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La Conquête du mystère musical

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Pierre Dubois

Citations en langue originale

Texte intégral

Introduction

1Page 18 (a) : « It must be confessed, that musical imitation is greatly below that of painting, and that at best it is but an imperfect thing. As to the efficacy therefore of music, it must be derived from another source […]. » (Harris, p. 69)

2Page 18 (b) : «A Power, which consists not in imitations, and the raising Ideas, but in the raising Affections, to which ideas may correspond.» (Harris, p. 99)

3Page 21 (a): «If it shall be demanded then, when a man begins to have any ideas, I think the true answer is, – when he first has any sensation.» (Locke, I, p. 141)

4Page 22 (a): «Its searches after truth are a sort of hawking and hunting, wherein the very pursuit makes a great part of the pleasure.» (Locke, I, p. 7)

5Page 22 (b): «Every thing that is new or uncommon raises a Pleasure in the Imagination, because it fills the Soul with an agreeable Surprise, gratifies its Curiosity, and gives an Idea of which it was not before possest.» (Addison, The Spectator, no 409 et 412)

6Page 22 (c): «The active mind is ever bent to be employ’d. Pursuing is the business of our lives; and even abstracted from any other view, gives pleasure. Every arising difficulty, that for a while attends and interrupts the pursuit, gives a sort of spring to the mind, enhances the pleasure, and makes what would else be toil and labour, become sport and recreation.» (Hogarth, p. 32)

7Page 22 (d): «We should do well to commiserate our mutual ignorance, and endeavour to remove it in all the gentle and fair ways of information; and not instantly treat others ill, as obstinate and perverse, because they will not renounce their own, and receive our opinions, or at least those we would force upon them, when it is more than probable that we are no less obstinate in not embracing some of theirs. For where is the man that has incontestable evidence of the truth of all that he holds, or of the falsehood of all he condemns; or can say that he has examined to the bottom all his own, or other men’s opinions? The necessity of believing without knowledge, nay often upon very slight grounds, in this fleeting state of action and blindness we are in, should make us more busy and careful to inform ourselves than constrain others.» (Locke, II, p. 374-375)

8Page 22 (e): «Locke’s truth claims were models of modesty.» (Porter, p. 60)

9Page 23 (a): «Post-Lockean thinking presented consciousness as infinite potentiality, a sum of shifting sensations, reliant on an indeterminate and trembling network of nerves and fibres discharging signals between the outside world and the inner je ne sais quoi.» (Porter, p. 281)

10Page 25 (a): «In any case, the historian of mentalities is concerned with what was thinkable and doable in the past, regardless of the assumed numbers of people involved or its assumed normative standing.» (Gatrell, p. 14)

11Page 25 (b): «Mysterious Music! He that doth the Right, / Must shew thy Excellency by thine own Light: / Thy Purity must teach us how to praise; / As Men seek out the Sun with his own Rays.» (Sympson)

I. Musique et langage

12Page 29 (a): «If it be allow’d with Cicero that all Arts are related, we may safely conclude, that Poetry, Painting, and Music are closely ally’d. From this near resemblance to each other they have been commonly call’d the Sister Arts, which is so great, that it is difficult to discourse upon either of them, particularly on the two First, without a mutual borrowing of Images, and Terms, insomuch that one of these Arts cannot well be explain’d, without giving some Insight into the other at the same Time.» (Jacob, p. 3-4)

13Page 29-30 (a): «Almost all the parts of poetry are found in painting. Harmony, which is the essence of music, is, as it were, the dress or cloathing of poetry; and painting is a kind of dumb harmony, which charms and sooths [sic] us thro’our eyes, as Music does thro’our Ears. Poetry is much nearer ally’d to Painting than to music. Lyric poetry approaches more to music, than any other species of it, as Dramatic and pastoral poetry do to painting. […] As these arts proceed chiefly from the same principles, Imitation and Harmony, so they are mutually assistant to each other, and ought to dwell much together. […] yet […] they have their separate beauties too.» (Jacob, p. 3-5)

14Page 30 (b): «It is certain, that, by universal Consent, Poetry is the most elegant Pleasure, and the most pleasing Instruction […].» (Jacob, p. 7)

15Page 31 (a): «But now coming to the Instrumentall kind of Musick, wee are much more at a loss than before; for the vocall hath the subject provided, but for the other, the master must feigne the subject, as well as forme his musick to it.» (North, p. 115)

16Page 31 (b): «Tho’Music may give the Mind no Instruction immediately from itself; yet it helps greatly to mend the Heart in general, and elevate it to the doing of great and generous Actions: It disposes the Soul for the Reception of such Precepts as tend to Humanity and Benevolence; it charms and softens us, like Beauty, which, tho’generally incapable of giving Instruction, serves to refine our Passions; and excite and raise us to the Performance of brave and noble exploits.» (Jacob, p. 8)

17Page 31 (c): «Musick, indeed hath been formerly abused, and it is in this Age debased far below the Dignity of its Nature. It hath been an Instrument, whereby the Devil hath acted in a sure, and insensible manner to Debauch and Vitiate the Dispositions, and Natures of such as Use it, by Vain, Obscene, and Impious Songs.» (Bedford, p. 220)

18Page 32 (a): «At this period, and under these circumstances, no man could be distinguished by his genius, without an ear for music, and a talent for versification; and the principle of imitation being in both the same, the characters of poet and musician would of course be united in the same person. This union, with the principles which produced it, we shall have no difficulty in conceiving, that the first improvements of eloquence should appear in verse, and the earliest efforts of genius be conceived in song.» (Webb, p. 82)

19Page 32 (b): «The foundation of all true music, and the most perfect of all musical instruments, is the human voice; which is therefore the prototype of the musical scale, and a standard of musical sound.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 122)

20Page 33 (a): «By loudning a Voice by no means must be understood straining or bawling […].» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 203)

21Page 33 (b): «Noises, therefore, and inharmonious notes of every kind, which a good voice cannot utter without straining, ought to be excluded from this pleasing art.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 122)

22Page 34 (a): «How, how, shall the Voice be tuned? In Music, the sleeping, and majestic, and solemn, Pace of Grave, or Adagio, the winged Rapidity of Allegro, or Presto, succeeding it, strike, by their Variety, the judicious Ear with peculiar Delight. Nor does the soft, whispering Voice of Piano, the quick-bursting Thunder of the Forte, or Tutti, produce less pleasing Effect. Similar to these, ’tis apprehended, should be the Modulation of the Orator’s Voice! Which should, not only, be adapted to the different Affections, but, exact, proportioned, in Celerity, in Vehemence, to the Degree of their Warmth.» (Garner, p. 76)

23Page 36 (a): «Among the Savages who are in the lowest Scale of the human Kind, these several Modes of expressing their Passions are found altogether suited to their wretched State. Their Gestures are uncouth and horrid: Their Voice is thrown out in Howls and Roarings: Their Language is like the Gabbling of Geese.

24But if we ascend a Step or two higher in the Scale of savage Life, we shall find this Chaos of Gesture, Voice, and Speech, rising into an agreeable Order and Proportion. The natural Love of a measured Melody, which Time and Experience produce, throws the Voice into Song, the Gesture into Dance, the Speech into Verse or Numbers. The Addition of musical Instruments comes of Course: They are but Imitations of the human Voice, or of other natural Sounds, produced gradually by frequent Trial and Experiment.

25Such is the Generation and natural Alliance of these Sister-Graces, Music, Dance, and Poem, which we find moving Hand in Hand among the savage Tribes of every Climate.» (Brown, Dissertation, III, p. 27)

26Page 36 (b): «As the modern Poetry thus became often unfit for Music, so from a singular Cause the Separation was confirmed, and Music in its Turn became often unfit for Poetry. After many Centuries had passed in Darkness, Guido arose: And with a Force of Genius surpassing that of all his Predecessors, invented the Art of Counterpoint, or Composition in Parts: Yet this very Circumstance, which seemed to promise so noble an Improvement in Music, was a strong concurrent Cause of compleating its Divorce from Poetry. For now, instrumental Music, having assumed a new and more inviting Form, and being ennobled by the principles of a complex and varied Harmony, was introduced as being of itself a compleat Species, independent of Poetry or Song. This gave it an artificial and laboured Turn; while the Composer went in Quest of curious Harmonies, Discords, Resolutions, Fugues, and Canons; and prided himself (like the Poet) in a pompous Display of Art, to the Neglect of Expression and true Pathos. And thus modern Music, was in a Manner divorced from Poetry, Legislation, and Morals.» (Brown, Dissertation, III, p. 198)

27Page 38 (a): «1. The common Song or Canzonette. 2. The Opera, or Drama for the Stage. 3. The Anthem, or Motet, for the Church. 4. The Oratorio, or sacred Drama.» (Brown, Dissertation, III, p. 198-199)

28Page 39 (a): «The same reasoning takes Place, with Respect to the modern Opera: It emerged at a Time, when the general State of Manners in Europe could not naturally produce it. Had it been the Result from Nature, its Production would have been more general. It emerged in that very City, where most probably it must have lain hid: In a City, whose other Entertainments are evidently borrowed from those of ancient Rome. And if to these Arguments we add this further Consideration, that the Subjects of the very first Operas were drawn from the Fables of ancient Greece and Rome, and not from the Events or Atchievements of the Times; and farther, that in their Form, they were exact Copies of the ancient Drama; these accumulated Proofs amount to near a Demonstration, that the Italian Opera is but the Revival of the old Roman Tragedy.» (Brown, Dissertation, III, p. 198-199)

29Page 41 (a): «An imitation therefore of the various powers of the human voice, should be the only object of musical instruments. Some, indeed, take in all, such are the organ, the harp, the fiddle; because, they can imitate the voices of every age, while others are confined to an imitation only of particular voices. […] The business of all musical instruments, is to imitate the human voice, and express the passions.» (Brown, The Lyric Muse, p. 37)

30Page 41 (b): «These gentlemen appear to be entirely careless of verisimilitude in the singing and recitative parts, as well as about the connection that ought to subsist between the intervening ballets executed by the dancers, and the main business of the drama. The former should seem to spring genuinely from the latter.» (Algarotti, p. 7)

31Page 42 (a): «[…] the Opera [hath] dwindled into a languid, badly connected, improbable, grotesque, and monstrous aggregate; wherefore, it has too justly incurred the evil fame that was spread against it, and the stigmatizing censures of many respectable personages, who otherwise, very judiciously, considered innocent amusements, when tastefully directed, as matters of no small moment, or indifference, to a well regulate government.» (Algarotti, p. 8)

32Page 42 (b): «It is therefore the poet’s duty, as chief engineer of the undertaking, to give directions to the dancers, the machinists, the painters; nay, down even to those who are entrusted with the care of the wardrobe, and dressing the performers. The poet is to carry in his mind a comprehensive view of the whole of the drama; because those parts, which are not to be productions of his pen, ought to flow from the dictates of his actuating judgment which is to give being and movement to the whole.» (Algarotti, p. 15)

33Page 42-43 (a): «Another principal reason, that can be assigned for the present degeneracy of music, is the authority, power, and supreme command usurped in his name; because the composer, in consequence, acts like a despotic sovereign, contracting all the views of pleasing to his department alone. It is almost impossible to persuade him, that he ought to be in a subordinate station; that music derives its greatest merit from being no more than an auxiliary; the handmaid to poetry. His chief business then is to pre-dispose the minds of the audience for receiving the impression to be excited by the poet’s verse; to infuse such a general tendency in their affections, as to make them analogous with those particular ideas, which the poets means [sic] to inspire. In fine, its genuine office is to communicate a more animating energy to the language of the muses.» (Algarotti, p. 31-32)

34Page 43 (b): «The twin-sisters, poetry and music, go no longer hand in hand.» (Algarotti, p. 32)

35Page 43 (c): «Pursuant to this uncontrovertible truth, that where there is no poetry, there can be no music, or at least no good music, it would be necessary, that not only the musical composer, but also the performers were properly rudimented in polite literature; and altho’they might not become poets in consequence, yet they would thence be better qualified to relish the various charms of so pleasing an art.» (Brown, The Lyric Muse, p. 23)

36Page 44 (a): «I take it for granted, that much of the Reports concerning the great Effects of Musick in former Times, beyond what is to be found in latter Ages, is highly Hyperbolical, and next Door to Fabulous: and therefore great Abatements must be allowed to the Elogies of their Musick.» (Wallis, Philosophical Transactions…, I, p. 618-619)

37Page 44 (b): «[…] that powerful instrument of error and deceit.» (Locke, II, p. 146)

38Page 45 (a): «Names, therefore, that stand for collections of ideas which the mind makes at pleasure must needs be of doubtful signification, when such collections are nowhere to be found constantly united in nature, nor any patterns to be shown whereby men may adjust them.» (Locke, II, p. 107)

39Page 45 (b): «There is no greater impediment to the advancement of knowledge than the ambiguity of words.» (Reid, p. 9)

40Page 45 (c): «We are to consider, that Musick with the Antients was of a larger Extent than what we call Musick now-a-days: For Poetry and Dancing (or comely Motion) were then accounted Parts of Musick, when Musick arriv’d to some Perfection.» (Wallis)

41Page 45 (d): «We are to consider, that the usual Design of what we now call Musick is very different from that of the Antients. What we now call Musick, is but what they called Harmonick; which was but one Part of their Musick (consisting of Words, Verse, Voice, Tune, Instrument, and Acting) and we are not to expect the same Effect of one Piece as of the whole.» (Wallis)

42Page 45 (e): «To conclude; If we aim only at pleasing the Ear, by a sweet Consort, I doubt not but our Modern Compositions may be equal, if not exceed those of the Antients: Amongst whom I do not find any Footsteps of what we call several Parts or Voices, (as Bass, Treble, Mean, etc., sung in Consort) answering each other, to compleat the Musick.» (Wallis)

43Page 46 (a): «The Grecians in the Education of their Children took great Care that they should be instructed in Music; they were of Opinion that it contributed to the framing of them to Virtue, and we find, that for a long Time, they had no Music but what was proper for forming of Youth to Morality, and for singing the Praise of Heroes and great men.» (Jacob, p. 8)

44Page 46 (b): «For what Reasons the Greek Musicians made such a difficult Matter of their Notes and Signs we cannot guess, unless they did it designedly to make their Art mysterious, which is an odious Supposition; but one can scarcely think it was otherwise, who considers how obvious it was to find a more easy Method. This was therefore the first Thing the Latins corrected in the Greek Musick, as we have already heard was done by Boethius, and further improved by Gregory the Great.» (Malcolm, p. 552-553)

45Page 47 (a): «The Music then of the Ancients seems in general to have been more simple than ours, and perhaps it would not have the same effect upon us as it had upon them, if we could retrieve it.» (Avison, Essay, p. 150)

46Page 47 (b): «I confess I am unable to see beauty in them of any kind or degree.» (Twining, Recreations, p. 20)

47Page 47 (c): «It is not easy to understand exactly how all this was. What was their view? why all was flattened in this manner? But it is very plain that the musicians of that time were all for Wilkes and liberty in their tuning. […] No; may I be laid all the rest of my life upon the rack of the Greek diagram, stretched out till my head touch Nete and my toes Proslambanomenos; like St Lawrence upon his gridiron, with all the crossbars of the scale flaying my poor back, and the vulture of curiosity gnawing my liver all the while, if I utter a word about them!

