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Three Restoration Divines: Barrow, South and Tillotson. Volume I

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Irène Simon

Part two

Of the Evil and Unreasonableness of Infidelity

Heb. III. 12. Take heed, Brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief.

Texte intégral

  • 1 [use exhortation to dissuade].
  • a and this... in which] T.

1If the causes of all the sin and all the mischief in the world were carefully sought, we should find the chief of all to be Infidelity; either total or gradual. Wherefore to dehort1 and dissuade from it is a very profitable design;a and this, with God’s assistence, I shall endeavour from these words; in which two particulars naturally do offer themselves to our observation; an assertion implyed, that Infidelity is a sinfull distemper of heart; and a duty recommended, that we be carefull to void, or correct that distemper; of these to declare the one, and to press the other shall be the scope of my discourse.

2That Infidelity is a sinfull distemper of heart, appeareth by divers express testimonies of Scripture, and by many good reasons grounded thereon.

  • 2 John XVI, 8, 9.
  • 3 John XV, 22; VIII, 24.
  • 4 John IX, 41.

3It is by our Saviour in terms called Sin; when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, — Of sin, because they believe not in me2: and, If I had not come, and spoken unto them, they had not had sin; but now they have no cloak for their sin3; and, If ye were blind, ye should not have had sin; but now ye say, we see, therefore your sin abideth4. What sin? that of Infidelity, for which they were culpable, having such powerfull means and arguments to believe imparted to them, without due effect.

  • 5 John III, 18; XII, 48. οὑ γὰρ μóνον τò μὴ εἴϰειν ταῖς ἐντoλαῖς τoῦ Χριoτoῦ, ἀλλἀ ϰαἱ τò ἀπιστεῖν α (...)

4It hath a Condemnation grounded thereon; He (saith our Saviour) that believeth not, is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God5; but Condemnation ever doth suppose faultiness.

  • 6 [promulgated as a threat].
  • 7 2 Thess. II, 11, 12.
  • 8 2 Thess. I, 8.
  • 9 Apoc. [Rev.] XXI, 8.

5It hath sore punishment denounced6 thereto; God (saith St. Paul) shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lye, that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness7; and, Our Lord (saith he) at his coming to judgment, will take vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ8; whence among those, who have their part in the lake burning with fire and brimstone, the fearfull, and unbelievers9 (that is they who fear to profess, or refuse to believe the Christian Doctrine) are reckoned in the first place; which implyeth Infidelity to be a heinous sin.

  • 10 1 John III, 23.
  • 11 John VI, 29; Mark I, 15.
  • 12 1 John III, 4.

6It is also such, because it is a transgression of a principal Law, or divine Command; this (saith St. John) is ἡ ἐντλὴ αὐτoῦ,the command of him that we should believe10; this (saith our Lord) is τò ἔργoν τoῦ θεoῦ, the signal work of God (which God requireth of us) that ye believe on him, whom he hath sent11 that was a duty, which our Lord and his Apostles chiefly did teach, injoin and press; wherefore correspondently Infidelity is a great sin; according to St. John’s notion, that sin is ἀνoμία, the transgression of a Law12.

7But the sinfulness of Infidelity will appear more fully by considering its nature and ingredients; its causes; its properties and adjuncts; its effects and consequences.

  • 13 [scorn],

8I. In its nature it doth involve an affected blindness and ignorance of the noblest and most usefull truths; a bad use of reason, and most culpable imprudence; disregard of God’s providence, or despight13 thereto; abuse of his grace; bad opinions of him, and bad affections toward him; for

  • 14 Tit. II, 11; III, 4.
  • 15 1 Tim. I, 15.
  • 16 Luke VII, 30; Matt. XXIII, 37; 1 Tim. II, 4; Luke X, 16; Rom. II, 4; 2 Pet. III, 9, 15.

9God in exceeding goodness and kindness to mankind hath proposed a doctrine14, in it self faithfull and worthy of all acceptation15, containing most excellent truths instructive of our mind and directive of our practice, toward attainment of Salvation and Eternal felicity: special overtures of mercy and grace most needfull to us in our state of sinfull guilt, of weakness, of wretchedness; high encouragements and rich promises of reward for obedience; such a doctrine with all its benefits, Infidelity doth reject, defeating the counsel of God, crossing his earnest desires of our welfare, despising his goodness, and patience16.

  • 17 1 Pet. I, 10; Acts III, 18; Luke XXIV, 44; Heb. II, 4; Acts IV, 33; XIX, 20; II, 17; VI, 7; XII, 2 (...)
  • 18 1 John V, 10.

10To this doctrine God hath yielded manifold clear attestations, declaring it to proceed from himself; ancient presignifications and predictions; audible voices and visible apparitions from heaven, innumerable miraculous works, providence concurring to the maintenance and propagation of it against most powerfull oppositions and disadvantages17 but all these testimonies Infidelity slighteth, not fearing to give their Author the lye, which wicked boldness St. John chargeth on it; He (saith the Apostle) that believeth not God, hath made him a liar; because he believeth not the testimony that God gave of his Son18.

11Many plain arguments, sufficient to convince our minds, and win our belief, God hath furnished; the dictates of natural conscience, the testimony of experience, the records of history, the consent of the best and wisest Men, do all conspire to prove the truth, to recommend the usefulness of this Doctrine; but Infidelity will not regard, will not weigh, will not yield to reason.

  • 19 2 Cor. V, 20.
  • 20 Acts XIII, 46.
  • 21 2 Tim. IV, 4.
  • 22 Matt. XIII, 4.
  • 23 Isa. V, 24.
  • 24 Job XXI, 14.
  • 25 Job XXII, 28.
  • 26 John VI, 44; 2 Cor. IV, 16; Apoc. III, 20.
  • 27 Acts VII, 51.
  • 28 1 Thes. V, 19; 2 Cor. IV, 4.

12God by his providence doth offer means and motives, inducing to belief, by the promulgation of his Gospel, and exhortation of his Ministers19 but all such methods Infidelity doth void and frustrate; thrusting away the word20 turning away the ear from the truth21, letting the seed fall beside us22 casting away the Law of the Lord of hosts23; in effect (as those in Job) Saying to God, depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways24 God by his grace doth shine upon our hearts25 doth attract our wills to compliance with his will, doth excite our affections to relish his truth26; but Infidelity doth resist his Spirit27 doth quench the heavenly light28 doth smother all the suggestions and motions of divine grace within us.

  • 29 [depravity].

13What God asserteth, Infidelity denieth, questioning his veracity: what God commandeth, Infidelity doth not approve, contesting his wisedom; what God promiseth, Infidelity will not confide in, distrusting his fidelity, or his power: Such is its behaviour (so injurious, so rude, so foolish) toward God, and his truth; this briefly is its nature, manifestly involving great pravity29 iniquity and impiety.

14II. The causes, and sources from whence it springeth (touched in Scripture, and obvious to experience) are those which follow.

  • 30 Rom. XI, 8.
  • 31 [absorbed].
  • 32 Acts XVIII, 17.
  • 33 Matt. XXII, 5.
  • 34 Heb. II, 3.
  • 35 Prov. I, 24; Isa. LXV, 12; LXVI, 4; Ier. VII, 31.
  • 36 Matt. XIII, 4.

