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Le donateur, l’offrande et la déesse

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Clarisse Prêtre

Donors of Kernoi at the Eleusinian Sanctuary of the Two Goddesses

Kevin Clinton

Résumé

Many clay vessels of the type called kernoi were found in the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis, and they are sometimes associated by modern scholars with a certain ritual in the Eleusinian Mysteria, called kernophoria. This view is based on ancient literary, iconographic and epigraphic evidence. However, what was once believed to be epigraphic and iconographic evidence is no longer valid. T. Linders has shown that the kerchnoi in the epigraphic record are not kernoi. The kernoi that appear in vase scenes reflecting the Mysteria and in other monuments relating to the Mysteria were shown by F. Brommer to be identified not as kernoi but as plemochoai. And the literary evidence does not associate kernoi specifically with the Eleusinian Mysteries. Thus there is no evidence linking the kernoi to the Mysteria. Surface finds from a sanctuary of Demeter on Kythnos include kernoi of the same type found at Eleusis as well as other objects that suggest celebration of Thesmophoria. The Eleusinian-style kernoi help to explain another entry in the account/inventory of 408/7, payment of Dr 500 rent from a temenos on Kythnos to the sanctuary at Eleusis, evidently therefore a temenos owned by the Eleusinian sanctuary. While it is conceivable that the Eleusinian sanctuary might have a temenos on Kythnos, it is not conceivable that they would establish a similar mystery cult there. The connection between Eleusis and Kythnos that appears in the material record (kernoi especially) seems simply to reflect the fact that similar rituals were performed in both sanctuaries, namely the very common festival of the Thesmophoria. The kernoi at the sanctuary in Eleusis and the City Eleusinion were probably used and left behind, presumably as dedications, by women who participated in the Thesmophoria.

Une grande quantité de récipients en terre cuite appelés kernoi ont été trouvés dans le sanctuaire de Déméter et Koré à Eleusis, et ont été associés par des chercheurs modernes au rite des mystères appelé kernophoria. Ce point de vue était prétendument fondé sur la documentation littéraire, iconographique et épigraphique. Toutefois, ce point de vue n’est plus valide. T. Linders a montré que les kerchnoi des inscriptions ne sont pas des kernoi. Quant aux « kernoi » représentés sur les vases associés aux mystères, F. Brommer a montré qu’il s’agissait de plemochoai. Enfin, les témoignages littéraires n’associent pas spécifiquement les kernoi aux mystères d’Eleusis. Aucun document ne relie donc les kernoi aux mystères. Des trouvailles de surface au sanctuaire de Déméter à Kythnos incluent des kernoi du même type que ceux trouvés à Eleusis, ainsi que d’autres objets évoquant la célébration des Thesmopho-ries. Les kernoi de style éleusinien permettent d’expliquer une entrée des comptes de 408/7, le paiement d’une location de 500 dr. provenant d’un temenos à Kythnos que possédait le sanctuaire d’Eleusis. Il est envisageable que le sanctuaire d’Eleusis ait eu un temenos à Kythnos, mais inconcevable que des mystères similaires y aient été établis. Le lien entre Eleusis et Kythnos qui apparaît dans les témoignages matériels (surtout les kernoi) semble simplement refléter le fait que des rituels similaires étaient accomplis dans les deux sanctuaires, à savoir les Thesmophories. Les kernoi du sanctuaire d’Eleusis et de l’Eleusinion urbain ont probablement été dédiés après usage par des femmes qui avaient célébré les Thesmophories.

Texte intégral

  • 1 I am greatly indebted to Dr. Christina Mitsopoulou for valuable discussions about kernoi and for st (...)

1Many clay vessels of the type called kernoi were found in the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis, and they are sometimes associated by modern scholars with a ritual in the Eleusinian Mysteria, which seems to correspond to an ancient ritual described as kemophoria1 This view is based on literary, iconographic and epigraphic evidence. Athenaeus described a kernos as follows:

γγεον ϰεραμεον, χον ν ατ πολλος ϰοτυλίσϰους ϰεϰολλημένους, ν οίς, φησίν, μήϰωνες λευϰοί, πυροί, ϰριθαί, πισοί, λάθυροι, χροι, φαϰοί. δ βαστάσας ατ οον λιϰνοφορήσας τούτων γεύεται, ς στορε μμώνιος ν γʹ περὶ Βωμν ϰα Θθυσιν (XI, 476e-f).
An earthenware vessel, holding on it a large number of small cups
(kotyliskoi) stuck together. ‘In these,’ [Polemon] says, ‘are white poppy-heads, grains of wheat and barley, peas, vetches, okra-seeds, and lentils. The man who carries it, like the bearer of the liknon, tastes them,’ as Ammonios records in the third book of On Altars and Sacrifices.