48The dramatic music of the antients I never thought much about, and the little that I saw without thinking always appeared very strange to me. If one may judge (and why not?) of this part of their theatrical exhibitions by the others – by their decorations, dresses, & c., and by their drama itself, it must have been a very simple, rude kind of a thing. Their tragedies, which the prejudiced admirers of the ancients talk about as perfect, finished models, are nothing like it. They are rude, imperfect sketches of men of genius; sometimes sublime, sometimes mean and vulgar to the last degree; and, perhaps in the same Page , sometimes highly poetical, sometimes worse than prosaic; with many fine strokes of nature and manifest absurdities side by side.» (Twining, Recreations, p. 27)

49Page 47 (d): «The notion of Rousseau, Abbé du Bos, and others, that the ancients had a noted declamation, and that their language was so accented and melodious as to be capable of musical accompaniment, without ceasing to be speech – I am not the most positive of human beings, but if this is not rank nonsense I give up my understanding.» ((Twining, Recreations, p. 28-29)

50Page 47 (e): «[…] so disputable is every thing that concerns Greek music […]»

51Pages 48-49 (a): «Mr Malcolm is as obscure and unsatisfactory, as usual, upon this subject; and leaves it, at least, as unintelligible as he found it.» (Twining, Two Dissertations, p. xxii)

52Page 50 (a): «It is therefore of no great importance to the history and intelligence of ancient music, at its best period, whether this point concerning the species of octave, for which Sir Francis Eyles Stiles contends, be accurately settled, or not; for, if he is right, it does not clearly appear, what peculiar and astonishing effects could be produced by a sudden change of mode, which it is not in the power of modern music to produce, by a like sudden change of key.» (Burney, Hisory, I, p. 61)

53Page 50 (b): «After all the researches which I have been able to make, it must be acknowledged that the subject of ancient music, in general, still remains, and probably ever will remain, involved in much difficulty and uncertainty.» (Burney, History, I, p. 77)

54Page 50 (c): «The ancients have related such wonders of this long-lost, and long-lamented genus [the enharmonic genus], that a particular discussion seems necessary here concerning its existence and properties. There is nothing so difficult to the conception of modern musicians, as that pleasing effects should ever have been produced by intervals, which they themselves are unable to form, and to which, if they could form and introduce them into melody, no harmony could be given, that would be agreeable to the ear, or the rules of counterpoint.» (Burney, History, I, p. 43)

55Page 50 (d): «A Public and national tribute of gratitude to deceased mortals, whose labours and talents have benefited, or innocently amused, mankind, has, at all times, been one of the earliest marks of civilization in every country emerged from ignorance and barbarism. And there seems no more rational solution to the mysteries of ancient Greek mythology, than to imagine that men, whose virtues and abilities surpassed the common standard of human excellence, had excited that degree of veneration in posterior times, which gave rise to their deification and apothoesis.» (Burney, An Account, p. i)

56Page 51 (a): «The Capacity of receiving Pleasure from these musical Sounds, is, in Fact, a peculiar and internal Sense.» (Avison, Essay, p. 6)

57Page 51 (b): «It is their peculiar and essential Property, to divest the Soul of every unquiet Passion, to pour in upon the Mind, a silent and serene Joy, beyond the Power of Words to express, and to fix the Heart in a rational, benevolent, and happy Tranquillity.» (Avison, Essay, p. 6-7)

II. Imitation et expression, association d’idées et sympathie

58Page 55 (a): «In short we think we have better Reason to determine in our own favours, from the Effects we actually feel, than any Body can have from a Thing they have no Experience of, and can pretend to know no other Way than by Report.» (Malcolm, p. 590)

59Page 55 (b): «now after all our Enquiry for an universal Character, whereby the Degrees of Concord may be determined, we are left to our Experience, and the Judgment of the Ear. We find indeed that where the radical Numbers which express any Interval are great, it is always gross Discord; and that all the Concords we know are expresst by small Numbers: And for all the Concords within an Octave, these are best which are contained in smallest Numbers; so that we may easily conclude that the frequent Coincidences of Vibrations is [sic] a necessary Condition in the Production of Harmony; but still we have no certain general Rules that afford an universal Character for judging of the Agreement of two Sounds, and of the Degree of their Approach to the Perfection of Unisons; which was the Thing we wanted in all this Enquiry: However, as to the Use of what we have already done, I think I may say, that in a Philosophical Enquiry, all our Pains is not lost, if we can secure our selves from false and incomplete Notions, and taking such for just and true […].» (Malcolm, p. 83)

60Page 56 (a): «A legitimate and just Taste can neither be begotten, made, conceiv’d, or produc’d, without the antecedent Labour and Pains of Criticism.» (Cooper, III, p. 164-165)

61Page 56 (b): «Taste, then, does not just happen; it must be made to happen.» (Kivy, p. 20)

62Page 56 (c): «For Harmony is Harmony by Nature, let men judge ever so ridiculously of Musick. So is Symmetry and Proportion founded still in Nature, let Men’s Fancy prove ever so Gothick in their Architecture, Sculpture, or whatever other designing Art.» (Shaftesbury, Charackteristics, I, p. 353)

63Page 56 (d): «[…]… all Beauty has a relation to some perceiving Power.» (Hutcheson, p. 65)

64Page 57 (a): «Under Original Beauty we may include Harmony, or Beauty of Sound, if that Expression can be allow’d, because Harmony is not usually conceiv’d as an Imitation of any thing else. Harmony often raises Pleasure in those who know not what is the Occasion of it: And yet the Foundation of this Pleasure is known to be a sort of Uniformity.» (Hutcheson, p. 27)

65Page 57 (b): «There is indeed observable, in the best Compositions, a mysterious Effect of Discords: They often give as great Pleasure as continu’d Harmony; whether by refreshing the Ear with Variety, or by awakening the Attention, and enlivening the Relish for the succeeding Harmony of Concords, as Shades enliven and beautify Pictures, or by some other means not yet known: Certain it is, however, that they have their Place, and some good Effect in our best Compositions.» (Hutcheson, p. 28)

66Page 58 (a): «There is also another Charm in Musick to various Persons, which is distinct from the Harmony, and is occasion’d by its raising agreeable Passions. The human Voice is obviously vary’d by all the stronger Passions; now, when our Ear discerns any Resemblance between the Air of a Tune, whether sung or play’d upon an Instrument, either in its Time, or Modulation, or any other Circumstance, to the Sound of the human Voice, in any Passion, we shall be touch’d by it in a very sensible manner, and have Melancholy, Joy, Gravity, Thoughtfulness, excited in us by a sort of Sympathy or Contagion. The same Connexion is observable between the very Air of a Tune, and the Words expressing any Passion which we have heard fitted to it, so that they shall both recur to us together, tho’but one of them affects our Senses.» (Hutcheson, p. 82)

67Page 59 (a): «Musick is true pantomime or resemblance of Humanity in all its states, actions, passions and affections.» (North, p. 110)

68Page 59 (b): «[The Organist] will be grave, reasonable, merry, capering and dancing, artificiall, malencholly, querolous, stately and proud, or submissive and humble, buisie, in haste, frighted, quarrell and fight, run, walk, or consider, search, rejoyce, prattle, weep, laugh, insult, triumph; and at last, perhaps, vanish out of sight all at once; or end in very good temper, and as one layd downe to rest or sleep. There is no end of the varietys of imitation in musick, so I leave that to imagination; But with this note, viz., that if the master has a due sence and understanding of his subject, it is enough to intend these representations.» (North, p. 139-140)

69Page 59 (c): «A composer of Musick ought to look upon himself to be in a parallel state with painters or poets.» (North, p. 118)

70Page 59 (d): «But now coming to the Instrumentall kind of Musick, wee are much more at a loss than before; for the vocall hath the subject provided, but for the other, the master must feigne the subject, as well as forme his musick to it. Sometimes Great Solemnitys, as triumphs, weddings, funeralls, and the like may inspire a generall caracter of what is expected. […] But saving of some regard to be had to such occasions, a master hath upon his hands onely to please and enterteine his hearers; and he is to consider that he hath but two points to work upon. One is Harmony, which runs thro’the whole work and like the soul animates the mass, which would be dead without it; therefore it is a chief care, whatever else is undertaken, this be not impeach’d. The other is Humanity. I doe not recollect any action of inanimates, and scarce of brutes, that can be brought under imitation in musick, without relation to Humanity.» (North, p. 115)

71Page 60 (a): «Thus, in the Natural or Inanimate World, Music may imitate the Glidings, Murmurings, Toffings, Roarings, and other Accidents of Water, as perceived in Fountains, Cataracts, Rivers, Seas, & c.----The same of Thunder----the same of Winds, as well the stormy as the gentle. ----In the Animal World, it may imitate the Voice of some Animals, but chiefly that of singing Birds. ----It may also faintly copy some of their Motions. ----In the Human Kind, it can also imitate some Motions and Sounds and of Sounds those most perfectly, which are expressive of Grief and Anguish.» (Harris, p. 66-67)

72Page 61 (a): «Your Lordships observation on the Ode is certainly very just. People came with an expectation that music was to give them a prospect of Persepolis on fire. But this indeed was to expect pomegranates from an orange tree. The tree certainly produces fruit full as delicious, but still the fruit is nothing but oranges […].» (Harris, p. 25)

73Page 61 (b): «From all this it must be confessed, that Musical Imitation is greatly below that of Painting, and that at best it is but an imperfect thing. As to the Efficacy therefore of Music, it must be derived from another Source […].» (Harris, p. 69)

74Page 61 (c): «It is also observable, that there is a reciprocal Operation between our Affections, and our Ideas; so that, by a sort of natural Sympathy, certain Ideas necessarily tend to raise in us certain Affections; and those Affections, by a sort of Counter-Operation, to raise the same Ideas.» (Harris, p. 96)

75Page 61 (d): «[…] all Art is something learnt, something secondary and acquired, and never original to any Being, which possesses it.» (Harris, p. 11)

76Page 62 (a): «[…] the Want or Absence of something appearing Good; relative to Human Life, and attainable by Man, but superior to his natural and uninstructed Faculties.» (Harris, p. 29)

77Page 62 (b): «A Power, which consists not in Imitations, and the raising Ideas; but in the raising Affection, to which Ideas may correspond.» (Harris, p. 99)

78Page 62 (c): «[His Majesty] added immediately, that whatever may be the effect of music & of poetry, when taken singly, they had never so much force, as when they were united – I replied that it was an undoubted fact – I have learnt this, says his Majesty with a smile, from a certain book I have redde – your Majesty, said I, does that book too much honour [etc.].» (Harris, p. 102)

79Page 62 (d): «A Piece of Musick without Words is still Musick. It expresses Complaint or Joy independantly [sic] of Words, which help it indeed; but neither give or take away any thing that alters its Nature. Its essential Expression is Sound, as that of Painting is Colour, and of Dancing the Movement of the Body.» (The Polite Arts, p. 31-32)

80Page 63 (a): «A Musician might ask me, if I thought myself Connoisseur enough to enter into the Merit of a Piece of Musick that has been worked up with the greatest Care? And I wou’d venture to reply; Yes, for the Business of Musick is to Move. I don’t pretend to calculate Sounds: I speak not of Vibration of Cords, nor of Mathematical Proportion. I abandon to the sage Theorists these Speculations, which are only like the nice Grammatical or Dialectical Parts of a Discourse, whose Merits I can feel without entering into the Discussion. Musick speaks to me in Tones: the language is natural to me; if I don’t understand it, Art has corrupted Nature, rather than mended it. Musick should be judged in the same manner as a Picture. I see Strokes and Colours in it whose Meaning I understand; it strikes, it touches me.» (The Polite Arts, p. 54-55)

81Page 63 (b): «The Heart has its Understanding independent of Words; and when it as [ sic] once touched it has comprehended all. Moreover there are great Things which Words cannot reach, there are also delicate ones which Words are as little capable of expressing. This is very manifest, in what we are speaking of.

82Let us conclude then, that Musick, the best calculated in all its Tones, the most Geometrick in its Concords, if it should happen, that with these Qualities, it had no Signification or Meaning; we could compare to nothing but a Prism which presents the most beautiful Colours, and forms no Sort of Picture.

83The first Merit of Musick, Dancing and Eloquence, is to be conspicuous. Prima virtus Perspicuitas. What does it signify to me, that there is a beautiful Edifice in that pleasant Valley, if it is obscur’d with Night and Darkness? […] Every Tone, every Modulation, every Step ought to lead to a Sentiment, or to give us one.» (The Polite Arts, p. 57)

84Page 64 (a): «Music as an imitative Art has very confined powers.» (Avison, Essay, p. 25)

85Page 64 (b): «Thus, were one of these Gentlemen to express the following Words of Milton, […] their Songs / Divide the Night, and Lift our Thoughts to Heav’n. [John Milton, Paradise Lost (1674), book IV, v. 687-688]

86It is highly probable, that upon the Word divide, he would run a Division of half a Dozen Bars; and on the subsequent Part of the Sentence, he would not think he had done the Poet Justice, or risen to that Height of Sublimity which he ought to express, till he had climbed up to the very Top of his Instrument, or at least as far as a human Voice could follow him. And this would pass with a great Part of Mankind for Musical Expression, instead of that noble Mixture of solemn Airs and various Harmony, which indeed elevates our Thoughts, and gives that exquisite Pleasure, which none but true lovers of Harmony can feel.» (Avison, Essay, p. 24-25)

87Page 65 (a): «But the art of garden aspires to more than imitation: it can create original characters, and give expressions to the several scenes superior to any they can receive from allusions.» (Whately, p. 306)

88Page 66 (a): «As writing is more excellent than painting, and speech than music, on account of its superior usefulness; so a discourse, containing profitable information even in a rude style, may be more excellent, because more useful, than any thing in Homer or Virgil: but such a discourse partakes no more of the nature of poetry, than language does of melody, or a manuscript of a picture; whereas an agreeable piece of writing may be poetical, though it yield little or no instruction. To instruct is an end common to all good writing, to all poetry, all history, all sound philosophy. But of these last the principal end is to instruct; and if this last end be accomplished, the philosopher and the historian will be allowed to have acquitted themselves well: but the poet must do a great deal for the sake of pleasure only; and if he fail to please, he may indeed deserve praise on other accounts, but as a poet he has done nothing.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 9)

89Page 66 (b): «Shall I say, that some melodies please, because they imitate nature, and that others, which do not imitate nature, are therefore unpleasing? – that an air expressive of devotion, for example, is agreeable, because it presents us with an imitation of those sounds by which devotion does naturally express itself? – Such an affirmation would hardly pass upon the reader; notwithstanding the plausibility it might seem to derive from that strict analogy which all the fine arts are supposed to bear to one another. He would ask, What is the natural sound of devotion? Where is it to be heard? When was it heard? What resemblance is there between Handel’s Te Deum, and the tone of voice natural to a person expressing, by articulate sound, his veneration of the Divine Character and Providence?» (Beattie, Essays, p. 118)

90Page 67 (a): «I acknowledge too, that the principles and essential rules of this art are as really founded in nature, as those of poetry and painting. But when I am asked, What part of nature is imitated in any good picture or poem, I find I can give a definite answer: whereas, when I am asked, What part of nature is imitated in Handel’s Water-Music, for instance, or in Corelli’s eighth concerto, or in any particular English song or Scotch tune, I find I can give no definite answer: though no doubt I might say some plausible things; or perhaps, after much refinement, be able to show, that Music may, by one shift or other, be made an imitative art, provided you allow me to give any meaning I please to the word imitative.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 119)

91Page 67 (b): «In fact, I apprehend, that Critics have erred a little in their determinations upon this subject, from an opinion, that Music, Painting and Poetry are all imitative arts. I hope at least I may say, without offence, that while this was my opinion, I was always conscious of some unaccountable confusion of thought, whenever I attempted to explain it in the way of detail to others. But while I thus insinuate, that Music is not an imitative art, I mean no disrespect to Aristotle, who seems in the beginning of his Poetics to declare the contrary. It is not the whole, but the greater part of music, which that philosopher calls Imitative; and I agree with him so far as to allow this property to some music, though not to all. But he speaks of the ancient music, and I of the modern; and to one who considers how very little we know of the former, it will not appear a contradiction to say, that the one might have been imitative, though the other is not.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 118)

