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Three Restoration Divines: Barrow, South and Tillotson. Volume I

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Irène Simon

Part two

Of Justification by Faith

Rom. V. 1. Therefore being justified by faith we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.

Texte intégral

1In order to the understanding of these words I did formerly propound divers particulars to be considered and discussed: the first was, What that Faith is, by which Christians are said to be justified? This I have dispatched: The next is, What Justification doth import? the which I shall now endeavour to explain; and I am concerned to perform it with the more care and diligence, because the right notion of this term hath in latter times been canvased with so much vehemence of dissension and strife.

  • 1 περὶ λεξειδίων μιϰρολογεῖν. Greg. Naz. [? Cf.: αἲσχιον δὲ ἡμῖν ὃ ἐγϰαλοῦμεν παθειν, ϰαὶ μιϰρολογία (...)

2In former times, among the Fathers and the School-men, there doth not appear to have been any difference or debate about it; because (as it seems) men commonly having the same apprehensions about the matters, to which the word is applicable, did not so much examine or regard the strict propriety of expression concerning them: consenting in things, they did not fall to cavil and contend about the exact meaning of words1. They did indeed consider distinctly no such point of doctrine as that of justification, looking upon that word as used incidentally in some places of Scripture, for expression of points more clearly expressed in other terms; wherefore they do hot make much of the word, as some Divines now do.

  • 2 Articulus stantis, et cadentis Ecclesiae. Luth. [Comment, in Epist. ad Gatat., Pref., in Opera (16 (...)

3But in the beginning of the Reformation, when the discovery of some great errours (from the corruption and ignorance of former times) crept into vogue, rendred all things the subjects of contention, and multiplyed controversies, there did arise hot disputes about this Point; and the right stating thereof seemed a matter of great importance2; nor scarce was any controversie prosecuted with greater zeal and earnestness: whereas yet (so far as I can discern) about the real Points of doctrine, whereto this word (according to any sense pretended) may relate, there hardly doth appear any material difference; and all the Questions depending, chiefly seem to consist about the manner of expressing things, which all agree in; or about the extent of the signification of words capable of larger, or stricter acception: whence the debates about this Point among all sober and intelligent persons might (as I conceive) easily be resolved, or appeased, if men had a mind to agree, and did not love to wrangle; if at least a consent in believing the same things, although under some difference of expression, would content them, so as to forbear strife.

  • 3 Rom. VIII, 83; IV, 5; III, 26.

4To make good which observation, tending as well to the illustration of the whole matter, as to the stating and decision of the controversies about it, let us consider the several divine acts, to which the term Justification is, according to any sense pretended, applicable: I say divine acts; for that the justification we treat of is an act of God simple or compound (in some manner) respecting, or terminated upon man, is evident, and will not I suppose be contested; the words of St. Paul in several places so clearly declaring it; as in that, Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect? it is God that justifieth, and in that, To him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness3: Now according to the tenour of Christian doctrine such acts are these.

  • 4 [formal ratification].
  • 5 Luke XXIV, 46, 47.
  • 6 Acts II, 38; III, 19; V, 31.
  • 7 Acts X, 43.
  • 8 2 Cor. V, 19; Rom. III, 24, 25.

51. God (in regard to the obedience performed to his will by his beloved Son, and to his intercession) is so reconciled to mankind, that unto every person, who doth sincerely believe the Gospel, and (repenting of his former bad life) doth seriously resolve thereafter to live according to it, he doth (upon the solemn obsignation4 of that faith, and profession of that resolution in Baptism) entirely remit all past offences, accepting his person, receiving him into favour; assuming him into the state of a loyal subject, a faithfull servant, a dutifull Son; and bestowing on him all the benefits and privileges sutable to such a state; according to those passages: It behoved Christ to suffer—and that repentance, and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations5: Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins6; and, To him give all the Prophets witness, that through his name, whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins7; and, God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their sins8; and in other places innumerable.

  • 9 1 John I, 9; II, 1.

62. As any person persisting in that sincere faith, and serious purpose of obedience, doth assuredly continue in that state of grace and exemption from the guilt of sin, so in case that out of humane frailty such a person doth fall into the commission of sin, God (in regard to the same performances and intercessions of his Son) doth upon the confession and repentance of such a person remit his sin, and retain him in or restore him to favour; according to those sayings of St. John: If we confess our sins, he is faithfull, and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness; and, If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father Jesus Christ, the righteous9.

  • 10 Rom. VIII, 14; Gal. IV, 6; 1 Cor. II, 12; 2 Tim. II, 7; Rom. VIII, 9.
  • 11 Acts II, 38.
  • 12 Tit III, 5; Eph. II, 22.
  • 13 Eph. II, 10; IV, 23.
  • 14 [2 Thess. II, 3; 1 Pet. I, 2.]
  • 15 [bestowal].

73. To each person sincerely embracing the Gospel, and continuing in stedfast adherence thereto, God doth afford his holy Spirit, as a principle productive of all inward sanctity and vertuous dispositions in his heart, enabling also and quickning him to discharge the conditions of faith, and obedience required from him, and undertaken by him; that which is by some termed making a person just, infusion into his Soul of righteousness, of grace, of vertuous habits; in the Scripture style it is called acting by the Spirit10, bestowing the gift of the holy Ghost11, renovation of the holy Ghost12, creation to good works13, sanctification by the Spirit14, etc. which phrases denote partly the collation15 of a principle enabling to perform good works, partly the design of religion tending to that performance.

8Now all these acts (as by the general consent of Christians, and according to the sense of the ancient Catholick Church, so) by all considerable Parties seeming to dissent, and so earnestly disputing about the Point of Justification, are acknowledged and ascribed unto God; but with which of them the act of Justification is solely or chiefly coincident; whether it signifieth barely some one of them, or extendeth to more of them, or comprehendeth them all (according to the constant meaning of the word in Scripture) are questions coming under debate, and so eagerly prosecuted: Of which questions whatever the true resolution be, it cannot methinks be of so great consequence, as to cause any great anger or animosity in dissenters one toward another, seeing they all conspire in avowing the acts, whatever they be, meant by the word Justification, although in other terms; seeing all the dispute is about the precise and adequate notion of the word Justification: whence those questions might well be waved as unnecessary grounds of contention; and it might suffice to understand the points of doctrine which it relateth to in other terms, laying that aside as ambiguous and litigious. Yet because the understanding the Tightest, or most probable notion of the word may somewhat conduce to the interpretation of the Scriptures, and to clearing the matters couched in it, somewhat also to the satisfaction of persons considerate and peaceable, I shall employ some care faithfully (without partiality to any side) to search it out, and declare it: in order whereto I shall propound some Observations, seeming material.

  • 16 Verba valent ut nummi. [unidentified].
  • 17 [serving as basis, under examination].