2However, what was once believed to be epigraphic and iconographic evidence for the use of the kernos at the Mysteria can no longer be regarded as valid. The epigraphic evidence was a document from the year 408/7, found at Eleusis, which preserves an inventory of objects under the control of officials of the Eleusinian sanctuary, the Epistatai. The inventory lists “golden kerchnoi among valuable objects stored in the City Eleusinion (I. Eleusis 52A.I.17). The same entry is partially preserved in an inventory about ten years earlier (I. Eleusis 46.8). Tullia Linders, however, pointed out that kerchnoi occur in other inventories in Attica and Delos, and she demonstrated that the weight of these objects, the context in the other inventories, and the meaning of related words clearly indicate that a kerchnos was a piece of jewelry, “a small personal ornament of granulated metal.”1 So kerchnoi are not kernoi, and in fact the term kernoi does not appear in any document from the sanctuary at Eleusis or, to my knowledge, elsewhere in Attica. Indeed, it is not found in the PHI database of over 200,000 Greek inscriptions, though we need to keep in mind that the database is not complete.2 In a fourth-century Eleusinian inventory (I. Eleusis 158.65) the letters ΚΕΡΝΙ occur at the end of a line in a list of bronze objects; the rest of the word is not preserved. It is possible that the initial kappa is a mistake for chi, and the word should be restored as a hand-washing basin, since the inventory at this point lists various water-containers (hydrias, cups, kettles, etc.). The editors of Liddell-Scott, on the other hand, restored ϰερνί[ον], a little kernos. The word, in fact, occurs in a ninth-century orthography manual, compiled by Theognostus (743). We therefore cannot rule out this reading, in which case we would have our first bronze kernos, a diminutive one, presumably a votive offering; but the documentary context urges caution.

3The “kernoi’ that appear in vase scenes reflecting the Mysteria and in other monuments relating to the Mysteria were shown by F. Brommer to be not kernoi, i.e. the vessels described by Athenaeus as kernoi, but plemochoai. There is in fact very good evidence for the use of plemochoai in the Mysteria. The last day of the festival was called Plemochoai, after the ritual of pouring libations from two plemochoai, as described in Athenaeus (Ath., ΧΙ, 496a):

σϰεος ϰεραμεον βεμβιϰῶδες δραον συχ, ϰοτυλίσϰον νιοι προσαγορε-ουσιν, ς φησι Πάμφιλος. χρῶνται δ ατ ν λευσνι τ τελευταί τν μυστηρίων μέρς, ν ϰα π ατο προσαγορεουσι Πλημοχόας ν δο πλημοχόας πληρώσαντες τν μν πρὸς νατολάς, τν δ πρὸς δσιν.... νιστάμενοι νατρέπουσίν τε πιλέγοντες ῥῆσιν μυστιϰήν.
μνημονεει ατν ϰα δ τν Πειρίθουν γράψας, ετε Κριτίας στν τύραννος Εὐριπίδης, λέγων οτως (TrGF 43 Critias F2 Snell)
να πλημοχόας τάσδ ες χθόνιον
χάσμ εφήμως προχέωμεν.
Plemochoe is an earthenware dish shaped like a top, but firm on its base; some call it kotyliskos, according to Pamphilos. They use it at Eleusis on the last day of the Mysteria, the day that they call from it Plemochoai; on that day they fill two plemochoai, and standing up... they overturn one toward the east, the other toward the west, reciting a mystic formula over them. They are mentioned by the author of the Peirithous...; he says: ‘That we may pour out these plemochoai into earth’s chasm in holy silence.’

  • 3 Bakalakis (1991), p. 109, “type D.”
  • 4 Conveniently summarized by Miles (1998), p. 95-96.
  • 5 Miles (1988), p. 100.