92Page 67 (c): «Nor do I mean any disrespect to music when I would strike it off the list of imitative arts. I allow it to be a fine art, and to have great influence on the human soul: I grant, that, by its power of raising a variety of agreeable emotions in the hearer, it proves its relation to poetry, and that it never appears to the best advantage but with poetry for its interpreter: and I am satisfied, that, though musical genius may subsist without poetical taste; yet these two talents united might accomplish nobler effects, than either could do singly.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 119)

93Page 67 (d): «Music is imitative, when it readily puts one in mind of the thing imitated. If an explanation be necessary; and if, after all, we find it difficult to recognise any exact similitude, I would not call such music an imitation of nature; but consider it as upon a footing, in point of likeness, with those pictures, wherein the action cannot be known but by a label proceeding from the mouth of the agent, nor the species of animal ascertained without a name written under it. But between imitation in music and imitation in painting, there is this one essential difference: – a bad picture is always a bad imitation of nature, and a good picture is necessarily a good imitation; but music may be exactly imitative, and yet intolerably bad; or not at all imitative, and yet perfectly good. I have heard that the Pastorale in the eighth of Corelli’s Concertos (which appears by the inscription to have been composed for the night of the nativity) was intended for an imitation of the song of angels hovering above the fields of Bethlehem, and gradually soaring up to heaven. The music, however, is not such as would of itself convey this idea: and, even with the help of the commentary, it requires a lively fancy to connect the various movements and melodies of the piece with the motions and evolutions of the heavenly host […].» (Beattie, Essays, p. 120)

94Page 68 (a): «Sounds in themselves can imitate nothing directly but sounds, nor in their motions any thing but motions. But the natural sounds and motions that music is allowed to imitate are but few. For, first, they must all be consistent with the fundamental principles of the art, and not repugnant either to melody or to harmony.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 122)

95Page 68 (b): «Now, the foundation of all true music, and the most perfect of all musical instruments, is the human voice; which is therefore the prototype of the musical scale, and a standard of musical sound. Noises, therefore, and inharmonious notes of every kind, which a good voice cannot utter wihout straining, ought to be excluded from this pleasing art: for it is impossible, that those vocal sounds which require any unnatural efforts, either of the singer or speaker, should ever give permanent gratification to the hearer. I say, permanent gratification; for I deny not, that the preternatural screams of an Italian singer may occasion surprise, and momentary amusement: but those screams are not music; they are admired, not for their propriety or pathos, but, like rope-dancing, and the eating of fire, merely because they are uncommon and difficult.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 122)

96Page 69 (a): «Besides, the end of all genuine music is, to introduce into the human mind certain affections, or susceptibilities of affection. Now, all the affections, over which music has any power, are of the agreeable kind. And therefore, in this art, no imitations of natural sound or motion, but such as tend to inspire agreeable affections, ought ever to find a place. The song of certain birds, the murmur of a stream, the shouts of multitudes, the tumult of a storm, the roar of thunder, or a chime of bells, are sounds connected with agreeable or sublime affections, and reconcileable both with melody and with harmony, and may therefore be imitated, when the artist has occasion for them: but the crowing of cocks, the barking of dogs, the mewing of cats, the grunting of swine, the gabbling of geese, the cackling of a hen, the braying of an ass, the creaking of a fawn, or the rumbling of a cart-wheel, would render the best music ridiculous. The movement of a dance may be imitated, or the stately pace of an embattled legion; but the hobble of a trotting horse would be intolerable.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 122)

97Page 69 (b): «The best masters lay it down as a maxim, that melody and harmony are not to be deserted, even for the sake of expression itself. Expression that is not consistent with these is not musical expression; and a composer who does not render them consistent, violates the essential rules of his art. If we compare Imitation with Expression, the superiority of the latter will be evident.

98Imitation without Expression is nothing; Imitation detrimental to Expression is faulty: Imitation is never tolerable, at least in serious music, except it promote and be subservient to expression.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 129)

99Page 70 (a): «No quality of human nature is more remarkable, both in itself and in its consequences, than that propensity we have to sympathize with others, and to receive by communication their inclinations and sentiments, however different from, or even contrary to our own.» (Hume, Treatise, II, p. xi)

100Page 70 (b): «Wherever an object has a tendency to produce pleasure in the possessor, or in other words, is the proper cause of pleasure, it is sure to please the spectator, by a delicate sympathy with the possessor.» (Hume, Treatise, II, p. ii)

101Page 70 (c): «When music imitates the modulations of grief or joy, it either actually inspires us with those passions, or at least puts us in the mood which disposes us to conceive them. But when it imitates the notes of anger, it inspires us with fear. Joy, grief, love, admiration, devotion, are all of them passions which are naturally musical. Their natural tones are all soft, clear, and melodious; and they naturally express themselves in periods which are distinguished by regular pauses, and which upon that account are easily adapted to the regular returns of the correspondent airs of a tune. The voice of anger, on the contrary, and of all the passions which are akin to it, is harsh and discordant. Its periods too are all irregular, sometimes very long, and sometimes very short, and distinguished by no regular pauses. It is with difficulty, therefore, that music can imitate any of those passions; and the music which does imitate them is not the most agreeable. A whole entertainment may consist, without any impropriety, of the imitation of the social and agreeable passions. It would be a strange entertainment which consisted altogether of the imitations of hatred and resentment.» (Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiment, p. 37)

102Page 71 (a): «Nothing that shocks humanity ought to have a place in human art.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 151)

103Page 71 (b): «It has been observed that music can have no connexion with those passions which are painful by their nature; neither can it unite with our other passions when they become painful by their excess; so that the movements of music being in a continued opposition to all those impressions which tend either to disorder or disgrace our nature, may we not reasonably presume, that they were destined to act in aid of the moral sense, to regulate the measures and proportions of our affections; and, by counter-acting the passions in their extremes, to render them the instruments of virtue, and the embellishments of character.» (Webb, p. 36)

104Page 71 (c): «[…] it must naturally unite with those passions which are productive of pleasing sensations.» (Webb, p. 40)

105Page 71 (d): «A pleasing disposition of the soul, renders us peculiarly prone to every agreeable affection.» (Gerard, p. 60)

106Page 71 (e): «Every excellence is a middle between two extremes.» (Gerard, p. 126)

107Page 71 (f): «The passions which drive men from one another […] cannot easily be imitated by music.» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 212)

108Page 72 (a): «But Music, by arranging, and as it were bending to its own time and measure, whatever sentiments and passions it expresses, not only assembles and groups, as well as statuary and Painting, the different beauties of Nature which it imitates, but it clothes them, besides, with a new and an exquisite beauty of its own; it clothes them with melody and harmony, which, like a transparent mantle, far from concealing any beauty, serve only to give a brighter colour, a more enlivening lustre, and a more engaging grace to every beauty which they infold.» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 214)

109Page 73 (a): «Beauty is no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty.» (Hume, «Standard of Taste», p. 208)

110Page 73 (b): «All fancies are motions within us, relics of those made in the sense: and those motions that immediately succeeded one another in the sense, continue also together after sense: insomuch as the former coming again to take place, and be predominant, the latter followeth, by coherence of matter moved, in such manner, as water upon a plain table is drawn which way any one part of it is guided by the finger.» (Hobbes, III, p. 11-12)

111Page 73 (c): «Some of our ideas have a natural correspondence and connexion one with another: it is the office and excellency of our reason to trace these, and hold them together in that union and correspondence which is founded in their peculiar beings. Besides this, there is another connexion of ideas wholly owing to chance or custom. Ideas that in themselves are not all of kin, come to be so united in some men’s minds, that it is very hard to separate them.» (Locke, II, p. 529)

112Page 73 (d): «Thus hatreds are often begotten from slight and innocent occasions, and quarrels propagated and continued in the world.» (Locke, II, p. 532)

113Page 74 (a): «Let custom from the very childhood have joined figure and shape to the idea of God, and what absurdities will that mind be liable to about the Deity? […] Some such wrong and unnatural combinations of ideas will be found to establish the irreconcilable opposition between different sects of philosophy and religion […].» (Locke, II, p. 534)

114Page 74 (b): «The Mind has a Power of compounding Ideas, which were receiv’d separately; of comparing their Objects by means of the Ideas, and of observing their Relations and proportions; of enlarging and diminishing its Ideas at pleasure, or in any certain Ratio, or Degree; and of considering separately each of the simple Ideas, which might perhaps have been impress’d. This last Operation we commonly call Abstraction.» (Hutcheson, I, p. 21)

115Page 74 (c): «And we shall generally find that there is some accidental Conjunction of a disagreeable Idea, which always recurs with the Object.» (Hutcheson, I, p. 22)

116Page 74 (d): «Were ideas entirely loose and unconnected, chance alone wou’d join them; and’tis impossible the same simple ideas shou’d fall regularly into complex ones (as they commonly do) without some bond or union among them, some associating quality, by which one idea naturally introduces another.» (Hume, Treatise, I, p. 12)

117Page 75 (a): «For the sounds which we hear, are reflected by the neighbouring bodies; and therefore consist of a variety of sounds, succeeding each other at different distances of time, according to the distances of the several reflecting bodies; which yet causes no confusion, or apparent complexity of sounds unless the distance of the reflecting bodies be very considerable, as in spacious buildings.» (Hartley, p. 10)

118Page 75 (b): «[…] since they must consist of parts both co-existent and successive, as the generating sensations themselves do.» (Hartley, p. 56)

119Page 76 (a): «And thus it will follow, according to the terms of the proposition, that sensory vibrations, by being sufficiently repeated, will beget a disposition to miniature vibrations corresponding to them respectively; or, using the appellations above-assumed, that A, B C, & c. will beget a, b, c, & c.

120If we allow the proof of this proposition, thus deduced from the nature of vibratory motions, and of an animal body, the foregoing proposition will follow from it, and hold equally, in respect of the senses of feeling, taste, and smell, as of sight and hearing. Or, in other words, if we allow, that original impressed vibratory motions leave a tendency to miniature ones of the same kind, place, and line of direction, it will follow, that sensations must beget ideas, and that not only in the senses of sight and hearing, where the ideas are sufficiently vivid and distinct, but in the three others, since the sensations are also conveyed to the mind by means of vibratory motions.» (Hartley, p. 64)

121Page 76 (b): «All very loud noises are disagreable. Now it is easy to conceive, that very violent agitations of the menbrana tympani may produce the solution of continuity in the small medullary particles of the auditory nerve. An inflammation in the small vessels of the auditory nerve may render it so susceptible of violent vibrations, as to be hurt by gentle sounds, as sometimes happens in distempers; and to produce that acuteness in the sense of hearing, which answers to the nyctalopia in the eye.

122[…] Single musical, i. e. uniform sounds, whether vocal or instrumental, are pleasant in proportion to their loudness, provided this be not excessive. We must therefore suppose here, that the repeated impulses of the air, at equal distances, make the vibrations approach to the solution of continuity; yet still so as to fall short of it.

123[…] Two musical notes sounded together, suppose upon an organ or violin, afford a greater original pleasure than one, provided the ratios of their vibrations be sufficiently simple. Thus any note founded with its eighth, fifth, fourth, third major or minor, sixth major or minor, affords pleasure, the ratios being here, respectively, those of 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, 5 to 6, 3 to 5, and 5 to 8, which are all very simple ones. But a note with its flat or sharp, second, or seventh, or flat fifth, is originally disagreeable. It may be observed also, that concords seem to be originally pleasant in proportion to the simplicity of the ratios by which they are expressed, i. e. in the order above set down.» (Hartley, p. 226)

124Page 76 (c): «As all moderate and tolerably uniform sounds please young children, and the original pleasures from concords and discords, and even from clear, musical sounds, considered separately, remain with us though the whole progress of life, it is evident, that many of our intellectual pleasures must be illuminated and augmented by them. And, on the contrary, harsh, irregular, and violently loud noises must add something to the disagreeableness of the objects and ideas, with which they are often associated.» (Hartley, p. 233)

125Page 76 (d): «The pleasures of music are composed, as has been already observed, partly of the original, and partly of associated ones. When these pleasures are arrived at tolerable perfection, and the several compounding parts cemented sufficiently by association, they are transferred back again upon a great variety of objects and ideas, and diffuse joy, good-will, anger, compassion, sorrow, melancholy, &c. upon the various scenes and events of life; and so on reciprocally without perceptible limits.» (Hartley, p. 233)

126Page 76 (e): «By degrees the discords become less and less harsh to the ear, and at last even pleasant, at least by their associations with the concords, that go before, or follow them; so that more, and also more harsh discords, are perpetually required to give a relish, and keep the sweetness of the concords from cloying. Particular kinds of air and harmony are associated with particular words, affections, and passions, and so are made to express these; besides which there is often a natural aptitude in music to represent the affection, as in quick music, and concords, to represent mirth. Music in general is connected with gaiety, public rejoicings, the amorous pleasures, riches, high rank, &c. or with battles, sorrow, death, and religious contemplations.» (Hartley, p. 426)

127Page 77 (a): «There is an ambition to excel in taste, in performance, and in composition, and a difficulty which enhances the pleasure, & c. & c. till, by these and such like ways, the judgments and tastes of different persons, in respect of music, become as different, as we find them to be in fact.» (Hartley, p. 426)

128Page 77 (b): «[…] men differ much in sensibility of heart; and therefore must feel differently and judge differently, in all those cases in which the perceptions of taste are affected by the warmth or the coldness of the heart.» (Gerard, p. 202)

129Page 77 (c): «Men who are affected differently, may notwithstanding judge alike: and men who judge differently, may admit some common principles which serve as a test of both their judgments.» (Gerard, p. 219)

130Page 77 (d): «There cannot be an external standard by the application of which the merit of different tastes may be compared, as quantity is measured by feet and inches, and the excess, the defect, or the proportion of one quantity to another, precisely marked. The standard of taste must be something internal; it must be derived from some general qualities of taste itself, or from general principles of human nature.» (Gerard, p. 220)

131Page 77 (e): «We have a pleasant sensation whenever the mind is in a lively and elevated temper. It attains this temper when it is forced to exert its activity, and puts forth its strength, in order to surmount any difficulty: and if its efforts prove successful, consciousness of the success inspires new joy. Hence moderate difficulty, such as exercises the mind without fatiguing it, is pleasant, and renders the object by which it is produced agreeable.» (Gerard, p. 3)

132Page 77 (f): «[…] yet every man knows, that Strength and Weakness, Boldness and Modesty, are qualities, not of Matter, b ut of Mind, and that without our knowledge of Mind, it is impossible that we should ever have had any conception of them.

133The objects, therefore, which produce such Sensations, though in themselves not the immediate signs of such interesting or affecting qualities, yet in consequence of this Resemblance, become gradually expressive of them, and if not always, yet at those times at least, when we are under the dominion of any Emotion, serve to bring to our minds the images of all those affecting or interesting qualities, which, we have been accustomed to suppose they resemble.»

