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The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period

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Gunnel Ekroth

Indexes

General index

Texte intégral

Academy, Athens: 33, 84; see also Akademos, Heroes at the Academy

Acheloios: 253, 259

Achilles: 64, 65, 92, 93, 94-95, 254-256, 258208, 260221, 265-266, 285

cult at Troy: 67, 69, 70, 71, 94, 96, 99, 101-102, 103-104, 122-123, 126, 127460, 22236, 267

dual character as both god and hero: 71, 99, 101-102, 127, 22236

Acropolis, Athens: 33, 47114, 145, 176, 189

Adrastos: 182-183

Agamedes: 64, 66, 67, 70, 71, 265

Agamemnon: 180215, 256, 285

Agamemnoneion, Mycenae: 337100

Agamemnonidai: 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

Agathoi: 135-136, 148, 172, 176, 258, 262, 266, 299-300; see also war dead on Thasos

Agathos daimon-. 193278; see also daimones

Aglauros: 144, 156, 32467

agora: 59, 79, 96, 184, 203

at Athens: 3040, 34, 53140, 136, 170163, 231

Aiakidai: 82, 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

Aias: 75-77, 92, 96, 99329,105,182, 260221, 298405

Aischylos, worshipped as a hero: 116, 118

Aitolos: 93

Akademos, garden of: 66, 68, 69, 70

Aktaion: 93, 97

Alexander the Great: 1817, 46, 48, 93, 94 95, 99, 100335, 105367, 205, 209, 33488

Alexanor: 92, 99-100

Alkidamas: 205

Alkmene: 133, 14372, 165, 239

Alochos: 162

altar: 14, 15, 16, 23-35, 37, 39, 41-49, 53-59, 80265, 99, 100337, 103-104, 112, 115412, 120, 139, 141-142, 14372, 145, 147, 166, 173, 176, 181, 182, 186-187, 188, 189, 190-191, 201-202, 204-205, 209, 217, 218, 22342, 22656, 242-243, 245-247, 249, 250, 252, 257, 260-261, 276, 281, 282, 283, 289277, 297, 298, 308-309, 312, 340118; see also βωμός, ἐσχάρα, θυμέλη

ash-altar: 36-38, 48-49, 53, 58-59, 191, 202328, 308

made of blood: 49

relation bomos-eschara-. 26-27, 31, 41, 42-43, 45-50, 52-54, 58-59

surface or upper part of: 26, 27, 43-44, 47-48, 53, 54-57, 308

Amazons: 47

Ammon, oracle of: 95, 99, 100, 212385

Amorgos: 13521, 23289, 267260

Amphiaraos: 2025, 75 -77, 142, 143, 149108, 298405

Amphiareion at Oropos: 3039, 75-76, 282339, 32047; see also Amphiaraos

Amphieraos: 149108; see also Amphiaraos

Amphilochos: 92

Amphion 206; see also Amphiones

Amphiones: 194-195

Amphipolis: 118, 172, 176, 184-186, 190, 203, 211, 257-258, 262, 285, 296401

Amphitrite: 53140

Amphitryon: 86

Amyklai: 99, 100337, 103

Amyneion, Athens: 145, 282339

Amynos: 145, 149, 211378

Anaxagoras: 206

ancestors: 21, 225, 237, 288-289

Andania, mysteries at: 100335

Andromache: 233

animal bones: 3252, 3780, 3883,80,130, 219, 22131, 230-232, 242, 249, 278, 289277, 31941, 33281

burnt at sacrifices: 3252, 3780, 3883, 80, 101,115,120,130, 201-202, 219, 22131, 242, 249, 289377, 31941

holocausted: 80

debris from dining: 3780, 22131, 23288

in funerary contexte: 230-232, 278

astragaloi: 231

ribs: 23179

skull: 23179, 289377

teeth: 23181

thigh-bones: 101, 115, 120, 201-202, 23077

animal species; see also ἱερεĩον, τέλεον

bird: 41, 3081, 32773

boar: 255

bull: 33, 67, 68201, 71, 78, 79, 80-82, 99, 100338, 101, 102, 103, 118, 13631, 150, 176, 189259, 21710, 22027, 224, 226, 227, 243135, 249156, 260220-221, 267, 276293, 3081,

calf: 23179

cattle: 32, 134, 158, 166-167, 175, 189, 23181, 249153,156

cow: 62, 138, 152123, 158-162, 164-165, 167, 168, 194, 23179, 247, 276293

dog: 41, 22865, 231, 23181,85, 255, 284

ewe: 62, 65, 68-69, 158, 160, 161139, 162, 164, 166, 168, 174, 254

goat: 61, 103, 113, 128, 133, 141, 143, 146, 152122, 157-162, 164, 165, 168, 22129, 223, 227, 23076, 23179,81, 239, 240124, 252172, 255, 259215, 324

heifer: 319

horse: 47, 97323, 103, 176, 21710, 22865, 231, 23185, 255, 261223, 284 kid: 109, 139, 152122, 158, 159, 162, 168

lamb: 101, 103, 109, 112, 128, 133, 134, 14268, 150, 158, 159, 162, I68, 220, 23179, 252172, 252, 3081

mare: 261

mule: 23185

ox: 47, 103, 104, 128, 133, 14058, 143, 158-168, 172-173, 174186, 186-187, 189, 218, 220, 227, 228-229, 232, 237, 238111, 239, 249155, 255, 258, 267, 274, 3081, 32254

pig: 134,143,146, 152122,160-162, 164, 165, 167, 168, 227, 23179,8\ 232, 244, 251, 274287, 281, 3081, 325

piglet: 60-61, 133, 134, 138, 141, 14372, 154128, 158-168, 2179, 218-219, 22129, 224, 226, 227, 23495, 237, 239, 243-244, 251, 281, 289376, 292, 3081

puppies: 65, 69, 325

ram: 3780, 62, 67, 68, 71, 100, 103, 114407,128,13420,13521,146,147, 150, 160-162, 168, 174-175, 189259, 192274, 219, 22027, 237, 244, 252175, 254, 260, 265, 267260, 271, 273282, 31941, 32254, 32773, 33281

sheep: 3780, 3883, 42, 44, 47, 61, 62, 65, 67194, 95, 103, 128, 133, 134, 138, 139, 140-141, 143, 145-147, 152122,123, 158-168, 174, 175, 194, 218-221, 227, 228, 230-232, 238-239, 253, 255, 270, 271, 288370, 3081, 33281

snake: 284, 315-316

wether: 13420, 160, 162, 164, 168

wolf: 23185

animal victim; see also animal bones, animal species ἱερεἱον, τέλεον; animal victim (treatment of)

god's portion at sacrifice: 42, 115, 120, 130, 178, 180, 182, 199313, 202, 240124, 242, 287-288, 290, 318, 328

hero's portion at sacrifice: 16, 179209, 180, 181-182, 185, 202

prices and financial considerations: 134-135, 146, 152-153, 158-164, 284-285, 292, 304

parts of; see also meat

bile: 176196, 249, 250160

bones; see animal bones

ears: 250160

feet: 103, 22547

gall-bladder: 130, 3081

head: 14, 62178, 140, 174-176. 188, 23179, 252175, 269-276, 28937 , 297, 305, 312

hide: 134, 152, 157, 224, 22547, 249; see also skin

horn 250160, 272, 289377

intestines: 15, 65, 217, 218, 242, 247-248, 252, 319; see also σπλάγχνα

leg: 134, 142-143, 217, 21922, 23179, 237, 289376, 31941

muzzle: 272-273

neck: 174, 192272

rind: 13419

shoulder: 142, 22027

animal victim, parts of (continued)

skin: 134, 140, 142-143, 144,146, 157, 169, 217, 223, 225, 227, 265, 31942, 32043; see also hide

stomach: 65, 69, 247

tail: 250160, 3081

testicles: 252171

thigh: 140, 219, 316, 31941, 33281

tongue: 14375, 174186, 21 710, 22547

animal victim, treatment of burning

of entire victim: 14, 27, 60, 61, 63, 68-69, 75, 80-81,101-102,112, 119, 128, 129, 133-134, 155, 165, 179209, 216, 217-218, 224-225, 234-235, 238, 251, 255, 256, 270, 276, 290, 291, 308-309, 327-328, 332, 341; see also destruction sacrifice, holocaust

of a part or parts of the victim: 216, 217-218, 220-226, 235-237, 252172, 277, 285357, 288370, 308, 316, 31941, 33281 ; see also “moirocaust”

of a ninth of the meat: 220-223, 235-237; see also ἐνατεύω

of divinity's portion: 15, 16, 42, 53, 101, 103, 112, 115, 118, 120, 130, 139, 140, 145, 178, 180-182, 185, 201-202, 217-218, 240124, 242, 285357, 289, 290, 318, 328

castrated: 13420,160, 325 ; see also wether

decapitated: 62178, 174-176, 188, 271, 275

flayed: 63, 134, 143, 269

killed with head bent towards the ground: 14, 269-276, 297, 305, 312

singed: 134, 143

skin destroyed: 156, 157, 217, 223, 225, 227

throat eut, slit or pierced: 14, 65, 68, 135, 172-174, 184-185, 243, 252175, 260221, 269-275