151. It commonly doth proceed from negligence, or drowsy in observance and carelesness; when men being possessed with a spirit of slumber30 or being amused31 with secular entertainments do not mind the concerns of their Soul, or regard the means by God’s mercifull care presented for their conversion; being in regard to religious matters of Gallio's humour, caring for none of those things32; thus, when the King in the Gospel sent to invite persons to his wedding-feast, it is said, oἱ δὲ ἀμελήσαντες ἀπῆλθoν, they being careless or not regarding it, went their ways one to his field, another to his trade33 Of such the Apostle to the Hebrews saith, How shall we escape, τοιαύτης ἀμελήσαντες σωτηρίας who regard not so great salvation34 exhibited to us? Of such Wisedom complaineth; I have called, and ye refused; I have stretched out my hand, and no man regarded35 No man; the greatest part indeed of men are upon this account Infidels, for that being wholly taken up in pursuit of worldly affairs and divertisements, in amassing of wealth, in driving on projects of ambition, in enjoying sensual pleasures, in gratifying their fancy and humour with vain curiosities, or sports, they can hardly lend an ear to instruction; so they become unacquainted with the notions of Christian doctrine; the which to them are as the seed falling by the way side36 which those fowls of the air do snatch and devour before it sinketh down into the earth, or doth come under consideration. Hence is unbelief commonly termed not hearing God’s voice, not hearkning to God’s word, the dinn of worldly business rendring men deaf to divine suggestions.

  • 37 [strange, uncommon].
  • b falling from him] T.; B. intercurring
  • 38 Acts XVII, 32.
  • 39 Acts XXVI, 28.
  • 40 [long enough to arrive...].

162. Another source of Infidelity is sloth, which indisposeth men to undergo the fatigue of seriously attending to the doctrine propounded, of examining its grounds, of weighing the reasons inducing to believe; whence at first hearing, if the notions hap not to hit their fancy, they do slight it before they fully understand it, or know its grounds; thence at least they must needs fail of a firm and steady belief, the which can alone be founded on a clear apprehension of the matter, and perception of its agreeableness to reason: So when the Athenians did hear St. Paul declaring the grand points of faith, somewhat in his discourse, uncouth37 to their conceit,b falling from him, some of them did scorn, others did neglect his doctrine; some mocked, others said we will hear thee again of this matter38: So Agrippa was almost persuaded to be a Christian39 but had not the industry to prosecute his inquiry, till he arrived to a full satisfaction40 A solid faith, (with clear understanding and firm persuasion) doth indeed, no less than any science, require sedulous, and persevering study; so that as a man can never be learned, who will not be studious; so a sluggard cannot prove a good believer.

  • 41 Heb. V, 14.
  • 42 Job V, 14; Isa. LIX, 10; Deut. XXVIII, 29.

173. Infidelity doth arise from stupidity, or dulness of apprehension (I mean not that which is natural, for any man in his senses, how low soever otherwise in parts or improvements, is capable to understand the Christian doctrine, and to perceive reason sufficient to convince him of its truth, but) contracted by voluntary indispositions and defects; a stupidity rising from mists of prejudice, from steams of lust and passion, from rust grown on the mind by want of exercising41 it in observing and comparing things; whence men cannot apprehend the clearest notions plainly represented to them, nor discern the force of arguments however evident and cogent; but are like those wisards in Job, who meet with darkness in the day time, and grope at noon day, as in the night42.

  • 43 Acts XXVIII, 26, 27; Matt. XIII, 14, 15; Isa. VI, 9; John XII, 40; Rom. XI, 7, 8, 25; Eph. IV, 18;(...)
  • c rebuked them] T. ; B. did increpate
  • 44 Luke XXIV, 25.
  • 45 Heb. V, 11.
  • 46 Heb. V, 14.

18This is that, which is so often charged on the Jews as cause of their infidelity; who did hear but not understand, and did see but not perceive; because their heart was gross, and their ears were dull of hearing, and their eyes were closed43; this is that πώρωσις ϰαρδίας, that numbness of heart, which is represented as the common obstruction to the perception and admission of our Lord’s doctrine; this our Lord blamed in his own Disciples, when hec rebuked them thus; O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the Prophets have spoken44; Of this the Apostle doth complain, telling the Hebrews, that they were uncapable of improvement in knowledge, because they were νωθροὶ ταῖς ἀϰοαῖς, dull of hearing45 for want of skill and use, not having their senses exercised to discern both good and evil46: there is indeed to a sound and robust faith required a good perspicacy of apprehension, a penetrancy of judgment, a vigour and quickness of mind, grounded in the purity of our faculties, and confirmed by exercise of them in consideration of spiritual things.

  • 47 [preconceived, biased].
  • 48 Matt. XVI, 23; John VI, 60, 66.

194. Another cause of Infidelity is a bad judgment; corrupted with prejudicate47 notions, and partial inclinations to falshood. Men are apt to entertain prejudices favourable to their natural appetites, and humours; to their lusts, to their present interests; dictating to them, that wealth, dignity, fame, pleasure, ease, are things most desirable, and necessary ingredients of happiness; so that it is a sad thing in any case to want them; all men have strong inclinations byassing them toward such things, it is a hard thing to shake off such prejudices, and to check such inclinations48; it is therefore not easie to entertain a doctrine representing such things indifferent, obliging us sometimes to reject them, always to be moderate in the pursuit and enjoyment of them; wherefore Infidelity will naturally spring up in a mind not cleansed from those corruptions of judgment.

  • 49 Matt. XVII, 17.
  • 50 2 Cor. X. 4.
  • 51 [reasoning], οὑ πάντας δυσωπεῖ τὰ σημεῖα, ὰλλὰ μόνους τοὺς εὺγνώμονας. Const. Apost. VIII, 1. [Mig (...)
  • 52 Acts VII, 51, 54; Ier. VI, 10; IX, 26.

205. Another source of Infidelity is perversness of Will, which hindreth men from entertaining notions disagreeable to their fond, or froward humour: ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστσς ϰαὶ διεστρμμένη, O faithless and perverse generation49 those Epithets are well coupled, for he that is perverse will be faithless; in proportion to the one the other bad quality will prevail. The weapons of the Apostolical warfare (against the Infidel world) were as St. Paul telleth us, mighty to the casting down of strong holds50 so it was; and the Apostles by their discourse and demeanour effectually did force many a strong fortress to surrender: but the will of some men is an impregnable bulwark against all batteries of discourse51; they are so invincibly stubborn, as to hold out against the clearest evidence, and mightiest force of reason; if they do not like what you say, if it cross any humour of theirs, be it clear as day, be it firm as an Adamant, they will not admit it; you shall not persuade them, though you do persuade them. Such was the temper of the Jews, whom St. Stephen therefore calleth a stiff-necked people, uncircumcised in heart and ears52; who although they did hear the most winning discourse, that ever was uttered, although they saw the most admirable works that ever were performed, yet would they not yield to the doctrine; the mean garb of the persons teaching it, the Spirituality of its design, the strict goodness of its precepts, and the like considerations not sorting with their fancies, and desires; they hoping for a Messias, arrayed with gay appearances of external grandeur and splendour; whose chief work it should be to settle their Nation in a state of worldly prosperity and glory.

  • 53 Exod. VII, 4, 22; VIII, 15, 19; IX, 12.
  • 54 Exod. IX, 7.
  • 55 2 Kings XVII, 14.
  • 56 Ps. XCV, 7, 8; Heb. III, 8.
  • 57 Acts XIX, 8, 9.
  • 58 Heb. III, 13; Mark XVI, 14.

216. This is that hardness of heart, which is so often represented as an obstruction of belief: this hindred Pharaoh, notwithstanding all those mighty works performed before him, from hearkning to God’s word53; and regarding the mischiefs threatned to come on him for his disobedience; I will not (said he) let Israel go54 his will was his reason, which no persuasion, no judgment could subdue: This was the cause of that monstrous Infidelity in the Israelites; which baffled all the methods, which God used to persuade and convert them; Notwithstanding (’tis said) they would not hear, but hardned their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the Lord their God55; Whence that exhortation to them; To day if you will hear his voice, harden not your hearts56. And to obduration the disbelief of the Gospel upon the Apostles preaching is in like manner ascribed; St. Paul (’tis said in the Acts) went into the Synagogue and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing and perswading the things con~cerning the Kingdome of God: But divers were hardned and believed not57: and, Exhort one another daily (saith the Apostle) lest any of you be hardned (in unbelief) through the deceitfulness of sin58.