4Brommer recognized that the shape of what Bakalakis called the “simple kernos” (what he called a kernos without kotyliskoi), was well suited for pouring a liquid.3 It is this vase-type that appears in Eleusinian images on vases, coins, and reliefs from the end of the fifth century B.C. to at least the second century A.D.4 Unlike what Bakalakis called “complex kernoi i.e. the ones with kotyliskoi attached on their upper part, the “simple kernos or plemochoe, is found also in bronze and marble, including a marble votive at Eleusis with an inscription dedicating it to Demeter and Kore (I. Eleusis 121). In addition, a votive plemochoe, evidently bronze, is listed in Delian inventories of the second century (I. Delos 1442, 23; 1452, 37). A large marble plemochoe has been found in the Eleusinion below the Athenian Acropolis.5 Plemochoai therefore were obviously more suited to representation in monumental form than the kernos. They could exist in bronze or marble, unlike the clay kernos with its kotyliskoi. Hence we find bronze plemochoai listed occasionally in inventories, since they were objects of value, unlike the clay kernoi described by Athenaeus.

  • 6 See bibliography in Krauskopf (2005), p. 254, no. 648; Mitsopoulou (2005), p. 326-327, n. 101.
  • 7 Miles (1997), p. 99-103.
  • 8 Amandry (1953), pl. 34; cf. Krauskopf (2005), p. 254, no. 652. This was kindly pointed out to me by (...)
  • 9 Ch. Mitsopoulou kindly allowed to see a drawing that she had made of this scene. Her full discussio (...)
  • 10 Cf. discussion in Clinton (1992), p. 73-76.

5Plemochoai have been found also in connection with mines, at Laurion and in the vicinity.6 Margaret Miles suggested that they had to do with the cult of Plouton, and this would be consistent with the existence of a shrine of Plouton at the City Eleusinion.7 As we have seen, on the last day of the Mysteria plemochoai were used to pour libations onto the ground, and a fragment of the Athenian tragedy called Peirithous reads: “That we may pour out these plemochoai into earth’s chasm in holy silence.” Their connection with mines at Laurion, a region full of chasms in the earth, would suit this realm of Plouton. If this hypothesis of their use in connection with the cult of Plouton is correct, it probably should be regarded as additional to their function at the Eleusinian Plemochoai, for recently more evidence has been brought into the discussion of this final ritual at the Mysteria. A gold diadem, found presumably at Demetrias and now in the Stathatos Collection in the Athens National Museum, gives a rather full (mythical) representation of the Plemochoai.8 In the center of the scene Triptolemos is tying his sandal as he is about to board his winged chariot; to his right and left, on the ground, lies an overturned plemochoe, the left one turned to the left, the right one to the right; just beyond the plemochoai, in symmetrical positions to the left and right, are seated figures of Demeter (facing left) and Kore (facing right), poised to receive, again symetrically to the left and right, facing each goddess, an Eros carrying in his left hand a myrtle twig and holding on his head what looks rather like a plemochoe; finally, an Eros follows on the left with a lyre and on the right with a double pipe; the whole scene is flanked on either side by an Ionic column, suggesting an architectural setting.9 We should probably understand this scene as a representation of the ritual at the Plemochoai, with Erotes taking the place of the two women who in the ritual would process toward the Telesterion carrying a plemochoe on their head, accompanied by music. The Ninnion Pinax shows in its upper register a moment in this procession, but only for a single woman (presumably Ninnion).10 The diadem, on the other hand, alludes to the whole scene, the procession of the two women to the Telesterion, accompanied by musicians, the overturning of the two plemochoai, and the impending departure of Triptolemos — in short, the triumphal ending of the festival. However, Plouton is not in evidence, and the musicians do not suggest an atmosphere of silence. Use of the plemochoe for Plouton, if this hypothesis is correct, may belong to a different cultic context.

  • 11 In view of the existence of the rare word κερνίον in a ninth-century spelling manual and its possib (...)

6The literary evidence does not associate the terms kernoi or kernophoria specifically with the Eleusinian Mysteria.11 The contexts of the literary references to kernoi are clearly drawn from cults of the goddess known as Rhea or Cybele or Mother of the Gods. The fullest description of the kernos appears in another passage of Athenaeus (XI, 478d):

