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The Iconography of Greek Cult in the Archaic and Classical Periods

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Robin Hägg

On Pan’s Iconography and the Cult in the Sanctuary of Pan on the Slopes of Mount Lykaion*

Ulrich Hübinger

Texte intégral

  • * The following is an enlarged version of the paper read during the seminar held at Delphi. The subj (...)

“… πάντα πλήρη θεῶν…”
(Thales, fr. 11 A 22 Diels)

  • 1 Pan as an Arcadian god: for the literary tradition see Roscher 3, 1349-50. s.v. Pan (WH, Roscher). (...)
  • 2 Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum nos. 2117-18. F. Brommer, Satyroi (Wurzburg 1937) 12, 50, n. 5 no (...)

1Ancient writers unanimously report that Pan was originally a local god from Arcadia. The official installation of his cult at Athens in 490 B.C. is a fixed date rare in the history of Greek religion. During the battle of Marathon the god was believed to have caused panic among the enemy’s soldiers. This led to the splendid victory of the Athenians.1 It is possible that a few years before this event the foreign divinity had already become a subject of interest to Attic vase-painters. One of two fragments from the rim of a black-figured volute-krater shows Pan playing the double-flute at a divine banquet. He stands next to Hermes, who relaxes on a kline looking over his shoulder, perhaps in the direction of Dionysos who rests comfortably on another kline depicted on the second fragment. The powers of the latter god are represented by two satyrs and a maenad, eager to please the dining company, moving their bodies to the music of Pan. To characterize the Arcadian god the painter made use of a monstrous combination of animal and human elements (Figs. 1-3).2

  • 3 Dancing “goatmen” or “upright” goats have been interpreted as “tragikoi choroi” or typological for (...)

2Does Pan’s strange goatish appearance on Attic vases from Late Archaic and Early Classical times reflect earlier iconographical traditions from Arcadia? Did the ancients picture him in the beginning simply as a goat, which revealed its divine status by walking on its hind legs like a human being? Are connections even to be suspected with animal worship in the Mycenaean age?3

Fig. 1. Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2117. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.

3Arcadia, the reported homeland of Pan, is the region to turn to when looking for archaeological evidence of this god’s origins.

  • 4 Sambon, Ex-Voto, 19. Studniczka, Phauleas, 66-67. E. Robinson, “Department of Classical Art. The A (...)
  • 5 Perdrizet, Criophore, passim, Pls. 7-9 (app. nos. 2.1-3). For the possibility that the youth once (...)

4In the first years of this century a considerable number of sensational bronze statuettes appeared on the art market. They were said to have been found by peasants in the Lykaion mountains near Andritsaina in southwestern Arcadia.4 Three of these statuettes were acquired by the Greek National Museum at Athens. One of them represents Hermes wearing winged boots, a short chiton and a pointed hat curiously decorated on top by a bunch of feathers. He carries a ram under his left arm (Figs. 4—6). The second statuette depicts a naked youth who may once have held a bow in his left hand while pouring a libation with his right hand from a phiale which has now been lost (Figs. 7-8). The third statuette is of rather crude workmanship in comparison with the other two; it is dressed in the same manner as the statuette of Hermes, and in the original publication was thought to be either “Hermes Nomios” or a true Arcadian peasant.5

Fig. 2. Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2118. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.

  • 6 In antiquity this region of the Lykaion mountains was called Kerausion, see J. G. Frazer, Pausania (...)
  • 7 Hardly anything of the ancient architecture is visible today, except for some fragmentary limeston (...)

5The Greek Archaeological Society found out that these bronzes all came from a certain spot on the south slopes of Mount Lykaion. In 1902 Konstantinos Kourouniotis excavated a part of the site, situated between the villages Haghios Sostes and Berekla (now named Neda), next to the springs of the river bearing the same name.6 In the area surrounding the ruined chapel of Haghios Strategos (Aistratigos) Kourouniotis found meagre remains of ancient buildings, blocks of which had been reused both for the construction of the chapel and for a number of graves, dated by the excavator to the period of the Frankish occupation of the Peloponnese. He also reported two ancient cisterns in the vicinity constructed of huge limestone blocks.7

Fig. 3·Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2117. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.

Figs. 4-6. Bronze statuette of Hermes, National Museum Athens, No. 12347. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 2129-31.

Figs. 7-8. Bronze statuette of a youth (Apollo?), National Museum Athens, No. 12349. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 4004, 4008.

Figs. 9-11. Bronze statuette of a man carrying a calf on his shoulders, National Museum Athens, No. 13053. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 2129-30, 2132.

  • 8 App.no. 1.H.1,2. The sanctuary is not to be identified with the sanctuary of Pan at Melpeia in the (...)

6Behind a terrace wall he excavated a dumped fill consisting of ashes and bones from sacrifices and a considerable number of Late Archaic to Early Classical votive gifts. Two inscriptions naming Pan, the one on a small marble base, the other on a sixth-century (?) potsherd, led Kourouniotis to label the site as a sanctuary belonging to this god.8

  • 9 See the preliminary catalogue in the appendix below. Whether or not the bronzes app. nos. 3.1-19 b (...)

7Little of the excavated material has so far been published. A survey of this, including the many bronzes which belong to the same complex, but have been scattered by antique dealers into museums and private collections all over the world, may allow us to find out more about both the roots of the Arcadian god Pan, as well as the character and meaning of this cult-place. Various reports, notes and illustrations enable us to reconstruct an amazing votive inventory. We are introduced to the visitors of the sanctuary, to the gods they worshipped, and to the offerings they dedicated to them.9

  • 10 App. no. 1.A.5 (statuette of a woman) and app. no. l.E (miniature bronze mirrors). This aspect of (...)
  • 11 Cloaks: app. nos. 1.A.6-7; 1.B.5; 2.7-9, 16; 3.13, 15. Short chitons: app. nos. 1.A.1; 2.2. Himati (...)
  • 12 Ram: app. nos. 2.6; 3-11. Calf: app. no. l.A.1. Fox: app. no. 2.7. Bird (dove?): app. no. 3.12. Sy (...)

8Representations of women and female votive gifts seem to be rare.10 The majority of the figurines depict male dedicators. Two groups of them can be distinguished. First, there are a number of bearded adults, either wrapped up in cloaks or clad in short chitons. Some of them also appear almost entirely nude. All wear a conical or pointed hat, the ϰυνέη or πίλος.11 Some carry gifts for the gods, such as a calf (Figs. 9-11), a ram, a dead fox or a bird. One man offers a syrinx. Others appear without gifts, their hands covered by their cloaks. Such representations have also been found in terracotta (Fig. 12).12

  • 13 Phauleas: app. no. 2.16. Inscription: L. H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (Oxford 1 (...)
  • 14 App. no. 1.H.1. See also supra n. 8.

9The most famous of these statuettes bear votive inscriptions to Pan. The offerings of Phauleas and Aineas, the latter dedicating a ram and a jug with unknown ingredients, are probably part of the group of statuettes found on the site by local peasants before the official excavation.13 Together with the inscribed potsherd mentioned above14 they are the earliest known documents relating to Pan, dating roughly to the last third of the sixth century B.C. At least some decades before his career in Athens the god received ritual honours in Arcadia. The archaeological evidence corroborates the literary tradition.

Fig. 12. Terracotta relief of a man hunting a boar with a dog, National Museum Athens, No. 13087. Photo: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. No. Nat. Mus. 3114.

Figs. 13-14. Bronze statuette of a youth holding a ram, once on the Athens art market. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Ath. Var. 963-64.

  • 15 Cloaks: app. nos. 1.A.4; 2.18. Short chitons: app. no. 1.A.8. Himation: app. nos. 2.17, 21; 3.19. (...)
  • 16 Wreath/cockerel: app. no. 1.A.3. Cockerel: app. no. 34. Ram: app. nos. 2.11; 35, 19. Vessel with f (...)
  • 17 App. no. 1.C.