  • d any thing any wise]; B., 1683 any thing, any wise
  • 59 Isa. XXX, 10; John VI, 63.
  • 60 John VI, 60, 66.
  • 61 John VI, 61.
  • 62 1 Pet. II, 8.
  • 63 Matt. XI, 6; XXIV, 10; XIII, 21.

227. Of kin to that perversness of heart is that squeamish delicacy and niceness of humour, which will not let men entertain or savourd any thing any wise seeming hard or harsh to them, if they cannot presently comprehend all that is said, if they can frame any cavil, or little exception against it, if every scruple be not voided, if any thing be required distastefull to their sense; they are offended, and their faith is choaked; You must to satisfie them, speak to them smooth things59 which no wise grate on their conceit, or pleasure: So when our Lord discoursed somewhat mysteriously, representing himself in the figure of heavenly bread (typified by the Manna of old) given for the World, to sustain men in life; Many of his disciples hearing this, said this is a hard saying, who can hear it? and—from that time many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him60; this is that which is called being—scandalized at the word61; and stumbling at it62; concerning which our Saviour saith, Blessed is he, whoever shall not be offended in me63.

  • 64 [obliged].
  • 65 1 Cor. III, 2.
  • 66 Heb. V, 12.

23In regard to this weakness, the Apostles were fain64 in their Instructions to use prudent dispensation, proposing onely to some persons the most easie points of Doctrine, they not being able to digest such as were more tough and difficult: I have (saith St. Paul) fed you with milk, and not with meat; for hitherto ye were not able to bear it—for ye are yet carnal65 and Ye (saith the Apostle to the Hebrews) are such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat66.

  • 67 Matt. XVI, 23; XXVI, 31.

24Such were even the Apostles themselves in their minority; not savouring the things of God; being offended at our Lord’s discourses67 when he spake to them of suffering; and with his condition, when he entred into it.

  • 68 Rom. I, 28.
  • 69 Thess. II, 10, 11.

258. With these dispositions is connected a want of love to truth; the which if a man hath not, he cannot well entertain such notions as the Gospel propoundeth, being no wise gratefull to carnal sense and appetite: This cause St. Paul doth assign of the Pagan Doctors falling into so gross errours and vices, because they did not like to retain God in their knowledge68; and of mens revolting from Christian Truth to Antichristian Imposture—because they received not the love of truth, that they might be saved: for which cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lye69: Nothing indeed, but an impartial and ingenuous love of truth (overbalancing all corrupt prejudices and affections) can engage a man heartily to embrace this holy and pure Doctrine, can preserve a man in a firm adherence thereto.

  • 70 2 Cor. X, 5.

269. A grand cause of Infidelity is pride, the which doth inter pose various bars to the admission of Christian truth; for before a man can believe, πᾶν ὕψωμα, every height (every towring imagina tion and conceit) that exalteth it self against the knowledge of God, must be cast down70.

  • e Pride … … mankind] T. ; B. Vanity or affectation of seeming wise in speciall manner above others, (...)

27ePride fills a man with vanity and an affectation of seeming wise in special manner above others, thereby disposing him to maintain Paradoxes and to nauseate common truths receiv’d and believ’d by the generality of mankind.

28A proud man is ever averse from renouncing his prejudices, and correcting his errours; doing which implyeth a confession of weakness, ignorance and folly, consequently depresseth him in his own conceit, and seemeth to impair that credit, which he had with others from his wisedom; neither of which events he is able to endure.

  • 71 Prov. XXVI, 12.
  • 72 [aspires to].
  • 73 John V, 44; XII, 43.
  • 74 I Cor. III, 18.

29He that is wise in his own conceit, will hug that conceit, and thence is uncapable to learn; there is, saith Solomon, more hope of a fool than of him71; and He that affecteth72 the praise of Men, will not easily part with it for the sake of truth; whence, How (saith our Lord) can ye believe, who receive glory one of another73? how can ye, retaining such affections, be disposed to avow your selves to have been ignorants and fools, when as ye were reputed for learned and wise74? how can ye endure to become Novices, who did pass for Doctors? how can ye allow your selves so blind and weak, as to have been deceived in your former judgment of things?

  • 75 [possessed with a good opinion].
  • 76 John III, 9.
  • 77 1 Cor. I, 26; II, 6; John VII, 26.
  • 78 1 Cor. I, 20.
  • 79 1 Cor. II, 14.
  • 80 1 Cor. III, 18.

30He that is conceited75 of his own wisedom, strength of parts, and improvement in knowledge cannot submit his mind to notions, which he cannot easily comprehend and penetrate; he will scorn to have his understanding baffled or puzled by sublime mysteries of Faith; he will not easily yield any thing too high for his wit to reach, or too knotty for him to unloose: How can these things be76? what reason can there be for this? I cannot see how this can be true: this point is not intelligible; so he treateth the dictates of Faith; not considering the feebleness and shallowness of his own reason: Hence not many wise men according to the flesh77 (or who were conceited of their own wisedom, relying upon their natural faculties and means of knowledge) not many Scribes, or disputers of this world78 did imbrace the Christian Truth, it appearing absurd and foolish to them79; it being needfull, that a man should be a fool, that he might (in this regard) become wise80.

  • 81 Rom. III, 27; IV, 2, 16; IX, 11; XI, 6; 1 Cor. I, 29; III, 21; Eph. II, 9; Tit. III, 5.
  • 82 Rom. X, 3; IX, 31.
  • 83 [Aeneis X, 773].

31The prime notions of Christianity do also tend to the debasing humane conceit, and to the exclusion of all glorying in our selves; referring all to the praise and glory of God, ascribing all to his pure mercy, bounty and grace81: It representeth all men heinous sinners, void of all worth and merit, lapsed into a wretched state, altogether impotent, forlorn, and destitute of ability to help or relieve themselves; such notions proud hearts cannot digest; they cannot like to avow their infirmities, their defects, their wants, their vileness, and unworthiness; their distresses and miseries; they cannot endure to be entirely and absolutely beholden to favour and mercy for their happiness; such was the case of the Jews; who could not believe, because—going about to establish their own righteousness, they would not submit to the righteousness of God82 Dextra mihi Deus83; every proud man would say, with the profane Mezentius.

  • 84 [lower or lessen in worth or value].
  • f worldly] T.; B. mundane
  • 85 [Prov. XII, 26.]
  • g thrown down] T.; B. detruded

32Christianity doth also much disparage and vilify84 those things, for which men aref pt much to prize and pride themselves; it maketh small accompt of wealth, of honour, of power, of wit, of secular wisedom, of any humane excellency or “worldly advantage. It levelleth the Rich and the Poor, the Prince and the Peasant, the Philosopher and Idiot in spiritual regards; yea far preferreth the meanest and simplest person, endued with true Piety above the mightiest and wealthiest, who is devoid thereof: In the eye of it, The righteous is more excellent than his neighbour85, whatever he be in worldly regard or state: This a proud man cannot support; to be divested of his imaginary privileges, to beg thrown down from his perch of eminency, to be set below those, whom he so much despiseth, is insupportable to his Spirit.

  • h their] T.
  • 86 2 Sam. VI, 22.

33The practice of Christianity doth also expose men to the scorn, and censure of profane men; who for their own solace, out of envy, revenge, diabolical spite, are apt to deride and reproach all conscientious, and resolute practisers ofh their duty, as silly, credulous, superstitious, humorous, morose, sullen folks: So that he that will be good, must resolve to bear that usage from them; like David; I will yet be more vile, than thus, and will be base in my own sight86: but with these sufferings a proud heart cannot comport; it goeth too much against the grain thereof to be contemned.

