358-359, 362, 363, 364-365, 367, 372, 384, 391-399, 404, 408-410

Humboldt, G. von, 7

Hume, J., 26, 140-141, 193-195, 197

Husserl, E., 246, 279, 379

I

Idéal (langage), 71-73, 228-230, 234-240, 242-245, 257-258, 384-385, 387-388

Idéographie, 46, 227-228, 241, 245-246, 384, 389, 399, 402

Idiolecte, 27-29, 31-34, 39-40, 45, 51-52, 58, 68, 86-88, 104, 130, 201, 203-204, 266-267, 293-294, 298, 307, 316, 323, 347, 371, 376, 381, 385

Image (théorie de l’), 47-51, 53-54, 56-57, 59, 77-81, 83, 157, 162-164, 388-389

(In)détermination, 19-21, 24, 26-27, 29, 35, 78-79, 84, 89-98, 104-106, 108-110, 118, 121, 124-126, 129-131, 147-148, 152, 159-162, 166, 170-173, 179-181, 184-188, 207, 236-237, 239, 247-248, 259-260, 264-266, 268, 271-273, 278-279, 282, 298-301, 303-304, 309, 318-319, 321-324, 333-336, 345, 349-351, 355, 358, 362-366, 371, 377, 385-386, 388, 391, 398, 404-406, 408

Individualisme, 8, 14-15, 36, 40-41

Informatif (contenu), 22

Innéisme, 8, 10, 14, 37-38, 45, 106, 257-258, 260, 288, 364, 366-367, 375-377, 379

Inscriptions, 15, 91-92

Intentionnalité, 11, 14, 49, 55, 57, 62, 66, 73, 76, 84, 118-119, 133, 168, 173, 176, 246, 249, 257-260, 263-264, 269-270, 278-279, 281, 284, 288-289, 291, 307, 309, 313, 315-319, 323, 327, 329, 335, 345-347, 359, 379-380, 393-394, 396, 399

Internalisme, 167, 259, 261, 263, 277

Interprétation, 11, 20, 33, 63-69, 78, 80-81, 83, 91, 93, 113-114, 118-119, 123-125, 129-130, 133-134, 152, 160-164, 166-167, 169, 172-173, 175-180, 182-194, 196-199, 204, 208, 215, 218, 221, 228, 294, 298, 301-302, 306-308, 312-314, 318, 347, 393, 395-396, 401, 405-406, 411, 414

J

Jeu de langage, 66, 74, 75, 81, 85-86, 8-91, 94, 98-99, 102, 164, 172, 211, 222, 398-399

K

Kripke, S., 8, 21, 33-34, 64, 68, 103-106, 108, 110-111, 115-118, 129, 133, 135-136, 138, 142, 147, 149, 160, 163, 174, 176-178, 182-187, 189-199, 204-206, 215, 217, 223, 345, 404

L

Langage, 11-12, 15, 19, 28-29, 34, 51-55, 59-67, 69, 71-75, 81-85, 87, 89, 90-92, 94-95. 98-99, 101-106, 109-110, 113, 121-123, 128, 130, 133, 135, 137, 141-152, 154-156, 158-160, 166, 169, 171-172, 174-176, 178-182, 184-185, 188, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202-210, 216, 220, 227-229, 231, 237, 239-244, 246-247, 249, 257-259. 261-263, 265, 268, 275, 278-291, 293-305, 307, 312-319, 322-324, 332-334. 337-340, 343-347, 349-353, 355, 358-359, 362-363, 365-367, 370-371, 374-381, 383-389, 391-393, 398, 400-401, 405, 410-412

Langue, 12-14, 16, 46-47, 49, 100, 107, 153, 157, 164, 179, 202, 207, 231, 240, 243, 257, 259, 285-286, 290, 294-295, 297-298, 300, 302, 304, 307-308, 318-319, 323-324, 332-333, 335-336, 340-341, 345, 350, 360, 363, 391-392, 394-395, 411-412

Lewis, D., 257

Locke, J., 26, 272

Locutoire/illocutoire/perlocutoire, 21, 23, 89, 99-100, 102, 135-141, 143-149, 151-156, 158, 160, 191, 193, 196, 219, 324-334, 336-347, 350, 363, 405, 408-409, 414

Logique, 46-49, 72-73, 94-95, 383-385, 387-390, 393-394, 396-397-399, 401-403, 405-406, 413