9I. Whereas it were not hard to speak much, and criticise about the primitive sense of the word, and about its various acceptions both in holy Scripture and other Writings, I do question whether doing that would be pertinent, or conducible to our purpose of understanding its right notion here: for knowing the primitive sense of words can seldom or never determine their meaning any where, they often in common use declining from it16; and the knowing variety of acceptions doth at most yield onely the advantage of chusing one sutable to the subjacent17 matter and occasion. We are not therefore to learn the sense of this word from mere Grammarians.

  • 18 [outside Scripture].
  • 19 Ἐδιϰaίωσαν [oἱ πατέρες], ἀντὶ τοῦ δίϰaιον [εἶναι] ἔϰριναν. Bals. in Syn. Chalced. Can. 1 [Theodoru (...)
  • 20 [to judge].
  • 21 [in these extraneous writers].

10II. The sense of this word is not to be searched in extraneous18 Writers; both because no matter like to that we treat upon did ever come into their use or consideration, and because they do seldom or never use the word in a sense any-wise congruous to this matter: in them most commonly the word διϰαιόω doth signifie (as the like word ἀξιόω) to deem a thing just19, equal, or fit (or simply to deem about20 a thing.) Sometimes also (yet not often, as I take it) being applyed to an action, or cause, it importeth to make it appear lawfull, or just, as when we ordinarily say to justify what one saith or doeth; (whence διϰαίωμα in Aristotle is an argument proving the justice of a cause, firmamentum causae) but in them21 very seldom or never it is applyed to persons; and an example, I conceive, can hardly be produced, wherein it is so used.

  • 22 2 Sam. XV, 4.
  • 23 Ps. LXXXII, 3.

11III. In the Sacred Writings at large it is commonly applyed to persons, and that according to various senses, some more wide and general, some more restrained and particular. It there sometime denoteth generally to exercise any judicial act upon, in regard unto, or in behalf of a person; to doe him right, or justice, in declaring the merit of his cause, or pronouncing sentence about him; in acquitting, or condemning him for any cause, in obliging him to, or exempting him from any burthen, in dispensing to him any reward or punishment, indifferently: thus Absalom said, O that l were made a judge in the land, that every man, which hath any sute or cause might come unto me, והצדקתיו ϰαὶ διϰαιώσω αὐτòν, and I would justify him, that is, I would doe him right22: and, in the 82. Psalm this charge is given to the Princes, or Judges; Defend the poor, and fatherless, הצדיקו, διϰαιώσατε, justify the poor and needy23; that is, doe right, and justice to them.

  • 24 Deut. XXV, 1.
  • 25 1 Kings VIII, 32; 2 Chr. VI, 23.
  • 26 Prov. XVII, 15.
  • 27 Matt. XII, 37; Isa. V, 23; XLIII, 9.

12But more particularly the word signifieth (and that according to the most usual and current acception) so to doe a man right, as to pronounce sentence in his favour, as to acquit him from guilt, to excuse him from burthen, to free him from punishment; whence we most often meet with the word placed in direct opposition to that of condemnation: as in that law, If there be a controversie between men, and they come unto judgment, that the Judges may judge them, then they shall justifie the righteous, and condemn the wicked24: And in Solomon’s prayer, Then hear thou in heaven, and doe, and judge thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his head, and justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness25: and in the Proverbs, He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even both are an abomination unto the Lord26: And, in the Gospel our Saviour saith; By thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned27.

  • 28 [sometimes].
  • 29 Matt. XI, 19.
  • 30 Luke X, 29; XVI, 15.
  • 31 Luke XVIII, 14.
  • 32 Luke VII, 29.

13In consequence upon this sense, and with a little deflection from it, to justifie a person sometime28 denoteth to approve him, or esteem him just, a mental judgment, as it were, being passed upon him; so wisedom is said to be justified, that is, approved by her children29: So in the Gospel some persons are said to justifie themselves30, that is, to conceit themselves righteous: and the Publican went home justified rather than the Pharisee31, that is, more approved and accepted by God: So also it is said, that All the people, and the Publicans justified God, being baptized with John's baptism32; they justified God, that is, they declared their approbation of God's proceeding, in the mission of John.

  • 33 Acts XIII, 39.

14In like manner, Justification is taken for exemption from burthens; as where in the Acts St. Paul saith, And from all things, from which by the Law of Moses ye could not be justified, in this is every one that believeth justified33.

  • 34 Exod. XXIII, 7.
  • 35 [Prov. XI, 21.]

15It may also sometimes be taken for deliverance from punishment; as where in the Law God saith: The innocent and righteous slay thou not; for I will not justifie the wicked34; that is, not let him escape with impunity; according to that in the Proverbs; Though hand joyn in hand the wicked shall not go unpunished35.

  • 36 Acts XIII, 39; II, 38; III, 19; V, 31; X, 43; XXII, 16; Luke XXIV, 47.
  • 37 [Jas. II, 21.]
  • 38 [‘One who holds that faith alone, without works, is sufficient for justification. The doctrine is (...)
  • 39 [followers of Eunomius, extreme Arians, condemned by the Council of Constantinople in 381].

16IV. We may observe, that (as every man hath some phrases and particular forms of speech in which he delighteth, so) this term is somewhat peculiar to St. Paul, and hardly by the other Apostles applyed to that matter, which he expresseth thereby: they usually in their Sermons, and Epistles, do speak the same thing (whatever it be) in other terms, more immediately expressive of the matter36 St. James indeed doth use it, but not so much, it seemeth, according to his usual manner of speech, as occasionally; to refute the false and pestilent conceits of some persons37, who mistaking St. Paul’s expressions and doctrine, did pervert them to the maintenance of Solifidian38, Eunomian39 and Antinomian positions, greatly prejudicial to good practice. And seeing the term is so proper to St. Paul in relation to this matter, the right sense and notion thereof seemeth best derivable from considering the nature of the subject he treateth on, observing the drift of his discourse and manner of his reasoning, comparing the other phrases he useth equivalent to this, and interpretative of his meaning.

17V. Following this method of enquiry, I do observe and affirm that the last notion of the Word, as it is evidently most usual in the Scripture, so it best suteth to the meaning of St. Paul here, and otherwhere commonly, where he treateth upon the same matters; that God’s justifying solely, or chiefly, doth import his acquitting us from guilt, condemnation and punishment, by free pardon and remission of our sins, accounting us, and dealing with us as just persons, upright and innocent in his sight and esteem: the truth of which notion I shall by divers arguments and considerations make good.

181. This sense doth best agree to the nature of the subject matter, and to the design of St. Paul’s discourse; which I take to be this, the asserting the necessity, reasonableness, sufficiency and excellency of the Christian dispensation in order to that, which is the end of all Religion, the bringing men to happiness, and consequently to the rendring men acceptable to God Almighty, who is the sole Authour and donour of happiness; this is that, which in general he aimeth to assert and maintain.

19This, I say, is that which he chiefly driveth at, to maintain, that it is not unreasonable that God should so proceed with men (whose good and felicity, as their gracious Maker, he greatly tendreth,) as the Christian Gospel declareth him to doe, but that rather such proceeding was necessary and fit in order to our salvation; and withall conformable to the ordinary method of God’s proceedings toward the same purpose.