Anios: 36-37, 282339, 32358; see also Heros Archegetes

anonymous, heroes or heroïnes: 138, 139, 143, 150, 161, 33799

Antenoridai: 117, 119, 177, 203338

Anthesteria: 114, 136, 268266, 278-279

Antilochos: 92, 96, 99329

antiquarian tendencies: 122-123, 307-308

Antisara, see Hero at Antisara

Apatouria: 136

Aphrodite: 31, 46, 48, 55150, 139

Apollon: 29, 40, 41-42, 43-44, 55149, 61, 70221, 73, 99, 100, 103, 1315, 156, 183, 192, 198304, 201, 247, 249150, 251, 265252, 269, 277, 285, 314, 324, 33487, 338104

Apotropaios: 156

Dalios: 32150, 322

Hekatombios: 22027

Karneios: 177

Lykeios: 156

Patroos: 155122

Pythios: 46, 48, 13948, 156, 22656, 32150

Soter: 194-195

apotropaic rituals: 267202, 276, 295

appeasement: 88, 91, 97, 98, 198, 264, 279315, 33382; see also expiation, placation, propitiation

Archegesion, Delos: 36-39, 57-59, 282339, 308

Archegetes, see Heros Archegetes, ἀρχηγέτης

Archilochos: 199311, 205-206

Ares: 46, 47

Arge: 201-202, 298405; see also Hyperborean maidens

Argolid: 3081, 33798

Argonaute: 47, 65, 270

Argos: 59, 68, 70. 100337, 1314, 174186, 205, 21922, 249156, 265252, 340113

Aristogeiton: 66186, 82, 83-85, 88, 96310, 123446, 170-171, 179213, 241130

Aristomenes: 79, 81, 82, 93, 103

Aristonidas: 79, 81, 82

army 96, 173-174, 188, 198308, 224, 226, 251, 252-253, 264, 32773, 338

Artachaies: 198, 208-209, 211

Artemis: 46, 48, 96,146,156,157,194-195, 201-202, 217, 223, 225, 236, 292388, 314, 32149, 33177

Agrotera: 83, 240124, 259215

Laphria: 125454

ash: 2833, 30, 3252, 35, 49, 58-59, 80, 201-202, 231, 249; see also ash-altar

Asklepieion, Athens: 22655

Asklepieion, Epidauros: 22655

Asklepios: 1614, 21, 60, 67, 100, 145, 149, 211378, 224-227, 264239, 3081, 323, 331

Assyria, heroes of: 194

Athena: 32-33, 35, 37, 42, 100337,156,172, 175, 186, 189, 203, 258, 277, 314

Apotropaia: 32047, 323

Hellotis: 161

Hypate: 194

Polias: 44

Skiras: 166, 298405, 33487

Athens: 2128, 28, 33-34, 37, 44, 47, 55150, 70, 76244, 77, 97, 122, 131, 132, 133, 165, 168, 170, 184, 186, 188, 197, 204, 226-227, 229, 239, 255, 256, 261-262, 279317, 288368, 32047

athletes: 252172

worshipped as heroes: 2128, 97320, 197-198, 211384, 33589

athletic contests: 13, 83, 197, 199, 22129, 333; see also games, funeral games

Atreidai: 82, 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

Attica: 1921, 29-30, 33, 37, 49, 57,131-132, 133, 134, 142, 151, 167156, 169, 170, 228, 237, 239, 254, 256, 321, 323, 33589, 33798

Augeas: 93

aversion: 43, 251, 264, 279315, 326, 340

Babylon: 95, 176

banqueting hero-relief: 3780, 137, 229, 261223, 279, 282-284, 286

barley: 62, 101, 140, 145, 220, 269; see also grain

cake made of barley: 281

Basile: 133-134, 156, 239-240

battle-line or pre-battle sacrifices: 103350, 114, 127, 128, 172-174, 188, 2179, 240124, 251, 252-253, 259-261, 264, 268, 275, 289, 305, 329; see also σφάγια, war

Battos: 119, 177, 203, 263

black animal victim, see colour

Black goddesses: 110, 111, 22236

Blood

and purification: 114, 23394, 251, 253, 259, 263-265, 305, 327, 329

and war: 114, 135, 172-175, 187-188, 22445, 252-253, 257-262, 268, 271-274, 305, 327, 329; see also battle-line sacrifices, σφάγια

consumed raw: 249156, 285

drunk: 63, 102, 118, 178, 265, 266, 267, 285

human blood: 109

kept, prepared and consumed: 245-251, 285, 309

on the altar: 49, 112, 217, 242-247, 249, 250, 257, 288

poured into bothros or pit: 14, 16, 27, 60-63, 65, 67-71, 73, 101, 102, 120, 128, 173-174, 176, 22655, 271, 274-276, 297, 306

poured on the hero's tomb: 14,136, 176, 185, 236104, 276, 300

use in the cult of the dead: 254-257, 265-268, 285-286, 306; see also προσφάγιον

used as a libation: 75, 80265, 104, 118, 120, 129, 136, 169, 178, 189, 190-191, 217, 253, 256-26, 312; see also αἱμαϰουρία

used as an invitation 266-268, 285-286, 306, 329; see also θεοξένία

blood rituals: 15, 20, 129-130, 135-136, 148, 169, 171-177, 178, 182, 184-192, 207, 212-213, 215, 242-276, 289, 291, 293, 296401, 298-301, 305-306, 309-310, 312, 325, 327, 328, 329, 332, 341; see also αἱμαϰουρία, ἐντέμνω, σφαγή, σφάγια, σφάζω, φονή

bloodless sacrifices or offerings: 13, 15, 16, 32, 37, 102, 108, 130, 139, 148103, 199-200, 277301, 283; see also cakes, fruit, vegetables

bones, see animal bones of hero: 79, 94, 198, 211

Boubrostis: 217, 224, 226, 228, 329

Brasidas: 118, 172, 176, 184-186, 190, 203, 208-209, 211, 257-258, 262, 266, 285, 296401

Braurom 2829, 202

brazier: 25-26, 28-29

bread: 13, 15, 139, 179209, 279, 309, 319

burial: 63, 79-80, 82,84277, 91, 94-97,100, 103-104, 114, 126, 176, 185, I88253, 197, 200316, 204, 206, 211, 228-233, 235, 254, 256, 263; see also grave, tomb, τάφος

burial mound: 67, 69, 70, 71, 99, 101, 191, 198, 267, 276, 278-279, 305, 33488, 335-337

Byzantine literary sources: 24-25, 45110, 303, 309, 310; see also grammarians, lexicographers, scholia

Byzantine period: 250

Byzantion: 79

cakes: 13, 15, 16, 68, 103349, 128, 130, 139, 196, 202330, 22025, 222, 225, 228, 234, 256203, 276-278, 281, 283, 309

calling of recipient at sacrificial ritual: 67, 71, 73, 265-268, 306; see also evocation, invitation

Carthage: 109

Carthaginian sacrificial rituals: 90, 91; see also non-Greek rituals

castration of animal victim: 13420, 160, 325; see also animal species (wether)

uncastrated animais: 161

cauldron: 39, 192

cave: 1816, 46, 70221, 80265, 337100

cenotaph: 84277, 333, 337; see also ϰενòν ἠρίον

character of recipient, decisive of choice of ritual: 20, 42, 85, 86, 99, 111387, 127, 215-216, 22236, 225-226, 227, 235, 237-242, 268, 277, 284349, 298, 304, 307, 311-318, 325-326, 329-333, 335, 341; see also situation, Achilles, Herakles