  • i foundation] T.; B. base
  • 87 Rom. XII, 3, 16.
  • 88 Job XLII, 3, 6.
  • 89 Rom. XII, 10; Phil. II, 3.
  • 90 1 Pet. V, 5; Luke XIV, 10; Rom. XII, 16.

34Christianity doth also indispensably require duties, point-blank opposite to pride; it placeth humility among its chief vertues, as ai foundation of piety; it enjoineth us to think meanly of our selves, to disclaim our own worth and desert, to have no complacency or confidence in any thing belonging to us; not to aim at high things87 to wave the regard and praise of men: it exacteth from us a sense of our vileness, remorse and contrition for our sins, with humble confession of them, self-condemnation and abhorrence88 it chargeth us to bear injuries and affronts patiently, without grievous resentment, without seeking or so much as wishing any revenge; to undergo disgraces, crosses, disasters willingly and gladly: it obligeth us to prefer others before our selves89 sitting down in the lowest room, yielding to the meanest persons; to all which sorts of duty a proud mind hath an irreconcilable antipathy90.

  • 91 [pride, haughtiness].
  • 92 Matt. VII, 13, 14; Prov. I, 7, 30; V, 12; XIII, 13.
  • 93 Isa. V, 24; Eze. XX, 13, 16, 24; Acts XIII, 41 (ϰαταφρονηταὶ); Luke X, 16; Rom. II, 4.

35A proud man, that is big and swollen with haughty conceit and stomach91 cannot stoop down so low, cannot shrink in himself so much as to enter into the strait gate, or to walk in the narrow way, which leadeth to life92: He will be apt to contemn wisedom and instruction93.

  • 94 [a mean-spirited person].

36Shall I (will he say) such a Gallant as I, so accomplished in worth, so flourishing in dignity, so plump with wealth, so highly regarded, and renowned among men, thus pitifully crouch and sneak? shall I deign to avow such beggarly notions, or bend to such homely duties? shall I disown my perfections, or forgo my advantages? shall I profess my self to have been a despicable worm, a villainous caitiff, a sorry wretch? shall I suffer my self to be flouted as a timorous Religionist, a scrupulous Precisian, a consciencious Sneaksby94? shall I lie down at the foot of mercy, puling in sorrow, whining in confession, bewailing my guilt, and craving pardon? shall I allow any man better, or happier than my self? shall I receive those into consortship, or equality of rank with me, who appear so much my inferiours? shall I be misused, and trampled on without doing my self right; and making them smart, who shall presume to wrong or cross me? shall I be content to be nobody in the world? So the proud man will say in his heart, contesting the doctrines and duties of our Religion, and so disputing himself into Infidelity.

  • 95 Apoc. [Rev.] XXI, 8.

3710. Another spring of Infidelity is pusillanimity, or want of good resolution and courage: δειλοὶ ϰαὶ ἄπιστοι, Cowards and Infidels95 are well joyned among those who are devoted to the fiery Lake; for timorous men dare not believe such doctrines, which engage them upon undertaking difficult, laborious, dangerous enterprizes; upon undergoing hardships, pains, wants, disgraces; upon encountering those mighty and fierce enemies, with whom every faithfull man continually doth wage war.

  • 96 Matt. XIII, 21.
  • 97 John VII, 13; IX, 22; XIX, 38.

38They have not the heart to look the World in the face, when it frowneth at them, menacing persecution and disgrace; but when affliction ariseth for the word, they are presently scandalized 96 It is said in the Gospel, that no man spake freely of our Lord for fear of the Jews97; as it so did smother the profession and muzle the mouth; so it doth often stifle Faith it self, and quell the heart, men fearing to harbour in their very thoughts points dangerous, and discountenanced by worldly power.

  • 98 Jas. IV, 1; 1 Pet. II, 11; Rom. VII, 23.

39They have not also courage to adventure a combat with their own flesh, and those lusts, which war against their Souls98; to set upon correcting their temper, curbing their appetites, bridling their passions; keeping flesh and bloud in order; upon pulling out their right Eyes, and cutting off their right Hands, and crucifying their Members; it daunteth them to attempt duties so harsh and painfull.

  • 99 Eph. VI, 12, 11.
  • 100 Luke XIV, 33.

40They have not the resolution to withstand and repell temptations and in so doing to wrestle with Principalities and Powers; to resist and baffle the strong one99 To part with their ease, their wealth, their pleasure, their credit, their accommodations of life100 is a thing, any thought whereof doth quash all inclination in a faint and fearfull heart of complying with the Christian Doctrine.

  • 101 1 Tim. I, 18; Heb. XII.
  • 102 1 Tim. VI, 12.
  • 103 [2 Tim. II, 3.]
  • 104 2 Cor. VII, 5.

41Christianity is a Warfare101 living after its rules is called fighting the good fight of Faith102; every true Christian is a good souldier of Jesus Christ103; the state of Christians must be sometimes like that of the Apostles; who were troubled on every side, without were fightings, within were fears104 great courage therefore, and undaunted resolution are required toward the undertaking this religion, and the persisting in it cordially.

4211. Infidelity doth also rise from sturdiness, fierceness, wildness, untamed animosity of spirit; so that a man will not endure to have his will crossed, to be under any law, to be curb’d from any thing, which he is prone to affect.

  • 105 Acts XIII, 45; XVII, 5; V, 17; Rom. X, 2; Gal. IV, 17.
  • 106 Phil. III, 6, ϰατὰ ζῆλον διώκων.
  • 107 Gal. I, 14; Acts XXVI, 11, περισσῶς ἐμμαινόμενος [αὐτοῖς].

4312. Blind zeal, grounded upon prejudice, disposing men to stiff adherence unto that, which they have once been addicted and accustomed to, is in the Scripture frequently represented as a cause of Infidelity. So the Jews being filled with zeal, contradicted the things spoken by St. Paul105; flying at his doctrine, without weighing it; So by instinct of zeal did St. Paul himself persecute the Church106 being exceedingly zealous for the traditions delivered by his fathers107.

  • 108 Ού ρᾀδιον πονηρία συντρεφόμενον άναβλέψαι ταχέως πρὀς τὀ των παρ’ ήμῖν δογμάτων ὕψος, ὰλλὰ χρή πάν (...)
  • 109 [promulgate as a threat].
  • 110 2 Tim. III, 8.
  • 111 1 Tim. VI, 5.
  • 112 Tit. I, 15.

44In fine, Infidelity doth issue from corruption of mind by any kind of brutish lust, any irregular passion, any bad inclination or habit108: any such evil disposition of soul doth obstruct the admission or entertainment of that doctrine, which doth prohibit and check it; doth condemn it, and brand it with infamy; doth denounce109 punishment and woe to it: whence men of corrupt minds, and reprobate concerning the faith110 and Men of corrupt minds, destitute of the truth111 are attributes well conjoyned by St. Paul, as commonly jumping together in practice; And to them (saith he) that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure, but even their mind, and conscience is defiled112; such pollution is not onely consequent to, and connected with, but antecedent to Infidelity, blinding the mind so as not to see the truth, and perverting the will so as not to close with it.

  • 113 ; pet III, 21.
  • 114 1 Tim. I, 5.
  • 115 1 Tim. III, 9.
  • 116 1 Tim. I, 19.

45Faith and a good conscience are twins, born together, inseparable from each other, living and dying together; for the first, faith is (as St. Peter telleth us) nothing else but the stipulation of a good conscience113 fully persuaded that Christianity is true, and firmly resolving to comply with it: and, The end (or drift, and purport) of the Evangelical doctrine is charity out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned114; whence those Apostolical precepts, to hold the mystery of faith in a pure conscience115; and, to hold faith and a good conscience, which some having put away, concerning the faith have made shipwrack116; a man void of good conscience will not embarke in Christianity; and having laid good conscience aside, he soon will make shipwrack of faith, by apostacy from it. Resolute indulgence to any one lust, is apt to produce this effect.