Πολέμων δ ν τ περὶ το Δίου Κῳδίου φησί · ‘μετ δ τατα τν τελετν ποιε ϰα αἱρε τ ϰ τς θαλάμης ϰα νέμει σοι νω τ ϰέρνος περιενηνοχότες. τοτο δστν γγεον ϰεραμεον χον ν ατ πολλος ϰοτυλίσϰους ϰεϰολλημένους νεισι δν ατος ρμινοι, μήϰωνες λευϰοί, πυροί, ϰριθαί, πισοί, λάθυροι, χροι, φαϰοί, ϰύαμοι, ζειαί, βρόμος, παλάθιον, μέλι, λαιον, ονος, γάλα, ιον ριον πλυτον. δ τοτο βαστάσας οον λιϰνοφορήσας τοτων γεεται.
Polemon, in his treatise
On the Fleece of Zeus, says: ‘After this he [presumably a priest] performs the rite and takes The Things from the Chamber and distributes them to all those who have gone around carrying the kernos. This is a clay vessel with many little cups (kotyliskoi) stuck on to it. In them are sage, white poppy, wheat, barley, peas, pulse, okra, lentils, beans, rice-wheat, oats, a cake of compressed fruit, honey, oil, milk, and unwashed sheep’s wool. He who has carried it around tastes of these contents like a liknophoros.’

7Jerome Pollitt, in his article on the kernoi from the Athenian Agora, noted the references to Rhea and Cybele and absence of any reference to Eleusis or even Demeter. The best he could do for Demeter was to note that Polemon’s treatise was called On the Fleece of Zeus, and that the Fleece of Zeus (Dios Kodion) was used in an Eleusinian rite. He concluded that “Polemon’s treatise probably dealt mainly with Eleusinian cult practices.” The logic is not impeccable. The Fleece of Zeus occurs in other cults as well. The mention of the Chamber tends, instead, to point to the cult of Rhea/Cybele/Mother of the Gods, and all the other references to the kernos are in harmony. One of them is the well known password cited by Clement of Alexandria: “I have eaten from the tympanon, I have drunk from the kyymbalon, I carried the kernos, I stole into the Chamber” (Protr. II, 21, 2), which, as Pollitt acknowleges, relates to the cult of Cybele.

8Yet we do have kernoi, as described by Athenaeus, at Eleusis and the City Eleusinion. For a possible explanation of their presence we now have evidence from Kythnos.

  • 12 Mazarakis (1998), p. 371; (2005), p. 100; see especially the full discussion in Mitsopoulou (2005), (...)

9Finds from a surface survey of a sanctuary of Demeter on Kythnos include kernoi of the same type found at Eleusis, in addition to many other objects that are characteristic of Demeter sanctuaries in which Thesmophoria were celebrated (figurines of seated and standing females, seated and standing children, hydria-carriers, animals including piglets; lamps including some with multiple wicks; miniature hydrias including some attached to larger hydrias; a clay ring to which miniature hydrias were attached).12 The fragments of kernoi of the complex type are identical to those discovered at Eleusis and in the Athenian Agora and help to explain another entry in the account/inventory of 408/7 (I. Eleusis 52A.III.26), which I mentioned above: payment of Dr 500 rent from a temenos on Kythnos to the sanctuary at Eleusis. This must be a temenos on Kythnos owned by the sanctuary at Eleusis. Earlier documents, apparently from the period 430-425, also mention payments from Kythnos to the Eleusinian sanctuary, but the amounts are not preserved (I. Eleusis 36.1-2; perhaps also 34.10-13). While it is conceivable that the Eleusinian sanctuary might own sacred property on Kythnos, it is not conceivable that they would establish a similar mystery cult there, and so far the archaeological survey has not found any sign of one. At any rate, we should not assume that this Eleusinian temenos on Kythnos is identical to the Sanctuary of Demeter on the Kythnian acropolis. It was simply a valuable piece of sacred property that could produce in 408/7 an annual rent of Dr 500.

10The connection between Eleusis and Kythnos that has produced a material record of similar cultic paraphernalia (including the kernoi) ought to reflect the fact that similar rituals were performed in both Demeter sanctuaries. Since these rituals were most likely not those of a mystery cult (it was forbidden to reproduce the Eleusinian Mysteria). It seems most logical to infer that they were part of a festival common to many Demeter sanctuaries throughtout the Greek world, and the obvious candidate would be the Thesmophoria. Kernoi, as we know from Athenaeus (11.478: text above) and from observation of their actual shape, were used to hold various vegetable offerings and honey, oil, and wine (Athenaeus, XI, 478). A decree of Cholargos (IG II2 1184) gives us a list of offerings used at the local Thesmophoria: barley, wheat, barley meal, wheat meal, dried figs, wine, oil, honey, white sesame, black sesame, poppy, cheese, garlic:

τς δ ρχοσας ϰοινεμφοτ-
έρας διδόναι τς ερείας ες
τν ορτν ϰα τν πιμέλεια-
ν τν θεσμοφορίων μιεϰτεον
ϰριθν, μιεϰτεον πυρῶν, μι-
εϰτέον λφίτων, μιεϰτέον άλ-
[
ε]ύρων, σχάδων μιεϰτέον, χο
ονου, μίχουν λαίου, δύο ϰοτ-
ύλας μέλιτος, σησάμων λευϰῶν χοί-
νιϰα, μελάνων χοίνιϰα, [μ]ήϰωνος
χοίνιϰα, τυρο δύο τροφαλίδας μή
λαττον στατηρια[ί]αν ἑϰατέραν
ϰα σϰόρδων δύο στατῆρας.

  • 13 A fragmentary sacred law of ca. 500 B.C. from the City Eleusinion may have had to do with the Thesm (...)
  • 14 Hinz (1998), p. 49; Pemberton (1988), p. 64-66.
  • 15 Clinton (1997); Miles (1997), p. 22-23.
  • 16 Dr. Mitsopoulou points out that the fragments of kernoi found on Kythnos are of the type with schem (...)

11The offerings coincide in part with those listed by Athenaeus, namely barley, wheat, poppies, honey, oil, and wine.13 The quotation that Athenaeus took from Polemon does not seem to reflect the Thesmophoria but rather, as I noted earlier, a cult of Rhea/Cybele/Mother of the Gods. But clearly the Thesmophoria made use of similar types of offering, for which vessels like the kernoi would be well suited. Minature containers like the kotyliskoi that were stuck on to the kernoi are quite common in Demeter sanctuaries, and it seems only reasonable to assume that participants in the Thesmophoria used them in the ritual.14 The fact that kernoi of the Eleusinian type turn up in Kythnos, Eleusis, and the Eleusinion below the Acropolis suggests, at first sight, a common cult. We know that Thesmophoria were held at Eleusis and in the City Eleusinion.15 Therefore the most likely cult in all three sanctuaries seems to be the Thesmophoria. Given the preliminary nature of the archaeological investigation on Kythnos, however, caution is advisable. The investigation was a surface survey, not an excavation. It is not inconceivable that the kernoi found in the survey represent dedications of vessels taken by Kythnians from the sanctuary at Eleusis, with which they had a close relationship.16

12A curious feature of the Eleusinian kernoi is the fact that they first appear in the archaeological record around the end of the fifth century B.C. and terminate around the end of the fourth. Thus the Eleusinian kernoi are a relatively shortlived phenomenon, whereas the plemochoai, at least in monumental form, are still being attested in the second century A.D. It is conceivable that the kernoi with kotyliskoi represent an Eleusinian innovation: adaptation of a traditional vase employed in the Mysteria for ritual use in the Thesmophoria, by attaching to it miniature containers, the kotyliskoi, which served a traditional ritual function in the Thesmophoria. A thorough study of kernoi is now being carried out by Ch. Mitsopoulou in connection with the finds from Kythnos. We can hope that her research will produce a more definite result than this hypothesis.

13In conclusion, at the present time the most attractive hypothesis about the ritual context of the kernoi (as distinguished from the plemochoai) is that they were not used in the Mysteria but were most likely used and left behind, presumably as humble dedications, like so many other humble dedications, by women who participated in the Thesmophoria. Whether plemochoai also had some use in the Thesmophoria remains an open question.

Bibliographie

Bibliography

Amandry, P. 1953. Collection H. Stathatos. Les bijoux antiques, p. 86-89, nos. 230-231.

Bakalakis, G. 1991. “Les Kernoi éleusiniens,” Kernos 4, p. 104-117.

Clinton, K. 1992. Myth and Cult: the Iconography of the Eleusinian Mysteries, Stockholm.

Clinton, K. 1997. “The Thesmophorion in Central Athens and the Celebration of the Thesmophoria in Attica,” in R. HÀGG (ed.), The Role of Religion in the Early Greek Polis, Stockholm, p. 111-125.

Hinz, V. 1998. Der Kult von Demeter und Kore auf Simien und in der Magna Graecia. Wiesbaden.

I. Eleusis. K. Clinton (ed.), Eleusis. The Inscriptions on Stone. Documents of the Sanctuary of the Two Goddesses and the Public Documents of the Deme, Athens, 2005-2008.

Krauskopf, I. 2005. ThesCRA V, s.v. Plemochoe, p. 252-255.