Charites: 20, 146, 217, 223, 227, 236, 252172

Charon: 66, 106, 338104

cheese: 220, 247, 281

children: 88, 135, 258; see also daughters

of Antenor; see Antenoridai

of Herakles and Megara: 117, 118, 181

of Kaphyai: 93, 96

of Medea: 93, 97, 113, 115, 117413, 123

of Oidipous: 93

of Polyeidos: 116, 118419

Christian evidence and contexte: 17, 60, 110, 111, 170159, 193278, 250, 292; see also non-Greek rituals

Chrysos: 92, 95, 96

chthonian, see also Olympian, underworld divinities: 26, 35, 46, 47111, 60, 66, 110-111, 112, 114404, 13523, 193, 215, 225-226, 263237, 269-271, 297-298, 310-318, 325-326, 328, 330, 341; see also χθόνιoι, θεοί, ἐπιχθόνιoι, θεοί, ϰαταχθόνιoι, θεοί, ὑποχθόνιoι, θεοί

rituals: 16-17, 27, 35, 53140, 60, 114404, 133, 141, 14376, 150, 202327, 215-216, 225-226, 269-271, 275290, 297402, 310-318, 322, 325-326, 328, 330, 341

Chytroi: 278; see also Anthesteria

city-state, see polis

clothes: 118, 124450, 179, 202, 204, 228, 232-233

colonies: 131, 132, 231, 339-340; see also oikist

colour

colour of animal victim: 133, 312

black: 61, 62, 65, 81, 99, 101,102, 103, 113, 133, 192274, 224, 254, 255, 267, 271, 312, 31629, 325

white: 97323, 101, 133

offerings coloured black: 109

white clothing: 33488

comedy as source of sacrificial rituals: 19, 88, 255194

cooking pit: 53

cooking pots: 28, 39

Corinth: 113, 1315, 231, 282339, 33589

couch: 14, 31, 38, 130, 136-137, 139, 144, 277-278, 281; see also ϰλίνη

cremation rites: 240124

crisis, ritual response to: 226-227, 317, 325; see also situation

crops: 33, 226, 241, 253

curse-tablets: 333

Cyprus: 1329, 149109, 198

Daidala: 2936

daimones: 2023, 40, 42, 43, 45109, 110, 111, 192-193, 195, 212, 33487

Daites: 339108

daughters: 135

of Erechtheus: 172, 186-188, 258, 266, 296401; see also Hyakinthids of Skedasos: 93, 97, 261, 270

dead

cult ofthe dead: 14, 20, 23, 50, 66, 71-72, 74, 77, 79-80, 82,86-91,100,104-111, 114, 118, 121-122, 126, 128, 130, 177201,181220,197, 204, 210, 215, 228-235, 239, 240, 241130, 254-257, 263, 267-268, 276-280, 282, 285-286, 288-289, 296, 301, 303-307, 329-341

feeding the dead: 22867, 233, 286360, 289

libations to the dead 88-89, 104, 119, 120, 128, 130, 228, 234, 256203, 278, 286360

offerings to the dead: 21, 74, 104-106, 108-109, 110, 114, 118-120, 128, 193, 194-195, 228-235, 241, 254-257,

dead (continued)

offerings to the dead (continued): 265 -268, 277-281, 286, 288-289, 301, 329, 332, 335-337; see also meals

offerings to the dead destroyed by burning: 66, 69, 105, 228-235, 254, 256, 278, 280, 289, 307; see also ἐναγίζω, ἐνάγισμα, ἐναγισμός

deification: 1817

Delichos 14799

Delos: 28-29, 36-39, 54, 56152, 57153, 58, 60-61, 114, 178208, 200-202, 282339, 298405, 308, 32358

Delphi: 3990, 42, 43-44, 83, 95, 96, 100, 119, 1329, 183, 194, 211-212, 257204, 277, 285, 331, 338104; see also Heroes at Delphi

demes of Attica: 133, 13844, 139, 141-142, 147-148, 151, 154, 158-163, 166-169, 240, 292, 316, 320, 321; see also Eleusis, Erchia, Kollytos, Marathon, Oinoe, Paiania, Probalinthos, Teithras, Thorikos, Trikorynthos, sacrificial calendars

Demeter: 40, 41-42, 44, 49126, 61170, 68, 13845, 147, 160138, 2179, 263, 33487

Chloe: 22027

Demophon: 14799

Demosion Sema: 84

destruction sacrifice: 14, 20,133-135,170-171, 197, 212-213, 215-242, 254, 285, 289-290, 291-292, 293, 295-301, 307-309, 312-313, 316-317, 325-329, 332-333, 341; see also ἐναγίζω, ἐvάγισμα, ἐναγισμός

total destruction of animal victim: 14, 16, 70, 75, 101, 113, 129, 153-154, 171, 206-207, 216, 217-229, 238-242, 251-252, 256, 309, 312-313, 316-317, 325, 328-329, 332, 341; see also holocaust

partial destruction of animal victim: 216, 217-228, 235-242, 252172, 259, 277, 309, 313, 316-318, 325, 327, 328-329, 332, 341; see also “moirocaust”, ἐνατεύω

destruction of animal victim by fire: 14, 61, 63, 68-69, 75, 80, 101-102, 111-113, 128, 129, 133-134, 155, 216, 217-242, 251, 252172, 255, 256, 270, 291, 308-309, 327-328, 332, 341

destruction of other kinds of offerings by fire: 66, 69, 75, 89294,103349,105,111, 113, 115, 119, 120, 127, 128, 139, 140, 145, 181, 224-225, 233-235, 255, 276, 277, 278, 280, 285357, 319, 332

in the cult of the dead: 66, 69, 105, 228-235, 254, 256, 278, 280, 289, 307

Dexion 145, 149, 211378

Didyma: 49123

dining: 28

in connection with saaifice/thysia sacrifice: 15, 20, 30, 34, 38, 67, 68, 71, 73, 76, 83272, 85, 87288, 101, 112-113, 123, 129, 130, 137, 140-169, 171, 175, 179-199, 203, 207, 210375, 212, 215, 217-221, 223-224, 227, 253, 259, 287-301, 303-305, 309, 313-324, 329, 335, 339, 341

sacrifices not followed by dining: 43, 70, 72, 83272, 85, 89, 102-103, 108, 112-113, 120, 129, 133-134, 170-171, 206-207, 217-242, 251-254, 280, 305-309, 327-329

dining-room: 38-39, 144, 201, 22131, 280, 300, 315; see also ἐστιατόριον

Dinka, sacrifices among: 32773, 32876

Dioklos: 147, 33487

Dionysia: 33-34, 136

Dionysos: 31, 3251, 33-34, 37, 61172, 75, 92, 98, 100335, 139, 142, 143, 14485, 152122, 156, 157, 183, 188, 277, 283, 296401, 298405, 314, 331, 33487

Bakcheus: 324

Eleuthereus: 33

Lenaios: 3463

Leneus: 31629

Dioskourion, Delos : 36, 38-39

Dioskouroi: 21, 37, 177201, 205, 277, 281

Dipoleia: 227

disease: 69, 22234, 317; see also plague

Dodona: 148, 212385

Dolops: 118, 270

Drakon, laws of: 179212, 202330

drinking cups: 38, 179209, 222, 255190

drowning: 82, 96, 253181

earth: 2126, 67, 97, 176, 179, 198, 202, 225, 269, 311, 314, 322; see also chthonian

Echelos: 138, 141, 298405

Echetlos: 261224

egg: 231,251

Egretes: 2128, 144, 148-149, 211378, 300

Egypt: 107374, 109, 111, 149109

Egyptian sacrificial rituals: 63179, 90, 91, 109-110, 111; see also non-Greek rituals