  • 117 Matt. XIX, 29.
  • 118 Matt VI, 19.
  • 119 1 Tim. VI. 18; Heb. XIII, 16; Luke XVI, 9.
  • 120 Luke VI, 30.
  • 121 Matt. XIX, 21.
  • 122 Luke XIV, 33.
  • 123 Luke VI, 20.
  • 124 Luke VI, 24.
  • 125 Matt. XIX, 22.
  • 126 Luke XVI, 14, Ἐξεμυκτήριζον αὑτòν.
  • 127 1 Tim. VI 10.

46If a man be covetous, he can hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven117 or submit to that heavenly law, which forbiddeth us to treasure up treasures upon earth118; which chargeth us to be liberal in communication of our goods119; so as to give unto every one that asketh120 which in some cases requireth to sell all our goods, and to give them to the poor121 which declareth, that whosoever doth not bid farewell to all that he hath, cannot be a disciple of Christ122; which ascribeth happiness to the poor123 and denounceth woe to the rich, who have their consolation here124; Preach such doctrine to a covetous person, and as the young Gentleman, who had great possessions, he will go his way sorrowfull125; or will doe like the Pharisees, who were covetous, and having heard our Saviour discourse such things, derided him126; for the love of money (saith St. Paul) is the root of all evil, which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith; ἀπεπλανήθησαν, they have wandred away127 or apostatized from the faith.

  • 128 Phil II, 3; Gal. V, 26; John XII, 43; V, 44; Matt. VI, 1.
  • 129 1 Pet. I, 24; 1 Cor. VII, 31; 1 John II, 16.
  • 130 Rom. XII, 10.
  • 131 Luke XIV, 10.
  • 132 Matt. XXIII, 12; Luke XIV, 11; XVIII, 14.
  • 133 John V, 44.
  • 134 John XII, 43.
  • 135 [delight],
  • 136 1 Cor. XII, 26 συγχαίρν; 1 Cor. X, 24.
  • 137 Phil. II, 4.
  • 138 Rom. XII, 15.
  • 139 1 Pet. II, 1; Gat. V, 21; Rom. XIII, 13; Jas. III, 14, 16.
  • 140 [Mark VII, 22.]
  • 141 Acts XIII, 45; V, 17; XVII, 5.

47If a man be ambitious, he will not approve that doctrine, which prohibiteth us to affect, to seek, to admit glory, or to doe any thing for its sake128; but purely to seek God’s honour, and in all our actions to regard it as our principal aim: which greatly disparageth all worldly glory as vain, transitory, mischievous129; which commandeth us in honour to prefer others before our selves130 and to sit down in the lowest room131; which promiseth the best rewards to humility, and menaceth, that whoever exalteth himself, shall be abased132 the profession and practice whereof are commonly attended with disgrace; such doctrines ambitious minds cannot admit; as it proved among the Jews; who therefore could not believe, because they received glory from one another133; who therefore would not profess the faith, because they loved the glory of men rather than the glory of God134 If a man be envious, he will not like that doctrine, which enjoyneth him to desire the good of his neighbour, as his own; to have complacence135 in the prosperity and dignity of his brethren136; not to seek his own, but every man anothers wealth137, or welfare; to rejoice with them that rejoice; and mourn with those that mourn138; which chargeth us to lay aside all envyings and emulations139 under pain of damnation; he therefore who is possessed with an envious spirit, or evil eye140 will look ill upon this doctrine; as the Jews did, who being full of envy141 and emulation, did reject the Gospel; it being a grievous eye-sore to them, that the poor Gentiles were thereby admitted to favour and mercy.

  • 142 Matt. V, 44; Rom. XII, 20, 17.
  • 143 Matt. V, 39; 1 Cor. VI, 7.
  • 144 1 Pet. III, 9; 1 Thess. V, 15.
  • 145 Col. III, 13; Eph. IV, 32; Matt. VI, 15; XVIII, 35.
  • 146 Col. III, 8; 1 Pet. II, 1; Gal. V, 20; Eph. IV, 31.
  • 147 Jas. I, 21.
  • 148 1 Cor. IX, 25, 27.
  • 149 2 Tim. II, 3; I, 8; IV, 5.
  • 150 Eph. V, 18.
  • 151 1 Thess. IV, 4.
  • 152 Col. III, 5.
  • 153 Gal. V, 24.
  • 154 1 Pet II, 11.
  • 155 [bear, endure].

48If a man be revengefull or spitefull, he will be scandalized at that law, which commandeth us to love our enemies, to bless those that curse us, to do good to them that hate us, to pray for them that despitefully use us142 which forbiddeth us to resist the evil143; to render evil for evil, or railing for railing144; which chargeth us to bear patiently, and freely to remit all injuries, under penalty of forfeiting all hopes of mercy from God145; which requireth us to depose all wrath, animosity, and malice146 as inconsistent with our salvation; which doctrine how can a heart swelling with rancourous grudge, or boiling with anger embrace? seeing it must be in meekness that we must receive the engrafted word, that is able to save our souls147 If a man be intemperate, he will loath that doctrine, the precepts of which are, that we be temperate in all things, that we bring under our bodies148 that we endure hardship as good souldiers of Christ149; to avoid all excess150; to possess our vessels in sanctification and honour151; to mortifie our members upon earth152; to crucifie the flesh with its affections and lusts153; to abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul154 with which precepts how can a luxurious and filthy heart comport155?

  • 156 Cot. II, 11; Eph. IV, 22; Rom. VI, 6; 1 Thess. IV, 3.
  • 157 Eph. V, 6; Col. III, 6.
  • 158 [upon all equally, without qualification],
  • 159 Rom. I, 18; II, 8.

49In fine, whatever corrupt affection a man be possessed with, it will work in him a distaste, and repugnance to that doctrine, which indispensably, as a condition of salvation, doth prescribe and require universal holiness, purity, innocence, vertue and goodness156; which doth not allow any one sin to be fostered or indulged; which threatneth wrath, and vengeance upon all impiety, iniquity, impurity, wherein we do obstinately persist157; indifferently158, without any reserve or remedy; wherein the wrath of God is revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, that detain the truth in unrighteousness159.

  • 160 [be drawn to].
  • 161 Ή ἐμπαθἡς ψυχὴ οὐ δύναται μέγα τι καὶ γενναῖον ίδεῖν, αλλ’ ὣσπερ ὑπὀ τινòς λήμης θολουμένη ἀμβλυωπ (...)
  • 162 John III, 20.

50An impure, a dissolute, a passionate soul cannot affect160 so holy notions, cannot comply with so strict rules, as the Gospel doth recommend; as a sore eye cannot like the bright day; as a sickly palate cannot relish savoury food161 Every one that doth evil, hateth the light162 because it discovereth to him his own vileness, and folly; because it detecteth the sadness and wofulness of his condition; because it kindleth anguish and remorse within him; because it checketh him in the free pursuit of his bad designs, it dampeth the brisk enjoyment of his unlawfull pleasures, it robbeth him of satisfaction and glee in any vicious course of practice.

51Every man is unwilling to entertain a bad conceit of himself, and to pass on himself a sad doom: he therefore will be apt to reject that doctrine, which, being supposed true, he cannot but confess himself to be an arrant fool, he cannot but grant himself a forlorn wretch.