10The second group of votive statuettes depicts beardless youths, more or less in the same costume as their older counterparts.15 One of them wears a wreath on his head and holds a cockerel; a similar figure, said to be from Megalopolis, possibly also belongs to the complex. Several of them offer either a ram (Figs. 13-14) or a vessel containing fruit. Others are shown in martial posture reminiscent of Herakles or Zeus.16 Further finds of “human figures and some animals” in the shape of cut-out sheet bronze silhouettes have been reported by Kourouniotis, however, without any detailed description.17

  • 18 Supra n. 5. App. no. 2.1.
  • 19 From the sanctuary: app. nos. 2.4-5. Provenance unclear: app. nos. 3.1-2, 7-8, 16. One of the Bost (...)
  • 20 Boots without wings: app. nos. 2.5; 32.
  • 21 App. no. 2.15. The possible identification of the moschophoros in Athens (Figs. 9-11, supra n. 12, (...)

11Pan was probably not the only god who received votives in the sanctuary. The elaborate statuette of Hermes Kriophoros (Figs. 4-6) possibly represents the second divinity worshipped on the site.18 Seven other statuettes are closely related. Only two of them are known with certainty to have come from the site. The provenance of the other five examples is unclear owing to the dubious information given by dealers.19 Some of these statuettes do not have the winged boots.20 Thus, it is not possible to decide definitely whether they are meant to represent Hermes or a votary. The typological resemblance to the other statuettes of Hermes suggests that these also represent the god. Furthermore, a bronze herm found at the site reinforces the suggestion that Hermes was worshipped there.21

  • 22 Youth holding bow from the site: app. no. 2.17. Second youth who possibly held a bow: supra n. 5 ( (...)

12A third divinity may also have been worshipped in the sanctuary. One of the statuettes from the site depicting a youth holding a bow can perhaps be identified as Apollo. Among the youths referred to above there may have been some who also once held a bow (Figs. 7-8). These statuettes, like some of the kriophoroi mentioned above, pose iconographical problems as yet unsolved. It cannot be stated with certainty which of them represents a mortal and which is meant to be understood as a god. And, since there are no votive inscriptions except the ones naming Pan, even the recipients of the dedications remain uncertain.22

Fig. 15. Bronze lamp with handle shaped as a triton, Staatliche Museen Preuβischer Kulturbesitz, Antikenmuseum Berlin, No. Misc. 10787. Photo: Ingrid Geske.

  • 23 App. no. l.G.
  • 24 App. nos. 1.B.1, 6.
  • 25 App. no. 2.14. Many terracotta lamps of this type have been found at Corinth. See, for instance, D (...)

13One of these bronze statuettes must originally have been mounted on a small marble pillar found during the excavation of Kourouniotis.23 Further terracotta figurines representing “gods” have been reported by the excavator; there is no more information on these available at present.24 Last but not least, an outstanding object from the site must be mentioned, a rare Archaic bronze lamp of a type known from Corinth, with a handle in the shape of a triton (Fig. 15).25

  • 26 Lamb, Bronzes, 92: “Very pious are the Arcadian shepherds: they bring the best of their flock as a (...)
  • 27 Himmelmann, HGenre, 71-75. Some further representations of kriophoroi: NSc 1913, 119-24, Figs. 159 (...)

14To return to the worshippers: Who were these people and which was the cult they practised? Because of their seemingly rustic dress and attributes they have always been regarded as representations of the simple inhabitants of rough Arcadia, humble shepherds offering touchingly natural gifts from their property to their old-fashioned rural god Pan, with a prayer for protection of their flocks;26 the rams carried by some of them should not, however, be understood as attributes characterizing their bearers as shepherds. Rather, they are simply the appropriate animals to be sacrificed to at least one of the gods in the sanctuary. Hermes himself is represented exemplarily holding the sacrificial animal.27

  • 28 Kyathos by Theozotos: Himmelmann, HGenre, 55, Pls. 4-5. Also compare the herdsman on a Boeotian br (...)

15There may well have been men among these worshippers, who were involved in the business of pastoral agriculture. One of the statuettes from the site is indeed very similar to a shepherd depicted on a kyathos by Theozotos. Moreover, although there are several other vase-paintings, which show that the characteristic head-dress of Greek shepherds in antiquity was in fact the conical or pointed hat, the πίλος, yet these hats also characterize hunters.28

Fig. 16. Dead fox tied to a pole, National Museum Athens, No. 13054. Photo: German Archaeological Museum at Athens, Neg. No. Nat. Mus. 4129.

  • 29 Schnapp, Caccia, 42. Rich illustrative material is presented in the essays of A. Schnapp (see bibl (...)
  • 30 J.-L. Durand and A. Schnapp, “Schlachtopfer und rituelle Jagd”, in Die Bilderwelt der Griechen. Sc (...)
  • 31 Amongst other examples see: Schnapp, Caccia, 43-47, Figs. 1-7. Schnapp, Sanglier, 198-99, Fig. 5 ( (...)
  • 32 Bronze fox from the site: app. no. 1.A.2. Dead foxes tied to poles are often carried by hunters on (...)

16Non-mythological hunting scenes were especially favoured by vase-painters of the later sixth and early fifth centuries B.C.29 The meaning and function of the hunt as an educational custom of the aristocratic communities in Archaic Greece has lately been the subject of several studies which cannot be discussed here properly. For the ephebes of these societies hunting served as a means to learn and demonstrate ἀρετή and καλοκἀγαθία, as well as an adventurous initiation to their life as adults.30 The characters depicted on the vases of either Corinthian, Laconian, Boeotian or Attic origin are always the same: youths and/or adult bearded men dressed like the statuettes from our sanctuary are shown during different moments of the hunting adventure.31 One bronze from the site depicts an image of one of the animals that was hunted: a dead fox neatly tied up to be presented to the gods (Fig. 16). On vase-paintings such representations of animals often appear in scenes where men present so-called love-gifts to their favourite youths, as, for instance, the cockerels held by the young men mentioned above.32

  • 33 Note the comparable character of the cult in the sanctuary of Hermes and Aphrodite at Syme Viannou (...)
  • 34 On the social position of the kriophoroi from Cretan sanctuaries see A. Lebessi, “Der Berliner Wid (...)

17The votive material from the sanctuary near the springs of the river Neda so far suggests a religious feast connected with ritualized hunting, which served to initiate youths to the role they were supposed to play as adults. Sacrifices and dedications were made to Pan, probably also to Hermes and possibly to Apollo; their aspects as gods of the wilderness and their connections with wild animals, hunting and initiation are well-known.33 But can the clientele of the sanctuary be regarded as simple peasants? The valuable votive offerings seem to contradict this idea. It appears more likely that the families of an Arcadian rural aristocracy are represented in the sanctuary.34

  • 35 On the earliest evidence on Pan see supra, nn. 13-14 (app. nos. l.H.l; 2.16; 3.11). Statuette of P (...)

18Finally, what about the iconographical roots of Pan? Although the site has yielded the earliest archaeological evidence for the god, only a single representation of him seems to have been discovered there. He is shown as a nude young man holding a special club for hare-hunting, the λαγοβόλον, along his right arm. Only two small horns above the forehead distinguish the god from a mortal youth. This, however, is a rather late manner of representing Pan, which started around the turn of the fifth to the fourth century B.C.35

  • 36 See supra n. 3. The head of a dancing silen on a fragment from an Attic kylix in Catania, dating t (...)
  • 37 App. no. l.B.l.
  • 38 For a sixth-century representation the horse-legged “ΣΙΛΕΝΟΙ” on the François Vase: BdA, série spé (...)