Linders, T. 1988. “Kerchnos and Kerchnion not kernos but granulation,” OpAth 17, p. 229-230.

Mazarakis Ainian, A. 2005. “Inside the adyton of a Greek temple: Excavations on Kythnos (Cyclades),” in M. Yeroulanou, M. Stamatopoulou (eds.), Architecture and Archaeology in the Cyclades, Papers in honour of J.J. Coulton, Oxford University, Lincoln College, April 16-17, 2004, Oxford, p. 87-103.

Mendoni, L.G., Mazarakis Ainian, A.I. 1998 (eds.), Kea-Kythnos: History and Archaeology. Proceedings of an International Symposium Kea-Kythnos, 22-25 June 1994, Athens (Meletemata, 27).

Miles, M.M. 1997. The Athenian Agora, XXXI, The City Eleusinion, Princeton.

Mitsopoulou, Ch. 2005. “Βρυόϰαστρο Κύθνου: Κεραμειϰή, λχνοι ϰαί εδώλια π τν ρχαία πόλη ϰα τ ερὸ τς ϰρόπολης,” πετηρὶς ταιρείας Κυϰλαδιϰῶν Μελετν 18 (2002-03), p. 293-358.

Mitsopoulou, Ch. forthcoming. “The Eleusinian processional cult vessel. Iconographic Evidence and Interpretation,” in M. Haysom, J. Wallensten (eds.), Current Approaches to Religion in Ancient Greece, International Conference organized by the British School at Athens and the Swedish Archaeological Institute at Athens, 17-19 April 2008, forthcoming in Opuscula Atheniensia.

Pemberton, E.G. 1989. Corinth XVIII, I, The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: The Greek Pottery, Princeton.

Pringsheim, G.H. 1905. Archäologische Beiträge zur Geschichte des eleusinischen Kults, Munich.

Notes

1 Linders (1988). Pringsheim (1905) had already suggested that a kerchnos was a piece of jewelry.

2 See now the internet version at http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions.

3 Bakalakis (1991), p. 109, “type D.”

4 Conveniently summarized by Miles (1998), p. 95-96.

5 Miles (1988), p. 100.

6 See bibliography in Krauskopf (2005), p. 254, no. 648; Mitsopoulou (2005), p. 326-327, n. 101.

7 Miles (1997), p. 99-103.

8 Amandry (1953), pl. 34; cf. Krauskopf (2005), p. 254, no. 652. This was kindly pointed out to me by Ch. Mitsopoulou.

9 Ch. Mitsopoulou kindly allowed to see a drawing that she had made of this scene. Her full discussion will appear in Mitsopoulou, forthcoming.

10 Cf. discussion in Clinton (1992), p. 73-76.

11 In view of the existence of the rare word κερνίον in a ninth-century spelling manual and its possible existence as a bronze votive in a fourth-century Eleusinian inventory (see above), we need to allow for the possibility that the plemochoe could, in popular language, be called kernos. This would not be surprising, in view of its shape, which basically resembles that of a kernos without the kotyliskoi. The resemblance of the shape has been noted by modern scholars. According to Pamphilos, as quoted by Athenaeus, the plemochoe was also called kotyliskos. If so, it does not seem impossible that it could also have been called kernos, while its technical name was plemochoe. The plemochoai, as is clear from the iconographic evidence, were carried by women at the Mysteria, and so, if a plemochoe could be called kernos in popular parlance, it could be concluded that a kernophoria took place at the Mysteria. But there is no testimony of use of the term for this ritual.

12 Mazarakis (1998), p. 371; (2005), p. 100; see especially the full discussion in Mitsopoulou (2005), p. 325-331.

13 A fragmentary sacred law of ca. 500 B.C. from the City Eleusinion may have had to do with the Thesmophoria, at least in part; for it contains a list of vegetable and liquid offerings identical to those used at Cholargos and in similar quantities: barley, wine, honey, oil, cheese, beans, white and black sesame, and presumably other offerings not preserved (IG I3 232).

14 Hinz (1998), p. 49; Pemberton (1988), p. 64-66.

15 Clinton (1997); Miles (1997), p. 22-23.

16 Dr. Mitsopoulou points out that the fragments of kernoi found on Kythnos are of the type with schematic kotyliskoi, therefore most likely votives.

Notes de fin

1 I am greatly indebted to Dr. Christina Mitsopoulou for valuable discussions about kernoi and for steering me away from errors.

© Presses universitaires de Liège, 2009

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