Eileithyiaia: 178208

Eleusinia: 14797

Eleusinos: 14799

Eleusis: 44, 59159, 61170, 146-147, 148146

mysteries at Eleusis: 14797, 2179

sacrificial calendar from deme: 151

Eleusis, hero: 14799

enemy: 71, 102, 109, 184, 186-188, 258, 261, 267264

worshipped as hero: 198, 33589

entertaining: 285, 304; see also θεοξένια

Enyalios: 83, 258208, 325

Epaminondas: 97

ephebeia, Athens : 77

ephebes: 33-35, 75-77

Epidauros: 29, 217, 226

Epikouros: 105

Epikteta, testament of: 179209, 23289 280325; see also foundations of private cults

Epitaphia: 84275,277

Eponymous heroes: 13732

Epops: 133, 156, 162, 239-241

Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme: 30, 130, 133, 134, 141, 143, 147, 148, 151-153, 155-157, 161-163, 166-168, 223, 224, 239-241, 26θ218, 288370, 313, 319-322, 324

Erechtheiom 176, 189

Erechtheus: 150, 172, 175-176, 186, 188-190, 258

Eretria, West Gâte heroon-. 33692

Erinyes: 40, 42, 43

Eros: 139

Erotes: 46, 48

Etruscan sacrificial rituals: 83, 239; see also non-Greek rituals

Euamerion: 99-100

Eubouleus: 147

euergetism: 1817

Eumaios: 2828, 39, 22027, 281

Eumenides: 4397, 222-223

Eumolpos: 147, 33487

Euphron of Sikyom 203, 209, 211

Eurypylos: 93, 100335

Eurysakeion, Athens: 134, 165

Eurysakes: 134, 152122, 165, 167

Eurystheus: 255

Eurytos: 93, 100335

evocation of recipient at sacrificial ritual: 63, 65, 265-266; see also calling, invitation

expiation: 127; see also appeasement, placation, propitiation

fat: 47, 112, 130, 242, 247, 249; see also ϰνίση, λίπος

female animal victims: 133, 161, 162, 168

female genitalia: 25, 54

fertility: 2179, 225, 250160

fire: 25-26, 29, 36, 39, 43, 45, 47-48, 53-57, 59, 61, 62, 65, 80, 89294, 104, 105, 113-114, 115412, 128, 139, 170, 173, 196, 216, 217, 219, 220, 22445, 247, 248, 252, 308

on the altar/sacrificial fire: 54-57, 120, 139-140, 145, 180, 181-182, 187, 188, 22025, 242-243, 282, 287, 314

fire rituals: 238

fish: 2510, 88, 178-179, 245140, 248146

flour: 112, 245

food, offerings of: 15, 16, 31, 89, 102, 104-105, 108-109, 128, 130, 136-137, 139-140, 169, 178-179, 222, 228-233, 234, 276-286, 305; see also θεοξένια, meal, table, τράπεζα

foreigners: 77, 291, 322; see also outsiders, ξένοι

foundations of private cults: 1817, 31, 79, 13521, 13733, 178209, 23289, 267260

Diomedon, Kos: 31, 13733, 179209, 23289

Epikteta, Thera: 179209, 23289, 280325

Kritolaos, Amorgos: 13521, 23289, 267260

frankincense: 48, 61, 111

fruit: 13, 15, 16, 114408, 128, 130, 139, 179, 196, 202, 204, 234, 276, 281, 309

funeral: 135, 198, 204, 206, 228-230, 240124, 254-255, 262, 263, 278, 280, 288366, 289; see also pyre

funeral games: 83-84, 105, 135-136, 170, 172, 197, 204, 241, 333

funerary laws: 202331, 229-230, 256-257, 307, 335, 339

games: 175, 181-182, 184-185, 203, 239, 262232, 266-267, 268, 306; see also athletic contests, funeral games

garland: 101, 149, 181, 270; see also wreath

Ge: 49123, 152122, 156, 194, 176, 268266, 279316, 315

Chthonie: 31629, 32150, 322

Olympia: 46, 47

Genesia: 84275, 240, 268266, 279

Geometrie period: 3148, 231, 23288, 337-338, 340118; see also Iron Age

ghosts: 2126, 232, 255, 279315, 317; see also souls of the dead

Glaukos: 150, 248

Golden Fleece: 65, 67, 692214

grain: 130, 139, 276, 32773; see also barley, wheat

grammarians: 310; see also Byzantine literary sources, lexicographers, scholia

grating: 25, 29, 48117

grave: 60, 69, 84277, 87-88, 105-106, 110,

114, 128, 228-233, 235, 254-256, 263, 278, 280, 288, 331, 340; see also burial, tomb, τάφος

of hero: 19, 70, 79, 82, 88, 95-97, 107, 118, 126, 184, 188253, 198308, 207, 259217, 330, 335-338

gravestone: 1818, 2230, 102, 104, 1327, 22970, 263237, 279, 339113

grief: 105, 233, 289

grill: 28, 31, 35, 137, 248; see also έσχάρα

Hades: 61, 62-63, 106, 202, 254, 330, 331

Hagnon 184-185, 203, 211, 258209

hair: 120, 200-202, 206358, 255

Haloa: 44

Harmodios: 66186, 82, 83-85, 88, 96310, 115, 117413, 123446, 170-171, 179213, 241130

head, see also animal victim (parts of)

head of Onesilos: 198

head of Orpheus: 33488

hearth: 14, 25-29, 35, 36, 39, 4297, 48-49, 53-54, 58-59, 308, 319; see also ἑστία, ἑσχάρα

heavenly gods: 50, 113402, 179213, 270; see also Olympian divinities

Hebe: 31

Hebrew sacrificial ritals: 90, 91, 110, 112, 123444, 170159, 32876; see also Israelite sacrificial rituals, non-Greek rituals

hecatomb: 42, 100335, 103, 175, 188253

heilige Handlungen-. 216, 317, 325-328, 341

Hekabe: 255

Hekate: 64, 65 -67, 69, 13523, 265, 267262, 276, 285357

Hektor: 233, 260221

Helen 1816, 149108, 205, 208, 209, 211383

Heliodoros and sacrificial ritual: 91, 103, 109, 111, 114, 119424, 122

Helios: 176, 2 10375, 21 710, 315

Hellotion, see Hero at Hellotion

Hephaistion: 92, 95, 99, 100, 105307, 205, 208, 209

Hera: 31, 48-49, 55, 152122, 156, 21922, 314, 319

Akraia: 110, 113

Thelchinia: 156, 240125

Herakleidai: 29-30, 35, 37, 57, 144, 156, 158134, 298405, 308, 32467

Herakleion

at Porthmos, Sounion: 142-143, 164-165, 238

onThasos: 221, 31522

Herakles: 31, 3251, 67, 68, 70, 71, 82, 88, 92, 100, 103, 133, 13631, 13948, 142-143, 165, 176195, 180215, 181-182, 191271, 194-195, 208-209, 211383, 217, 223, 237, 240124, 261, 277, 282, 283, 289374,377, 290378, 313, 329; see also children of Herakles and M egara

dual character as both god and hero: 1614, 21, 85-86, 89, 98-99, 101, 127, 171, 208, 219-221, 225-227, 238-239, 297, 331, 333

death of: 86, 88, 238, 240124, 290238

Phoenician origin 86

Diomedonteios: 31, 13733

Thasios: 221

Hermes: 100337, 21710, 247, 278, 281

Enagonios: 146

Hero at Antisara: 133, 14372, 165, 239

Hero at Hellotion: 138, 161

Hero at Pyrgiliom 133, 14372, 165, 239

Hero at -rasileia-. 138, 161

Hero at the Haie: 133-134, 142, 165, 239

Hero -nechos-. 161, 163, 166-167

Heroes at the Academy: 64, 70, 94, 96310

Heroes at Delphi: 117, 119, 183

Heroes at Phigaleia: 189257

Heroes at Plataiai: 205352

Heroes fallen at Troy: 94, 96, 99329, 179213

Heroes in the field: 150

Heroes of Salamis: 258208

Heroines at Pylom 143, 144, 156, 162

Heroïnes at Schoinos: 143, 144, 156, 162

Heroines of Echelos: 138,140-141

Heroines of Hyperpedios: 13845, 159

Heroines of Pylouchos: 13845

Heroines of the Hero at Hellotion: 161

Heroines of Thorikos: 13845

heroization: 18, 76248, 1327, 13521, 14588, 208367, 308, 338107

Heros Archegetes, see also ἀρχηγέτης

Athens: 14375, 194-195

Delos: 36-39, 57-58, 32358; see also Anios

Eleusis: 147, 33487

Mykonos: 322

Rhamnous: 149108, 167157

Tronis: 236104, 259217, 32358

Heros Iatros: 2128, 149107, 211378

Hestia Hetaireia: 21812

Hippodameia: 96

suitors of Hippodameia: 93, 96

Hippokrates, worshipped as hero: 92, 104, 105, 123

Hippolytos: 139, 201324, 206, 33177

Hippothoom 14799

holocaust: 14,16, 58, 68-69, 75,80,100338 111-113, 115412, 119, 124-125, 127 129, 133-134, 147, 148, 150, 154-157 165, 169, 176, 216, 217-242, 251167 289-290, 295-296, 299-300, 308-310 313-316, 321, 32253, 325, 328-329 33382; see also ὁλοϰαυτος, ὁλοϰαυτέω: destruction sacrifice, ἐναγίζω, ἐνάίγισμα, ἐναγισμός