134Page 78 (a): «But still the chief excellence of music lies in its expression. By this quality, music is applied to a determinate subject: by this it acquires a fitness, becomes adapted to an end, and agitates the soul with whatever passion the artist chuses. Its power to operate on the passions is its most important virtue. And indeed, as all sensations and emotions resembling in their feeling, tend to introduce each other into the mind: music, producing by its harmony a pleasant disposition of soul, renders us peculiarly prone to every agreeable affection. But it makes use too of other instruments. By the natural fitness of sound for accomplishing an imitation of, or association with, their objects and natural expressions, it infuses into the breast passions correspondent; settles into calm serenity, melts into tenderness or pity, sinks into sorrow, sooths into melancholy, agitates with terror, elevates with joy, excites to courage, or enraptures with devotion; and thus inexpressibly delights the soul.» (Gerard, p. 61)

135Page 78 (b): «Such Sounds are beautiful or sublime, only as they express the Passions or Affections which excite our Sympathy. There are a great variety of tones in the human voice, yet all these tones are not beautiful. If we enquire what are the particular Tones which are so, it will universally be found, that they are such as are expressive of pleasing or interesting affections. […] The effect of such sounds in producing these Emotions, instead of being permanent, is limited by the particular temper of mind we happen to be in, or by the coincidence between that temper, and the peculiar qualities of which such sounds are expressive.» (Alison, p. 152-153)

136Page 78 (c): «That the Time of musical Composition is also expressive to us of various affecting or interesting qualities, can scarcely be disputed. In all ages, quick time, or a rapid succession of Sounds has been appropriated to the expression of Mirth or Gaiety: Slow Time, or a slow succession of Sounds, to the Expression of Melancholy or Sadness. All the passions or affections therefore, which partake, of either of these ingredients, may be generally expressed by such circumstances in the Composition, and the different degrees of such Movements, may, in the same manner, express such affections as partake of any intermediate nature between these extremes. […] I cannot avoid however, observing, that there is a very strong analogy, not only between the progress of Musical Sounds, and the progress of Sounds in the human Voice, in the case of particular passions, but that there is also a similar analogy between such progress in Sounds, and the progress of Thought in the case of such Passions. Under the influence of pleasing or agreeable passions the articulation is quick; in the case of contrary passions it is slow […]. All the Passions which belong to pleasure, are attended with a rapid succession of Thoughts, and seem to give an unusual degree of vigour to our Imagination.» (Alison, p. 166)

137Page 79 (a): «The Progress of musical Sounds, therefore, may very naturally express to us the nature or character of particular passions, not only from the analogy between such progress of Sounds, and the progress of Thought; but still more from its being in a great measure the Sign of such affections of mind, by making use of the same Sounds or Tones, and the same varieties in the progress of these Sounds, which are in real life the Signs of such affections in the human Voice.» (Alison, p. 167-168)

138Page 79 (b): «These Signs in the human Voice are general Signs. They express particular classes of passion or emotion, but they do not express any particular passion. […] Music which can avail itself of these Signs only, can express nothing more particular than the Signs themselves. It will be found accordingly, that it is within this limit that musical Expression is really confined; that such classes of Emotion it can perfectly express; but that when it goes beyond this limit, it ceases to be either expressive or beautiful. The general Emotions of Gaiety, Elevation Solemnity, Melancholy or sadness, it is every day found to express; and with regard to such general expressions there is never any mistake; but when it attempts to go further, when it attempts to express particular passions, Ambition, Fortitude, Pity, Love, Gratitude, & c. it either fails altogether in its effect, or is obliged to have recourse to the assistance of words to render it intelligible.» (Alison, p. 169)

139Page 79 (c): «When a beautiful object is before us, we may distinguish the agreeable emotion it produces in us, from the quality of the object which causes that emotion. When I hear an air in music that pleases me, I say, it is fine, it is excellent. This excellence is not in me; it is in the music. But the pleasure it gives me is not in the music; it is in me. Perhaps I cannot say what it is in the tune that pleases my ear, as I cannot say what it is in a sapid body that pleases my palate; but there is a quality in the sapid body that pleases my palate, and I call it a delicious taste; and there is a quality in the tune that pleases my taste, and I call is a fine or an excellent air.» (Reid, p. 714)

140Page 79 (d): «Even those who hold beauty to be merely a feeling in the person that perceives it, find themselves under a necessity of expressing themselves, as if beauty were solely a quality of the object, and not of the percipient. […] Our judgment of beauty is not indeed a dry and unaffecting judgment, like that of a mathematical or metaphysical truth. By the constitution of our nature, it is accompanied with an agreeable feeling or emotion, for which we have no other name but the sense of beauty. This sense of beauty, like the perceptions of our other senses, implies not only a feeling, but an opinion of some quality in the object which occasions that feeling.» (Reid, p. 719-720)

141Page 81 (a): «The gaiety of Nature alone, is beautiful to the cheerful man; it is melancholy, to the man of sadness; because these alone are the qualities which accord with the Emotions they are accustomed to cherish, and in which their imaginations delight to indulge.

142The same observation is equally applicable to the different tastes of men in Poetry, and the rest of the fine arts; and the productions that all men peculiarly admire, are those which suit that peculiar strain of Emotion, to which from their original constitution, they are most strongly disposed.» (Alison, p. 57)

143Page 81 (b): «Besides the influence of permanent habits of thought, or of the diversities of original disposition upon our sentiments of Beauty, every man must have had opportunity to observe, that the perception of Beauty depends also on the temporary sensibility of his mind; and that even objects of the most experienced Beauty, fail in exciting their usual delight, when they occur to him in moments, when he is under the dominion of different emotions from those with which he usually regards them.» (Alison, p. 58)

III. Musique ancienne et musique moderne

144Page 83 (a): «The Antients Concerts became identified with a social class, the nobility, far more explicitly than did any other musical organization in the eighteenth century except the opera.» (Weber, Musical Classics, passim)

145Page 83 (b): «With the Concert of Antient Musick began a peculiarly modern musical institution: upper-class people displaying their social status and their musical sophistication while revering great music from the past.» (Weber, Musical Classics, p. 143)

146Page 86 (a): «What the reader is to expect from it, and as the fruit of many years study and labour, is the history of a science deservedly ranked among those, which, in contradistinction to the manual arts, and others of lower importance, have long been dignified with the characteristic of liberal; and as the utility of music is presupposed in the very attempt to trace its progress, an enumeration of its various excellencies will scarcely be thought necessary.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

147Page 86 (b): «Remember to take the best dancing-master at Berlin, more to teach you to sit, stand, and walk gracefully, than to dance finely. The Graces, the Graces; remember the Graces! […] If you love music, hear it; go to operas, concerts, and pay fiddlers to play to you; but I insist upon your neither piping nor fiddling yourself. It puts a gentleman in a very frivolous, contemptible light; brings him into a great deal of bad company; and takes up a great deal of time, which might be better employed.» (Lord Chesterfield, Letters to his son…)

148Page 87 (a): «To be short, the ensuing volumes are the produce of sixteen years labour, and are compiled from materials which were not collected in double that time. The motives of the undertaking were genuine, and the prosecution of it has been as animated as the love of the art, and a total blindness to lucrative views, could render it.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

149Page 88 (a): «An Improvement of this Kind might be still more easily set on Foot, were there any History of the Lives and Works of the best Composers; together with an Account of their several Schools, and the characteristic Taste, and Manner of each: – a Subject, though yet untouched, of such extensive Use, that we may reasonably hope it will be the Employment of some future Writer.» (Avison, Essay, p. 37)

150Page 89 (a): «[…] let it be remembered that all our desires, all our pursuits, our occupations, and enjoyments are vain.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

151Page 89 (b): «The end proposed in this undertaking is the investigation of the principles, and a deduction of the progress of a science, which, though intimately connected with civil life, has scarce ever been so well understood by the generality, as to be thought a fit subject, not to say of criticism, but of sober discussion: instead of exercising the powers of reason, it has in general engaged only that faculty of the mind, which, for want of a better word to express it, we call Taste.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

152Page 90 (a): «Another end of this work is the setting music upon somewhat like a footing of equality with those, which, for other reason than that, like music, they contribute to the delight of mankind, are termed the sisters arts; to reprobate the vulgar notion that its ultimate end is merely to excite mirth; and, above all, to demonstrate that its principles are founded in certain general and universal laws, into which all that we discover in the material world, of harmony, symmetry, proportion, and order, seems to be resolvable.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

153Page 90 (b): «Taste may be defined “The power of receiving pleasure from the beauties of nature and of art.” […] It is not merely through a discovery of the understanding or a deduction of argument, that the mind receives pleasure from a beautiful prospect or a fine poem. Such objects often strike us intuitively, and make a strong impression when we are unable to assign the reasons of our being pleased. They sometimes strike in the same manner the philosopher and the peasant; the boy and the man.» (Blair, I, p. 16)

154Page 90 (c): «The method pursued for these purposes will be found to consist in an explanation of fundamental doctrines, and a narration of important events and historical facts, in a chronological series, with such occasional remarks and evidences, as might serve to illustrate the one and authenticate the other.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

155Page 91 (a): «[…] it may be observed that in various instances the lives of the professors of the arts are in some sort a history of the arts themselves.» (Hawkins, p. xiii)

156Page 91 (b): «As materials grew and spread, the notion that they could be encompassed by any historical formula began to seem absurd. The one man incapable of seeing the history of an art as the logical working out of a scheme of development was the historian himself; he had come to know too much.» (Lipking, p. 243)

157Page 92 (a): «[…] the expressions of Music considered in itself, and without words, are, (within certain limits) vague, general, and equivocal. What is usually called its power over the passions, is, in fact, no more than a power of raising a general emotion, temper, or disposition, common to several different, though related, passions; as pity, love – anger, courage, & c.» (Twining, Dissertations, p. 48)

158Page 93 (a): «In short, there are few things in nature which music is capable of imitating, and those are of a kind so uninteresting, that we venture to pronounce, that as its principles are founded in geometrical truth, and seem to result from some general and universal law of nature, so its excellence is intrinsic, absolute, and inherent, and, in short, resolvable only into His will, who has ordered all things in number, weight and measure.» (Hawkins, p. xiv)

159Page 94 (a): «To remove the numberless prejudices respecting music, which those only entertain who are ignorant of the science, or are mistaken in its nature and end; to point out its various excellencies, and to assert its dignity, as a science worthy the exercise of our rational as well as audible faculties, the only effectual way seems to be to investigate its principles, as founded in general and invariable laws, and to trace the improvements therein which have resulted from the accumulated studies and experience of a long succession of ages, such a detail is necessary to reduce the science to a certainty, and to furnish a ground for criticism; and may be considered as a branch of literary history, of the deficiency whereof Lord Bacon has declared his sentiments […].» (Hawkins, p. xvii)

160Page 94 (b): «But a just story of learning, containing the antiquities and originals, of knowledges and their sects, their inventions, their traditions, their diverse administrations and managings, their flourishings, their oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, removes, with the causes and occasions of them, and all other events concerning learning, throughout the ages of the world, I may truly affirm to be wanting.» (Bacon, dans Hawkins, p. xvii)

161Page 95 (a): «We know by experience that there is no necessary connection between music and poetry.» (Hawkins, p. xxi)

162Page 96 (a): «But a weightier argument in favour of modern music, at least so far as regards the improvements in theory and practice that necessarily result from the investigation of new principles and the discovery of new combinations, may be drawn from the natural course and order of things, which is ever towards perfection, as is seen in other sciences, physics and mathematics, for instance; so that of music it may be said, that the discoveries of one age have served but as a foundation for improvements in the next; the consequence whereof is, that the fund of harmony is ever increasing.» (Hawkins, p. xxiv)

163Page 97 (a): «[…] the cultivation of music became the peculiar care of the clergy.» (Hawkins, p. xxiv)

164Page 98 (a): «This communication of intelligence was very propitious to music, as it determined many persons to the study of the science of harmony. The tonal laws and the Cantus Mensurabilis were left to those whose duty it was to understand them; the ratios of sounds, and the nature of consonance were considered as essentials in music, and the investigation of these was the chief pursuit of such as were sensible of the value of that kind of learning.» (Hawkins, p. xxix)

165Page 98 (b): «[…] he became the revivor of musical erudition; and that as well posterity, as those of his own time, might profit by his labours, he digested the substance of his lectures into distinct treatises, and gave them to the world.» (Hawkins, p. xxix)

166Page 98 (c): «[…] the power and effect of musical sounds to assuage grief and awaken the mind to the enjoyment of its faculties.» (Hawkins, p. xxx)

167Page 99 (a): «But besides the pleasure that men derive from music, this satisfaction arises from the study of it, that its principles are founded in the very frame and constitution of the universe, and are as clearly demonstrable as mathematical truth and certainty can render them.» (Hawkins, p. xxxi)

168Page 99 (b): «From this view of the comparative excellence of music, and its pre-eminence over many other sciences and faculties, we become convinced of the stability of its principles, and are therefore at a loss for the reasons why, in these later times at least, novelty in music should be its best recommendation; or that the love of variety should so possess the generality of hearers, as almost to leave it a question whether or no it has any principles at all.» (Hawkins, p. xxxi)

169Page 100 (a): «[…] and hence arises that incessant demand for variety which has induced some to imagine that music is in its very nature as mutable as fashion itself.» (Hawkins, p. xxxii)

170Page 100 (b): «To this it may be answered, that although the right of private judgment is in some degree exercised by all, it is controuled by the few; and it is the uniform testimony of men of discernment alone that stamps a character on the productions of genius, and consigns them either to oblivion or immortality.» (Hawkins, p. xxxii)

171Page 101 (a): «[…] the grave and solemn strains of the most celebrated composers for the church, including those of our own country.» (Hawkins, p. xxxvi)

172Page 101 (b): «Where there is more Learning, there will of course be more taste and better discernment.» (Jones, Treatise, p. 11)

173Page 102 (a): «Poetry and Music are nearly allied; and in the first ages generally went together. In Poetry, there is Matter, Style, Metre, Subject, Syntax, and the figures of Rhetoric; which last are common to the Eloquence both of Poetry and Prose. In music, there is harmony, Air. Measure, Connexion, and Expression.

174Harmony is the Matter or Substance which Music has to work upon: or, to speak logically, it is the Substratum of Air, and Expression. Air signifies the manner in which that Harmony is expressed, and answers to Diction, which expresses then Matter in literary composition. Measure and Melody are necessary to Air; and if by Air we mean the leading air of a strain or Paragraph in Music, Air is the same thing with Subject.» (Jones, Treatise, p. 42)

175Page 102 (b): «If you play an Adagio of Corelli to a person who knows nothing of Harmony, you will raise no Admiration; for the same reason, as if you were to read Milton or Shakespeare to a man who does not understand the Grammar. But a noisy vulgar allegro, full of impertinence and repetition, or a common Ballad, will strike the fancy of the one, as a low comedy or a farce is adapted to the capacity of the other. There is as much incompetent and erroneous judgment in Music as in any art whatsoever; and it cannot be corrected but by infusing more knowledge into those who are capable of it and willing to receive it.» (Jones, Treatise, p. 11)

176Page 103 (a): «[…] a great number of merchants and opulent citizens […] a set of bankers and merchants.» (Hawkins, p. 108)

177Page 108 (a): «[…] one key of Panegyric is all they want. – fine! – very fine! – charming! – exquisite! grand! Sublime!!! These are all the notes (a Hexachord) I must use. […] my God! – what contraction, & childish prejudices – how deaf, as well as how blind are both to real Genius!» (Burney’s Letters, I)

178Pages 108-109 (a): «As Music may be defined the art of pleasing by the succession and combination of agreeable sounds, every hearer has a right to give way to his feelings, and be pleased or dissatisfied without knowledge, experience, or the fiat of critics; but then he has certainly no right to insist on others being pleased or dissatisfied in the same degree. I can very readily forgive the man who admires a different Music from that which pleases me, provided he does not extend his hatred or contempt of my favourite Music to myself, and imagine that on the exclusive admiration of any one style of Music, and a close adherence to it, all wisdom, taste, and virtue depend.» (Burney, History, II, p. 7)

179Page 112 (a): «I am now happily arrived at that part of my narrative where it is necessary to speak of Haydn! The admirable and matchless Haydn! From whose productions I have received more pleasure late in my life, when tired of most other Music, than I ever received in the most ignorant and rapturous part of my youth, when every thing was new, and the disposition to be pleased undiminished by criticism or satiety.» (Burney, History, II, p. 7)

180Page 113 (a): «[…] the generality of his productions in the hands of a few performers, is like the club of Alcides, or the bow of Ulysses, in the hands of a dwarf.» (Burney, Account, p. 106-107)