19The Attic black-figure monster on the krater fragments in Amsterdam dating to ca. 500—490 B.C. thus remains the earliest definite figure of the Arcadian god so far (Fig. 3).36 Must we then assume that Pan received an aniconical cult in sixth-century Arcadia? It is notable that among the as yet unpublished terracottas from the sanctuary near the springs of the river Neda figurines of satyrs have been reported by the excavator.37 If these were made in the sixth century like many of the other votives from the site, there is the possibility that these figurines once served as representations of demonic Pan. At that time possibly no one had yet invented a more specific form for the god. If so, Attic craftsmen have to be regarded as the inventors of the monstrous goat-man known from many vase-paintings and other objects of ancient Greek art. Their idea was not altogether new, though; it was rooted in the old tradition of representing demons, especially satyrs, which can be traced back to the beginning of the seventh century B.C.38

Appendix

1. Finds from the excavation of K. Kourouniotis in 1902 stored in the Greek National Museum at Athens

A. Bronze Statuettes

20Report 1902, 74. Report 1903, 169. Report 1904, 197, 213–14. Report 1910, 301–302, Fig. 19, 327, Fig. 51.

211. Moschophoros, no. 13053. Athens Bronzes, 311–12 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 138, no. 8, PL 24. Lamb, Bronzes, 92, PI. 31a.

222. Dead fox, no. 13054. Athens Bronzes, 317 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 145, no. 42. Lamb, Bronzes, 92, PL 31d.

233. Wreathed naked youth, holding a cockerel, no. 13056. Report 1910, 302, Fig. 19. Athens Bronzes, 312–13 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 140, no. 18. Ch. Zervos, L’art en Grèce (Basle 1937) Figs. 208, 210. E. Kunze, “Ein Bronzejüngling”, OlBer 5 (1956) 98, n. 2, 101–102.

244. Youth wearing cloak and pilos, no. 13057. Athens Bronzes, 311. Jost, Lykosoura, 342–43, n. 12, Fig. 8. Lamb, Statuettes, 139, no. 16.

255. Standing woman, no. 13058. Athens Bronzes, 317–18 (with Fig.). Langlotz, FGrBSch, 87, no. 22, Pl. 49a. W. Lamb, “Excavations at Sparta 1906–1910. Notes on Some Bronzes From the Ortheia Site”, BSA 28 (1926/27) 100, PL 12x.

266. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no. 13059. Athens Bronzes, 311. Lamb, Statuettes, 139, no. 14, PI. 24. Jost, Lykosoura, 342–43, n. 12, Fig. 11.

277. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no. 13060. Report 1910, 327, Fig. 51. Athens Bronzes, 311 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 138, no. 13, PL 24. Lamb, Bronzes, 93, PI. 31c. Langlotz, FGrBSch, 30, 60–61, PI. 28b. Providence Bronzes, 44, n. 14. Jost, Lykosoura, 342–44, Fig. 12.

288. Youth making an offering, wearing short chiton and pilos, no. 13061. Athens Bronzes, 313 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 144, no. 32.

299. Man making an offering, wearing pilos, no. 13062. Athens Bronzes, 313 (with Fig.). Lamb, Statuettes, 137, no. 7.

3010. Youthful naked Pan, holding lagobolon, no. 13063. F. Brommer, “Panbilder des fünften Jahrhunderts”, AA 1938, 378, 381–82, Fig. 6. Idem, “Pan im 5. und 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr.”, Marburger Jahrbuch fur Kunstwissenschaft 15 (1949/50) 13–14, Fig. 11. RE Suppl. 8 (1956) 964–65, no. 7 s.v. Pan (F. Brommer).

B. Terracotta Statuettes

311. Report 1902, 74. “… some represent gods or silenes, the others most probably peasants.”

322. Report 1903, 169. “Together with these (i.e., bronze statuettes) were found terracotta figurines comparable in general to the bronzes. Most of them represent male peasants, usually wrapped up in heavy cloaks and with their heads covered …”

333. Report 1904, 213–14. “For the moment we shall not talk specifically about this (i.e., Arcadian art), postponing it until the many bronze and terracotta small artefacts which we discovered in the sanctuary of Pan near Berekla have been published. These will sufficiently elucidate both the manner and the origin of this style.”

344. Report 1910, 299–300. “The few terracotta figurines that have been found (i.e., at Bassae) are altogether insignificant; it seems that they have been manufactured in some neighbouring Arcadian village, because at Berekla, too, similar figurines were found, most of them of a more remarkable kind, testifying to a particular style.”

355. Report 1912, 160, Fig. 39. “The terracotta figurine illustrated in Fig. 39 from the Berekla excavation, which depicts a woman holding a little animal in the same way, is comparable. It lacks only the covering of the head.” Note by the author: That this figurine certainly represents a male animal-bearer is clearly indicated by the beard.

366. L. Lehnus, L’inno a Pan di Pindaro (Milan 1979), 138, n. 23. “Paus. 8.37.11–12, ivi uno xoanon di Apollo (una cui statuetta, tra altri oggetti di coroplastica, si è rinvenuta nello ἱερόν di Pan Nomios – Paus. 8.38.11 – tra Liceo e Nomia, cf. Κ. Kourouniotis, Prakt 1902, 74; Nonn. 15.415–16).”

C. Bronze Silhouettes in Human And Animal Shape

37Report 1910, 308. “During my excavation of the temple of Pan at Berekla several similar reliefs were found representing human figures and animals which have not yet Been published.” Note by the author: Kourouniotis also discusses here similar finds from Bassae, one of which (the silhouette of a kouros) is illustrated loc. cit., Fig. 24.

D. Terracotta Relief

38Hunter wearing chlamys and pilos, chasing a boar with a dog, no. 13087. P. Jacobsthal, Die melischen Reliefs (Berlin 1931) 185, no. 3, PI. 70.

E. Miniature Mirrors (Bronze Silhouettes)

39Jost, Arcadie, 187, n. 8. S. Karouzou, National Museum. Illustrated Guide to the Museum (Athens 1977) 103. “The three insignificant pieces of metal in the shape of a simple mirror were humble dedications by women.”

F. Pottery

40Report 1904, 178. “The excavations in Arcadia so far have shown that painted vases were not so widespread in that region; they have not been found either at Lycosoura or at Tegea, Mantineia, Megalopolis or Lousoi. My excavations of the sanctuary of Pan near Berekla and of the temple of the Parrhasian Apollo have proven, that they were, however, not altogether unusual, at least at the sites on Mount Lykaion. On the first site one blackfigured lekythos and a few other pieces of similar blackfigured vases have been found …”

G. Miniature Marble Base for a Bronze Statuette

41Report 1910, 301–302, Fig. 20. “The manner in which these small statuettes were put up on plinths is visible in the illustration opposite of a figurine of Apollo (Athens, National Museum no. 13056, cf. app. no. 1.A.3), which we draw from the forthcoming publication of the statuettes found next to the temple of Pan at Berekla. The small plinth was fastened by two nails onto another slightly larger base, which might have been of a different shape, but on the bottom always had small projections either shaped like circular loops, as on the statuette in Fig. 19 (cf. AZ 1881, PL 2), or like legs (cf. ArchEph 1904, 213, Fig. 29). The larger base was set into the depression on top of a small pillar-base, similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 20, which was found in the temple of Pan at Berekla; it was fastened with lead which, poured into the circular loops or onto the bend of the legs, kept a firmer hold on the statuette.

H. Inscriptions

42Report 1902, 74. “The name of the god who owned the sanctuary was provided by an inscription on a small stone base, which was recognized as ΠΑΝΟΣ, and by a sherd with the votive inscription TOI ΠΑΟΝΙ, which is the original spelling of Pan and, maybe, his local appellation in this place.”

431. IG V2 (Berlin 1913) 143, no. 556. “ΟΣΤΡΑΚΟΝ Athenis conservatum. Saec. VI a.Chr. with profile drawing of the sherd and a facsimile of the inscription.