Homer

and hero-cult: 2230, 337101, 338

and sacrificial rituals: 62-63, 65, 71, 72-73, 195289, 199313, 244137, 255, 269-270, 271, 273286, 274-275, 281, 306

worshipped as hero: 206

Homonoia: 289

honey: 65, 67, 70, 109, 173, 187-188, 198, 220, 221, 254, 278, 325

honouring in the sense of receiving cult: 76, 77, 95, 99, 119,172,181,183,184-187, 197, 199-206, 208-212, 239114, 258, 259217, 262, 284, 293-294, 299, 300, 303, 33488, 337, 339108

horse-races: 13, 83,170,197,199, 204, 239, 266

host: 140-141, 144, 146, 278

human sacrifice: 95308, 103, 105, 111, 127, 128, 22865, 255, 2561", 257, 275289, 295

hunt: 292

Hyakinthids: 172-173, 175-176, 186-190, 203, 258, 261 ; see also daughters of Erechtheus

Hyakinthos: 92, 99, 100337, 103, 33487

Hygieia: 323

Hyperborean maidens: 200-202; see also Arge, Hyperoche, Laodike, Opis

Hyperoche: 200-201; see also Hyperborean maidens

Hyperpedios: 13845

Hypodektes: 2128, 148-149, 211378

Iakchos: 146

iconographical representations of sacrifice: 24, 31, 183232, 242 -246, 271-275, 289-290, 305; see also banqueting hero-relief

Ilion, see also Troy: 99

immortality,

contrast with mortality and relation to ritual practices: 74, 85-86, 89, 98, 126-127, 171, 206, 220, 22236, 233-235, 238-239, 242, 262, 305, 307, 330-334, 336

and the cult of the war dead: 204, 262, 339

immortal divrnities: 74,85, 126-127, 171, 204, 208, 250161, 275, 293, 298, 330-334

Imperial cult: 106372, 123

impurity; see also μίασμα

heroes considered as impure: 237-238, 241-242, 263-265, 307, 330-332

impure Tritopatores at Selinous: 210277, 220, 221-223, 235-238, 317

worshippers being impure: 229-230, 256, 265, 278, 288-289

impurity and death: 227, 229-230, 237-238, 256, 263-265, 278, 288-289, 307,330-332

incense: 48, 225

incense-burner: 27-28, 31, 45, 48, 13733; see also ἐσχάρα

incubation: 142

infertility: 22234, 317

inventory: 28-29, 31, 39, 57, 202331

invitation of recipient at sacrificial ritual: 67, 101-102, 130, 136-137, 177-178, 191, 194, 266-268, 277-280, 284-286, 293, 304-306, 309, 329; see also call-ing, evocation, θεοξένια

Iolaos: 205, 238-239; see also Ioleos

Ioleos: 133-134, 155, 156, 165, 238-239, 295; see also Iolaos

Ion: 133, 14372, 163147, 165, 239

Ioulis, Keos: 202331, 229, 256-257, 263

Iphikles: 93, 96

Iris: 42

Iron Age: 1816, 31521, 336-337, 340; see also Geometrie period

Isis: 49

Israelite sacrificial rituals: 249-250; see also

Hebrew sacrificial rituals, non-Greek rituals

Isthmia: 59,80-81, 100338,103,124, 289377, 297, 3081

Jahve: 46, 112

Jasom 65, 67, 68-69

Jerusalem, temple at: 48, 112, 23598, 32876

Kalchas: 92, 103, 265

Kallipolis: 61

Kalydon, heroon-. 280325

Kaphyai, see children of Kaphyai

Karneia: 177

Keleos: 147, 33487

Keos: 201, 241127; see also Ioulis

Kephalos: 13845, 152123, 158, 163, 166-167

Kerameikos: 3040, 77, 84277, 204, 230

Keramos: 196

Kirke: 65, 271

kitchen: 35, 144, 148, 300

Klaros, oracle of Apollon: 61, 73, 265252

Kleonai: 100, 127460

Klytaimnestra: 43, 180215

knife: 102, 113, 243-244, 252175, 275, 288

Knossos: 1314, 2 1 922, 231

Kodros: 13313, 239

Kollytos, deme: 139, 148

Konnidas: 92, 100, 103, 122, 33487

Kore: 33, 40, 41-42, 44, 64, 66, 68, 70 147

Kos: 31, 123, 13733, 226-227, 23289, 263

sacrificial calendars: 131, 13523,139-140, 143, 145, 157, 218-219, 220, 223, 247143, 252172, 3081, 31835, 319-322

Kourotrophos: 133, 156, 160138, 165, 239, 32149

Krixos: 95308, 107-108

Kychreus: 261

Kylabras: 178-179

Kyrene: 55149, 119, 1329, 177, 203

sacred law: 1315, 263

Kyros: 45, 176, 194, 21710, 288367

Kyzikos, city: 45, 49125

Kyzikos, hero: 64, 69

Laconia: 97

Laertiadai: 82, 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

lamentation: 106, 110, 333

Laodike: 200-201; see also Hyperborean maidens

Lebadeia: 70, 71, 265; see also Trophonios, oracle

leek: 281 ; see also onion

Lefkandi: 33692

Lemnos: 111, 114

Lemuria: 108

Leos: 13732, 141

Leto: 194-195, 32150

Leukaspis: 144, 156, 163, 260-261

Leukothea: 143, 145, 331

Leuktra, battle at: 97, 261, 270

lexicographers and lexica: 25, 59, 172, 265248, 308-310; see also Byzantine literary sources, grammarians, scholia

libation: 13,16, 42, 60-62, 65, 67-68, 70-71, 75, 80265, 88, 89, 102, 103-104, 112, 119-120, 128, 129, 130, 133, 169, 170163, 173, 179213, 182, 188, 194 197, 198308, 200, 216, 221, 228, 234, 236-237, 242, 250, 256203, 266-268, 278, 286360, 288, 295, 310, 312, 314, 325: see also blood, honey, μελίϰρατον, milk, νηφάλιος, oil, water, wine, χοαί

Lindos: 31-33, 37, 58, 238111, 32047

Linear-B: 3989, 33696

Linos: 93, 99, 33487

Lykos: 149108

Lykourgos: 196, 331

Machaneus: 21922

magic: 66,103350,109, 285, 306, 316, 33382

Maia: 133, 14372, 165, 239

male animal victims: 161, 162, 168

Marathon, battle of: 75-77, 83, 240124, 261224 ; see also war dead

Marathon, hero: 261224

Marathon, sacrificial calendar from deme: 130, 134, 138, 147, 151-153, 155-157, 159-162, 166-168, 238-239, 281, 28 8370, 295397, 319