181Pages 114-115 (a): «You will now, Sir, have a few reflections, dictated by that Probity wch the modesty and diffidence wth wch you have appealed to my opinion, require. I can perceive in your Harmony, & disposition of the parts, an ingenious design, & a use & facility in the exercise of your Pen. & with respect to the Mechanical part of each Sonata, there are but few things to censure, and not many to mend. […] As to Invention in Music, after all that has been produced by the happy Effusion & Enthusiasm of the great Masters of the Art in Europe, it is extreamly difficult to extend its Limits, without violating the rules of Composition, & preferring the Grotesque to the Graceful, the crude to the natural, & adopting, for the sake of Novelty, what has often presented itself to others but wch sound Judgment, & good taste have rejected. No ambition of this kind appears in your Pieces; the Subjects of wch are natural & often graceful, though, perhaps, not always new. However no marks of direct Plagiarism appear – though persons well-read in the favourite authors of the present times may perhaps in some places imagine particular Passages & Effects to have proceeded from Imitation, & may think that Schobert, & Eichner stand high in your favour. However, we often remember what we have read, without recollecting that we have read it. And it is perhaps right for a young Composer, as well as Poet, to have some Model of imitation in his Eye, as Pope had Dryden; yet there is a Time for Originallity to break the Trammels of Authority & for Genius to go alone. It has always appeared to me necessary for a young musician to study the works of all the great & favourite Masters of his Art: but not to adhere to the style of any one long enough to become a servile Copy. Rather let him endeavour to incorporate all their beauties & perfections in his own Store-house of Invention; & then give way to his native temper & powers, & try to form a manner of writing peculiar to himself.» (Burney’s Letters, I, p. 272-275)

182Page 117 (a): «In music, the great compass of notes employed in a full orchestra conveys an idea of vastness undefined. A uniform succession of major chords, the most agreeable of all sounds, resembles a blaze of light; while the unintelligible combination of extraneous discords conveys a feeling like that caused by darkness. The clearness of harmony in the madrigal of many voices, or in the full anthem, and the deep science of the organ fugue produce sublimity from seemingly opposite causes; as also a passage performed by many voices or instruments in unisons and octaves, and one in full and florid counterpoint.» (Crotch, p. 34-35)

183Page 120 (a): «What objection, for example, can there lie against music between the acts, vocal and instrumental, adapted to the subject? Such detached chorus, without putting us under any limitation of time or place, would recruit the spirits, and would preserve entire the tone, if not the tide of passion: the music, after an act should commence in the tone of the preceding passion, and be gradually varied till it accord with the tone of the passion that is to succeed in the next act. The music and the representation would both of them be gainers by their conjunction; which will thus appear. Music that accords with the present tone of mind, is, on that account, doubly agreeable; and accordingly, though music singly hath not power to raise a passion, it tends greatly to support a passion already raised. Further, music prepares us for the passion that follows, by making chearful, tender, melancholy, or animated impressions, as the subject requires.» (Home, II, p. 421-422)

184Page 122 (a): «A straight road is the most agreeable, because it shortens the journey. But in an embellished field, a straight walk has an air of formality and confinement: and at any rate is less agreeable than a winding or waving walk; for in surveying the beauties of an ornamented field, we love to roam from place to place at freedom. Winding walks have another advantage: at every step they open new views. In short, the walks in pleasure-ground ought not to have any appearance of a road: my intention is not to make a journey, but to feast my eye on the beauties of art and nature.» (Home, II, p. 445)

185Pages 124-125 (a): «The music I had hitherto heard was disposed in a certain order, agreeably to fixed rules – a species of language in which, on hearing the first word, you could tell what would be the last; and in many cases the succession of notes seemed to be the mere result of the mechanical motion of the fingers. By Beethoven’s music the most natural and pleasing reminiscences were awakened in me, which the strains of the old school never could have produced. The effects of simple melody, connected with pleasing words, must have existed from all time, and its consequent pleasure must have been felt by every people; but in the compositions of Beethoven, we have an art, sui generis, in which sounds by themselves operate upon the imagination, without the aid of words, raising it to the highest regions of thought.» (Gardiner, I, p. 113)

186Page 126 (a): He [Wesley] sat down, and began a noble fugue in the key of c # major. It was wonderful with what skill and dexterity he conducted it through the most eccentric harmonies. This extemporary playing was his forte, in which he had no rival. As a composer, if we may judge from his printed compositions, he had but little genius, scarcely deviating from the common routine of the old school. When he committed his ideas to writing he seemed to lose all freedom of thought, but, when released from the shackles of pen and paper, he was as wild and unfettered as he was stiff and precise before. This extempore playing is a gift more often found in uncultivated musicians than in those of an educated class. The character and mechanism of the instrument, no doubt, superinduces this style of performance, which the poet has well described as “hidden chains of harmony long drawn out.”» (Gardiner, II, p. 655)

187Page 128 (a): «On these accounts many ancient pieces, in which all the rules of composition are more strictly observed, than in many modern pieces, prove dry and uninteresting, and totally devoid of taste and effect.» (Marsh, p. 158)

IV. Les ambiguïtés du sublime

188Page 131 (a): «The first movement of this (or introductory symphony) I had always thought before, for want of a sufficient body of harmony to support the arpeggios of the fiddles to be rather tedious, & (after the first 10 or 12 bars) uninteresting & monotonous, but with the band now engaged in it I thought nothing co’d exceed the grandeur of the effect. This symphony with its beautiful modulation having continued some time at length the whole force of the orchestra with all the voices, full organ, trumpets, trombones, double drums, etc. burst upon us all at once, in the words “Zadoc the Priest” etc. the force and effect of w’ch almost took me off my legs and caused the blood to forsake my cheeks. As to the succeeding movement “And the people rejoic’d” etc. with the following chorus “God save the King” it was all ecstasy […].» (Marsh, Journals, p. 317-318)

189Page 131 (b): «Wed. May 26. Commemoration of Handel – first part in Westminster Abbey, one of the greatest musical performances I ever heard, indeed with regard to the number of the bands the greatest; 513 performers. The effect of the first crash of such a band was astonishing. Wonder mixed with pleasure appeared in every countenance. They played in time – excellent time – contrary to all expectations. Hey was the leader; his manner is graceful & easy to be observed by the band. […]. We have had many grand concerts at the Pantheon, but the performance at the church was entirely new & from the dignity of the place, the immense band & other circumstances the first of its kind. Here there was no room for more than half the band. […] They sung delightfully both here [at the Pantheon] & at the Abbey, but if I was to do justice to all the great vocal & instrumental performers who so generously assisted at this Commemoration I should fill many Pages . So many voices, such prodigious kettle drums, that most powerfull instrument the trombone & the loftiness of the place so well adapted to give the highest effect the musical sound – all conspired to make the choruses at the Church grand indeed.» (The Diary of Sylas Neville, p. 320-321)

190Page 131 (c): «Now, as the orchestra in Westminster Abbey seemed to ascend to the clouds, and unite with the saints and martyrs represented on the painted glass in the west window, which had all the appearance of a continuation of the orchestra, I could hardly refrain form imagining that this orchestra was a point of segment of the celestial circles; and perhaps no band of mortal musicians ever exhibited a more imposing appearance.» (Parke, Musical Memoirs, I, p. 41)

191Page 134 (a): «[…] the beautiful in music will not bear that loudness and strength of sounds, which may be used to raise other passions; nor notes, which are shrill, or harsh, or deep; it agrees best with such as are clear, even, smooth, and weak. […] great variety, and quick transitions from one measure or tone to another, are contrary to the genius of the beautiful in music. Such transitions often excite mirth, or other sudden and tumultuous passions; but not that sinking, that melting, that languor, which is the characteristical effect of the beautiful, as it regards every sense.» (Burke, p. 112)

192Page 135 (a): «The passion excited by beauty is in fact nearer to a species of melancholy, than to jollity and mirth. I do not here mean to confine music to any one species of notes, or tones, neither is it an art in which I can say I have any great skill. My sole design in this remark is, to settle a consistent idea of beauty. […] it is my intention to mark such only of the leading points as shew the conformity of the sense of hearing, with all the other senses in the article of their pleasures.» (Burke, p. 112)

193Page 137 (a): «In the infinite variety of natural combinations we must expect to find the qualities of things the most remote imaginable from each other united in the same object. We must expect also to find combinations of the same kind in the works of art. […] If the qualities of the sublime and beautiful are sometimes found united, does this prove, that they are the same, does it prove, that they are any way allied, does it prove even that they are not opposite and contradictory? Black and white may soften, may blend, but they are not therefore the same.» (Burke, p. 114)

194Page 138 (a): «[…] so notes gradually swelling, and gradually decaying, have an agreeable effect on the ear and on the mind; the former tending to rouse the faculties, and the latter to compose them; the one promoting gentle exercise, and the other rest.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 150)

195Page 138 (b): «[An even and continued swell from the piano into the forte] in music, is attended with a high degree of pleasure: on repeating the following passage, we discover the source of this pleasure, and find that it proceeds from the spirits being thrown into the same movement as when they rise from sorrow into pride, or from an humble into a sublime affection. […] A descent of sound from the forte into the piano has a no less pleasing effect, corresponding with the condition of the nerves, when from a state of exertion, which hath a mixture of pain, we feel the sweet relief of a gradual relaxation.» (Webb, p. 45)

196Page 138 (c): «The essence of Music consists in continued sounds. The same sound, however, when continued, has no beauty, farther than as a simple sound, and when long continued, becomes positively disagreeable: music therefore must necessarily consist in the composition of different sounds.» (Alison, p. 179)

197Page 139 (a): «Observe that part of a beautiful woman where she is perhaps the most beautiful, about the neck and breasts; the smoothness; the softness; the easy and insensible swell; the variety of the surface, which is never for the smallest space the same; the deceitful maze, through which the unsteady eye slides giddily, without knowing where to fix, or whither it is carried. Is not this a demonstration of that change of surface continual and yet hardly perceptible at any point which forms one of the great constituents of beauty?» (Burke, p. 216)

198Page 142 (a): «And a foreigner, who would make a figure in the profession, ought to observe [these characteristics] with the greatest exactness, because they are such as cannot be marked, or written, or even described. So little are they to be learnt by rule, that they are not unfrequently direct violations of rule. I am at a loss what to call them, unless they are certain beauties and delicacies in sentiment and expression, which are only to be catched from long habit, and attentive observation.» (Mainwaring, p. 43)

199Page 143 (a): «There was also something in his manner so very different from what the Italians had been used to, that those who were seldom or never at a loss in performing any other Music, were frequently puzzled to execute his. Corelli himself complained of the difficulty he found in playing his Overtures. Indeed there was in the whole cast of these compositions, but especially in the opening of them, such a degree of fire and force, as never could consort with the mild graces, and placid elegancies of a genius so totally dissimilar.» (Mainwaring, p. 55-56)

200Page 143 (b): «Handel had an uncommon brilliancy and command of finger: but what distinguished him from all other players who possessed these same qualities, was that amazing fullness, force, and energy, which he joined with them.» (Mainwaring, p. 62)

201Page 143 (c): «His cure, from the manner as well as from the quickness, with which it was wrought, passed with the Nuns for a miracle. When, but a few hours from his quitting the bath, they heard him at the organ in the principal church as well as convent, playing in a manner so much beyond any they had ever been used to, such a conclusion in such persons was natural enough.» (Mainwaring, p. 123)

202Page 143 (d): «As to his performance on the organ, the powers of speech are so limited, that it is almost a vain attempt to describe it otherwise than by its effects. A fine and delicate touch, a Volant finger, and a ready delivery of passages the most difficult, are the praise of inferior artists: they were not noticed in Handel, whose excellencies were of a far superior kind; and his amazing command of the instrument, the fullness of his harmony, the grandeur and dignity of his style, the copiousness of his imagination, and the fertility of his invention were qualities that absorbed every inferior attainment. When he gave a concerto, his method in general was to introduce it with a voluntary movement on the diapasons, which stole on the ear in a slow and solemn progression; the harmony close wrought, and as full as could possibly be expressed; the passages concatenated with stupendous art, the whole at the same time being perfectly intelligible, and carrying the appearance of great simplicity. This kind of prelude was succeeded by the concerto itself, which he executed with a degree of spirit and firmness that no one ever pretended to equal.

203Such in general was the manner of his performance; but who shall describe its effects on his enraptured auditory? Silence, the truest applause, succeeded the instant that he addressed himself to the instrument, and that so profound, that it checked respiration, and seemed to controul the functions of nature, while the magic of his touch kept the attention of his hearers awake only to those enchanting sounds to which it gave utterance.» (Hawkins, History, II, p. 912)

204Page 144 (a): «Music is founded on established rules and principles. There are certain relations and proportions which subsist between sounds, and certain effects, which are constantly and regularly produced by their different union, arrangement, and combination. The rules are derived from experience and observation, which inform us what particular system or disposition of sounds will produce the most pleasing effects. A clear comprehension of those rules, and the ability to apply them, are called knowledge: and this alone, without any great share either of invention or taste, may make a tolerable Composer. But either of these joined with it, forms a master.

205The masters may be distinguished into two classes, as their principal merit consists in invention or taste. The former of these seems to consist in the quick investigation of new, or hitherto-unperceived relations; in the combining these relations after an unusual manner, or according to a different order; and in the happy application of them to particular subjects, especially to such as are of an important or interesting nature.

206Those who have an inventive genius will depart from the common rules, and please us the more by such deviations. These must of course be considered as bold strokes, or daring flights of fancy. Such passages are not founded on rules, but are themselves the foundation of new rules.

207On the other hand, they who have taste, or a nice discernment of the minuter circumstances that please, will polish and improve the inventions of others. These will adhere strictly to rules, and even make them more strict.

208Hence we may discern the reason why great invention and perfect taste are seldom, or never united, altho’either the one or the other may meet with knowledge.

209Hence too we may conclude, that the merit of Handel’s Music will be least discerned by the lovers of elegance and correctness. They are shocked with every defect of this sort, while their very character hinders them from entering into those excellencies, which are hardly consistent with a constant regard to those minuter circumstances, on which beauty depends.» (Mainwaring, p. 160-163)

210Page 145 (a): «Art is here not only useless, but dangerous. It may easily destroy originality, tho’it cannot create elegance; which if it could be had, would be ill purchased at the expence of the other. For the generality of mankind have not enough of delicacy to be much affected with minute instances of beauty; but yet are so formed, as to be transported with every the least mark of grandeur and sublimity.» (Mainwaring, p. 164)

211Page 148 (a): «We find that the very sounds or tones of some instruments, are so wholly adapted by nature, and appropriated to mournful occasions, that they seem invented and born, if I may so speak, as man himself, for trouble. Not but the tones of all instruments may be thus changed and applied: the organ, which is a comprehension of all, may literally be turned into the voice of them that weep.» (Bisse, p. 41-42)

212Page 149 (a): «But suppose, for once we humour your Fancy about Organs, will you then tell me, when and where you’ll stop? If this be allow’d, may you not by Parity of Reason introduce the whole Body of Romish, Paganish, Judaical, and Mahometan Ceremonies into the Church? If you are empower’d to bring in so considerable a thing as a pair of Devotional Organs, why mayn’t you by the same Power fill the Church with a great many more new fangl’d Ceremonious Superstitions?» (Owen, Church-Pageantry, p. 4)

213Page 151 (a): «In the Compositions for the Sanctuary let care be given, that a Theatrical Levity be avoided; which was the subject of complaint and caution given in the ancient Church; but in our own is rather a modern and unnecessary condescension to the relish of the world, which neither approves of it nor expects it. […] Behold the compositions of ancient Masters. What a stateliness, what a gravity, what a studied majesty walks thro’their airs? yea their harmony is venerable: insomuch, that being free from the improper mixtures of levity, those principles of decay, which have buried many modern works in oblivion, these remain and return in the courses of our worship, like so many standing Services; in this resembling the standing Service of our Liturgy, these being established by usage, as that by authority.» (Bisse, p. 57-58)

214Page 153 (a): «There needs no argument to prove that public worship ought to be performed in such a manner as is most likely to answer its own great purpose, – the glory of God and the good of mankind.» (Newton, p. 5)

215Page 153 (b): «To say we are pleas’d with Harmonious Sounds, is to say very little in comparison of what our Apostle has suggested to us, who carries this Matter much higher, and teaches us the true use and benefit of Divine Musick in the Worship of God.