442. Loc. cit., no. 557. “Parva basis (Athenas non transportata)”, with a facsimile of the inscription.

2. Bronzes from the Site found before the Excavation

Athens, National Museum

451. Hermes Kriophoros, no. 12347. Perdrizet, Criophore, passim, PI. 7. Lamb, Bronzes, 135, no. 2. Kunze, CollStathatos, 50–51, n. 4, no. 2.

462. Man wearing short chiton and pilos (Hermes?), no. 12348. Perdrizet, Criophore, 300, PI. 8. Felten, BrStat, 239, Fig. 3, 243, n. 27.

473. Naked youth making an offering (Apollo?), no. 12349. Perdrizet, Criophore, 300, PI. 8. Langlotz, FGrBSch, 69, no. 22, PI. 35c. Thomas, Athleten, 105, nn. 477–80, PI. 57, Fig. 2. UMC 2 (1984) 239, no. 431, PI. 217 s.v. Apollon (Ο. Palagia).

Berlin, Antikenmuseum

484. Hermes Kriophoros, no. 30552. Sambon, Ex-Voto, 20–21, Fig. 4. Berlin Bronzes, 67–68, no. 165, PL 23. UMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 263, PI. 222 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

495. Hermes Kriophoros, no. 10781. Berlin Bronzes, 68, no. 165, PL 23. LIMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 266a s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

506. Man wearing boots and pilos, holding a ram, no. 10782. Berlin Bronzes, 69–70, no. 167, PI. 24. N. Himmelmann, Ideale Νacktheit in der griechischen Kunst, Jdl Ergänzungsheft 26 (1990) 39, n. 82, Fig. 8. UMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 266d s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

517. Man wearing cloak and pilos, holding a dead fox, no. 10784. Berlin Bronzes, 70–71, no. 169, PI. 25.

528. Man wearing boots, cloak and pilos, no. 10785. Berlin Bronzes, 71, no. 170, PI. 25. Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, n. 171.

539. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no. 10786. Berlin Bronzes, 71–72, no. 171, PL 25. Hi9melmann, HGenre, 64, n. 172.

5410. Man wearing pilos, praying, no. 10780. Berlin Bronzes, 72–74, no. 172. Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, n. 170.

5511. Youth wearing pilos, holding a ram, no. 10783. Berlin Bronzes, 70, no. 168, PI. 26.

5612. Naked youth, no. 10778. Berlin Bronzes, 74, no. 173, PL 27.

5713. Naked youth, no. 10779. Berlin Bronzes, 75, no. 174, PI. 27.

5814. Bronze lamp with triton handle, no. 10787 (Misc.). j. D. Beazley “A Marble Lamp”, BSA 60/61 (1940/41) 48–49, Fig. 30.

Boston, Museum of Fine Art

5915. Herm, Schimmel Collection (inv. no.?). Boston Bronzes, 27, no. 24. O. White Muscarella, ed., Ancient Art. The N. Schimmel Collection (Mainz 1974), no. 27. UMC 5 (1990) 296, no. 17 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

6016. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no. 08.258.7. Studniczka, Phauleas, passim, PI. 4. New York Bronzes, 39–40, no. 58. Small Sculpture in Bronze From the Classical World. An exhibit in honour of E. Hill Richardson (Chapel Hill, N.C. 1976), no. 16 (G. K. Sams). Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, n. 166.

6117. Youth wearing boots and himation, holding a bow (Apollo?), no. 07.286.91. New York Bronzes, 41–42, no. 60. UMC 2 (1984) 239, no. 434, PI. 217 s.v. Apollon (Ο. Palagia). Thomas, Athleten, 104–105, nn. 474, 480.

Paris, Musée du Louvre

6218. Youth wearing cloak and pilos, no. Br. 4248. Sambon, Ex-Voto, 20, Fig. 2. Jost, Lykosoura, 341–43, Fig. 7.

Whereabouts Unknown

6319. Man wearing pilos (Hermes?). Sambon, Ex-Voto, 19–20, Fig. 1.

6420. Man wearing himation and pilos, holding a stick. Sambon, Ex-Voto, 20, Fig. 3.

6521. Youth wearing boots, himation and pilos, offering a vessel with fruit. Sambon, Ex-Voto, 21, Fig. 5.

3. Bronzes of Uncertain Provenance, Possibly From Berekla (Neda)

Athens, National Museum

661. Hermes, “from Ithome, Messenia”, no. 7539. A. de Ridder, Catalogue des bronzes de la Société Archéologique d’Athènes (Paris 1894) 149, no. 832, Pl. 4, Fig. 1. Lamb, Statuettes, 138, no. 9, PI. 24.

672. Hermes Kriophoros, no provenance stated, Stathatos Collection St. 328. Kunze, CollStathatos, 50–58, no. 16, Pls. 6–7. H. F. Mussche, ed., Monumenta Graeca et Romana 5.1: C. Rolley, Die Bronzen (Leyden 1965) 5, no. 52, PI. 16. UMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 270 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

683. Naked youth, hunting, “from Andritsaina”, no. 7410. De Ridder, MusNat, 6, no. 1, Fig. 1.

694. Naked youth, holding cockerel, “from Megalopolis”, no. 7408. De Ridder, MusNat, 8, no. 3, Figs. 4–5. Lamb, Statuettes, 144, no. 33. H.G. G. Payne, “A Bronze Herakles from the Benaki Museum at Athens”, JHS 54 (1934) 171, Fig. 5. V Poulsen, “Der Strenge Stil”, ActaArch 8 (1937) 36. Langlotz, FGrBSch, 56, no. 37, PI. 29a.

Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery

705. Youth wearing petasos, holding ram, praying, “first known in England, ultimate source unknown”, no. 54.2323. D. Kent Hill, “A Greek Shepherd”, JWalt 11 (1948) 19–23, 85, Figs. 1–2. Baltimore Bronzes, 123–24, no. 284, PI. 55. Himmelmann, HGenre, 65, n. 177, PL 7. UMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 270 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert).

716. Beast, caught during a hunt (?), no provenance stated, no. 54.1488. Baltimore Bronzes, 123, no. 283, PL 54. Boston, Museum of Fine Art

727. Hermes Kriophoros, “from Arcadia”, no. 04.6. Boston Bronzes, 24–25, no. 22. Delight Cat., 77–81, no. 8.

738. Hermes Kriophoros, “from Sparta”, no. 99.489. Boston Bronzes, 26–26, no. 23. Delight Cat., 81–86, no. 9.

Cambridge Mass., Fogg Art Museum

749. Wreathed man, wearing cloak, “from Rhousopoulos at Argos”, no. 1965.533. Fogg Art Museum. The F.M. Watkins Collection (Cambridge Mass. 1973) 20–21, no. 4 (J. W. Brinnon).

Essen, Museum Folkwang

7510. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no provenance or inv. no. stated. J. Fink, Griechisches Kunsthandwerk (Mainz 1951) 47, Fig. 25.

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

7611. Man wearing cloak and pilos, holding a ram and a jug, “once in the London market”, no. 43.11.3. Richter, Aineas, passim. Himmelmann, HGenre, 64. LIMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 265, PL 223 s.v. Hermes.

7712. Man wearing boots, himation and pilos, holding a bird (dove?), “from Messenia”, no. 45.162. A. Sambon, “L’exposition d’art antique au Petit Palais”, Le Musée 2 (1904) 179, Fig. 14 left. G. M.A. Richter, “Two Archaic Bronze Statuettes”, BMMA 1945/46, 249, 251 (Figs.). Mertens, Statuettes, 45–46, PI. 3, Figs. 1–2.

Paris, Musée du Louvre

7813. Man wearing cloak and pilos, no provenance stated (ex-collection Nanteuil), no. 4274. Jost, Lykosoura, 343–44, Fig. 10.