Meals

offerings of meals: 14-15, 16, 32, 102, 129, 137, 181-182, 277, 278, 281, 286, 300, 309, 310, 325; see also fοοd, θεοξένια, δαίς, δεĩπνον

sacrifices in connection with a meal: 39, 179212, 276

ritual meals in connection with sacrifices: 15, 35, 36, 47, 58, 123, 137, 140, 148, 149, 180, 185, 195, 197, 216, 287, 295, 298, 313-325; see also θύο, θυσία, dining, kitchen, οὐ φορά

offered to the dead 66, 69, 108, 114, 229, 230, 232, 278-280, 286; see also dead, περίδειπνον

meat: 14-16, 37, 42, 68, 71, 85, 101-104, 135, 138, 140-146, 154-157, 167, 176, 212, 225, 251, 283, 287-292, 295-299, 309-310, 313-325

boiled: 13521, 192, 248149, 267260

cooked: 15, 16, 130, 137, 230, 232, 248, 277, 281, 283, 319

deposited on table or altar: 130, 137, 138, 140, 142, 192, 217, 227, 281, 283, 309, 319; see also τραπεζώματα

destroyed 14, 16, 68, 80265, 101-103, 128, 129, 154, 157, 172, 217, 222-223, 227, 251-254, 256, 257, 285355, 291, 295, 298-299, 316-317, 327, 332, 341; see also ἐναγίζω, ἐνάγισμα, ἐναγισμός, ὁλóϰαυτος

destroyed by burning 14, 101-102, 155-157, 217-233, 236-237, 256, 277, 309, 316, 341

division of: 37, 140-143, 145-146, 155-157, 220-224, 237, 245, 281, 288, 291-292, 299, 303-304, 323-324

eaten 15, 16, 42, 68, 71, 85, 101-102, 112-113, 130, 136, 140, 143, 146, 153-154, 157, 169, 171, 176, 178, 180-182, 185, 189, 191, 202, 215, 22131, 223, 229-231, 238, 245-248, 259, 263, 276, 288-292, 297402, 299, 303-304, 309, 311, 313-325; see also θύω, θυσία

grilled: 28, 192, 248, 281, 287

nine portions of: 143; see also ἐνατεύω not removed from sanctuary, see oὐ φορά portions of: 15, 130, 137, 138, 140-143, 146, 192, 217, 218, 220-224, 227, 230, 232, 236-237, 277, 281, 283, 291, 318-320; see also γέρα, ἱερώσυνα, priest, priestess

raw: 130, 137, 140, 141, 230, 232, 281, 287, 309, 313, 319; see also τραπεζώματα

sold: 144, 146, 155-156, 292, 313, 318

women and meat; see women

meat-hook: 28, 248149

Medea: 65, 67, 97; see also children of Medea

Media: 1329

heroes of: 194

medical terminology and literature: 26, 59, 62173, 244137, 309

Megaloi Theoi: 100335

Megara, city: 77-78, 82, 123; see also war dead

Megara, wife of Herakles: 181; see also children of Herakles and Megara

Melanippos: 182-183

Meleager: 196, 205

Melichos: 147, 33487

Melissa: 202, 232

Menedeios: 144, 156, 162

Menelaion, Sparta: 1816, 248149, 337100, 339-340

Menelaos: 205, 208, 209, 211383

Messene: 79, 81, 82, 103

Messenia: 33798

Metaponto: 53140, 231

metics: 141, 291386; see also μέτοιϰοι

Miletos: 220, 247143

milk: 61, 65, 67, 70, 75, 102, 109, 254, 278, 325

Miltiades: 97, 199, 208-209, 211

Moirai: 31

"moirocaust": 313, 316-318; see also destruction sacrifice, ένατεύω

Mopsos: 65

Morgantina: 231-232

Mortality

contrast with immortality and relation to ritual practices: 74, 85-86, 89, 98, 126-127, 171, 220, 233-235, 238-239, 242, 262, 305, 307, 330-334, 336

mortality (continued)

mortal side of hero: 21, 74, 85, 89, 98, 126-127, 22236, 225, 233-235, 238-239, 307, 330-334, 339-340; see also Achilles, Herakles

murder: 42, 96-97, 107, 126, 227, 251, 264

Muses: 99, 33487

music: 13, 197, 199, 204

mutiny: 96313, 264

Mykonos: 237, 253, 259, 32150

sacrificial calendar: 22027, 237, 253, 259, 316-317, 319-323, 324

myrrh: 102, 104, 111

Myrtilos: 93, 96, 100337

mysteries, mystery cult: ΐ6θ13δ, 225, 280321

at Andania: 100335

at Eleusis: 14797, 2179

Nauseiros: 165, 33487

Neanias: 144,156, 161, 163,166-167, 31835

necromancy: 73239, 279317, 286360

Nekyia- 63, 71, 73, 265, 268207, 271, 275289, 306; see also Odysseus

Neleids: 92, 95305

Neleus: 13313, 239

Nemea: 100

Neoplatonism: 46-47, 58156; see also philosophy

Neoptolemos: 43-44, 47, 93, 94, 95, 100, 103, 119424, 183231, 265

Nero: 107-108

Nike: 272, 275290

Nike parapet, Athens: 260220

ninth-part sacrifice: 218, 220-223, 227, 235-237; see also ἐνατεύω, meat, destruction sacrifice, animal victim (treat-ment of)

non-Greek rituals described by Greek terminology: 45, 63179,83, 128,132,176-177, 194, 288367

Nuer, sacrifices among: 32773, 32876

Nymphs: 281

oath, sacrifices at oath-taking: 42, 44, 48, 120, 158134, 223, 227, 251-253, 259, 271, 305, 325, 327, 329

Odysseus: 62-63, 65, 69, 174-175, 22027, 247, 254, 265, 271, 274-275, 286360, 306; see also Nekyia

Oibotas: 93, 97320

Oidipous: 41, 261-262, 267264; see also children of Oidipous

oikist: 178, 263

oikist cult: I816, 95,185,186243,198-199, 203, 206, 209, 211-212, 338-339 oil: 61, 87, 102, 112, 120, 139, 254, 278

Oinoe, deme: 151119

Oinomaos: 96

Oite, mountain: 86, 182222, 238

olive: 281

olive pit: 23186

olive-tree: 13313, 200

crowns of olive: 221

Olympia: 48-49, 67, 70, 71, 97320, 102347, 115, 118, 171, 176195, 178, 190-192, 197, 252172, 258214, 263, 266, 285

Olympian; see also chthonian

divinities: 41, 42, 46-47, 74,85,141,171, 193, 194-195, 215, 269, 298, 310-318, 338, 341 ; see also οὐράνιοι θεοί, ἐπουράνιοι θεοί

rituals: 26, 74, 85, 141, 171, 215, 269, 275290, 293, 298, 310-318, 325, 338

Olympian-chthonian model or distinction: 1614, 17, 46-47, 74, 215, 269, 297402, 298, 310-318, 325-326, 328, 330, 338, 341

Onesilos: 198, 208-209, 211

onion: 247, 251; see also leek

Onymastos: 263

Opis: 201-202, 298405; see also Hyper-borean maidens

oracle: 67, 194, 198, 199311, 211-212, 261

of Ammon: 95, 99, 100, 212385

of Apollon at Argos: 249156

of Apollon at Delphi: 211

of Apollon at Klaros: 61, 73, 265252

of Kalchas at Daunia: 103

of Trophonios at Lebadeia: 68, 265

of Zeus at Dodona: 148, 212385

of Zeus at Olympia: 258214

Orestes: 111, 2223e, 255, 288308, 289376, 33383

bones of Orestes: 211384

Oresthasion, see war dead from Oresthasion

Orpheus: 65, 67, 180215, 33488

Osiris: 111

outsiders: 154, 31629, 322; see also foreigners, ξένοι

oven: 220

Paiania, deme: 133, 240

Palaimom 80-82, 94 100338, 103, 124-125

Palaimonion, Isthmia: 59, 80-81, 100338, 297, 3081

Pamisos: 100

Pan: 198304

Panathenaia: 188253, 189, 241

Pandora: 64, 65, 158134

Pandrosos: 159134, 194

Paralos: 142

Parentalia: 108

Paros: 55150, 199311

Patras: 100335, 125454

Patroklos: 67, 71, 92, 96, 99329, 101-102, 228, 254-256, 260221, 267, 335

Pausanias and sacrificial ritual: 71, 76, 78, 91, 94, 96-98, 101, 103, 122, 125-126, 23599, 252172, 297, 306, 307

Pelopidas: 97323, 261, 270

Pelopion, Olympia: 70, 190-191

Pelops: 64, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 96, 102347, 117, 118, 171, 176, 178, 190-192, 258214, 263, 266, 267, 285, 298405, 33487