216He is chiefly concern’d for that Spiritual Advantage that may result from this Sensible Pleasure; and intimates to every Good Christian, that at the same time he is gratify’d and delighted, he may be better’d and improv’d by it in Holy and Vertuous Living.» (Estwick, p. 3)

217Page 154 (a): «Are our Minds then enraged with Passion, and transported with heat, It [Music] can infuse into them such a grave, sedate, and sober Mediocrity, as not only to allay those exhorbitant sallies, but to change our unruly Passions into more exalted Extacies of heavenly Joy.» (Banner, p. 19)

218Page 154 (b): «In regard to the general conducting of religious worship, the rule laid down by the apostle is simply this, that “every thing be done with decency;” which may be interpreted – introduce no rite – attach no ceremony; – use no instrument in the service of religion, but what leads to edification – is a soother of the passions – or is an help to devotion. And whatever has a tendency to such desirable results – whatever raises the thoughts of man to a more sublime conception of his being; whatever elevates his affections, and mollifies his temper, and mellows his feelings; whatever allures his thoughts from this world and its affections and lusts – whatever so calms the troubled stream of life, and induces a kindred calmness to breathe through the veins of man, and for a time lulls every unkind and sinful emotion into repose; whatever has this power must be congenial to the spirit of religion. – And that the melody of music possesses this enchanting charm, who that has a breast to feel or an ear to hear can deny?» (Topham, p. 8)

219Page 156 (a): «Musick, indeed hath been formerly abused, and it is in this Age debased far below the Dignity of its Nature. It hath been an Instrument, whereby the Devil hath acted in a sure, and insensible manner to Debauch and Vitiate the Dispositions, and Natures of such as Use it, by Vain, Obscene, and Impious Songs. […] Now that, in this Case, all just Occasion of Offence may be taken away, Our Church hath been very careful to appoint, First, That nothing be sung, but what is taken out of the Scriptures, or the Liturgy of the Ancient Churches. Secondly, That all be sung in the Common Language. Thirdly, That the Musick only governs and moderates the Song, and increaseth the Melody. And Lastly, That our Musick and Singing is such as St Augustine commended at Alexandria, designed wholly for Edification, consistent with Gravity, and Christian Simplicity, answering the designs of Religion, and framed not only for delighting the Ear, but affecting the Heart, and raising the Devotion.» (Bedford, Temple Musick, p. 220)

220Page 156 (b): «To conclude, it is very evident, That the first Design and Use of Musick was for the Praise of God, and to be part of his Worship. When it was thus us’d, it was graciously accepted by him, and highly commanded both by Jews and Christians.» (Bedford, The Great Abuse, p. 59)

221Page 157 (a): «Begin early therefore to study the great Art of keeping your Actions and Affections consonant to the Dictates of Reason and Religion, for there is no Harmony so charming and agreeable, as that of the Soul, and a well-ordered Life moving in concert with the sacred Laws of Virtue and Christianity.

222Let us make Melody in our Hearts, if I may so speak: Let us set and tune them to the affecting Strains of Poverty and Distress. We shall not then think of indulging ourselves in a mere Scene of Gaiety and Entertainment, (in which View, I am afraid, this Meeting has been too often taken), but we shall sanctify this Solemnity to the Father of Mercies, and the God of all Comfort.» (Cotes, p. 8)

223Page 158 (a): «With regard to the Manner of performing it, it should be considered, that Indifference and Inattention, and an irregular Confusion of Sounds, are utterly inconsistent with the Spirit and Dignity of the Songs of Sion; those Songs of holy Joy and Rapture with which the Saints of old gave Praise to their Maker; – and that all Acts of religious Worship lose both their Merit and Beauty when unduly performed, and unaccompanied with proper Affections of the Soul. This Inconvenience might perhaps be in a great measure remedied, by training up the younger Parts of the Choir (particularly liable to Carelessness and Inattention) in a just sense of religious Duty, and by a regular Correspondence of the whole, without that unnecessary and indecent Hurry and Precipitation too frequently observed, and too justly complained of; and above all by an awful and habitual Regard to that tremendous Being, in whose Service they are daily employed.» (Jones, Nature, p. 16)

224Page 159 (a): «As Vivacity is the Gift of Women, Gravity is that of Men.» (Addison, The Spectator)

225Pages 159-160 (a): «The common Notes in our Church Musick are Minims and Semibrieves; instead of these we have Crotchets, Quavers and Semiquavers: And as the quicker Notes increase, so the Design of the Composers is, that the other may be sung so much the slower, and consequently make the Antient Musick seem dull and heavy, which of itself is of a far different Nature. For this Reason they tell us, Musick is improv’d; away with the old, it’s good for nothing. Thus nothing is admir’d but what is new, and nothing hath the Air of a new Composition, but what is profane or lewd.» (Bedford, The Great Abuse, p. 183-184)

226Page 160 (a): «But that we may the better judge of our Divine and other Musick, it will be necessary to consider, That the fullest Musick is the best. A Consort of two Parts is better than a single Part alone. Three Parts are better than two, and four Parts are better than three. In Two Parts we can hear but one Concord to the Bass. In three Parts we can hear but two, and in four Parts we can hear all three. This shews the Judgement of the Composer, because he can attend to all these things at once, and sometimes carry on the same Air and Humour, in every Part. He therefore who is acquainted with a Consort of two Parts, is not greatly delighted with the finest Voice or Hand alone. And he that is acquainted with a fuller Consort is not pleas’d with two Parts, except for the Sake of Variety, to add a greater Lustre to the fuller Musick, which doth afterward follow. Now in this, our Composition of Songs is extreamly defective. There is not above one Song in ten, which consists of more than a single Voice to a thorough Bass.» (Bedford, The Great Abuse, p. 221-222)

227Page 161 (a): «Surely he [Avison] cannot think of engrafting the Church music lately composed in Italy upon ours; it being notorious that the Italians are as much degenerated in this particular branch, as in all the others.» (Hayes, p. 105-106)

228Page 161 (b): «Modern composers have introduced many improvements into melody, and some into Harmony; but by no means such as will compensate for their corruptions. Novelty and custom, two overbearing Tyrants, have given a Sanction to degenerate Harmony, wildness of Air, effeminacy, tautology and affected difficulties, inconsistent with the powers and beauties of Expression. The Luxury of the times, which has produced so many innovations, has diffused itself into our Music; as the Music at Rome underwent a sensible alteration with the manners of the people.» (Jones, Treatise, p. iv)

229Page 162 (a): «And first, – I shall shew the Reasonableness of offering up Praise and glory to God, as a Being of infinite Majesty and power; with some Remarks upon the Propriety of Music to further this End.

230And secondly, – I shall observe to you the Necessity of our imitating his Goodness and Benevolence; with a particular Respect to that best of Charities, which we are here assembled to promote.» (Bishop, p. 6)

231Page 162 (b): «The Power of a Musical Composition is properly of a moral Kind. Nothing affects the Heart but what is purely from itself: this Lesson of Philosophy, even instrumental Music teaches us, whilst it leads us with such Pleasure thro’the Labyrinths of the Affections, and makes us understand the Force of nature in the Harmony of Sounds […].

232The Harmony of Sounds, strictly speaking, should not be applied to any Use, but what is agreeable to moral Harmony: And to make it subservient to any other End than that of promoting Goodness, may be justly reckoned among the Absurdities of human Actions. Music should never lend her Voice, but in the Cause of Virtue: By whose Assistance alone the real Charms of Music can be truly discerned.» (Cotes, p. 17-18)

233Page 163 (a): «One great End and Design of this Meeting is Charity: And Charity is to Intellectual Beings, what Music is to Material. The one, is the harmony of the Affections, the other, is the Harmony of Sounds. The one, is the Effect of Matter orderly disposed and moved by the exactest Proportions; the other, is the Energy of the Affections towards Virtue and Goodness.» (Cotes, p. 20)

234Page 163 (b): «By the Frame of our Nature we may perceive our selves fitted and prepar’d for the Reception of Harmonious Sounds; as we are fenc’d about with Nerves, we find our selves ready strung, and most of us tun’d for this Heavenly Entertainment: By a kind of Sympathy sometimes we tremble; we are generally pleas’d when a fitting Subject is well painted by the Composer and well breath’d and set off by the several Performers.» (Estwick, p. 2)

235Page 164 (a): «2ndly. Let us consider of what Use Musick is to excite and Quicken our Affections, and to give a New Life and Spirit to Devotion. Man is not all Soul and Spirit, but a Compound Creature, consisting of Soul and Body… Words and Sounds have very powerful Charms, and give as quick a turn to our Thoughts and Passions, as Sight itself; and not only Words, but even a Diversity of Sounds, are fitted by Nature to Express, and to Excite, very different Passions. Love, Joy, Admiration, Desire, Fear, Sorrow, Indignation, Revenge, give some distinguishing Notes and Accents to the very Voice, which no Art, but Nature teaches, and which betrays the Passion without speaking a Word; And such different Notes will also as forcibly imprint such Passions on our Minds, as they naturally represent, and that many times whether we will or no; which is a great secret in Nature, and shows an unaccountable Sympathy between Sounds and Passions, which are by turns the Natural Effects and Causes of each other: and there needs no other Proof what the Natural Power of Musick must be, to raise and to Calm our Passions; And the Experience of all Mankind tells us, that thus it is; When the Composer knows how to fit Notes to Passions, which the Knowledge of Human Nature, not the meer proportion of Sounds must teach him. Without this, a Fine Piece of Musick is like a Company of Fine Words put together, without any great Sense or Meaning; they make a fine Sound, and that is all.

236Now if there be a Natural Sympathy, and Mutual Causality between Sounds and passions, there is no doubt, but true Devotional Musick will Excite or Heighten our Devotional Passions, as we daily see and complain, that Wanton and Amorous Aires are apt to kindle Wanton Fires; For Nature will act like it self, whether you apply it to Good or to Bad Purposes.» (Sherlock, A Sermon, p. 7)

237Page 164 (b): «Since then it cannot be denied, but that there is a natural Sympathy, and mutual Causality between Sounds and Passions, why should we not think that devotional Musick will excite, or heighten our devotional Passions, as well as amorous Airs kindle wanton Fires.» (Abbot, p. 14-15)

238Page 164 (c): «There is such a wonderful sympathy, such a mutual Relation between the soul of Man and the Melody of Sounds, that some Philosophers have made its Essence to consist in Harmony.» (Owen, p. 9)

239Page 164 (d): «The powers of sacred harmony are annually summoned [in Hereford, Gloucester and Worcester], and employed with singular energy and skill, to delight the ear, to soften the affections, and to awaken in the heart the most generous sensibility: and that sacred harmony judiciously selected and applied is capable of producing such effects, if heretofore it might have been admitted of a doubt, can no longer be questioned by those amongst us, who must needs have thus felt its powerful influence on their own minds.» (Glasse, p. 10)

240Page 164 (e): «Music, if duly apply’d, appears to have a Natural aptness to predispose the Mind for Good Impressions, as it quiets it’s disorders and restores it to an Equanimity.» (Harper, p. 5)

241Page 165 (a): «And Music, rightly adapted, is an Excellent mean to work in us such a Sympathy. For as it is, when set to a Lively pitch, accommodated to Communicate our Joys, and make them more Diffusive; so, when’tis turn’d to a Mournful key, it gives a Fellow-feeling of the Misfortunes that are represented, and makes the Sufferer’s Case our own. Particularly well-suited, upon a further Account, is this Anniversary Meeting to the Pious use that is made of it: For Music, whilst it Exhilarates, at the same time Enlarges the Heart; and for this reason we find that the Minds, that are most Affected with it, are generally the most Generous.» (Harper, p. 21)

242Page 165 (b): «But, more than this, man is an instrument of God in his whole frame. Besides the powers of the voice in forming, and of the ear in distinguishing musical sounds, there is a general sense, or sympathetic feeling, in the fibres and membranes of the body, which renders the whole frame susceptible of musical emotion. Every person strongly touched with music must be assured that its effect is not confined to the ear, but is felt all over the frame and to the inmost affections of the heart; disposing us to joy and thankfulness on the one hand, or to penitential softness and devotion on the other.» (Jones, Nature, p. 7)

243Page 166 (a): «Your attention has been this day directed to the subject of Sacred Music. It was a theme naturally arising out of the occasion – a theme worthy of this place, and pressed upon us by the present circumstances, and by the sound of that fine instrument which you have heard today, for the first time, pouring forth its harmonious notes within this sacred edifice. But let it ever be remembered, my brethren, that there is still a higher kind of harmony, and which it is of far greater moment for us to cultivate, even that moral and religious harmony by which the real children of God must always be distinguished. It is a good and joyous thing, when brethren assemble together and unite their voices in the praise of God and of his Christ; but it is a still more blessed and more joyful thing, when brethren dwell together in unity; when they take sweet counsel together and walk in the house of God as friends. It is this concord of the heart, this unison of the affections, in which, above all things, he delighteth.» (Eden, p. 15)

244Page 166 (b): «Let not the Harmony of [the Organ’s] Sounds be frisking, airy, or ludicrous, which tends to dissipate the Thoughts, and break the Attention of the Mind; but let it be always accommodated to the pure and heavenly Matter, and to the sublime and majestick Style of those divine Psalms and Hymns that are appointed to be sung to it.» (Macro, p. 31)

245Page 167 (a): «There are persons, unfortunately, who seem to imagine that loud singing and good singing are one and the same thing. Nothing, however, can be more mistaken than such an idea. There is always an harsh and discordant effect in this over exertion of the voice, particularly unpleasing when it intrudes itself upon sacred music. It distracts the thoughts and attention of those who are endowed with better taste and feelings, and often deters them from joining in a chorus thus disgracefully mis-managed. Where there is an organ, it completely overpowers the softer and more impressive tones of the instrument, and compels the organist, in spite of his better judgment, to pour out a volume of sound which, in many places, is quite inapplicable to the sentiment, foreign to the spirit and character of the passage before him, and subversive of all true harmony. […] Let the whole congregation be persuaded, that one of the most essential requisites of good psalmody, is to keep down each individual voice to a quiet and moderate pitch, so that there may be a due proportion and balance.» (Eden, p. 12-13)

246Page 167 (b): «One of the surest proofs of the good sense and right feeling of the Organist is the subdued and temperate use of his instrument, which he well knows is intended, in accompaniments, to give and support, not to overpower and extinguish the vocal part of the musical establishment. In this, as in many other cases, it may be truly said – πλεογ ημισυ παγιος, half is more (at least more to the purpose) than the whole.