Löwenheim-Skolem, 397

M

Malcom, N., 8, 64

McDowell, J., 34

McGinn, C., 34, 96-97, 162, 166-167, 169-172, 174-177, 199

Mead, G. H., 26

Mill, J. S., 397, 398

Minimalisme, 212-213, 215, 217-218, 220-221, 248, 400, 406

Modèle, 15, 73

Molécularisme, 25, 27-29, 45, 53, 100, 105, 107, 131, 151, 153-158, 160, 207, 224, 299, 303, 319, 340, 347, 349, 351, 356-358, 363, 365-366, 368, 371-372, 375, 377, 384, 398-399, 401, 403-410

Montague, R., 8

N

Naturelle (langue), 8-9, 11, 16, 30, 46-47, 50, 62, 71, 73-74, 227-229, 235-238, 240-242, 244-248, 251, 259, 317, 385-387, 394-395

Nominalisme, 359

Nouvelle énigme de l’induction, 21

O

Objective (information), 24, 51

Occurrence, 20

Ogden, 26

P

Parole, 11-14, 16, 19, 84, 207, 294-298, 302, 304, 307, 318, 323-324, 332, 335-336, 340, 345, 350, 363, 375, 391

Paradoxe sceptique, 21, 33, 36-37, 65, 103-104, 106-109, 111-112, 114-118, 120-129, 131, 135-138, 144, 159-160, 172, 176-177, 179-180, 182-184, 186-188, 190, 192-195, 197-198, 200, 202, 315, 341, 345

Peacocke, C., 34, 64

Pears, D., 34

Peirce, C. S., 361, 362

Pensée, 14, 37, 39-40, 49-51, 53, 73, 81, 84, 105, 122, 163, 202, 204, 232, 253, 257-259, 261-264, 266, 269, 271-272, 283-289, 299, 312, 314, 354, 345, 350, 385, 389, 402

Performance, 14

Phrase, 49-50, 52-55, 57-58, 65, 74, 91, 102, 135-136, 138, 152, 154-156, 160, 163, 173, 183, 192, 212-213, 216-219, 232, 236, 253, 255, 261-262, 281, 288, 300, 308, 316-318, 325, 328, 336, 337, 341-343, 349, 359-362, 372, 383-384, 386, 388-389, 394, 400-401, 404, 405, 409, 411-413

Pinker, S., 8, 106

Pluralisme, 221-222

Possibilité logique, 35

Pragmatisme, 11, 25, 48-49, 61-62, 66, 147-149, 156-157, 282, 341

Prédictions, 20

Prinz, J., 378-380

Prior, A., 402

Privé (idiolecte), 31-33

Probabilité, 36

Proposition, 45, 48, 50-58, 67, 73, 94, 99, 162-163, 166-177, 212, 246, 253, 255, 262, 304, 312, 316, 318, 328, 337-339, 342, 359-360, 383-384, 386, 389-390, 394, 396-397, 400

Psychologisme, 26, 28-29, 36, 45, 47-51, 58, 61, 76-78, 80-81, 84, 88-89, 98, 124, 128, 138, 167, 200, 204, 241-242, 246, 249, 251, 257-261, 264, 268, 272, 277-278, 283, 286-287, 289, 291, 293, 297, 345, 378-380, 393, 399-401

Putnam, H., 8, 263-273, 275, 277, 282, 321, 384, 404-406

Q

Quiétisme, 212-216, 220-221, 223, 299

Quine, W., 8, 20, 29-30, 34, 91, 107, 121, 129-131, 243, 257, 300, 302, 351-353, 355, 357, 359-360, 362-363, 381, 384, 391, 393, 395-399

R

Ramsey, F., 412

Rawls, J., 372, 373, 376

Réductionnisme, 355-358, 362, 376

Référence, 11, 53, 66, 231, 235-240, 242, 260, 262-271, 273, 276-277, 279, 309, 321, 322, 325, 378, 385-386, 398, 401

Règle, 12-13, 16, 18, 34-35, 72-73, 75, 80, 84-86, 88-99, 101-109, 111, 113-130, 133-134, 136-137, 139-142, 146-152, 155-158, 159, 161-162, 164, 166-174, 176, 177-186, 188-190, 193, 195, 197-198, 200-202, 207, 209, 211, 213, 222, 237, 243-244, 249, 272, 281, 289-290, 294-295, 302, 309, 319, 324, 328, 331, 335, 336, 338, 342-345, 347, 353, 355, 357, 366, 381, 384-385, 390-391, 393-394, 398, 400-404, 406-407

Régulative/normative (règle), 16-17, 106, 148-149, 151-152, 155-156, 158-159, 184-185, 294, 298, 304, 342-344, 347, 391, 392 , 399