Pergamom 49123, 78, 81, 82, 264

Periphemos: 261 Perpherees: 200

perquisite of priest or priestess at sacrifice: 140, 142, 146, 219, 319; see also γέρα, meat (portions of), Ιερώσυνα, priest, priestess

Persephone: 61, 63

Perseus: 205

Persian sacrificial rituals, see also non-Greek rituals: 45, 177-178, 179213, 194, 198, 21710, 288367

Phaiax: 165, 33487

Pherrephatte: 147, 33487; see also Perse-phone, Kore

Phigaleia, see Heroes at Phigaleia

Philippos: 197-198

Philoktetes: 1920, 206

Philonis: 13845

philosophy and Greek religion: 2023, 46-47, 193, 195; see also Neoplatonism

Philostratos and sacrificial ritual: 91, 99-102, 104, 105, 122, 126, 297

Phokaians killed at Agylla: 82, 83, 88, 97, 170, 171, 198, 239, 329; see also

Etruscan sacrificial rituals

Phorbas: 87

Phoroneus: 92, 100337

Pionis: 93, 95305

Piraeus: 76244, 142, 149109

pit: 38, 58-60, 62-63, 68-69, 72-73, 80-81, 174, 176, 191, 231, 265, 271, 275, 297, 3081; see also βόθρος, blood cooking pit: 53

placation: 126, 198303, 239, 241-242, 259, 264, 279317, 332-333; see also appeasement, expiation, propitiation

plague: 61, 95, 97, 269, 32773; see also disease

Plataiai, battle of: 77; see also war dead, Heroes at Plataiai

Ploutom 146

Plutarch and sacrificial ritual: 91, 96, 97, 98, 100, 102-103, 104-105, 106, 111, 122, 124, 126, 267, 270-271, 275, 297, 307, 334100

Poinai: 64, 65

polemarch: 71, 83-84, 170, 241

polis: 193, 32150, 322, 340

Polis cave, Ithaka: I816, 337100

pollution: 120, 216, 233, 256, 263-265, 317; see also μίασμα

Polyeidos: 116, 118419; see also children of Polyeidos

Polykrite: 92, 95, 96, 103

Polyneikes: 105

Polyxena: 255, 257205, 265, 274287

Polyxenos: 147, 33487

Pompey: 107

Poseidon: 53140, 55, 80-81, 146, 158134, 165, 189, 258, 289377, 314, 32254, 33487

Helikonios: 35, 37, 40, 44

Temenites: 22027, 32254

pottery: 3148, 3465, 200320, 229, 230, 232

"powerful actions", see heilige Handlungen

Praxithea: 172, 175, 186, 189

pregnant animal victims: 13845, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 168, 22027, 325

Preugenes: 93, 100337

Priamos: 47, 252172

Priene: 35, 37, 199311

priest: 48, 77, 111, 137, 165, 179, 219, 220, 23495, 252, 263236, 269,

priest's share at sacrifice: 112, 134, 140, 142-143,146,150,152,179, 217, 21918, 22547, 237, 277, 280, 281, 286, 291, 319-320, 323; see also γέρα, ἱερώσυνα, meat (portions of)

priestess: 44, 13523, 263, 331

priestess' share at sacrifice: 13844, 140, 142-143, 146, 147, 152, 157, 31835, 320; see also γέρα, ἱερώσυνα, meat (portions of)

private sacrifices: 72-73, 166, 193, 287, 306, 320

to heroes: 21, 134, 142, 144, 148-149, 196, 284, 286, 304-305, 323; see also foundations of private cults

Probalinthos, deme: 151119

procession: 13, 33-34, 45, 76, 95, 100335, 102, 119,145, 183, 210, 229, 263236; see also πομπή

Procharisteria: 33

prohibition and sacrifice: 3780, 180, 221, 249-250, 319-324; see also women, foreigners, outsiders, ξένοι

prohibition on the removal of meat: 143, 218-219, 225, 311, 313-325; see also οὐ φορά Prokris: 13845, 158134

Prometheus: 31420

propitiation: 64, 72, 83, 97, 189259, 194, 197-198, 242, 251, 306; see also appeasement, expiation, placation

Proschaireteria: 33

Ptoios: 149108

purification: 60-61, 87, 96, 106, 114, 121, 127-128, 154128, 222, 227, 229, 233, 244, 251, 253, 256, 257, 259, 263-265, 289-290, 295, 305, 325, 32773, 329, 33382; see also impurity

Pylon, see Heroïnes at Pylon

Pylouchos: 13845

pyre; see also πυρά

used at sacrifices: 61, 65, 68, 102, 173, 238

funeral pyre: 102, 181221, 22865, 230-233, 255, 290378

pyre of Herakles on Mount Oite: 86, 238, 290378

Pyrgilion, see Hero at Pyrgilion

Pyrrhos: 92, 95308, 105, 174186

sonofPynhos: 95308, 105

Pythagoras: 206, 33488

Pythaistai: 47, 324

Pythia: 83, 96, 170, 212

relies: 337100

revitalization: 266, 268, 286300, 306, 332

Rhamnous: 76244, 149108, 167157

Rhodes: 31-33, 37, 79, 210, 211, 323

river: 62, 65, 187, 194287, 2179

worshipped with sacrifices: 20, 100335, 251, 253, 257, 259, 305

Roman "hero-cults": 90-91, 106-109

sacrifices and rituals: 90, 95, 108-109, 14593, 174186, 23289, 276293

Roman sources of Greek religion: 16, 2128, 2230, 25, 45, 58-59, 60166, 61, 72-73, 80-82, 90-91, 98, 119, 122-128, 234, 278, 297, 303, 306-310, 316

ruler cult: 1817, 123

sacred law: 19, 131, 13844, 140, 142, 150, 157, 192, 203338, 210377, 219-221, 227, 263, 277, 279317, 3081, 316, 32149, 33281, 339113; see also Selinous, Kyrene

Sacred War: 95, 96

sacrificial calendars: 16, 19, 131, 147, 150-169, 192, 22237, 284, 288, 292393, 304, 329; see also Eleusis, Erchia, Kos, Mara­thon, Mykonos, Salaminioi, Teithras, Thorikos

Salaminioi, sacrificial calendar of the genos : 130, 133-134, 141, 142-143, 147, 148, 151-153, 155-156, 163-168, 237-239, 295, 313, 31835

Salamis: 75, 198, 258208, 261; see also heroes of Salamis

Samos: 48-49, 55149, 257204, 261222

Sappho: 206

Sarapis: 37, 100335, 31941, 32047

sausage: 247-248; see also αἱμάτιον

scapegoat: 22863; see also φαρμαϰός

Schoinos, see Heroïnes at Schoinos

scholia: 25, 50-54, 59, 71-72, 114-120, 126, 174186, 183232, 191270, 248146, 256, 265248, 269-271, 296401, 297, 308-310; see also Byzantine literary sources, grammarians, lexicographers

sea: 194287

worshipped with sacrifices: 251, 253, 257, 305

sacrifices performed into the sea: 47, 112, 2179

sea-shells: 3883, 231

Segesta: 197-198

Selinous: 53140, 217

sacred law: 131, 157, 210377, 219-223, 227, 235-238, 250161 264244, 266, 275, 277, 279317, 285357, 288370, 316-317, 31941, 32149, 323, 33281

Semele: 139, 141-142, 143, 144, 156, 157, 22027, 237, 298405, 316-317, 324, 33487

Sicily: 60166, 96, 124, 1329, 197, 288, 339113

Sikyon: 101, 103, 127460, 182-183, 203, 209, 211

situation or occasion decisive of choice of ritual: 16, 20, 63, 67-70, 74, 83, 85, 187, 216, 224, 226-227, 235, 239, 242, 251-254, 257, 259, 261, 268, 291, 305, 307, 317, 320-321, 325-330, 341; see also crisis, character of recipient

Skambonidai, deme: 141

Skedasos: 93, 97, 258208, 261, 270; see also daughters of Skedasos

Skira: 189

Skiros: 166, 289405, 334(87)

slaves, access to sacrifices: 189257, 291 smoke: 42, 47, 95305, 127, 154, 181, 194, 282, 287; see also ϰνίση

Smyrna: 35, 106, 179209, 224

Solon: 261

laws of Solon regulating funerary practices: 104, 228-229; see also funerary laws