  • 40 [failing].
  • 41 [liable],
  • 42 Luke XXIV, 47.
  • 43 Arts XIII, 38; II, 38; V, 31.
  • 44 Acts III, 19.
  • 45 Acts XXII, 16.
  • 46 1 John I, 7.

20Now God’s proceeding with man according to the Gospel, the general tenour thereof doth set out to be this; that, God, out of his infinite goodness and mercy, in consideration of what his beloved Son, our blessed Lord hath performed and suffered, in obedience to his will, and for the redemption of mankind (which by transgression of his laws and defailance40 in duty toward him had grievously offended him and fallen from his favour, was involved in guilt, and stood obnoxious41 to punishment) is become reconciled to them (passing by, and fully pardoning all offences by them committed against him) so as generally to proffer mercy upon certain reasonable and gentle terms, to all that shall sincerely embrace such overtures of mercy, and heartily resolve to comply with those terms, required by him; namely, the returning and adhering to him, forsaking all impiety and iniquity, constantly persisting in faithfull obedience to his holy commandments: this, I say, is the proceeding of God, which the Christian Gospel doth especially hold forth, and which according to our Lord’s commission and command the Apostles did first preach to men42; as whosoever will consider the drift and tenour of their preaching, will easily discern; which therefore St. Paul may reasonably be supposed here to assert and vindicate against the Jews, and other Adversaries of the Gospel; consequently the terms he useth should be so interpreted as to express that matter; whence being justified, will imply that which a person embracing the Gospel doth immediately receive from God, in that way of grace and mercy; viz. an absolution from his former crimes, an acquittance from his debts, a state of innocence and guiltlesness in God’s sight, an exemption from vengeance and punishment; all that which by him sometimes, and by the other Apostles is couched under the phrases of remission of sins43, having sins blotted out44 and washed away45, being cleansed from sin46; and the like: Thus considering the nature of the matter, and design of his discourse, would incline us to understand this word.

  • 47 Rom. III, 9; XI, 32; Gal. III, 22.
  • 48 Rom. III, 23.
  • 49 Rom. III, 19 ὑπόδιϰος, ὑπόχρεως.
  • 50 Rom. VIII, 3; Gal. III, 21.
  • 51 Rom. IV, 15; III, 20; VII, 7; Gal. II, 16, 19; Rom. V, 20; VII, 8.

212. Again, the manner of his prosecuting his discourse, and the arguments by which he inferreth his conclusions concerning the Gospel, do confirm this notion. He discourseth, and proveth at large, that all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, were shut up under sin47, that all had sinned and did fall short of the glory of God48 (that is, of rendring him his due glory by dutifull obedience) that every mouth was stopped, having nothing to say in defence of their transgressions, and that all the world stood obnoxious to the severity of God’s judgments49; that not onely the light of nature was insufficient to preserve men from offending inexcusably, even according to the verdict of their own consciences, but that the written Law of God had (to manifold experience) proved ineffectual to that purpose50, serving rather to work wrath51, to bring men under a curse, to aggravate their guilt, to convince them of their sinfulness, to discourage and perplex them; upon which general state of men (so implicated in guilt, so lyable to wrath) is consequent a necessity either of condemnation and punishment, or of mercy and pardon.

  • 52 Rom. I, 20; II, 15.
  • 53 [proclaiming].
  • 54 Gal. III, 10, 22.
  • 55 Rom. III, 20.
  • 56 Rom. III, 28.
  • 57 [liability to injury].

22He doth also imply (that which in the Epistle to the Galatians, where he prosecuteth the same argument, is more expresly delivered) that no precedent dispensation had exhibited any manifest overture, or promise of pardon; for the light of nature doth onely direct unto duty, condemning every man in his own judgment and conscience52, who transgresseth it, but as to pardon in case of transgression it is blind and silent; and the law of Moses rigorously exacteth punctual obedience, denouncing53 in express terms a condemnation and curse to the transgressours thereof in any part54; from whence he collecteth, that no man can be justified by the works of the Law55, (natural, or Mosaical; or that no precedent dispensation can justify any man) and that a man is justified by faith, or hath absolute need of such a justification as that, which the Gospel declareth and tendreth; logιzómeqa oðn, we hence (saith he) collect, or argue, that a man is justified by faith, without the works of the Law56: which justification must therefore import the receiving that free pardon, which the criminal and guilty world did stand in need of, which the forlorn and deplorable state of mankind did groan for, without which no man could have any comfort in his mind, any hope, or any capacity of salvation. If the state of Man was a state of rebellion, and consequently of heinous guilt, of having forfeited God’s favour, of obnoxiousness57 to God’s wrath; then that justification, which was needfull, was a dispensation of mercy, remitting that guilt, and removing those penalties.

  • 58 Rom. IV, 2, 4; III, 27; Tit. III, 5; Eph. II, 9; Rom. XI, 6.
  • 59 Rom. III, 24.
  • 60 Rom. IV, 5.
  • 61 Rom. III, 27; Eph. II, 9.
  • 62 Eph. I, 6, 7.

23Again, St. Paul commendeth the excellency of the Evangelical dispensation from hence, that it entirely doth ascribe the justification of men to God’s mercy and favour, excluding any merit of man, any right or title thereto grounded upon what Man hath performed; consequently advancing the glory of God, and depressing the vanity of Man: If (saith he) Abraham were justified by works, he had whereof to boast, for that to him, who worketh, wages are not reckoned as bestowed in favour, but are paid as debt58; so it would be, if men were justified by works, they might claim to themselves the due consequences thereof, impunity and reward; they would be apt to please themselves, and boast of the effects arising from their own performances; but if, as the Gospel teacheth, men are justified freely (gratis) by God's mercy and grace59 without any regard to what they formerly have done, either good, or bad, those who have lived wickedly and impiously (upon their complyance with the terms proposed to them) being no less capable thereof, than the most righteous and pious persons60; then where is boasting? it is excluded61; then surely no man can assume any thing to himself, then all the glory and praise are due to God’s frank goodness: the purport of which reasoning (so often used) doth imply, that a man’s justification signifieth his being accepted or approved as just, standing rectus in curia, being in God’s esteem, and by his sentence absolved from guilt and punishment, the which cannot otherwise be obtained, than from divine favour declared and exhibited in the Gospel; according as St. Paul otherwhere fully speaketh: To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved; in whom we have redemption through his bloud, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace62.

  • 63 Rom. III, 24, 25, 26.
  • 64 [said to be].
  • 65 [formal aspects under which it is considered].
  • 66 Rom. V, 9.
  • 67 Eph. I, 7; Col. I, 14.