52No man liketh to be galled, to be stung, to be racked with a sense of guilt, to be scared with a dread of punishment; to live under awe and apprehension of imminent danger; gladly therefore would he shun that doctrine, which demonstrateth him a grievous sinner, which speaketh dismal terrour, which thundreth ghastly woe upon him.

  • j They hated... Lord] B. ; 1683 [in margin].
  • 163 Prov. I, 29; V, 12.

53He cannot love that truth, which is so much his enemy, which so rudely treateth and severely persecuteth him; which telleth him so bad and unwelcome news.j They hated knowledge, and did not chuse the fear of the Lord163

54Who would be content to deem omnipotency engaged against him? to fancy himself standing on the brink of a fiery lake, to hear a roaring Lion, ready to devour him; to suppose that certain, which is so dreadfull and sad to him?

  • 164 Rom. VIII, 7.
  • 165 lob XXIV, 13.
  • 166 Ecclus XV, 7.

55Hence it is, that the carnal mind is enmity to God164; hence do bad men rebel against the light165 hence Foolish men shall not attain to wisedom, and sinners shall not see her, [or she is far from pride, and men that are lyars cannot remember her166

  • 167 τò ἀpιστεῖν τaῖς έντολαῖς ἐϰ τοῦ pρός τήν ἐϰpλήρωσιν ἐϰλελύσθαι τῶν ἐντολῶν γίνεται, etc. Chrys. T (...)

56Hence a man resolvedly wicked cannot but be willing to be an Infidel, in his own defence, for his own quiet and ease; faith being a companion very incommodious, intollerably troublesome to a bad conscience167

57Being resolved not to forsake his lusts, he must quit those opinions, which cross them; seeing it expedient that the Gospel should be false, he will be inclinable to think it so; thus he sinketh down, thus he tumbleth himself headlong into the gulf of Infidelity.

  • k as by the... to us.] T. ; B. as it is by the Gospel represented to us.

58The custome of sinning doth also by degrees so abate, and at length so destroy the loathsomness, the ugliness, the horrour thereof, doth so reconcile it to our minds, yea conciliateth such a friendship to it, that we cannot easily believe it so horrid and base a thingk as by the Gospel it is represented to us.

  • 168 ἡ πονηρία φθαρτιϰὴ τῶν ἀρχῶν. — Vid. Chrys. in loh. Orat V (p. 582) [ϰαὶ ἁπλῶς ἅpας δ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν (...)

59Vitious practice doth also weaken the judgment, and stupify the faculties168 So that we cannot clearly apprehend, or judge soundly about spiritual matters.

60The same also quencheth God’s spirit, and driveth away his grace, which is requisite to the production and preservation of faith in us.

6114. In fine, from what spirit Infidelity doth proceed we may see by the principles, commonly with it espoused, for its support and countenance, by its great Masters and Patrons; all which do rankly savour of baseness, and ill nature.

62They do libel and revile mankind as void of all true goodness; from the worst qualities, of which they are conscious themselves or can observe in others, patching up an odious character of it; thus shrowding themselves under common blame from that which is due to their own wickedness; and dispensing with that charity and honesty, which is by God’s law required from them toward their neighbour: and having so bad an opinion of all men, they consequently must bear ill-will toward them; it not being possible to love that, which we do not esteem.

  • 169 [plaything, sport].

63They allow nothing in man to be immaterial, or immortal; so turning him into a beast, or into a puppet, a whirlegig169 of fate or chance.

64They ascribe all actions and events to necessity or external impulse, so rasing the grounds of justice, and all vertue; that no man may seem responsible for what he doth, commendable or culpable, amiable or detestable.

65They explode all natural difference of good and evil; deriding benignity, mercy, pity, gratitude, ingenuity, that is all instances of good nature, as childish and silly dispositions.

66All the reliques of God’s image in man, which raise him above a beast, and distinguish him from a fiend, they scorn and expose to contempt.

67They extoll power as the most admirable, and disparage goodness as a pityfull thing; so preferring a Devil before an Angel.

68They discard conscience, as a bugbear, to fright children and fools; allowing men to compass their designs by violence, fraud, slander, any wrong full ways; so banishing all the securities (beside selfishness and slavish fear) of government, conversation and commerce; so that nothing should hinder a man (if he can doe it with advantage to himself and probable safety) to rebell against his Prince, to betray his Country, to abuse his friend, to cheat any man with whom he dealeth.

  • l in the writings) of] 1683; B. in writings) by

69Such are the principles (not onely avowed in common discourse, but taught and maintainedl in the writings) of our Infidels; whereby the sources of it do appear to be a deplorable blindness, and desperate corruption of mind; an extinction of natural light, and extirpation of good nature. Farther.

  • 170 [sinfulness, evil].
  • m a chaos and] probably T.

70III. The naughtiness170 of Infidelity will appear by considering its effects and consequences; which are plainly a spawn of all vices and villanies; a deluge of all mischiefs, and outrages upon the earth; for faith being removed, together with it all conscience goeth, no vertue can remain; all sobriety of mind, all justice in dealing, all security in conversation are packed away; nothing resteth to encourage men unto any good, or restrain them from any evil; all hopes of reward from God, all fears of punishment from him being discarded. No principle, or rule of practice is left, beside brutish sensuality, fond self-love, private interest, in their highest pitch, without any bound or curb; which therefore will dispose men to doe nothing but to prey on each other, with all cruel violence, and base treachery. Every man thence will be a God to himself, a Fiend to each other; so that necessarily the world will thence be turned intom a Chaos and a Hell, full of iniquity and impurity, of spite and rage, of misery and torment. It depriveth each man of all hope from providence, all comfort and support in affliction, of all satisfaction in conscience; of all the good things which faith doth yield.

71The consideration of which numberless and unspeakable mischiefs hath engaged Statesmen in every Common-wealth to support some kind of faith, as needfull to the maintenance of publick order, of traffick, of peace among men.

72It would suffice to persuade an Infidel, that hath a scrap of wit (for his own interest, safety and pleasure) to cherish faith in others, and wish all men beside himself endued with it.

  • n enemies to government] possibly T.

73It in reason obligeth all men to detest Atheistical supplanters of faith, as desperate enemies to mankind,n enemies to government, destructive of common society; especially considering that of all religions that ever were, or can be, the Christian doth most conduce to the benefit of publick society; injoyning all vertues usefull to preserve it in a quiet and flourishing state, teaching Loyalty under pain of damnation.

  • 171 Heb. XI, 6.

74I pass by, that without faith no man can please God171; that Infidelity doth expose men to his wrath, and severest vengeance; that it depriveth of all joy and happiness; seeing Infidels will not grant such effects to follow their sin, but will reject the supposition of them as precarious, and fictitious.

75To conclude therefore the point, it is from what we have said, sufficiently manifest, that Infidelity is a very sinfull distemper, as being in its nature so bad, being the daughter of so bad causes; the sister of so bad adjuncts, the mother of so bad effects.

  • 172 Rom. X, 10.
  • 173 Jas. II, 18.

76But this you will say is an improper subject: for is there any such thing as Infidelity in Christendome; are we not all Christians, all believers, all baptized into the faith, and professours of it? do we not every day repeat the Creed, or at least say Amen thereto? do we not partake of the holy Mysteries, sealing this profession? what do you take us for? for Pagans? this is a subject to be treated of in Turky, or in partibus infidelium. This may be said; but if we consider better, we shall find ground more than enough for such discourse; and that Infidelity hath a larger territory than we suppose: for (to pass over the swarms of Atheistical apostates, which so openly abound, denying or questioning our Religion) many Infidels do lurk under the mask of Christian profession. It is not the name of Christian, or the badges of our Religion that make a Christian; no more than a Cowle doth make a Monk, or the Beard a Philosopher: there may be a Creed in the mouth, where there is no faith in the heart, and a Cross impressed on the forehead of an Infidel; with the heart man believeth to righteousness172 : Shew we thy faith by thy works173 saith St. James: if no works be shewed, no faith is to be granted, as where no fruit, there no root, or a dead root, which in effect and moral esteem is none at all.