247The enlightened Organist needs not to be told, that it is neither in the thunder or whirlwind of his instrument, but in its “still small voice”, that its influence over the religious affections will be experienced, and the more immediate presence of the Deity be felt.» (Eden, p. 23)

248Page 167 (c): «Who that has listened to the mild cadence of the choir chaunting the sweet strains of the minstrel of Israel, and has not experienced emotions, and perceived beauties, which the mere verbal recital of his divine effusions had not excited? Who is there who when he has heard the dying tones of an organ, at vesper-hour, melting on the ear like the last shades of twilight on the eye, has not felt the spirit become chastened and his mind composed, until his thoughts have glided from temporal objects to realms beyond the sky, where angels and archangels sing eternal hallelujahs; – and having thus in imagination laid hold of the golden chain which binds earth to heaven, seemed to feel the vibration of the chords of the heavenly choir thrill through his very frame, and made him experience a foretaste of that refined pleasure which the angels enjoy in the presence of their Creator and Redeemer in the regions of immortality.» (Topham, p. 9-10)

249Page 171 (a): «The sublime is founded on principles of vastness and incomprehensibility. The word sublime originally signifies high, lofty, elevated; and this style, accordingly, never descends to any thing small, delicate, light, pretty, playful, or comic. The grandest style in music is therefore the sacred style – that of the church oratorio – for it is least inclined to levity, where levity is properly inadmissible, and where the words convey the most awful and striking images. Infinity, and what is next to it, immensity, are among the most efficient causes of this quality; and when we hear innumerable voices and instruments sounding the praises of God in solemn and becoming strains, the most sublime image that can fill the mind seldom fails to present itself – that of the heavenly host described in the Holy Scriptures. […]

250Simplicity, and its opposite, intricacy, when on a large scale (such an intricacy as, from the number of its parts, becomes incomprehensible), are sublime.» (Crotch, p. 32-34)

251Page 177 (a): «In a conversation between lord Viscount Fitzwilliam, sir Watkin Williams Wynn, and Joah Bates, esquire, commissioner of the Victualling-Office, the beginning of last year, 1783, at the house of the latter, after remarking that the number of eminent musical performers of all kinds, both vocal and instrumental, with which London abounded, was far greater than in any city of Europe, it was lamented that there was no public periodical occasion for collecting and consolidating them into one band; by which means a performance might be exhibited on so grand and magnificent a scale as no other part of the world could equal.» (Burney, An Account, p. 3)

252Page 178 (a): «Stanley has said, as plainly as a civil man can speak, in one of his Letters to me, wch I communicated to you, that he did not chuse to set these Oratorios: 1st because he had not time; 2ndly because the public was unwilling to like any other compositions of that kind than those of Handel, though they have heard them so long, that they are heartily tired of them. […] Indeed nothing but royal Patronage or uncommon excellence in the Performance can ensure a full house to any of Handel’s best Oratorios.» (Burney’s Letters, 26 mai 1784)

253Page 181 (a): «In this gallery there was a new organ case decorated with a transparent portrait of Handel, from an original painting, presented to the Concert of Antient Musick by Mr Redmnd Smpson, with boys in chiaro obscuro, holding a wreath of laurels.» (Barnes et Renshaw, p. 157)

254Page 181 (b): «I shall long have before my eyes that beautiful temple whose pointed vaults ascend to heaven; that immense croud of the most beautiful and wealthy inhabitants of the first city in the universe; the interesting spectacle of a Royal family, whose beauty charms, and whose goodness captivates every eye and heart; and that prodigious Orchestra, which never before had existence on the earth, and which by its admirable arrangement seemed like Music itself, to descend from the skies.» (Burney, An Account, p. 123)

255Page 183 (a): «The Performance of the Oratorio in england, under its present defective State, in some Respects may be censured; in others, is to be approved. The Exhibition of the Choir and accompanying Band is not only decent, but grand and striking: A becoming Gravity attends it, both among the Performers and the Audience. The Airs and Choirs are often sung with a Decorum not unsuitable to the Dignity of the Occasion.» (Brown, A Dissertation, p. 221)

256Page 184 (a): «So many voices, such prodigious kettle drums, that most power-full instrument the trombone & the loftiness of the place so well adapted to give the highest effect the musical sound – all conspired to make the choruses at the Church grand indeed. What would have been the effect of the same entertainment in a magnificent Italian church.» (Neville, p. 321)

257Page 185 (a): «At the first performance of the Messiah, his Majesty expressed a desire to the earl of Sandwich of hearing the most truly sublime of all Choruses: “Allelujah! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth, a second time; and this gracious wish was conveyed to the Orchestra by the waving of his Lorship’s wand. At this second performance of that matchless Oratorio, his Majesty was pleased to make the signal himself, with a gentle motion of his right hand in which was the printed book of the words, not only for the repetition of this, but of the final Chorus in the last part, to the great gratification of all his happy subjects present; and, perhaps, the subjects of no sovereign prince on the globe were ever before so delighted with the effects of a royal mandate.» (Burney, An Account)

258Page 185 (b): «When George himself convenes the tuneful throng, / To pay due homage to the Prince of Song, / Say, shall the list’ning, soul-enchanted muse, / To Handel’s name a grateful strain refuse? / No massy piles of monumental stone / His mem’ry claims, but numbers like his own, / Hence form’s the monarch his resolve to raise / The noble shrine of everlasting praise. […] / See first, conspicuous and exalted high, / Around no equal, and no second nigh; / (His brow design’d the diadem to wear, / His potent arm the sceptre’s weight to bear), / Some godlike prince, who with supreme command / Bade truth and virtue flourish through the land; / Humbl’d the foe, made proud ambition cease, / And aw’d th’aspiring nations into peace! / Next him some patriot statesman, born to share / The glorious toil, and ease a monarch’s care: / Some bold asserter of religion’s cause, / Some just dispenser of establish’d laws; / Some chief, who shone admist th’embattl’d plain, / Or roll’d his conqu’ring thunders on the main; / Some deep philosopher that heav’n survey’d, / The light dissected, and the planets weigh’d; / Some grave historian venerable dust, / Some heav’n-taught poet’s consecrated bust; / Immortal Roscius of unbounded fame, / And, not the last in praise, great Handel’s name. / Such models warm and elevate mankind, / And rouse the latent genius of the mind; / The heart with noble sentiment inspire, / And all the soul with emulation fire. / Hither shall oft our rising youth repair, / And gaze enraptur’d on a scene so fair; / And hail the sacred and illustrious dead, / Who for our freedom and our altars bled. / What authors boast of ancient Greece and Rome / These models witness was atchiev’d at home; / Such gen’rous worth in Albion’s clime if found, / Albion, – alike for arts and arms renown’d.» (The Commemoration of Handel. A Poem, p. 3-5)

259Page 185 (c): «By the truth and power with which he enforced the predominant tones of the organ, he alone, without any assistance from a Maestro di Capella to give the time, may be said to have compressed a thousand vocal and instrumental performers into one voice and one instrument.» (Bates, p. 532)

260Page 186 (a): «Now, as the orchestra in Westminster Abbey seemed to ascend to the clouds, and unite with the saints and martyrs represented on the painted glass in the west window, which had all the appearance of a continuation of the orchestra, I could hardly refrain from imagining that this orchestra was a point of segment of the celestial circles; and perhaps no band of mortal musicians ever exhibited a more imposing appearance.» (Parke, I, p. 41)

261Page 186 (b): «This figure of speech reminds us that the English choral tradition has its origin in the period of the Industrial Revolution. Burney’s very phraseology is, indeed, that used by the devotees of applied science: it would hardly have suggested itself fifty years earlier.» (Mackerness, p. 127-128)

262Pages 186-187 (a): «As this Commemoration is not only the first instance of such magnitude being assembled together, but of any band, at all numerous, performing in a similar situation, without the assistance of a Manu-ductor, to regulate the measure, the performances in Westminster-Abbey may be safely pronounced, no less remarkable for the multiplicity of voices and instruments employed, than for accuracy and precision. When all the wheels of that huge machine, the Orchestra, were in motion, the effect resembled clock-work in every thing, but want of feeling and expression.

263And, as the power of gravity and attraction in bodies is proportioned to their mass and density, so it seems as if the magnitude of this band had commanded and impelled adhesion and obedience, beyond that of any other of inferior force. The pulsations in every limb, and ramifications of veins and arteries in an animal, could not be more reciprocal, isochronous, and under the regulation of the heart, than the members of this body of musicians under that of the Conductor and Leader. The totality of sound seemed to proceed from one voice, and one instrument; and its powers produced, not only new and exquisite sensations in judges and lovers of the art, but were felt by those who had never received pleasure from Music before.» (Burney, An Account, p. 15)

264Page 187 (a): «The fugue [in Saul’s Overture], indeed, with solo parts for the organ, was, perhaps, very judiciously omitted; as the passages have long been in such favour with the imitators of handel, as to be rendered trite and vulgar.» (Burney, An Account, p. 32)

265Page 189 (a): «[…] the same Selection of sacred music from handel, Which was performed in Westminster Abbey, on the last Day of the Commemoration […].» (Marsh, p. 356)

266Page 190 (a): «The English, a manly, military race, were instantly captivated by the grave, bold, and nervous style of Handel, which is congenial with their manners and sentiments. And though the productions of men of great genius and abilities have, since his time, had a transient share of attention and favour; yet, whenever any of the works of Handel are revived by a performer of superior talents, they are always heard with a degree of general satisfaction and delight, which other compositions seldom obtain. Indeed, the exquisite manner in which his productions are executed at the concert established for the preservation and performance of old masters, stimulates a desire in all who hear them to have a more general acquaintance with his works. And it was, perhaps, at the late performance in Westminster Abbey, that the compositions of this great Master were first supplied with a band, capable of displaying all the wonderful powers of his harmony.» (Burney, An Account, p. iv)

267Page 191 (a): «Whatever may be the sublimity of Handel’s music, the singular effect of it, on some occasions, is, doubtless, not to be ascribed to its sublimity alone, but in a peculiar manner to the place where it was performed; not only from the sacredness of the place, which is, of itself, so well fitted to excite many awful emotions, but in a considerable degree also, from its being the repository of so many “illustrious dead”, and the scene, perhaps of all others, most sacred to those who have any sensibility to the glories of their country.» (Alison, p. 22)

268Page 192 (a): «The loud was not course [ sic], nor the soft inaudible. The general Mass of Harmony attracted and impelled, with a kind of centripetal power, all the parts of this immense band to keep together; &, from the happy construction of the building, the most gentle vocal breathing and inflexion of sound was augmented without reverberation, and conveyed to the most distant hearers more sweet & full than it was delivered.» (Burney’s Letters, I, p. 446)

269Page 192 (b): «Indeed, Handel was always aspiring at numbers in his scores and in his orchestra; and nothing can express his grand conceptions, but an omnipotent band: the generality of his productions in the hands of a few performers, is like the club of Alcides, or the bow of Ulysses, in the hands of a dwarf.» (Burney, An Account, p. 106-107)

270Page 195 (a): «With all my admiration of the Abbey Music, I think it has done a great deal of harm, and will do much more. The pieces which are performed there, have a mimic performance in almost every great town in the kingdom, which contributes to establish an exclusive taste for Handel’s Music only. Any thing that helps to fix art to a certain point is destructive to farther improvement. Of this we have the strongest instance in a neighbouring country. […] The harm Lully did in France, Handel has done and will continue to do, in England.» (Jackson, p. 28)

271Page 195 (b): «What is the state of music in England? What indeed! Exclaim the German and Italian cognoscenti. Practically a mountain, scientifically a molehill; sensuously every thing, intellectually nothing. The singer is an idol, the composer its pedestal; the instrumental performer a dealer in legerdemain, and the master a teacher of it. Handel has written about forty volumes, of which two or three only are surfeiting the public annually, and outrageously eulogised by an antiquated host, who, with singular earnestness, call themselves Handelians.» (Worgan, p. 13-14)

272Pages 197-198 (a): «There are few who have not felt the charms of music, and acknowledged its expressions to be intelligible to the heart. It is a language of delightful sensations, that is far more eloquent than words; it breathes to the ear the clearest intimations: but how it was learned, to what origin we owe it, or what is the meaning of some of its most affecting strains, we know not. We feel plainly that music touches and gently agitates the agreeable and sublime passions; that it wraps us in melancholy and elevates in joy; that it dissolves and inflames; that it melts us in tenderness and rouses to rage: but its strokes are so fine and delicate, that, like a tragedy, even the passions that are wounded please; it [sic] sorrows are charming, and its rage heroic and delightful; as people feel the particular passions with different degrees of force, their taste of harmony must proportionably vary. Music then is a language directed to the passions; but the rudest passions put on a new nature, and become pleasing in harmony: let me add, also, that it awakens some passions which we perceive not, in ordinary life. Particularly the most elevated sensation of music arises from a confused perception of ideal or visionary beauty and rapture, which is sufficiently perceivable to fire the imagination, but not clear enough to become an object of knowledge. This shadowy beauty the mind attempts, with a languishing curiosity, to collect into a distinct object of view and comprehension; but it sinks and escapes, like the dissolving ideas of a delightful dream, that are neither within the reach of memory, nor yet totally fled. The noblest charms of music, then, though real and affecting, seem yet too confused and fluid to be collected into a distinct idea.» (Ussher, Clio, p. 150)

273Page 198 (a): «[He] is in love with whatever recedes from his knowledge of it, and for this reason music enchants his thought.» (Barry, Language, p. 62)

274Page 200 (a): «The most general character, perhaps of sublimity in Sounds, is that of loudness, and there are doubtless many instances where such sounds are very constantly sublime; yet there are many instances also, where the contrary quality of sounds is also sublime.» (Alison, p. 138)

275Page 200 (b): «There is a general chearfulness and good humour in Haydn’s allegros, which exhilarate every hearer. But his adagios are often so sublime in ideas and the harmony in which they are clad, that though played by inarticulate instruments, they have a more pathetic effect on my feelings, than the finest opera air united with the most exquisite poetry.» (Burney, History, II, p. 960)

V. Préludes romantiques: perception subjective et mystère

276Page 204 (a): «It fell dead-born from the Press; without reaching such distinction as even to excite a Murmur among the Zealots.» (Hume, «My Own Life»)

277Page 204 (b): «Every doctrine is dangerous that tends to discredit the evidence of our senses, external or internal, and to subvert the original instinctive principles of human belief. In this respect the most unnatural and incomprehensible absurdities, such as the doctrine of the non-existence of matter, and of perceptions without a percipient, are far from being harmless; as they seem to lead, and actually have led, to universal scepticism; and set an example of a method of reasoning sufficient to overturn all truth, and pervert every human faculty.» (Beattie, An Essay, p. 477)

278Page 205 (a): «The difference, it is said, is very wide between judgment and sentiment. All sentiment is right; because sentiment has a reference to nothing beyond itself, and is always real, wherever a man is conscious of it. But all determinations of the understanding are not right; because they have a reference to something beyond themselves, to wit, real matter of fact; and are not always comformable to that standard.» (Hume, «Standard of Taste», p. 208)

279Page 206 (a): «Nothing is ever present to the mind but its perceptions.» (Hume, Treatise, III, p. 2)

280Page 206 (b): «[…] colours, sounds, tastes, smells, heat and cold [are] nothing but impressions on the mind, deriv’d from the operation of external objects, and without any resemblance to the qualities of the objects.» (Hume, Treatise, I, p. 148)

281Page 206 (c): «If any impression gives rise to the idea of self, that impression must continue invariably the same, thro’the whole course of our lives; since self is suppos’d to exist after that manner. But there is no impression constant and invariable. Pain and pleasure, grief and joy, passions and sensations succeed each other, and never all exist at the same time. It cannot, therefore, be from any of these impressions, or from any other, that the idea of self is deriv’d; and consequently there is no such idea.» (Hume, Treatise, I, p. 164)

282Page 207 (a): «[…] a system of scepticism, which leaves no ground to believe in any one thing rather than its contrary.» (Reid, An Inquiry)

283Page 207 (b): «I am first affrighted and confounded with that forlorn solitude, in which I am plac’d in my philosophy, and fancy myself some strange uncouth monster, who not being able to mingle and unite in society, has been expell’d all human commerce, and left utterly abandon’d and disconsolate […].» (Hume, Treatise, I, p. 172)

284Page 207 (c): «By the mere light of reason it seems difficult to prove the Immortality of the Soul. The arguments for it are commonly derived either from metaphysical topics, or moral or physical. But in reality, it is the gospel, and the gospel alone, that has brought life and immortality to light.» (Hume, «Of the Immorality of the Soul»)

285Page 207 (d): «[…] lively impressions of my senses, which obliterate all these chimeras. I dine, I play a game of back-gammon, I converse, and am merry with my friends: and when after three or four hour’s amusement, I wou’d return to these speculations, they appear so cold, and strain’d, and ridiculous, that I cannot find in my heart to enter into them any farther.» (Hume, Treatise, I, p. 175)

286Page 208 (a): «Reason alone can never be a motive to any action of the will.» (Hume, Treatise, II, p. 265)