24Again, St. Paul expresseth Justification as an act of judgment, performed by God, whereby he declareth his own righteousness, or justice; that justice consisting in acceptance of a competent satisfaction offered to him in amends for the debt due to him, and in reparation of the injury done unto him, in consequence thereof acquitting the debtour, and remitting the offence; so those words declare: Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in his bloud, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; to declare at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him, which believeth in Jesus63: Justification there we see is expressed64 a result of Christ’s redemption, and the act of God consequent thereon; so is remission of sins; God by them joyntly demonstrating his justice, and goodness, so that they may be well conceived the same thing diversly expressed, or having several names according to some divers formalities of respect65. So in other places, sometimes justification, sometimes remission of sins are reckoned the proper and immediate effects of our Saviour’s passion: Being (saith St. Paul in the 5th to the Romans) justified by his bloud, we shall be saved by him from wrath66: and In whom (saith he again in the first of the Epistle to the Ephesians) we have redemption through his bloud, the forgiveness of sins67; which argueth the equivalency of these terms.

  • 68 [is said to consist in].
  • 69 Gal. III per tot.; Rom. XI, 27.
  • 70 [is said to be].

25So likewise a main point of the Evangelical Covenant on God’s part is made68 justifying of a man by his faith, or upon it69; and remission of sins upon the same condition, is also made70 the like principal point, which sometime is put alone as implying all the benefits of that covenant.

  • 71 Rom. VI, 2.
  • 72 Rom. VI, 6, 7, 18, 22.

26Again, justification is by St. Paul made the immediate consequent, or special adjunct of Baptism; therein he saith we die to sin71 (by resolution and engagement to lead a new life in obedience to God’s commandment) and so dying we are said to be justified from sin (that which otherwise is expressed, or expounded by being freed from sin;)72 now the freedom from sin obtained in Baptism is frequently declared to be the remission of sin then conferred, and solemnly confirmed by a visible seal.

  • 73 [considering],
  • 74 Eph. V, 26; Tit. III, 5: XIII, 38; XXII, 16.

27Whereas73 also so frequently we are said to be justified by faith, and according to the general tenour of Scripture the immediate consequent of faith is Baptism; therefore dispensing the benefits consigned in Baptism is coincident with justification; and that dispensation is frequently signified to be the cleansing us from sin by entire remission thereof74.

283. Farther, The same notion may be confirmed by comparing this term with other terms and phrases equivalent, or opposite to this of justification.

  • 75 Rom. IV, 6, 7, 8.

29One equivalent phrase is imputation of righteousness: As (saith St. Paul) David speaketh of that man’s blessedness, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works; Blessed are they, whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord will not impute sin75; whence to him that considers the drift and force of St. Paul's discourse it will clearly appear, that justification, imputing righteousness, not imputing sin, and remission of sin are the same thing; otherwise the Apostle’s discourse would not signifie or conclude any thing.

  • 76 Rom. III, 19; Gal. II, 16; Ps. CXLIII, 2.

30For confirmation of his discourse (arguing free justification by God’s mercy, not for our works) St. Paul also doth alledge that place in the Psalm, For in thy sight shall no man living be justified76; the sense of which place is evidently this, that no man living, his actions being strictly tried and weighed, shall appear guiltless, or deserve to be acquitted; but shall stand in need of mercy, or can no otherwise be justified than by a special act of grace.

  • 77 Rom. IV, 3, 22; Gal. III, 6.

31Again, imputing faith for righteousness is the same with justifying by faith (Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness)77 but that imputation is plainly nothing else, but the approving him, and taking him for a righteous person in regard to his faith.

  • 78 Rom. II, 13.

32Again, justification is the same with being righteous before God, as appeareth by those words: Not the hearers of the Law are just before God, but the doers of the Law shall be justified78; but being just before God, plainly signifieth nothing else but being accepted by God, or approved to his esteem and judgment.

  • 79 Rom. V, 9, 10.
  • 80 2 Cor. V, 19.

33Being reconciled to God seemeth also to be the same with being justified by him; as appeareth by those words, Much more then being now justified by his bloud, we shall be saved from wrath through him; for if when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life79: where πολλῷ μᾶλλον διϰaιωθέντες, and πολλῷ μᾶλλον ϰαταλλαγέντες, seem to signifie the same; but that reconciliation is interpreted by remission of sins: God was in Christ, reconciling the World unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them80.

  • 81 Rom. XI, 30, 31, 32; 1 Pet. II, 10.

34To obtain mercy81 is another term signifying justification, and what doth that import but having the remission of sins in mercy bestowed on us?

  • 82 Rom. V, 16, 18.
  • a forasmuch as] T.; B. taking in that
  • 83 Rom. V, 17.

35Again, Justification is opposed directly to condemnation: As (saith he) by the offence of one man (judgment came) upon all men to condemnation, so by the righteousness of one man (the free gift came) upon all men to justification of life82 (justification of life, that is, a justification so relating to life, or bestowing a promise thereof, as the condemnation opposite thereto respected death, which it threatned) In which place St. Paul comparing the first Adam with his actions, and their consequences, to the second Adam with his performances, and what resulted from them, teacheth us, that as the transgression of the first did involve mankind in guilt, and brought consequently upon men a general sentence of death,a (forasmuch as all men did follow him in commission of sin;) so the obedience of the second did absolve all men from guilt, and restored them consequently into a state of immortality (all men, under the condition prescribed, who (as it is said) should receive the abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness83 tendered to them;) the justification therefore he speaketh of doth so import an absolution from guilt and punishment, as the condemnation signifieth a being declared guilty, and adjudged to punishment.

  • 84 [his last expedients].
  • 85 [render].
  • 86 Bellarm. de Justific. II, iii; I, i. [Opera, 1619, IV, 897; 814-5.]

36Bellarmine indeed (who in answering to this place objected against his doctrine, blunders extremely, and is put to his trumps84 of Sophistry) telleth us, that in this place to maintain the parallel or antithesis between Adam and Christ, justification must signifie infusion of grace, or putting into a man’s soul an inherent righteousness; because Adam's sin did constitute85 us unjust with an inherent unrighteousness86: but (with his favour) justification and condemnation being both of them the acts of God, and it being plain, that God condemning doth not infuse any inherent unrighteousness into man, neither doth he justifying (formally) (if the antithesis must be patt,) put any inherent righteousness into him: inherent unrighteousness in the former case may be a consequent of that condemnation, and inherent righteousness may be connected with this justification; but neither that, nor this may formally signifie those qualities respectively: as the inherent unrighteousness consequent upon Adam's sin is not included in God’s condemning, so neither is the inherent righteousness proceeding from our Saviour’s obedience contained in God’s justifying men.

  • b But, however,]; B. 1683 But however
  • 87 Rom. VIII, 33, 34. τίς ἐγϰαλέσει ϰατἀ [ἐϰλεκτῶν Θεoῦ;].

37bBut, however, most plainly (and beyond all evasions) justification and condemnation are opposed otherwhere in this Epistle: Who (saith St. Paul) shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect? (or criminate against them) tis God who justifieth, who is he that condemneth87? what can be more clear, than that there justification signifieth absolution from all guilt and blame?