  • 174 Tit. I, 16.
  • o desolation] 1683; B. violation
  • 175 [utter devastation].

77Is he not an Infidel, who denieth God? such a renegado is every one that liveth profanely, as St. Paul telleth us174 And have we not many such renegado’s? if not, what meaneth that monstrous dissoluteness of life, that horrid profaneness of discourse, that strange neglect of God’s service, ao desolation175 of God’s law? where such luxury, such lewdness, such avarice, such uncharitableness, such universal carnality doth reign, can faith be there? can a man believe there is a God, and so affront him? can he believe that Christ reigneth in heaven, and so despise his laws? can a man believe a judgment to come, and so little regard his life, a heaven and so little seek it, a hell and so little shun it?—Faith therefore is not so rife, Infidelity is more common than we may take it to be: Every sin hath a spice of it, some sins smell rankly of it.

78To it are attributed all the rebellions of the Israelites, which are the types of all Christian professours, who seem travellers in this earthly wilderness toward the heavenly Canaan; and to it all the enormities of sin, and overflowings of iniquity may be ascribed.

  • p I shall onely suggest to your Meditation the heads of things] T.; B. let it therefore suffice to h (...)

79I should proceed to urge the Precept, that we take heed thereof; but the time will not allow me to doe it:p I shall onely suggest to your Meditation the heads of things.

80It is Infidelity, that maketh men covetous, uncharitable, discontent, pusillanimous, impatient.

81Because men believe not providence, therefore they do so greedily scrape, and hoard.

82They do not believe any reward for charity, therefore they will part with nothing.

83They do not hope for succour from God, therefore are they discontent, and impatient.

  • q are they] T.

84They have nothing to raise their spirits, thereforeq are they abject.

85Infidelity did cause the Devils Apostasie.

86Infidelity did banish Man from Paradise (trusting to the Devil, and distrusting God’s word.)

87Infidelity (disregarding the warnings and threats of God) did bring the deluge on the World.

  • 176 Heb. III, 19; IV, 6; etc.

88Infidelity did keep the Israelites from entring into Canaan, the type of Heaven; as the Apostle to the Hebrews doth insist176

89Infidelity indeed is the root of all sin, for did men heartily believe the promises to obedience, and the threats to disobedience, they could hardly be so unreasonable as to forfeit the one, or incurr the other: did they believe that the Omnipotent, All-wise, Most just and severe God did command and require such a practice, they could hardly dare to omit or transgress.

  • r Let it... avoid it] T. (see sentence deleted above, p. 398)

90rLet it therefore suffice to have declared the evil of Infidelity, which alone is sufficient inducement to avoid it.

Notes

1 [use exhortation to dissuade].

2 John XVI, 8, 9.

3 John XV, 22; VIII, 24.

4 John IX, 41.

5 John III, 18; XII, 48. οὑ γὰρ μóνον τò μὴ εἴϰειν ταῖς ἐντoλαῖς τoῦ Χριoτoῦ, ἀλλἀ ϰαἱ τò ἀπιστεῖν αυταῖς χαλεπεωτάτην ἐπάγει τὴν ϰóλασιν. Chrys. ad Demet. Tom. 6, p. 40. [De Compunctione. Ad Demetrium, Migne, Patrol, gr., t. 47, col. 396].

6 [promulgated as a threat].

7 2 Thess. II, 11, 12.

8 2 Thess. I, 8.

9 Apoc. [Rev.] XXI, 8.

10 1 John III, 23.

11 John VI, 29; Mark I, 15.

12 1 John III, 4.

13 [scorn],

14 Tit. II, 11; III, 4.

15 1 Tim. I, 15.

16 Luke VII, 30; Matt. XXIII, 37; 1 Tim. II, 4; Luke X, 16; Rom. II, 4; 2 Pet. III, 9, 15.

17 1 Pet. I, 10; Acts III, 18; Luke XXIV, 44; Heb. II, 4; Acts IV, 33; XIX, 20; II, 17; VI, 7; XII, 24.

18 1 John V, 10.

19 2 Cor. V, 20.

20 Acts XIII, 46.

21 2 Tim. IV, 4.

22 Matt. XIII, 4.

23 Isa. V, 24.

24 Job XXI, 14.

25 Job XXII, 28.

26 John VI, 44; 2 Cor. IV, 16; Apoc. III, 20.

27 Acts VII, 51.

28 1 Thes. V, 19; 2 Cor. IV, 4.

29 [depravity].

30 Rom. XI, 8.

31 [absorbed].

32 Acts XVIII, 17.

33 Matt. XXII, 5.

34 Heb. II, 3.

35 Prov. I, 24; Isa. LXV, 12; LXVI, 4; Ier. VII, 31.

36 Matt. XIII, 4.

37 [strange, uncommon].

38 Acts XVII, 32.

39 Acts XXVI, 28.

40 [long enough to arrive...].

41 Heb. V, 14.

42 Job V, 14; Isa. LIX, 10; Deut. XXVIII, 29.

43 Acts XXVIII, 26, 27; Matt. XIII, 14, 15; Isa. VI, 9; John XII, 40; Rom. XI, 7, 8, 25; Eph. IV, 18; Isa. XXIX, 10; Ezek. XII, 2; 2 Cor. III, 14; Mark III, 5; VI, 52; VIII, 17.

44 Luke XXIV, 25.

45 Heb. V, 11.

46 Heb. V, 14.

47 [preconceived, biased].

48 Matt. XVI, 23; John VI, 60, 66.

49 Matt. XVII, 17.

50 2 Cor. X. 4.

51 [reasoning], οὑ πάντας δυσωπεῖ τὰ σημεῖα, ὰλλὰ μόνους τοὺς εὺγνώμονας. Const. Apost. VIII, 1. [Migne, Patrol. Gr., t. 1, col. 1064].

52 Acts VII, 51, 54; Ier. VI, 10; IX, 26.

53 Exod. VII, 4, 22; VIII, 15, 19; IX, 12.

54 Exod. IX, 7.

55 2 Kings XVII, 14.

56 Ps. XCV, 7, 8; Heb. III, 8.

57 Acts XIX, 8, 9.

58 Heb. III, 13; Mark XVI, 14.

59 Isa. XXX, 10; John VI, 63.

60 John VI, 60, 66.

61 John VI, 61.

62 1 Pet. II, 8.

63 Matt. XI, 6; XXIV, 10; XIII, 21.

64 [obliged].

65 1 Cor. III, 2.

66 Heb. V, 12.

67 Matt. XVI, 23; XXVI, 31.

68 Rom. I, 28.

69 Thess. II, 10, 11.

70 2 Cor. X, 5.

71 Prov. XXVI, 12.

72 [aspires to].

73 John V, 44; XII, 43.

74 I Cor. III, 18.

75 [possessed with a good opinion].

76 John III, 9.

77 1 Cor. I, 26; II, 6; John VII, 26.

78 1 Cor. I, 20.

79 1 Cor. II, 14.

80 1 Cor. III, 18.

81 Rom. III, 27; IV, 2, 16; IX, 11; XI, 6; 1 Cor. I, 29; III, 21; Eph. II, 9; Tit. III, 5.

82 Rom. X, 3; IX, 31.

83 [Aeneis X, 773].

84 [lower or lessen in worth or value].

85 [Prov. XII, 26.]

86 2 Sam. VI, 22.

87 Rom. XII, 3, 16.

88 Job XLII, 3, 6.

89 Rom. XII, 10; Phil. II, 3.

90 1 Pet. V, 5; Luke XIV, 10; Rom. XII, 16.