7914. Man wearing pilos, holding syrinx, “Arcadia” (ex-collection Nanteuil), no. 4249. C. Devés, “Bronzes antiques au Département des Antiquités Grecques et Romains”, La Revue des Arts 1956, 187, no. 2, Fig. 2.

Providence, Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of Art

8015. Man wearing boots, cloak and pilos, “from Messenia”, no. 20.056. Providence Bronzes, 41–45, no. 12, Figs. a-f. Himmelmann, HGenre, 63–64, n. 165, 173, PI. 6.

Collection W. C. Baker

8116. Hermes Kriophoros, now in New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 1972.118.67, “from the collection of Mme Melas”. Baker Cat., 8, no. 20 (with Pl.). Ancient Art Cat., 35, no. 60. UMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 261 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert). Delight Cat., 79, 82 Fig. 9a.

8217. Hunter wearing pilos, “from Messenia”. A. Sambon, “L’exposition d’art antique au Petit Palais”, Le Musée 2 (1904) 178–79, Fig. 13. Baker Cat., 8, no. 23 (with PL). Ancient Art Cat., 35, no. 136. F. Eckstein, Gnomon 31 (1959) 641, no. 23 (“Herakles”). Collection E. De Kolb

8318. Striding man, “from Arcadia, near Bassae”. A. Emmerich Gallery, New York. Classical Art From a New York Collection. An Exhibition of Ancient Bronzes, Figurative Plastic Vases and Other Ancient Works of Art (New York 1977), no. 64. Master Bronzes, no. 40.

Whereabouts Unknown

8419. Youth wearing cloak, holding a ram, once on Athens Market, “Arcadian”. Photograph in the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, neg. no. Ath. Var. 963–64 (four views).

Notes

1 Pan as an Arcadian god: for the literary tradition see Roscher 3, 1349-50. s.v. Pan (WH, Roscher). Pan at the battle of Marathon: on the event, its effect and the sources see Borgeaud, Cult, 94-95, 133-162, 230-31, nn. 34-37, 243-256, nn. 1-178.

2 Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum nos. 2117-18. F. Brommer, Satyroi (Wurzburg 1937) 12, 50, n. 5 no. 1, 62, Figs. 3-4. K. Hitzl, Die Entstehung und Entwicklung des Volutenkraters (Frankfurt 1982) 340, no. 60. Archaeological Collection of the University of Amsterdam. Gods and Men in the Allard Pierson Museum (Alkmaar 1972), PL 7. Relation Pan-Hermes: Borgeaud, Cult, 66-67. Pan, satyrs and maenads as representative “attributes” of Hermes and Dionysos: compare the observations concerning erotes surrounding Aphrodite made by N. Himmelmann, Zur Eigenart des klassischen Götterbildes (Munich 1959) 14-15, 36, n. 7.

3 Dancing “goatmen” or “upright” goats have been interpreted as “tragikoi choroi” or typological forerunners of the earliest representations of Pan: RE Suppl. 8 (1956) 953 s.v. Pan (F. Brommer). R. Hampe, in review of OlBer VII, Gymnasium 72 (1965) 77-79, however, made clear that Brommer’s ideas were misinterpretations. Th. Hadzisteliou Price, “‘To Be or Not to Be’ on an Attic Black-Figure Pelike”, AJA 75 (1971) 432, PI. 94, Fig. 6 identified a goat dancing on its hind legs as Pan, without explaining the reason. The scene belongs to a group of similar representations on Attic vases discussed recently by F. Lissarague, “Les satyres et le monde animal”, in J. Christiansen and T. Melander, eds., Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Ancient Greek and Related Pottery 1987 (Copenhagen 1988) 339-40, 350, nn. 38-45, 343, Fig. 7, referring to further examples. For the kalpis in Cape Town see J. Boardman and M. Pope, Greek Vases in Cape Town, South African Museums Guide 6 (1961) 9, no. 4, PL 3. Compare also a lekythos in Zurich: H. P. Isler and M. Sguaitamatti, eds., Archäologisches Institut der Universität Zürich. Die Sammlung Collisani (Zurich 1990) 124-25, no. 180, PI. 28. These scenes have not yet been satisfactorily interpreted, but there is no evidence that one of the goats depicted there might represent Pan. On the cult of the goat’ in Mycenaean times see A. B. Cook, “Animal Worship in the Mycenaean Age”, JHS 14 (1894) 150-52.

4 Sambon, Ex-Voto, 19. Studniczka, Phauleas, 66-67. E. Robinson, “Department of Classical Art. The Accessions of 1908, 3: Bronzes”, BMMA 1909, 78, 81, Fig. 4. Berlin Bronzes, 67-75, nos. 165-74, Pls. 23-27. See also app. nos. 2.1-21.

5 Perdrizet, Criophore, passim, Pls. 7-9 (app. nos. 2.1-3). For the possibility that the youth once held a bow, see infra n. 22.

6 In antiquity this region of the Lykaion mountains was called Kerausion, see J. G. Frazer, Pausanias’s Description of Greece 4 (London 1913) 392, on Paus. 8.41.3. RE 11 (1921) 271 s.v. Kerausion (F. Bölte). RE 13 (1927) 2235 s.v. Lykaion (E. Meyer). RE 16 (1935) 2170 s.v. Neda (E. Meyer). For the excavation see Report 1902. For the provenance of the three statuettes (supra n. 5) see Report 1904, 207-208, n. 1.

7 Hardly anything of the ancient architecture is visible today, except for some fragmentary limestone and marble blocks. P. B. Broucke recently identified a stoa which he dated tentatively to the late fourth century B.C./early Hellenistic period: AJA 95 (1991) 330-31. Only a few blocks of one of the cisterns mentioned by Kourouniotis seem to be in situ today, ca. 200-300 m NW of the site. A shepherd boy from Neda showed me the way.

8 App.no. 1.H.1,2. The sanctuary is not to be identified with the sanctuary of Pan at Melpeia in the Nomian Mountains mentioned by Paus. 8.38.11. See Report 1903, 169, η. 1. Also RE 17 (1936) 821 s.v. Nomia (E. Meyer). Noted by Borgeaud, Cult, 208, n. 52, and Jost, Arcadie, 179, n. 3. Nor can it be related to the precinct of Pan in the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Lykaion (Paus. 8.38.5): see F. Eckstein, Gnomon 31 (1959) 641, no. 20. RE 13 (1927) 2239, 2246 s.v. Lykaion (E. Meyer). Borgeaud, Cult, 181, 262, n. 40, erroneously connects the votive inscription on the sherd with the statuette dedicated by Phauleas (app. no. 2.16). Moreover, his illustration loc. cit., 139, Fig. 12, does not show the Phauleas-statuette, but the one dedicated by Aineas (app. no. 3.11); this also should not be confused with the inscription on the sherd.

9 See the preliminary catalogue in the appendix below. Whether or not the bronzes app. nos. 3.1-19 belong to the votive complex does not alter the picture based on material whose provenance from the sanctuary is certain.

10 App. no. 1.A.5 (statuette of a woman) and app. no. l.E (miniature bronze mirrors). This aspect of the sanctuary cannot be discussed in this paper.

11 Cloaks: app. nos. 1.A.6-7; 1.B.5; 2.7-9, 16; 3.13, 15. Short chitons: app. nos. 1.A.1; 2.2. Himation: app. nos. 3.12, 18. Naked except for hat and/or boots: app. nos. 1.A.9; 2.6, 10; 3.14,17. For the hats see RE 11 (1922) 2518-19 s.v. κυνέη no. 2 (H. Lamer). RE 20 (1950) 1330-33 s.v. πίλος (R. Kreis-v. Schaewen).