Relativisme culturel, 206-208, 210-212, 215, 221-224, 283, 293, 296, 298, 300, 316, 400

Représentation mentale, 49, 260-264, 268-270, 275, 277, 289-290

Rhees, R., 8

Richards, 26

Russell, B., 26, 46, 49, 53, 227, 241, 299, 364, 384-390, 410

Ryle, G., 59, 61-62

S

Sapir, E., 7

Saussure, F. de, 8, 12, 15, 295, 297, 302

Savoir-propositionnel/savoir-faire, 17, 19-20, 107-108, 159, 161-162, 164-166, 168-169, 172-173, 177-180, 186-187, 234, 241, 284, 288-289, 322, 385

Schiffer, S., 8, 257

Searle, J., 8, 14, 16, 61, 122, 257, 259-263, 266-270, 272-273, 275-278, 280, 282, 328-329, 379, 391

Sens, 11, 51-53, 55-57, 60, 64-66, 76-77, 83, 94, 163, 165, 183, 193, 228, 231, 235-242, 245-249, 258, 260-264, 270-272, 279, 296, 321, 325, 349, 385-386, 388-389

Signification, 11, 14, 19-21, 23, 25, 27-28, 31, 36, 45, 47, 49, 51-55, 59-61, 64-67, 76-85, 92-96, 98-101, 103-105, 107-110, 113-114, 123, 129-131, 133-135, 143-144, 146, 148, 151-158-162, 164-167, 169, 174, 176, 178-179, 181-184, 186, 188-194, 197, 200, 204, 206-208, 210-211, 213-221, 223-224, 229-231, 235, 239, 241-243, 245, 247-248, 251, 253, 255, 257-259, 262-263, 268-269, 271, 275, 278-282, 291, 293, 297-299, 301-305, 307-309, 312, 316-317, 319, 321-322, 324, 334-341, 345, 347, 349-350, 352-357, 359-376, 384-385, 387-389, 392-395, 398-401, 404-410, 412-414

Skinner, B. F., 26

Soames, S., 190

Soliloque (langage), 30-31, 33-34, 67-68, 87, 104, 106, 130, 138, 181, 185, 200, 202-206, 313

Solipsisme, 51, 57, 306-307, 314, 318, 379-380

Solution sceptique, 133-134, 136, 138, 140, 142-143, 160, 172-173, 176, 179-180, 183-184, 186, 187-190, 192-195, 198, 200, 202, 205, 217, 223

Sommers, F., 396

Stevenson, C., 59, 62

Strawson, P., 59, 62

Synonymie cognitive, 355

Synthétique (énoncé), 27

T

Tarski, A., 392, 394, 401, 406

Traduction, 11, 19-20, 91, 129-130, 155, 163, 177-178, 234, 242-243, 249, 293, 300-301, 364. 386

Type, 20

U

Usage, 20-21, 23, 60-61, 63-64, 66-67, 77, 80-85, 87, 92-94, 96, 98, 107, 110, 113, 148, 157, 162-163, 165, 169, 171-172, 183-184, 193, 211, 213-214, 219, 221-245, 255, 258, 261-262, 265-268, 283, 291, 293-294, 323, 332, 336, 341, 342, 347, 366, 371, 380, 391, 401, 406-410

Utilisation (conditions d’), 23-24, 105, 134-135, 148, 151, 153, 155-156, 167, 179, 268, 330

V

Vérificationnisme (sémantique), 22-23, 131, 300, 355-359, 361, 363, 391, 407-408, 410

Vérité (conditions/fonction de), 23, 45, 49, 53-58, 64, 66, 95, 134, 139, 143, 152, 160, 182-184, 195-196, 198-211, 215, 217-220, 255, 278, 282, 300-301, 303-305, 307, 313-314, 347, 36l, 384, 387, 389-394, 400, 405-414

Vérité-correspondance, 214-215, 217, 222

W

Werhane, P., 34

Whitehead, A., 386

Whorf, B. L., 8

Williams, M., 8, 100, 102

Winch, P., 8

Wisdom, J., 59, 62

Wittgenstein, L., 8, 20-21, 26, 33, 35, 41, 45-59, 62-67, 71-78, 80-104, 106, 111, 117, 129-131, 174-185, 187-192, 19-199, 200, 203-206, 208, 215, 223, 227, 241, 243, 257, 282, 299, 309, 315, 335-336, 345, 364, 384-385, 388-390, 398-400, 403-405

Wright, C., 34, 186-187, 197, 222, 279, 381-382, 400

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