91 [pride, haughtiness].

92 Matt. VII, 13, 14; Prov. I, 7, 30; V, 12; XIII, 13.

93 Isa. V, 24; Eze. XX, 13, 16, 24; Acts XIII, 41 (ϰαταφρονηταὶ); Luke X, 16; Rom. II, 4.

94 [a mean-spirited person].

95 Apoc. [Rev.] XXI, 8.

96 Matt. XIII, 21.

97 John VII, 13; IX, 22; XIX, 38.

98 Jas. IV, 1; 1 Pet. II, 11; Rom. VII, 23.

99 Eph. VI, 12, 11.

100 Luke XIV, 33.

101 1 Tim. I, 18; Heb. XII.

102 1 Tim. VI, 12.

103 [2 Tim. II, 3.]

104 2 Cor. VII, 5.

105 Acts XIII, 45; XVII, 5; V, 17; Rom. X, 2; Gal. IV, 17.

106 Phil. III, 6, ϰατὰ ζῆλον διώκων.

107 Gal. I, 14; Acts XXVI, 11, περισσῶς ἐμμαινόμενος [αὐτοῖς].

108 Ού ρᾀδιον πονηρία συντρεφόμενον άναβλέψαι ταχέως πρὀς τὀ των παρ’ ήμῖν δογμάτων ὕψος, ὰλλὰ χρή πάντων ϰαθαρεύειν τῶν παθών τòν μέλλοντα θηρᾶν τήν άλήθειαν. Chrys. in 1 Cor. Or. 8 [In Ep. I ad Cor., Horn. VIII, Migne, Patrol. gr„ t. 61, col. 70].

109 [promulgate as a threat].

110 2 Tim. III, 8.

111 1 Tim. VI, 5.

112 Tit. I, 15.

113 ; pet III, 21.

114 1 Tim. I, 5.

115 1 Tim. III, 9.

116 1 Tim. I, 19.

117 Matt. XIX, 29.

118 Matt VI, 19.

119 1 Tim. VI. 18; Heb. XIII, 16; Luke XVI, 9.

120 Luke VI, 30.

121 Matt. XIX, 21.

122 Luke XIV, 33.

123 Luke VI, 20.

124 Luke VI, 24.

125 Matt. XIX, 22.

126 Luke XVI, 14, Ἐξεμυκτήριζον αὑτòν.

127 1 Tim. VI 10.

128 Phil II, 3; Gal. V, 26; John XII, 43; V, 44; Matt. VI, 1.

129 1 Pet. I, 24; 1 Cor. VII, 31; 1 John II, 16.

130 Rom. XII, 10.

131 Luke XIV, 10.

132 Matt. XXIII, 12; Luke XIV, 11; XVIII, 14.

133 John V, 44.

134 John XII, 43.

135 [delight],

136 1 Cor. XII, 26 συγχαίρν; 1 Cor. X, 24.

137 Phil. II, 4.

138 Rom. XII, 15.

139 1 Pet. II, 1; Gat. V, 21; Rom. XIII, 13; Jas. III, 14, 16.

140 [Mark VII, 22.]

141 Acts XIII, 45; V, 17; XVII, 5.

142 Matt. V, 44; Rom. XII, 20, 17.

143 Matt. V, 39; 1 Cor. VI, 7.

144 1 Pet. III, 9; 1 Thess. V, 15.

145 Col. III, 13; Eph. IV, 32; Matt. VI, 15; XVIII, 35.

146 Col. III, 8; 1 Pet. II, 1; Gal. V, 20; Eph. IV, 31.

147 Jas. I, 21.

148 1 Cor. IX, 25, 27.

149 2 Tim. II, 3; I, 8; IV, 5.

150 Eph. V, 18.

151 1 Thess. IV, 4.

152 Col. III, 5.

153 Gal. V, 24.

154 1 Pet II, 11.

155 [bear, endure].

156 Cot. II, 11; Eph. IV, 22; Rom. VI, 6; 1 Thess. IV, 3.

157 Eph. V, 6; Col. III, 6.

158 [upon all equally, without qualification],

159 Rom. I, 18; II, 8.

160 [be drawn to].

161 Ή ἐμπαθἡς ψυχὴ οὐ δύναται μέγα τι καὶ γενναῖον ίδεῖν, αλλ’ ὣσπερ ὑπὀ τινòς λήμης θολουμένη ἀμβλυωπίαν ὑπομένει τὴν χαλεπωτάτην. Chrys. in Joh. Orat. XXV [In Joannem, Orat. XXIV, Migne, Patrol. Gr., t. 59, col. 148]. Ἔστι γαρ, ἔστι ϰαὶ ἀπό τρόπων διεφθαρμένων, ούϰ ἀπό πολυπραγμοσύνης μόνον ἀϰαιρου σκοτωθῆναι τὴν διάνοιαν. Ibid, [col, 147].

162 John III, 20.

163 Prov. I, 29; V, 12.

164 Rom. VIII, 7.

165 lob XXIV, 13.

166 Ecclus XV, 7.

167 τò ἀpιστεῖν τaῖς έντολαῖς ἐϰ τοῦ pρός τήν ἐϰpλήρωσιν ἐϰλελύσθαι τῶν ἐντολῶν γίνεται, etc. Chrys. Tom. VI. Orat. XII (p. 140). [De Compunctione. Ad Demetrium, Migne, Patrol, gr., t. 47, col. 396.]
ὥστε εἰ μέλλομεν ἐρριζωμένην ἔχειν τὴν πίστιν, πολιτείας ήμῖν δεῖ ϰαθαρᾶς τῆς τὀ πνεοῦμα πειθούσης μένειν, ϰαὶ συνέcειν ἐϰείνης τὴν δύναμιν. Οὐ γἀρ ἐστὶν, οὐϰ ἐoτὶ βίον ἀϰάθαρτον ἔχοντα μἡ ϰαὶ περί τὴν πίστιν σαλεύεσθαι, etc. Chrys. Tom. V, Orat. LV. [De Verbis Apostoli: Habentes autem eumdem spiritum fidei..., Migne, Patrol gr., t. 51, col. 280.]

168 ἡ πονηρία φθαρτιϰὴ τῶν ἀρχῶν. — Vid. Chrys. in loh. Orat V (p. 582) [ϰαὶ ἁπλῶς ἅpας δ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ποιῶν τῶν μεθuóντων οὐδέν διενήνοcε ϰαὶ μαινόμένων, etc. In Joannem, Hom. V, Migne, Patrol, gr., t. 59, col. 58].

169 [plaything, sport].

170 [sinfulness, evil].

171 Heb. XI, 6.

172 Rom. X, 10.

173 Jas. II, 18.

174 Tit. I, 16.

175 [utter devastation].

176 Heb. III, 19; IV, 6; etc.

Notes de fin

a and this... in which] T.

b falling from him] T.; B. intercurring

c rebuked them] T. ; B. did increpate

d any thing any wise]; B., 1683 any thing, any wise

e Pride … … mankind] T. ; B. Vanity or affectation of seeming wise in speciall manner above others, thence disposing to maintaine paradoxes, to nauseate common truths etc.

f worldly] T.; B. mundane

g thrown down] T.; B. detruded

h their] T.

i foundation] T.; B. base

j They hated... Lord] B. ; 1683 [in margin].

k as by the... to us.] T. ; B. as it is by the Gospel represented to us.

l in the writings) of] 1683; B. in writings) by

m a chaos and] probably T.

n enemies to government] possibly T.

o desolation] 1683; B. violation

p I shall onely suggest to your Meditation the heads of things] T.; B. let it therefore suffice to have declared its naughtynesse which alone may be a strong inducement to avoid it.

q are they] T.

r Let it... avoid it] T. (see sentence deleted above, p. 398)

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