12 Ram: app. nos. 2.6; 3-11. Calf: app. no. l.A.1. Fox: app. no. 2.7. Bird (dove?): app. no. 3.12. Syrinx: app. no. 3.14. For the syrinx as a votive object compare statuettes of kouroi in Athens and London: Thomas, Athleten, 126-28, PI. 78, Figs. 1-2. The syringes held by these kouroi have led to their identification as shepherds or simple peasants. Also compare the terracotta figurine of a man wearing a pilos, playing the syrinx, from another Arcadian sanctuary: H. Metzger, “Le sanctuaire de Glanitsa (Gortynie)”, BCH 64/65 (1940/41) 27, no. 5, Fig. 10.
Covered hands: app. nos. l.A.6-7; 2.9, 18, 20 (one hand only); 3.9, 13, 15. Mertens, Statuettes, 45, explains this as an “attitude de prière”, while Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, n. 172, and Jost, Lykosoura, 344, n. 16, think that with this gesture the men are simply keeping their coats closed.
Terracotta representations: app. nos. 1.B.5 (statuette), 1.D (relief with hunting scene). The scene on the relief is very similar to the boar hunt on an Attic black-figure amphora at Altenburg: Schnapp, Sanglier, 211, n. 31, 215, Fig. 12. Also compare a similar representation from a sanctuary at Glanitsa (sheet bronze silhouette): H. Metzger, “Le sanctuaire de Glanitsa (Gortynie)”, BCH 64/65 (1940/41) 21-25, no. 3, PL 3, Fig. 2.

13 Phauleas: app. no. 2.16. Inscription: L. H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (Oxford 1961) 210, 215, no. 7. Aineas: app. no. 3.11. Inscription: Jeffery, loc. cit., 210, 215, no. 7. Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, assumes that the jug held by Aineas contains milk.

14 App. no. 1.H.1. See also supra n. 8.

15 Cloaks: app. nos. 1.A.4; 2.18. Short chitons: app. no. 1.A.8. Himation: app. nos. 2.17, 21; 3.19. Naked except for hat: app. nos. 2.11; 35. Naked: app. nos. 1.A.3,; 2.3, 12-13; 3.3-4.

16 Wreath/cockerel: app. no. 1.A.3. Cockerel: app. no. 34. Ram: app. nos. 2.11; 35, 19. Vessel with fruit: app. no. 2.21. Herakles-/Zeus-posture: app. nos. 3.3, 17.

17 App. no. 1.C.

18 Supra n. 5. App. no. 2.1.

19 From the sanctuary: app. nos. 2.4-5. Provenance unclear: app. nos. 3.1-2, 7-8, 16. One of the Boston figures, for instance, has allegedly been found in Arcadia and was later acquired by the Museum from the collection of E. P. Warren who once also owned the votive statuette of Phauleas (supra n. 13) and a herm (infra n. 21), both of which have indubitably been found on our site. On the dubious statements of the dealers and the provenance of the bronzes see the remarks of D. G. Mitten, Providence Bronzes, 44, 45, nn. 20-21.

20 Boots without wings: app. nos. 2.5; 32.

21 App. no. 2.15. The possible identification of the moschophoros in Athens (Figs. 9-11, supra n. 12,app. no. 1.A.1) as a representation of Hermes cannot be discussed here. The votive statuette of Aineas (supra n. 13) listed in a catalogue of representations of Hermes in LIMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 265 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert), does not belong there. On the statuettes of kriophoroi see Himmelmann, HGenre, 72-74.

22 Youth holding bow from the site: app. no. 2.17. Second youth who possibly held a bow: supra n. 5 (app. no. 2.3). The bow is usually understood as an attribute definitely characterizing Apollo, see Delight Cat., 53-57, no. 2, for the discussion of the statuette dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo: “… the pose corresponds so well with the dedication’s inscription of Apollo as an archer that the identification of the statuette as a representation of the god is clearly warranted.” On this question see also W Fuchs, “Eine Bronzestatuette im Lateran”, RM 64 (1957) 227-28, n. 24. Thomas, Athleten, 104-105, n. 478 (noting that the youth, supra n. 5, app. no. 2.3, not necessarily once held a bow), and recently A. F. Stewart, “When Is a Kouros Not an Apollo? The Tenea Kouros Revisited”, in M. A. del Chiaro and WR. Biers, eds., Corinthiaca. Studies in Honor of D. A. Amyx (Columbia 1986) 54-70. F. Brommer, “Gott oder Mensch”, Jdl 101 (1986) 37-53. N. Himmelmann, “Frühgriechische Jünglinge”, in Herrscher und Athlet. Die Bronzen vom Quirinal (Milan 1989), 78. See further the puzzling side Β of an amphora by the Amasis painter in Berlin where two youths holding bows are standing next to Hermes, accompanied by dogs: D. v. Bothmer, The Amasis Painter and his World. Vase-Painting in Sixth-Century Athens (New York and London 1985) 90-92, no. 9. The problem has not yet been solved, but cannot be further discussed here.

23 App. no. l.G.

24 App. nos. 1.B.1, 6.

25 App. no. 2.14. Many terracotta lamps of this type have been found at Corinth. See, for instance, D. A. Amyx and P. Lawrence, Corinth VII, Pt.2: Archaic Corinthian Pottery and the Anaploga Well (Princeton 1975) 98, 161, no. An 327, Pls. 83, 112, and A. Newhall Stillwell, Corinth XV, Pt.2: The Potters’ Quarter. The Terracottas (Princeton 1952) 257-58, nos. 28-35, 254, Fig. 3, PL 55, ranging in date from the second half of the seventh to the middle of the sixth century B.C. For the handle compare a closely related example at Boston formerly in the E.P Warren collection: Boston Bronzes, 179, no. 214. Also compare a handle-ornament at Naples: J. de Foville, “Méduse”, Le Musée 1 (1904) 269, Fig. 1. L. Rocchetti, “Due bronzetti del Museo Archeologico di Firenze”, ArchCl 13 (1961) 121, n. 5, PL 62, Fig. 1.

26 Lamb, Bronzes, 92: “Very pious are the Arcadian shepherds: they bring the best of their flock as an offering.” Richter, Aineas, 5: “… rustic, spontaneous character … a good picture of the shepherds and peasants who roamed the mountains of Arcadia Jost, Arcadie, 467: “Une série d’ex-voto en bronze, qui proviennent d’un petit sanctuaire de Pan voisin de Berekla, sur les pentes du Lycée, montre que la clientèle du dieu se recrute essentiellement dans le monde des éleveurs et des petits bergers. […] ils évoquent le climat rude des montagnes parrhasiennes.” Gehrke, Staatenwelt, 153: “Die spezifisch ländliche, durch Kleinbauern- und Hirtenleben geprägte einfache Frömmigkeit spiegeln auch die arkadischen Votivstatuetten mit ihren reichen rustikalen Motiven.” Himmelmann, HGenre, 64, for the first time noted aristocratie traits in some of the statuettes, reflected by their nudity: “Selbst unter den arkadischen Hirten … würde demnach die volkstümlich realistische Richtung der Gattung durch aristokratische Ideale durchkreuzt.”

27 Himmelmann, HGenre, 71-75. Some further representations of kriophoroi: NSc 1913, 119-24, Figs. 159-64 (from Medma). F. Tini Bertocchi, “Considerazioni sui criofori di Medma”, Klearchos 5 (1963) 7-17. D. Adamesteanu, “Problèmes de la zone archéologique de Métaponte”, RA 1967, 16-17, Fig. 9 (bronze statuette from the temple of Apollo at Metapont). Possibly from the site of ancient Sicyon: W Vischer, “Anciens bronzes grecs”, Memorie dell’lnstituto di Correspondent Archeologica 2 (1865) 405-407, PL 12, no. 3. Bronze statuette in the Bibliothèque Nationale Paris: LIMC 5 (1990) 311, no. 269, PL 223 s.v. Hermes (G. Siebert). A Boeotian terracotta figurine of a man wearing a pilos standing next to a ram: R. Lullies, Eine Sammlung griechischer Kleinkunst (Munich 1955) 48, no. 127, PL 52. Later representations: NSc 1977, 482, 484, Fig. 65 (terracotta figurine from Torre del Mordillo in Calabria). See further the shepherd carrying a lamb from the group of bronzes found at Ampelokepoi/Athens: E. G. Raftopoulou, “Remarques sur des bronzes provenant du sol grec”, in Bronzes hellénistiques et romains. Tradition et renouveau. Actes du 5” Colloque International sur les bronzes antiques, Lausanne 1978 (Cahiers d’Archéologie Romande de la Bibliothèque historique vaudoise 17, 1979) 44-45, n. 23, Pl. 18, Fig. 13.