  • 88 Bellarm. [ibid.] II, iii [ut supra].
  • 89 Justitiam in nobis recipientes. [Hujus justificationis causae sunt... demum unica formalis causa e (...)

384. Farther, this notion may be confirmed, by excluding that sense, which in opposition thereto is assigned, according to which justification is said to import not onely remission of sin, and acceptance with God, but the making a man intrinsecally righteous, by infusing into him (as they speak)88 a habit of grace, or charity; the putting into a man a righteousness, by which (as the Council of Trent expresseth it) We are renewed in the spirit of our mind, and are not onely reputed, but are called, and become truly righteous, receiving righteousness in our selves89.

  • 90 [prevenient].
  • 91 Rom. VIII, 9; 1 Cor. III, 16; Acts II, 38; Eph. IV, 23, 24; 2 Cor. V, 17.
  • 92 Jas. III, 2.

39Now admitting this to be true, as in a sense it surely is, that whoever (according to St. Paul’s meaning in this Epistle) is justified, is also really at the same time endewed with some measure of that intrinsick righteousness, which those men speak of (for as much as that faith, which is required to justification, (being a gift of God, managed by his providence, and wrought by his preventing90 grace,) doth include a sincere and stedfast purpose of forsaking all impiety, of amendment of life, of obedience to God, which purpose cleanseth the heart, and is apt to produce as well inward righteousness of heart, as outward righteousness of practice; for that also to every sound believer upon his faith is bestowed the spirit of God, as a principle of righteousness, dwelling in him, directing, admonishing, exciting him to doe well91; assisting and enabling him sufficiently to the performance of those conditions, or those duties, which Christianity requireth, and the believer thereof undertaketh; which, the man’s honest and diligent endeavour concurring, will surely beget the practice of all righteousness, and in continuance of such practice will render it habitual) avowing, I say, willingly, that such a righteousness doth ever accompany the justification St. Paul speaketh of, yet that sort of righteousness doth not seem implyed by the word Justification, according to St. Paul’s intent, in those places, where he discourseth about justification by faith; for that such a sense of the word doth not well consist with the drift and efficacy of his reasoning, nor with divers passages in his discourse. For 1. Whereas St. Paul from the general depravation of manners in all men (both Jews and Gentiles) argueth the necessity of such a justification, as the Christian Gospel declareth and exhibiteth, if we should take Justification for infusing an inherent quality of righteousness into men, by the like discourse we might infer the imperfection and insufficiency of Christianity it self, and consequently the necessity of another dispensation beside it; for that even all Christians (as St. James saith) do offend often, and commission of sin doth also much reign among them92; so that St. Paul's discourse (justification being taken in this sense) might strongly be retorted against himself.

  • 93 Ps. LI, 10.
  • 94 Ps. CXLIII, 10.
  • 95 Ps. CXIX, 35, 36.

402. Supposing that sense of Justification, a Jew might easily invalidate St. Paul's ratiocination, by saying, that even their Religion did plainly enough declare such a justification, which God did bestow upon all good men in their way, as by their frequent acknowledgments and devotions is apparent; such as those of the Psalmist: Create in me a clean heart, O God, renew a right Spirit within me93. Teach me to doe thy will, for thou art my God94: Make me to go in the path of thy commandments; incline my heart unto thy testimonies95; which sort of prayers God hearing did infuse righteousness, and justified those persons in this sense; so that Christianity herein could not challenge any thing peculiar, or could upon this score appear so necessary, as St. Paul pretendeth.

  • 96 [to mean].
  • 97 Rom. IV, 5.
  • 98 Rom. V, 8.
  • 99 Rom. V, 10.

413. From the justification St. Paul speaketh of, all respect to any works, and to any qualifications in men (such as might beget in them any confidence in themselves, or yield occasion of boasting) is excluded; it cannot therefore well be understood for96 a constituting Man intrinsecally righteous, or infusing worthy qualities into him; but rather for an act of God terminated upon a man as altogether unworthy of God’s love, as impious, as an enemy, as a pure object of mercy; so it is most natural to understand those expressions, importing the same thing; God justifieth the ungodly97; we being sinners Christ dyed for us98 (purchasing, as the following words imply, justification for us) being yet enemies we by his death were reconciled99 (or justified, for reconciliation and justification, as we before noted, do there signify the same.)

  • 100 Rom. IV, 21.
  • 101 Rom. IV, 23, 24.

424. Abraham is brought in as an instance of a person justified in the same manner, as Christians are according to the Gospel: but his justification was merely the approving and esteeming him righteous, in regard (not to any other good works, but) to his stedfast faith, and strong persuasion concerning the power and faithfulness of God—because he was fully persuaded, that what God had promised he was able to perform100; to which faith and justification consequent thereon, St. Paul comparing those of Christians subjoyneth; Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him, but for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him, that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead101. As then it were an idle thing to fansie a righteousness, upon the score of that belief, dropt into Abraham; and as his being justified is expresly called, having righteousness, upon the account of his faith, imputed (or ascribed) to him; So our justification (like and answerable to his) should correspondently be understood, the approving and accounting us, notwithstanding our former transgressions, as righteous persons, in regard to that honest and stedfast faith, wherein we resemble that Father of the faithfull.

43Even St. James himself, when he saith that Abraham and Rahab were justified by works,’tis evident that he meaneth not that they had certain righteous qualities infused into them, or were made thence by God intrinsecally more righteous than they were before, but that they were approved and accepted by God, because of the good works they performed (in faith and obedience to God) one of them offering to sacrifice his Son, the other preserving the Spyes sent from God's people.

445. The so often using the word Imputation of righteousness, instead of Justification, doth imply this act not to be a transient operation upon the soul of Man, but an act immanent to God's mind, respecting Man onely as its object, and translating him into another relative state: With this sense that word excellently well agreeth, otherwise it were obscure, and so apt to perplex the matter, that probably St. Paul would not have used it.

  • 102 [strange, uncommon].

456. Again, When it is said again and again, that faith is imputed for righteousness, it is plain enough, that no other thing in Man was required thereto; to say, that he is thereby sanctified, or hath gracious habits infused, is uncouth102 and arbitrarious: the obvious meaning is, that therefore he is graciously accepted and approved, as we said before.

  • 103 [Bellarmine: op. cit., p. 898; Grotius: Annotationes in Epistolas Pauli; ad Romanos, Opera, Amstel (...)
  • 104 Barrow is probably referring to the translation of Daniel by Theodotion (end of 2nd C.), which app (...)

467. We might in fine add, that the word Justification is very seldom, or never used in that sense of making Persons righteous, or infusing righteousness into them. Bellarmine and Grotius103 having searched with all possible diligence, do alledge three or four places, wherein (with some plausible appearance) they pretend it must be so understood; but as they are so few, so are they not any of them thoroughly clear and certain; but are capable to be otherwise interpreted without much straining; The clearest place, Dan. XII.3 the LXX reade מצדקים, ἀπὀ διϰαίων, which the Hebrew, and sense will bear104. Wherefore the other sense, which we have maintained, being undeniably common and current in the Scripture, and having so many particular reasons shewing it agreeable to St. Paul's intent, seemeth rather to be embraced.