Sophokles, worshipped as hero: 14588

Sostratos: 93

soûls of the dead: 62-63, 65, 66, 268266, 278-279; see also ghosts

Sounion, see Herakleion at Porthmos

Sparta: 97

Spartan kings' religious status after death: 206, 208, 209

statue: 34, 81268, 96-97, 200316, 204, 209, 281

of hero: 19, 31,13733,149,167157, 170163

sterility: 22234, 22762

Strategos: 13732

suicide: 70, 88, 94, 95, 97, 107-108, 118, 126, 238, 240124, 249156, 258

sword 109

used at sacrifices: 62-63, 96310, 102, 260221, 272-273, 275

synoecism: 320-321

Syracuse: 47, 163, 260

Syria, heroes of: 176

table: 14, 16, 31, 38, 47, 102, 130, 137-140, 142, 14588,169,178,191-192, 217, 219, 221-222, 22339, 227, 237, 244-246, 277-278, 281, 282-283, 286, 288308, 304, 319, 32043, 341; see also θεοξένια, τράπεζα, meat

Talthybios: 93, 97

Tantalos: 178206

Taras: 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

Teiresias: 41, 62-63, 174-175, 265-267, 271, 285-286

Teithras, sacrificial calendar from deme: 151

Telephos: 263-264

Telesidromos: 146

Tenos: 53140

Teukros: 165, 33487

Thasos: 2128, 55, 86, 12746°, 135-136, 143, 148, 172, 219, 221, 22654, 237, 247143, 258, 261223, 262, 266, 284-285, 297, 299-300, 305, 31522

Thea: 147

Thebes: 181-182, 203, 205, 206, 261

monument of Seven against Thebes in Argos: 59, 339113

Themis: 147, 33487

Themistokles: 116, 118, 249156, 260221

Theogenes: 2128

heos: 147

Theoxenia at Delphi: 277, 285

Thera: 95305, 230, 23289, 279317, 323

Theras: 92, 95305

Thersander: 93, 96310

Theseia: 100, 103, 144

Theseus: 42, 100, 103, 152122, 165, 33487

Thesmophoria: 61170, 2179, 325

tholos tomb; see also tomb

at Berbati, Argolid: 33798

at Menidi, Attica: 33798

Thorikos, deme: 218-219, 226

sacrificial calendar from deme: 30, 130, 131, 134, 138, 144, 147, 151-153, 155-159,161-162,166-I68, 218-219, 23495, 284350, 313, 31835, 319

Thorikos, hero: 13845

Threptos: 147, 33487

Timesios: 203, 208-209, 211

Titane: 66, 67, 70, 100, 3081

Tlapolemos: 208, 210, 211

tomb, see also burial, grave, τάφος, gravestone

of god: 111

of hero: 14, 20, 77-79, 82, 86,91, 94-97, 99-102,118, 127460,176,178, 184-185, 187-188, 190-191, 197, 200-203, 236, 255, 261228, 263, 265, 270, 300, 305, 333, 335-339

of the ordinary dead: 21, 69, 86-89, 104-105, 108, 128, 136, 228, 230-233, 257, 263, 278, 280, 331, 335-339

Late Bronze Age tombs: 1816, 200320, 201322, 336-339

torches: 33, 65, 68, 70

torch-race: 76

Totenmahl relief; see banqueting hero-relief

tragedy as source of sacrificial rituals: 19, 44, 193278, 200, 254-256, 267

Trajan: 95

Trikorynthos, deme: 151119

tripod: 1816, 42, 44, 192275

Triptolemos: 146, 147

Tritopatores: 156, 159137, 210377, 217, 2 19-223, 225, 227, 235-238, 263-264, 277, 288, 317, 33696

Tronis, cult of the Heros Archegetes at: 236104, 259217, 32358

Trophonios: 67, 68, 70, 71, 265

Troy: 94, 96, 179213

Heroes fallen at Troy: 255; see also Achilles

Twelve Gods: 3465, 32047

Tydeidai: 82, 85, 89, 171, 180, 241

Tydeus: 196, 205

Tylissos: 1314, 21922

Tynabos: 149

Tynaros: 149109

Tyre: 86

unburnt sacrifices: 32

underworld: 73, 113, 229, 257, 265-268, 306, 308

divinities of the underworld: 14,16,17, 61, 64, 65-67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 106, 110, 114, 127, 148106, 237, 265-268, 285, 286, 338; see also chthonian divinities

vegetables: 13, 15, 16, 179, 196, 256203, 277, 278, 281, 284, 309

Vestal Virgins: 107-108

violent death; see also βιαιοθάνατος

and hero-cults: 82, 83, 88, 91, 96-98, 101, 107, 118, 126, 239, 241, 332-333

and other ritual activity: 222, 235, 257, 264, 33382

virgiri: 261

votives: 37, 199, 340118

war

and sacrifices: 111, 172-174, 186-189, 22445, 227, 239, 252-253, 258-259, 260, 266, 268, 271-275, 290, 305, 317, 327, 329; see also battle-line sacrifices, σϕάγια

andhero-cult: 96-98,107-108,123-126, 170, 203, 206, 239, 240, 241, 257-262, 264, 266, 268, 305, 329, 338-339; see also war dead

war dead: 22, 92, 93, 98, 107, 108, 206, 257-262, 264, 338-339

at Marathon: 75-77, 81, 82, 124, 240

from Megara: 77-78, 81, 82, 123-124

from Oresthasiom 93, 96

at Plataiai: 77-78, 92, 94, 95, 96, 102, 103, 118, 122, 124-126, 179, 202, 204, 205353, 262229, 267, 275289

in Persian wars: 66186, 77

on Thasos; see also Agathoi: 135-136, 148, 172, 258, 262, 266, 299-300

sacrifices to the war dead: 76-78, 82, 84-85, 95, 96, 102, 103, 107, 118, 122-126, 135, 148, 170, 172, 179, 197, 202, 203, 241, 258, 262, 267, 275289, 299-300, 339

religious status of the war dead: 76, 84, 204, 206, 262, 264, 338-339; see also immortality

water: 2618, 47, 55150, 62, 63, 67, 70, 87, 97, 102, 120, 14588, 173, 182, 186-188, 233, 248, 251, 253, 254, 256, 278, 314, 325

wheat: 139-140, 145, 220; see also grain

white animal victim, see colour

White goddesses: 111, 22236

winds: 60, 64, 66, 67, 70, 174184, 198304, 225, 241, 251, 253, 257, 259, 305

wine: 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 70, 75, 102, 109, 112, 129, 139, 145, 173, 178, 179209, 182, 186-188, 191, 220, 221, 236-237, 245139, 247, 254, 266, 278, 285, 314, 325

wineless sacrifice: 42-43, 1303, 133, 155, 157, 188, 237, 240, 314, 317; see also νηφάλιος, χοαὶ ἄοινοι

women: 96, 104, 111, 201, 218, 22867, 22974, 256

given meat at sacrifices: 141-142, 157, 291386, 324

not allowed to taste the meat: 85, 171, 180

prohibited to participate in cult: 180215, 22129, 323

wood: 26, 29, 65, 69, 79, 163147, 165151, 166, 173, 187, 188, 21812, 220

wreath: 31, 33, 75, 77,102, 104, 111, 13733, 194-195, 234; see also garland

Xanthos: 92, 96, 116, 117413

Xouthos: 150

Zetos: 206; see also Amphiones

Zeus: 40, 41-42, 48-49, 115, 117,147, 148, 156, 176, 190-192, 198304, 217-219, 223-225, 236, 238, 251, 258214, 263, 277, 314, 331, 33487

Apotropaios: 32047, 323

Astrapaios: 46, 47

Basileus: 194

Chthonios: 31629, 32150, 322

Epakrios: 156

Epopetes: 156, 224, 225, 240-241

Eumenes: 222-223

Herkeios: 46, 47, 52, 13845, 147, 33487

hoiïos: 156

Hypatos: 160138, 194

Kataibates: 152122, 156

Machaneus: 218, 225, 227

Meilichios: 14799, 219, 222-224, 225, 226-227, 316, 31941, 32149, 323, 329, 33281

Milichios: 156

Ourios: 322

Philios: 282

Polieus: 156, 218, 225, 226-227, 23495, 32047, 322

Soter: 100

Tropaios: 13948

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