28 Kyathos by Theozotos: Himmelmann, HGenre, 55, Pls. 4-5. Also compare the herdsman on a Boeotian bronze plaque of the seventh century B.C.: loc. cit., 52-53 (with fig. and further reference). Shepherds in Arcadia: Borgeaud, Cult, 15-16. Gehrke, Staatenwelt, 152-54. Shepherds in vase painting: Himmelmann, HGenre, 53-55, 65-67, Pls. 2-3, 11-15. Representations of hunters: see the “ΘΕΡYΤΑΙ” on the cup of Ergotimos in Berlin: K. Schefold, Göter- und Heldensagen der Griechen in der spätarchaischen Kunst (Munich 1978) 74, Fig. 90, and especially the terracotta relief from our sanctuary (supra n. 12, app. no. l.D, Fig. 12). For further representations see infra, nn. 31, 32.

29 Schnapp, Caccia, 42. Rich illustrative material is presented in the essays of A. Schnapp (see bibliography).

30 J.-L. Durand and A. Schnapp, “Schlachtopfer und rituelle Jagd”, in Die Bilderwelt der Griechen. Schlüssel zu einer fremden Kultur (Mainz 1984) 86—91. Schnapp, Caccia, 51-54, nn. 37, 39. Hommes, dieux, et héros de la Grèce (Rouen 1982) 189-190. For the Cretan customs described by Strabo (10.4.21) see H. Patzer, Die griechische Knabenliebe, SB Wiss. Ges. Univ. Frankfurt 19: 1 (Wiesbaden 1982) 72-73.

31 Amongst other examples see: Schnapp, Caccia, 43-47, Figs. 1-7. Schnapp, Sanglier, 198-99, Fig. 5 (Corinthian). C.M. Stibbe, Lakonische Vasenmaler des sechsten Jahrhunderts v. Chr, Studies in Ancient Civilization 1 (Amsterdam and London 1972) 281, no. 220, PL 78, Fig. 1; 284, no. 275, PL 91, Fig. 2 (Laconian). J.-J. Maffre, “Collection P. Canellopoulos: Vases béotiens”, BCH 99 (1975) 504-506, no. 26, Figs. 47-48 (Boeotian). Schnapp, Sanglier, 211-16, Figs. 10-13 (Attic), just to name a few. Some of the scenes by the Amasis painter are of particular interest: D. v. Bothmer, The Amasis Painter and His World. Vase-Painting in Sixth-Century B.C. Athens (London and New York 1985), nos. 2, 6, 8-11, 26.

32 Bronze fox from the site: app. no. 1.A.2. Dead foxes tied to poles are often carried by hunters on vase-paintings, see illustrations in the articles referred to supra, nn. 30-31. Add, for instance, an Attic lekythos from Vari: CM. Young, “Archaeology in Greece, 1936-1937”, JHS 57 (1937) 125, PL 6, Fig. 3- Also compare a terracotta hunter carrying a hare, from Cyprus: K. Nicolaou, “Archaeological News from Cyprus, 1970”, AJA 76 (1972) no. 22, PL 64, Fig. 14. On fox-hunting as part of the education of boys: Koch-Harnack, Knabenliehe, 93. A bronze animal from its position possibly comparable to the fox: app. no. 3.6. Wreathed youth with cockerel: app. no. 1.A.3 (cf. supra n. 17). On cockerels as love-gifts see especially Koch-Harnack, loc. cit., 93-105. Dead fox and hare hanging beside an excited man caressing a boy: K. Schauenburg, “Erastes und Eromenos auf einer Schale des Sokles”, AA 1965, 854, Fig. 3. Generally: A. Schnapp, “Eros auf der Jagd”, in Die Bilderwelt der Griechen. Schlüssel zu einer fremden Kultur (Mainz 1984) 110-25.

33 Note the comparable character of the cult in the sanctuary of Hermes and Aphrodite at Syme Viannou in Crete: A. Lebessi, Tὸ ἱερὸ χοῦ ‘Ερμῆ ϰαι τῆς ’Αφροδίτης στὴ Σύμη Βιάννου 1.1: Χάλϰινα ϰρητιϰὰ τορεύματα, Βιβλιοθήκη τῆς ἐν ’Αθήναις ’Αρχαιολογικῆς ‘Εταιρείας, 102 (Athens 1985) 188-198 (for this reference I would like to thank P. Themelis). Hermes and Apollo as gods of initiation: J. N. Bremmer, “Adolescents, Symposium and Pederasty”, in Sympotica. A Symposium on the Symposium (Oxford 1990), 141, n. 47. G. Costa, “Hermes dio delle iniziazioni”, in Civiltà classica e cristiana 3 (1982) 277-95. On Pan’s relation to hunting see Borgeaud, Cult, 64-65. On Hermes and hunting see Lebessi, loc. cit.

34 On the social position of the kriophoroi from Cretan sanctuaries see A. Lebessi, “Der Berliner Widderträger — Hirt oder hervorragender Bürger?”, in Festschrift für N. Himmelmann (Mainz 1989) 61-62.

35 On the earliest evidence on Pan see supra, nn. 13-14 (app. nos. l.H.l; 2.16; 3.11). Statuette of Pan from the site: app. no. 1.A.10. On the “Polycleitan” Pan see D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, Jdl Ergänzungsheft 25 (Berlin 1969) 49-64, 247-52, nos. 1-16.

36 See supra n. 3. The head of a dancing silen on a fragment from an Attic kylix in Catania, dating to ca. 530/520 B.C., looks very unusual: G. Rizza, “Stipe votiva di un santuario di Demetra a Catania”, BdA 1960, 249-50, Fig. 9 bottom left.

37 App. no. l.B.l.

38 For a sixth-century representation the horse-legged “ΣΙΛΕΝΟΙ” on the François Vase: BdA, série spéciale 1 (1977) 141, Fig. 92, 170, Fig. 137. The earliest Greek representation of a comparable demonic type depicts the figure with “human” legs, though: F. Lo Porto, “Ceramica della necropoli di Tor Pisana”, AttiMGrecia 5 (1964) 120-25, no. 4, Fig. 3, PI. 37. Recently J. L. Benson, Earlier Corinthian Workshops. A Study of Corinthian Geometric and Protocorinthian Stylistic Groups, Allard Pierson Series, Scripta Minora 1 (Amsterdam 1989) 50, n. 2. To the bibliography add K. Fittschen, Untersuchungen zum Beginn der Sagendarstellungen bei den Griechen (Berlin 1969) 54, n. 275, 142, n. 704i.