  • 105 1 Cor. VI, 11. * ἐv [τῷ πνεὑματι τοῦ Θεοῦ ήμοῶν]

47In St. Paul's Epistles I can onely find three or four places, wherein the word Justifying may with any fair probability be so extended as to signify an internal operation of God upon the Soul of men; they are these; And such were some of you; but ye have been washed, but ye have been sanctified, but ye have been justified in the name of Christ Jesus, and * by the Spirit of our God105; where Justification being performed by the Spirit of God, seemeth to imply, a spiritual operation upon a man’s soul, as an ingredient thereof.

  • 106 Tit. III, 5, 6, 7.

48According to his mercy he saved us, by the laver of regeneration, and renewing of the holy Ghost; which he poured on us richly by Jesus Christ our Saviour; that being justified by his grace, we may be made heirs; according to the hope of everlasting life106; where God's justifying us by the Grace of Christ seemeth to include the renewing by the holy Ghost.

  • 107 Rom. VI, 7.

49He that dyeth, is justified from sin107; where St. Paul speaking about our obligation to lead a new life in holy obedience, upon account of our being dedicated to Christ, and renouncing sin in Baptism, may be interpreted to mean a being really in our hearts purified and freed from sin.

  • 108 Rom. VIII, 30.

50Whom he predestinated, those he called; and whom he called, those he justified, and whom he justified, those he glorified108; where the chief acts of God toward those, who finally shall be saved, being in order purposely recited, and Justification being immediately (without interposing Sanctification) coupled to Glorification, the word may seem to comprize Sanctification.

51If considering these places (which yet are not clearly prejudicial to the notion we have made good, but may well be interpreted so as to agree thereto) it shall seem to any, that St. Paul doth not ever so strictly adhere to that notion, as not sometime to extend the word to a larger sense, I shall not much contend about it; It is an ordinary thing for all Writers to use their words sometimes in a larger, sometimes in a stricter sense; and it sufficeth to have shewn, that where St. Paul purposely treateth about the matter we discourse upon, the purport of his discourse argueth, that he useth it according to that notion, which we have proposed.

  • 109 Vid. Cyril, adv. Julian., lib. VII, p. 248, where justification is very well described. [Migne, Pa (...)
  • 110 ψιλὴ πίοτις. [Contra Celsum, I, Migne, Patrol. gr„ t. 11, col. 673].

528. I shall onely add one small observation, or conjecture favouring this notion; which is the probable occasion of all St. Paul's discourse and disputation about this Point, which seemeth to have been this. That Christianity should (upon so slender a condition or performance, as that of Faith) tender unto all persons indifferently, however culpable, or flagitious their former lives had been, a plenary remission of sins and reception into God’s favour, did seem an unreasonable and implausible thing to many109; The Jews could not well conceive, or relish that any man so easily should be translated into a state equal, or superiour to that, which they took themselves peculiarly to enjoy; The Gentiles themselves (especially such as conceited well of their own wisedom and vertue) could hardly digest it; Celsus in Origen could not imagine or admit that bare faith should work such a miracle110, as presently to turn a dissolute person into a Saint, beloved of God, and designed to happiness.

  • 111 [monstrous].
  • 112 [Zosimi Historiae Novae, ed. Henricus Stephanus, 1581, II, 61].

53Zozimus saith of Constantine, that he chose Christianity as the onely Religion, that promised impunity and pardon for his enormous111 practices112; intimating his dislike of that Point in our Religion; This prejudice against the Gospel St. Paul removeth; by shewing that because of all mens guilt and sinfulness such an exhibition of mercy, such an overture of acceptance, such a remission of sin was necessary in order to salvation, so that without it no man could be exempted from wrath and misery; and that consequently all other Religions (as not exhibiting such a remission,) were to be deemed in a main Point defective: When therefore he useth the word Justification to express this matter, it is reasonable to suppose that he intendeth thereby to signify that remission, or dispensation of mercy.

54It may be objected that St. Austin and some others of the Fathers do use the word commonly according to the sense of the Tridentine Council: I answer, that the point having never been discussed, and they never having thoroughly considered the sense of St. Paul, might unawares take the word as it sounded in Latine, especially the sense they affixed to it, signifying a matter very true and certain in Christianity. The like hath happened to other Fathers in other cases; and might happen to them in this, not to speak accurately in points that never had been sifted by disputation. More I think we need not say in answer to their authority.

55VI. So much may suffice for a general explication of the notion; but for a more full clearing of the Point, it may be requisite to resolve a question concerning the time, when this act is performed, or dispensed; It may be enquired when God justifieth, whether once, or at several times, or continually; To which question I answer briefly:

  • 113 [takes into account].

561. That the justification which St. Paul discourseth of, seemeth in his meaning, onely or especially to be that act of grace, which is dispensed to persons at their Baptism, or at their entrance into the Church, when they openly professing their faith, and undertaking the practice of Christian duty God most solemnly and formally doth absolve them from all guilt, and accepteth them into a state of favour with him; that St. Paul onely or chiefly respecteth113 this act, considering his design, I am inclined to think, and many passages in his discourse seem to imply.

57If his design were (as I conceive it probable) to vindicate the proceeding of God, peculiarly declared in the Gospel, in receiving the most notorious and heinous transgressours to grace in Baptism, then especially must the justification he speaketh of relate to that; to confirm which supposition we may consider, that

  • 114 1 Cor. VI, 11.
  • 115 Eph. V, 25, 26; Heb. X, 29.
  • 116 Tit. III, 5, 6, 7; Heb. X, 22, 23.

58i. In several places Justification is coupled with baptismal regeneration and absolution: Such were some of you, but ye have been washed, ye have been sanctified, ye have been justified in the name of Christ Jesus114: (where by the way being sanctified, and being justified, seem equivalent terms, as in that place, where Christ is said to have given himself for the Church, that he might sanctify it, and cleanse it with the washing of water by the Word115, Sanctification (I conceive) importeth the same thing with Justification.) Again, He saved us by the laver of Regeneration, that having been justified by his grace, we may be made heirs of everlasting life116.

  • 117 Rom. V, 1, 9; Tit. III, 7; 1 Cor. VI, 11.

59ii. St. Paul in expressing this act, as it respecteth the faithfull, commonly doth use a tense referring to the past time: he saith not διϰαιούμενοι, being justified, but διϰαιωθέντες, having been justified; not διϰαιοῦσθε, ye are justified, but διϰαιώθητε, ye have been justified117, namely at some remarkable time, that is at their entrance into Christianity. (Our Translatours do render it according to the present time, but it should be rendred, as I say, in our Text, and in other places.)