Notes de fin

* The following is an enlarged version of the paper read during the seminar held at Delphi. The subject has been partly discussed in my Studien zu frühen Pandarstellungen (unpublished M.A. thesis, Bonn 1982). I am grateful to all my colleagues from the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, especially K.-V and E. D. von Eickstedt, and from the Excavation House at Olympia for their encouragement to take up these studies again. This paper is, however, only a preliminary report pending the final publication of the material excavated by K. Kourouniotis for the Greek Archaeological Society in 1902. I am most grateful to the Greek authorities, especially to G.S. Dontas and B. Ch. Petrakos, for their generous permission to study and publish these finds.
The material poses various problems and aspects. In this preliminary paper, however, many questions cannot be discussed or even mentioned, such as dates, styles, some antiquaria, etc. The passages from the reports on the excavations by K. Kourouniotis have been translated into English by the author. Numbers of the catalogue in the appendix below are referred to as app. nos.
The seminar at Delphi was an exciting experience and a great chance to discuss the subject with colleagues from all over the world. I would like to thank the participants for their interest, especially D. G. Mitten and Ρ Themelis for important advice. A. and K. Dickey checked the original version of the English; the final text was checked by Ρ A. Mountjoy.
Works frequently cited are abbreviated as follows:
Ancient Art Cat. = D. v. Bothmer, Ancient Art from New York Private Collections. Catalogue of an Exhibition Held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York 1961).
Athens Bronzes = V Stais, Marbres et bronzes du Musée National I (Athens 1910).
Baker Cat. = Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities. An Exhibition from the Collection of W. Cummings Baker, Esq., Held at the Century Association, New York (New York 1950).
Baltimore Bronzes = D. Kent Hill, Catalogue of Classical Bronze Sculpture in the Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore 1949).
Berlin Bronzes = Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Katalog der statuarischen Bronzen im Antiquarium 1: K. Neugebauer, Die minoischen und archaisch griechischen Bronzen (Berlin and Leipzig 1931).
Borgeaud, Cult = Ph. Borgeaud, The Cult of Pan in Ancient Greece (Chicago and London 1988). Boston Bronzes = M. Comstock and C. Vermeule, Greek, Etruscan and Roman Bronzes in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston (Greenwich, Conn. 1971).
Classical Art Cat. = A. Emmerich Gallery Inc., Classical Art from a New York Collection. An Exhibition of Ancient Bronzes, Figurative Plastic Vases and Other Ancient Works of Art, Organized in Cooperation with Münzen und Medaillen AG Basle, Switzerland (New York 1977).
Delight Cat. = A. P. Kozloff and D. G. Mitten, eds., The Gods Delight. The Human Figure in Classical Bronze (Cleveland 1988).
De Ridder, MusNat = A. de Ridder, “Bronzes du Musée National”, BCH 24 (1900) 5-23.
Felten, BrStat = F. Felten, “Archaische arkadische Bronzestatuetten”, in K. Gschwantler and A. Bernhard-Walcher, eds., Griechische und romische Statuetten und Grofibronzen. Akten der 9- Internationalen Tagung über antike Bronzen, Wien 1986 (Vienna 1988), 237-43.
Gehrke, Staatenwelt = H.-J. Gehrke, Jenseits von Athen und Sparta. Das Dritte Griechenland und seine Staatenwelt (Munich 1986).
Himmelmann, HGenre = N. Himmelmann, Über Hirten-Genre in der antiken Kunst, AbhDdorf 65 (Opladen 1980).
Jost, Arcadie = M. Jost, Sanctuaires et cultes d’Arcadie, Etudes péloponnésiennes 9 (Paris 1985).
Jost, Lykosoura = M. Jost, “Statuettes de bronze archaïques provenant de Lykosoura”, BCH 99 (1975) 339-364.
Koch-Harnack, Knabenliebe = G. Koch-Harnack, Knabenliebe und Tiergeschenke. Ibre Bedeutung im paderastischen Erziehungssystem Athens (Berlin 1983).
Kunze, CollStathatos = E. Kunze, “Trois statuettes de bronze”, in Collection H. Stathatos 3:
Objets antiques et byzantins (Strasbourg 1963) 49-62.
Lamb, Bronzes = W Lamb, Greek and Roman Bronzes (London 1929)
Lamb, Statuettes = W. Lamb, ‘Arcadian Bronze Statuettes”, BSA 27 (1926) 133-48.
Langlotz, FGrBSch = E. Langlotz, Frühgriechische Bildhauerschulen (Nürnberg 1927).
Master Bronzes = D. G. Mitten and S. F. Doeringer, Master Bronzes From the Classical World (Cambridge, Mass. 1968).
Mertens, Statuettes = J. Mertens, “Quatre statuettes messéniennes”, AntCl 18 (1949) 39-54.
New York Bronzes = G.M. A. Richter, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Greek, Etruscan and Roman Bronzes (New York 1915).
Perdrizet, Criophore = P. Perdrizet, “Hermès Criophore”, BCH 27 (1903) 300-313.
Providence Bronzes = Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. Catalogue of the Classical Collection: D. G. Mitten, Classical Bronzes (Providence 1975).
Report 1902 = K. Kourouniotis, “’Ανασϰαφὴ ἱεροῦ νομίου Πανός”, Prakt 1902, 72-75.
Report 1903 = Κ. Kourouniotis, “’Ανασϰαφὴ ἐν Κωτίλῳ”, ArchEph 21 (1903) 151-88.
Report 1904 = Κ. Kourouniotis, “’Ανασϰαφὴ Λυκαίου”, ArchEph 22 (1904) 153-214.
Report 1910 = K. Kourouniotis, “Tὸ ἐν Βάσσαις ἀρχαιότερον ἱ ερὸν τοῦ ’Απόλλωνος”, ArchEph 28 (1910) 271-332.
Report 1912 = Κ. Kourouniotis, “Tὸ ἐν Λυκοσούρα Μέγαρον τῆς Δεσποίνης”, ArchEph 30 (1912) 142-61.
Richter, Aineas = G. Μ. Α. Richter, “Archaeological Notes. Five Bronzes Recently Acquired by the Metropolitan Museum”, AJA 48 (1944) 1-9.
Sambon, Ex-Voto = A. Sambon, “Ex-voto arcadiens”, Le Musée 5 (1908) 19-21.
Schnapp, Caccia = A. Schnapp, “Pratiche e immagini di caccia nella Grecia antica”, DtalArch 1979, 36-59.
Schnapp, Chasse = P. Schmitt and A. Schnapp, “Image et société en Grèce ancienne: Les représentations de la chasse et du banquet”, RA 1982, 57-74.
Schnapp, Sanglier = A. Schnapp, “Images et programme: Les figurations archaïques de la chasse au sanglier”, RA 1979, 195-218.
Studniczka, Phauleas = F. Studniczka, “Des Arkaders Phauleas Weihgeschenk an Pan”, AM 30 (1905) 65-72.
Thomas, Athleten = R. Thomas, Athletenstatuetten der Spätarchaik und des Strengen Stils (Rome 1981).

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1. Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2117. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 365k
Légende Fig. 2. Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2118. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 378k
Légende Fig. 3·Fragment of a volute krater, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Nos. 2117. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 358k
Légende Figs. 4-6. Bronze statuette of Hermes, National Museum Athens, No. 12347. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 2129-31.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 432k
Légende Figs. 7-8. Bronze statuette of a youth (Apollo?), National Museum Athens, No. 12349. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 4004, 4008.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 295k
Légende Figs. 9-11. Bronze statuette of a man carrying a calf on his shoulders, National Museum Athens, No. 13053. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Nat. Mus. 2129-30, 2132.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 287k
Légende Fig. 12. Terracotta relief of a man hunting a boar with a dog, National Museum Athens, No. 13087. Photo: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. No. Nat. Mus. 3114.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 580k
Légende Figs. 13-14. Bronze statuette of a youth holding a ram, once on the Athens art market. Photos: German Archaeological Institute at Athens, Neg. Nos. Ath. Var. 963-64.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Légende Fig. 15. Bronze lamp with handle shaped as a triton, Staatliche Museen Preuβischer Kulturbesitz, Antikenmuseum Berlin, No. Misc. 10787. Photo: Ingrid Geske.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 333k
Légende Fig. 16. Dead fox tied to a pole, National Museum Athens, No. 13054. Photo: German Archaeological Museum at Athens, Neg. No. Nat. Mus. 4129.
URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/204/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 235k

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