60iii. St. Paul, in the 6th to the Romans, discourseth thus; Seeing we in Baptism are cleansed and disentangled from sin, are dead to it, and so justified from it, God forbid that we should return to live in the practice thereof, so abusing and evacuating the grace we have received; which discourse seemeth plainly to signifie, that he treateth about the justification conferred in Baptism.

  • 118 Rom. III, 25.

61iv. He expresseth the justification he speaketh of by the words πάρεσις τῶν προγεγονότων ἁιιαρτημάτω, the passing over foregoing sins118, which seemeth to respect that universal absolution, which is exhibited in Baptism. Being (saith he) justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Christ Jesus; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his bloud, to declare his righteousness, [or the remission o[sins that are past, through the forbearance of God.

  • 119 Rom. X, 9, 10.

62v. The relation this justification hath to faith, being dispensed in regard thereto (or upon condition thereof) doth infer the same: Faith is nothing else, but a hearty embracing Christianity, which first exerteth it self by open declaration and avowal in Baptism (when we believe with our hearts to righteousness, and confess with our mouth to salvation;)119 to that time therefore the act of Justification may be supposed especially to appertain: (then, when the Evangelical covenant is solemnly ratified, the grace thereof especially is conferred.) Upon such considerations I conceive that St. Paul's justification chiefly doth respect that act of grace, which God consigneth to us at our Baptism. But farther,

  • 120 Heb. X, 23.
  • 121 I Tim. I, 19; 2 Pet. II, 20, etc. ; Heb. X, 26, 38; VI, 1.
  • c untill] T. ; B. while.

632. The vertue and effect of that first justifying act doth continue (we abide in a justified state) so long as we do perform the conditions imposed by God, and undertaken by us at our first justification; holding fast the profession of our hope without wavering120; keeping faith, and a good conscience121; so long as we do not forfeit the benefit of that grace by making shipwreck of faith and a good conscience 3, relapsing into infidelity, or profaneness of life. Our case is plainly like to that of a subject, who having rebelled against his Prince, and thence incurred his displeasure, but having afterward upon his submission by the clemency of his Prince obtained an act of pardon, restoring him to favour, and enjoyment of the protection and privileges sutable to a loyal subject, doth continue in this state,c untill by forsaking his allegiance, and running again into rebellion, he so loseth the benefit of that pardon, that his offence is aggravated thereby; so if we do persevere firm in faith and obedience, we shall (according to the purport of the Evangelical covenant) continue in the state of grace and favour with God, and in effect remain justified; otherwise the virtue of our justification ceaseth; and we in regard thereto are more deeply involved in guilt.

  • 122 Poenitentia imitatur baptismatis gratiam. Hier. adv. Pelag. I, 10 [Migne, Patrol, lat., t. 23, col (...)

643. Although Justification chiefly signifieth the first act of grace toward a Christian at his Baptism, yet (according to analogy of reason, and affinity in the nature of things) every dispensation of pardon granted upon repentance, may be styled Justification; for as particular acts of repentance, upon the commission of any particular sins, do not so much differ in nature, as in measure or degree from that general conversion, practised in embracing the Gospel; So the grace vouchsafed upon these penitential acts, is onely in largeness of extent, and solemnity of administration diversified from that; Especially considering that repentance after Baptism is but a reviving of that first great resolution and engagement we made in Baptism122; that remission of sin upon it is onely the renovation of the grace then exhibited; that the whole transaction in this case is but a reinstating the covenant then made (and afterward by transgression infringed) upon the same terms, which were then agreed upon; that consequently (by congruous analogy) this remission of sins, and restoring to favour granted to a penitent are onely the former justification reinforced: whence they may bear its name; but whether St. Paul ever meaneth the word to signifie thus, I cannot affirm.

  • d Jesus Christ.] T.; B. Jesus Christ, which having peace with God, and how it comes through our Lord (...)

65Now according to each of these notions all good Christians may be said to have been justified; they have been justified by a general abolition of their sins, and reception into God’s favour in Baptism; they so far have enjoyed the virtue of that gracious dispensation, and continued in a justified state, as they have persisted in faith and obedience; they have upon falling into sin, and rising thence by repentance, been justified by particular remissions. So that having been justified by faith, they have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christd.

Notes

1 περὶ λεξειδίων μιϰρολογεῖν. Greg. Naz. [? Cf.: αἲσχιον δὲ ἡμῖν ὃ ἐγϰαλοῦμεν παθειν, ϰαὶ μιϰρολογίαν ϰαταγινώσϰοντας, αὐτοὺς μιϰρολοεῖσθαι περὶ τἀ γράμματα. Oratio XL, Migne, Patr. gr„ t. 36, col, 440].

2 Articulus stantis, et cadentis Ecclesiae. Luth. [Comment, in Epist. ad Gatat., Pref., in Opera (1611) IV, 5. See also: Antithesis verae ef falsae Ecclesiae, 1541, sig. Bv, C4 and 4v; Catechismus Major, 1544, p. 78; Deutsche Antwort Luthers auf Konig Heinrichs von England Buch (1522), Sammtliche Werke, Erlangen, 1826-53, XXVIII, 365; Eine andre Predigt am Sonntage nach Christi Himmelfahrt, ibid., L, 10-11, 26-31: Tischreden, Von dem Herrn Christo, no. 667, 691, ibid., LVIII, 133, 146, etc.].

3 Rom. VIII, 83; IV, 5; III, 26.

4 [formal ratification].

5 Luke XXIV, 46, 47.

6 Acts II, 38; III, 19; V, 31.

7 Acts X, 43.

8 2 Cor. V, 19; Rom. III, 24, 25.

9 1 John I, 9; II, 1.

10 Rom. VIII, 14; Gal. IV, 6; 1 Cor. II, 12; 2 Tim. II, 7; Rom. VIII, 9.

11 Acts II, 38.

12 Tit III, 5; Eph. II, 22.

13 Eph. II, 10; IV, 23.

14 [2 Thess. II, 3; 1 Pet. I, 2.]

15 [bestowal].

16 Verba valent ut nummi. [unidentified].

17 [serving as basis, under examination].

18 [outside Scripture].

19 Ἐδιϰaίωσαν [oἱ πατέρες], ἀντὶ τοῦ δίϰaιον [εἶναι] ἔϰριναν. Bals. in Syn. Chalced. Can. 1 [Theodorus Balsamon: In Canones Synodi Chalcedonensis, Canon 1, Migne, Patrol. gr„ t. 137, col. 384],

20 [to judge].

21 [in these extraneous writers].

22 2 Sam. XV, 4.

23 Ps. LXXXII, 3.

24 Deut. XXV, 1.

25 1 Kings VIII, 32; 2 Chr. VI, 23.

26 Prov. XVII, 15.

27 Matt. XII, 37; Isa. V, 23; XLIII, 9.

28 [sometimes].

29 Matt. XI, 19.

30 Luke X, 29; XVI, 15.

31 Luke XVIII, 14.

32 Luke VII, 29.

33 Acts XIII, 39.

34 Exod. XXIII, 7.

35 [Prov. XI, 21.]

36 Acts XIII, 39; II, 38; III, 19; V, 31; X, 43; XXII, 16; Luke XXIV, 47.

37 [Jas. II, 21.]

38 [‘One who holds that faith alone, without works, is sufficient for justification. The doctrine is based on Rom. iii.28, where Luther rendered pιsteι by “allein durch den Glauben”’(OED). The term was mostly used to refer (often pejoratively) to Luther’s articulus stands aut cadentis Ecclesiae, to which Barrow alludes above (p. 428). See in OED the quotation from Coleridge: ‘The heroic Solifidian Martin Luther himself’. St. James’s Epistle is usually believed to have glanced at the Simonians and Nicolatians, to whom Barrow seems to attribute beliefs held by later churches or sects. See Eunomians below.]

39 [followers of Eunomius, extreme Arians, condemned by the Council of Constantinople in 381].

40 [failing].

41 [liable],

42 Luke XXIV, 47.

43 Arts XIII, 38; II, 38; V, 31.

44 Acts III, 19.

45 Acts XXII, 16.

46 1 John I, 7.

47 Rom. III, 9; XI, 32; Gal. III, 22.

48 Rom. III, 23.

49 Rom. III, 19 ὑπόδιϰος, ὑπόχρεως.

50 Rom. VIII, 3; Gal. III, 21.

51 Rom. IV, 15; III, 20; VII, 7; Gal. II, 16, 19; Rom. V, 20; VII, 8.

52 Rom. I, 20; II, 15.

53 [proclaiming].

54 Gal. III, 10, 22.

55 Rom. III, 20.

56 Rom. III, 28.

57 [liability to injury].

58 Rom. IV, 2, 4; III, 27; Tit. III, 5; Eph. II, 9; Rom. XI, 6.

59 Rom. III, 24.

60 Rom. IV, 5.

61 Rom. III, 27; Eph. II, 9.

62 Eph. I, 6, 7.

63 Rom. III, 24, 25, 26.

64 [said to be].

65 [formal aspects under which it is considered].

66 Rom. V, 9.

67 Eph. I, 7; Col. I, 14.

68 [is said to consist in].

69 Gal. III per tot.; Rom. XI, 27.

70 [is said to be].

71 Rom. VI, 2.

72 Rom. VI, 6, 7, 18, 22.

73 [considering],

74 Eph. V, 26; Tit. III, 5: XIII, 38; XXII, 16.

75 Rom. IV, 6, 7, 8.

76 Rom. III, 19; Gal. II, 16; Ps. CXLIII, 2.

77 Rom. IV, 3, 22; Gal. III, 6.

78 Rom. II, 13.

79 Rom. V, 9, 10.

80 2 Cor. V, 19.

81 Rom. XI, 30, 31, 32; 1 Pet. II, 10.

82 Rom. V, 16, 18.

83 Rom. V, 17.

84 [his last expedients].

85 [render].

86 Bellarm. de Justific. II, iii; I, i. [Opera, 1619, IV, 897; 814-5.]

87 Rom. VIII, 33, 34. τίς ἐγϰαλέσει ϰατἀ [ἐϰλεκτῶν Θεoῦ;].

88 Bellarm. [ibid.] II, iii [ut supra].

89 Justitiam in nobis recipientes. [Hujus justificationis causae sunt... demum unica formalis causa est justitia Dei; non qua ipse justus est, sed qua nos justos facit; qua videlicet ab eo donati, renovamur spiritu mentis nostrae; et non modo reputamur, sed vere justi nominamur, et sumus, justitiam in nobis recipientes unusquisque suam secundum mensuram. Canones et Decreta, Sessio VI, De Justificatione, cap. vii; (Antwerpiae, 1604, p. 35)].

90 [prevenient].

91 Rom. VIII, 9; 1 Cor. III, 16; Acts II, 38; Eph. IV, 23, 24; 2 Cor. V, 17.

92 Jas. III, 2.

93 Ps. LI, 10.

94 Ps. CXLIII, 10.

95 Ps. CXIX, 35, 36.

96 [to mean].

97 Rom. IV, 5.

98 Rom. V, 8.

99 Rom. V, 10.

100 Rom. IV, 21.

101 Rom. IV, 23, 24.

102 [strange, uncommon].

103 [Bellarmine: op. cit., p. 898; Grotius: Annotationes in Epistolas Pauli; ad Romanos, Opera, Amstelodami, 1679, t. II, vol. II, p. 672: yet cp. Defensio Fidei Catholicae de Satisfactione Christi adv. Faustum Socinum, ibid., t. III, p. 304: “Quanquam enim abluere, mundare, et voces similes significare possint aut efficere ne peccata committantur in posterum, aut commissa ne apparent, posterior tamen interpretatio Scripturae phrasi est convenientior. Sic deleri iniquitates exponitur peccatorum non recordari, Esaiae, xliii, 25, et mundare ab iniquitate idem esse ostenditur quod condonare, Jerem. xxxiii, 8.”].

104 Barrow is probably referring to the translation of Daniel by Theodotion (end of 2nd C.), which appears in all but two of the mss. of the Septuagint, but he leaves out the article (ἀπὀ τῶν διααίων) in accordance with the Hebrew word he quotes. I owe this to my colleague Professor Ch. Fontinoy.

105 1 Cor. VI, 11. * ἐv [τῷ πνεὑματι τοῦ Θεοῦ ήμοῶν]

106 Tit. III, 5, 6, 7.

107 Rom. VI, 7.

108 Rom. VIII, 30.

109 Vid. Cyril, adv. Julian., lib. VII, p. 248, where justification is very well described. [Migne, Patrol, gt., t. 76, col. 880].

110 ψιλὴ πίοτις. [Contra Celsum, I, Migne, Patrol. gr„ t. 11, col. 673].

111 [monstrous].

112 [Zosimi Historiae Novae, ed. Henricus Stephanus, 1581, II, 61].

113 [takes into account].

114 1 Cor. VI, 11.

115 Eph. V, 25, 26; Heb. X, 29.

116 Tit. III, 5, 6, 7; Heb. X, 22, 23.

117 Rom. V, 1, 9; Tit. III, 7; 1 Cor. VI, 11.

118 Rom. III, 25.

119 Rom. X, 9, 10.

120 Heb. X, 23.

121 I Tim. I, 19; 2 Pet. II, 20, etc. ; Heb. X, 26, 38; VI, 1.

122 Poenitentia imitatur baptismatis gratiam. Hier. adv. Pelag. I, 10 [Migne, Patrol, lat., t. 23, col. 550].

Notes de fin

a forasmuch as] T.; B. taking in that

b But, however,]; B. 1683 But however

c untill] T. ; B. while.

d Jesus Christ.] T.; B. Jesus Christ, which having peace with God, and how it comes through our Lord Jesus Christ, what it imports shall be the matter of another discourse.

© Presses universitaires de Liège, 1967

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