287Page 208 (b): «Reason is, and ought to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them.» (Hume, Treatise, II, p. 266)

288Page 209 (a): «Among a thousand different opinions which different men may entertain of the same subject, there is one, and but one, that is just and true; and the only difficulty is to fix and ascertain it. On the contrary, a thousand different sentiments, excited by the same object, are all right: Because no sentiment represents what is really the object. It only marks a certain conformity or relation betwixt the object and the organs or faculties of the mind; and if that conformity did not really exist, the sentiment could never possibly have a being.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 208)

289Page 209 (b): «Men of the most confined knowledge are able to remark a difference of taste in the narrow circle of their acquaintance, even where the persons have been educated under the same government, and have early imbibed the same prejudices. But those, who can enlarge their view to contemplate distant nations and remote ages, are still more surprised at the great inconsistence and contrariety. We are apt to call barbarous whatever departs widely from our own taste and apprehension: But soon find the epithet or reproach retorted on us.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 226-227)

290Page 210 (a): «Beauty is no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 230)

291Page 210 (b): «It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision, afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 229)

292Page 210 (c): «thus, though the principles of taste be universal, and nearly, if not entirely the same in all men; yet few are qualified to give judgment on any work of art, or establish their own sentiment as the standard of beauty.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 241)

293Page 211 (a): «[…] their heads, Sir, are stuck so full of rules and compasses, and have that eternal propensity to apply them upon all occasions, that a work of genius had better go to the devil at once, than stand to be prick’d and tortured to death by’em. – And how did Garrick speak the soliloquy last night? – Oh, against all rule, my lord, – most ungrammatically! betwixt the substantive and the adjective, which should agree together in number, case, and gender, he made a breach thus, – stopping, as if the point wanted settling; – and betwixt the nominative case, which your lordship […].» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, III, p. 132)

294Page 211 (b): «To check the sallies of the imagination, and to reduce every expression to geometrical truth and exactness, would be the most contrary to the laws of criticism; because it would produce a work, which, by universal experience has been found the most insipid and disagreeable. But though poetry can never submit to exact truth, it must be confined by rules of art, discovered to the author either by genius or observation.» (Hume, «The Standard of Taste», p. 231)

295Page 212 (a): «After all that has been, or can be said, the Energy and Grace of Musical Expression is of too delicate a Nature to be fixed by Words: it is a Matter of Taste, rather than of Reasoning, and is, therefore, much better understood by Example than by Precept. It is in the Works of the great Masters, that we must look for the Rules and full Union of Air, Harmony, and Expression.» (Avison, Essay, p. 32)

296Page 214 (a): «Had this Essay been written by any learned and judicious friend to Music, whose good wishes to the science had prompted him to the Undertaking, it would have made its appearance, no doubt, with a much better grace. […] But if no such friend would exert himself, what is to be done? Shall no one endeavour to stem the torrent? Surely, there never could be so much occasion as at present: when the highest pretensions to harmony, amount to little more than the bass continuing tum, tum, tum upon one key for several bars together, whilst two other parts (at most) are moving in thirds or sixths incessantly: to which may be added a thousand sharps which (at best) have no relation to the key or harmony, and serve only to distract the ear, and the very notion of true modulation.» (Hayes, Remarks, p. 73)

297Page 214 (b): «I will not take upon me to justify and vindicate all the music performed in Cathedrals; but shall venture to affirm, the further we look back, the more excellent the Composition will be found, and the most properly adapted to the sacred purposes of devotion.» (Hayes, Remarks, p. 89)

298Page 214 (c): «If I mistake not, the Application is equally false with the example: for discord and ligatures, are the very nerves and sinews of Music, giving Strength and Solidity to it; and therefore agree with, and are more applicable to the Relievo in Painting. But if the ear be relieved by one sound more than another, it certainly is, by the concord which succeeds the discord.» (Hayes, Remarks, p. 81-82)

299Page 215 (a): «Some Beauties yet no Precepts can declare / For there’s a Happiness as well as Care. / Music resembles Poetry; in each / Are nameless Graces which no Methods teach, / And which a Master-Hand alone can reach. / If, where the Rules not far enough extend, / (Since Rules were made but to promote their End) / Some lucky Licence answers to the full / Th’intent propos’d, that Licence is a Rule.» (Avison, Reply, p. 139)

300Page 215 (b): «Though the desire of improvement may lead us beyond the mark, yet by degrees, we are brought back again within the bounds of good sense; and, upon the whole, advance nearer to perfection.» (Jackson, p. 76)

301Page 216 (a): «But these irregular flights of fancy ought not to be attempted, without a profound knowledge of the principles, as this will instruct us where these things may be done, and where not. […] It cannot be denied, but we sometimes meet with music compos’d in a pretty state, tho’not strictly agreeable to principles.» (Potter, p. 4)

302Page 216-217 (a): «But to speak of the Essay itself. The plan it was formed upon was of a singular kind. It had nothing to do with the theoretic principles, and the mere mechanism of the science. Its aim was widely different. Intended, indeed, as a critical, but yet as a liberal, examen of this pleasing art; according to rules, not drawn from the formal schools of systematical professors, but from the school of nature and good sense. […] If then the genius of this sort of criticism is universally such, that, having taste, not practice, for its object, it is directed to improve the manner, not teach the mechanism, of any science; I see no reason why a critical enquirer into the merits of my essay, should think it his business first to examine the merits of my musical compositions.» (Avison, Reply, p. 133)

303Page 217 (b): «As to the Errors of two perfect Chords of the same Kind, I will confess to him, that I am so hardened a Sinner, on certain Occasions, against his John-Trott Laws, that I have more than once intentionally offended; and if he cannot perceive the Reason, it will scarce be worth while to inform him.» (Avison, Reply, p. 143)

304Page 218 (a): «If the Beauty or Sublimity of such tones were independent of the qualities of mind we thus associate with them, such diversities could not happen, and the same Sounds would produce uniformly the same Emotions, as the same Colours or Smells produce uniformly the same Sensations.» (Alison, p. 153)

305Page 218 (b): «[The reason why this noble science is so little attended to] must be owing to a selfish principle in the professors, to conceal its mysteries, in order to reap the greater advantage from it.

306Note: There is some reason for being of this opinion. When the great Geminiani publish’d his useful treatise, some musicians complain’d to him, that he had explain’d too much; and added, that such things ought to be kept secret for their advantage.» (Potter, p. 2-3)

307Page 218 (c): «It is true, there are books of instruction publish’d, for all the different instruments of music, but these only teach the practical part and not the theory; and many of them are not only very imperfect, but are done in such a manner, that they rather confound than instruct. There is also a multiplicity of music extant, but how shall a young student know what to make a proper choice of? How can he judge what is founded on the true principles of music, and what not, unless he could have some guide to direct him?» (Potter, p. 3)

308Page 218 (d): «The ideas, and the language, of the antients, on this subject, were different. When they speak of Music as imitation, they appear to have solely, or chiefly, in view, its power over the affections. By imitation, they mean, in short, what we commonly term of expression.» (Twining, Two Dissertations, p. 46)

309Page 219 (a): «The whole power of Music may be reduced, I think, to three distinct effects; – upon the ear, the passions, and the imagination: in other words, it may be considered as simply delighting the sense, as raising emotions, or, as raising ideas. The two last of these effects constitute the whole of what is called the moral, or expressive, power of Music; and in these only we are to look for anything that can be called imitation. Music can be said to imitate, no farther than as it expresses something. As far as its effect is merely physical, and confined to the ear, it gives a simple, original pleasure; it expresses nothing, it refers to nothing; it is no more imitative than the smell of a rose, or the flavour of a pine-apple.

310Music can raise ideas, immediately, only by the actual resemblance of its sounds and motions to the sounds or motions of the thing suggested. Such Music we call imitative, in the same sense in which we apply the word to similar resemblance of sound and motion in poetry. In both cases, the resemblance, though immediate, is so imperfect, that it cannot be seen till it is, in some sort, pointed out; and even when it is so, is not always very evident. Poetry, indeed, has here a very great advantage; it carries with it, of necessity, its own explanation: for the same word that imitates by its sound, points out, or hints, at least, the imitation, by its meaning. With Music it is not so. It must call in the assistance of language, or something equivalent to language, for its interpreter.» (Twining, Two Dissertations, p. 44-45)

311Page 219 (b): «[…] the expressions of Music considered in itself, and without words, are, (within certain limits) vague, general, and equivocal. What is usually called its power over the passions, is, in fact, no more than a power of raising a general emotion, temper, or disposition, common to several different, though related, passions; as pity, love – anger, courage, & c. The effect of words, is, to strengthen the expression of Music, by confining it – by giving it a precise direction, supplying it with ideas, circumstances, and an object, and, by this means, raising it from a calm and general disposition, or emotion, into something approaching, at least, to the stronger feeling of a particular and determinate passion.» (Twining, Two Dissertations, p. 48)

312Page 220 (a): «Music, here, is not imitative, but if I may hazard the expression, merely suggestive. But, whatever we may call it, this I will venture to say, – that in the best instrumental Music, expressively performed, the very indecision itself of the expression, leaving the hearer to the free operation of his emotion upon his fancy, and, as it were, to the free choice of such ideas as are, to him, most adapted to react upon and heighten the emotion which occasioned them, produces a pleasure, which nobody, I believe, who is able to feel it, will deny to one of the most delicious that Music is capable of affording. But far the greater part even of those who have an ear for Music, have only an ear; and to them this pleasure is unknown. – The complaint, so common, of the separation of Poetry and Music, and of the total want of meaning and expression in instrumental Music, was never, I believe, the complaint of a man of true musical feeling […].» (Twining, Two Dissertations, p. 49)

313Page 220 (b): «There is some kind, even of instrumental Music, so divinely composed, and so expressively performed, that it wants no words to explain its meaning.» (Burney, dans Twining, Two Dissertations, p. 49)

314Page 222 (a): «[…] his life was put in jeopardy by words.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, p. 174)

315Page 222 (b): «Whenever anything strikes him as more than commonly absurd, Toby expresses the ineffable by whistling a half dozen bars of “Lillabullero”.» (Freedman, p. 174)

316Page 222 (c): «You must know it was the usual channel through which his passions got vent, when any thing shocked or surprised him; – but especially when any thing, which he deemed very absurd, was offered.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, p. 174)

317Page 223 (a): «Here my uncle Toby, taking the advantage of a minim in the second bar of his tune, kept whistling one continued note to the end of the sentence – Dr Slop with his division of curses moving under him, like a running bass all the way.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, III, p. 189)

318Page 224 (a): «My father managed his affliction otherwise; and indeed differently from most men ancient or modern; for he neither wept it away […] – nor did he curse it, or damn it, or excommunicate it, or rhyme it, or lillabullero it.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, V, p. iii)

319Page 224 (b): «The Count de B**** did not understand music, so desired me to explain it some other way.» (Sterne, A Sentimental Journey, II, p. 75)

320Page 225 (a): «[…] the whole piece, Madam, must have been played off like the sixth of Avison Scarlatti – con furia – like mad.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, III, p. v)

321Page 225 (b): «Now it may be asked, what entertainment there is for the mind in a concerto, sonata, or solo? They are mere objects of gratification to the ear, in which, however, imagination may divert itself with the idea, that a fine adagio is a tragical story; an andante, or grazioso, an elegant narrative of some tranquil event; and an allegro a tale of merriment.» (Burney, History, II, p. 676)

322Page 225 (c): «after all that has been, or can be said, the Energy and Grace of Musical Expression is of too delicate a Nature to be fixed by Words.» (Avison, Essay, II, p. 32)

323Page 225 (d): «The evidence of [Sterne’s] own writing suggests that he was an expressionist with a strong autonomist bias. For Sterne music (and literature as well) was emotively expressive, even imitative of human feeling and thought, yet ultimately a self-contained art. Music could excite the passions, even imitate their sounds, yet finally it maintained its autonomy.» (Freedman, p. 34)

324Page 225 (e): «In music, then, nondesignative meaning – and it is the principal kind – derives not from external reference but from the arousal of internal expectation, and emotion is the product not primarily of what is provided (in literature the thing described) but of the blocking of that expectation (the experience of not immediately receiving the expected object or description). Emotion and meaning in music, viewed from an absolutist perspective, are functions of expectation and frustration.» (Freedman, p. 37)

325Page 225 (f): «[…] a contradiction to his knowledge.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, III, p. 211)

326Page 226 (a): «Little knowledge is got by mere words.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 595)

327Page 226 (b): «My picture was my stage and men and women my actors.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, p. 70)

328Page 227 (a): «True philosophy – but there is no treating the subject whilst my uncle is whistling Lillabullero. Let us go into the house.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 437)

329Page 227 (b): «All I wish is, that it may be a lesson to the world, “to let people tell their stories their own way”.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 446)

330Page 227 (c): «[…] for that moment she took her pipe and told me such a tale of woe with it, I rose up, and with broken and irregular steps walked softly to my chaise.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 446)

331Page 228 (a): «[…] fiddlers and painters judging by their eyes and ears, – admirable! – trusting to the passions excited in an air sung, or a story painted to the heart, – instead of measuring them by a quadrant.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, III, p. 207)

332Page 228 (b): «Mechanical as the notes were, yet so true in tune to nature were they chanted, that in one moment they overthrew all my systematic reasonings upon the Bastile; and I heavily walked upstairs, unsaying every word I had said in going down them.» (Sterne, Sentimental Journey, II, p. 59-61)

333Page 228 (c): «But mark, madam, we live amongst riddles and mysteries – the most obvious things, which come in our way, have dark sides, which the quickest sight cannot penetrate into; and even the clearest and most exalted understandings amongst us find ourselves puzzled and at a loss in almost every cranny of nature’s works: so that this, like a thousand other things, falls out for us in a way, which tho’we cannot reason upon it – yet we find the good of it, may it please your reverences and your worships – and that’s enough for us.

334We live in a world beset on all sides with mysteries and riddles – and so’tis no matter.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 441)

335Page 228 (d): «All that the artist can do is, like the musician, to compose time from this piling waste. If Sterne so frequently brings in musical references, it is because he was knowingly musical; it is also because music is the most perfect, freest triumph over time.» (Mayoux, p. 17)

336Page 229 (a): «If a man knows the heart, he will know it was impossible to go back instantly to my chamber – it was touching a cold key with a flat third to it, upon the close of a piece of music, which had called forth my affections […].» (Sterne, Sentimental Journey, p. 79)

337Page 229 (b): «Attitudes are nothing, Madam, –’tis the transition from one attitude to another, – like the preparation and resolution of the discord into harmony, which is all in all.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 278)

338Page 229 (c): «In a word, my work is digressive, and it is progressive too, – and at the same time.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, I, p. 95)

339Page 229 (d): «Digressions, incontestably, are the sunshine; – they are the life, the soul of reading; – take them out of this book for instance, – you might as well take the book along with them; – one cold eternal winter would reign in every Page of it; restore them to the writer; – he steps forth like a bridegroom, – bids All hail; brings in variety, and forbids the appetite to fail.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, I, p. 95)

340Page 230 (a): «Thou shalt say fou – and I will come in (like fa, sol, la, re, me, ut, at our complines) with ter. And accordingly the abbess, giving the pitch note, set off thus:

341{Abbess, Bou - - bou - - bou - -

342Margarita, - - ger, - - ger, - - ger. (& c.)» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, VII, p. 486)

343Page 230 (b): «What Yorick could mean by the words lentamente, – tenutè, – grave, – and sometimes adagio, – as applied to theological compositions, and with which he has characterized some of these sermons, I dare not venture to guess. – I am more puzzled still upon finding a l’octava alta! Upon one; – con strepido upon the back of another; – Siciliana upon a third; – Alla capella upon a fourth; – Con l’arco upon this; – Senza l’arco upon that. – All I know is, that they are musical terms, and have a meaning; – and as he was a musical man, I will make no doubt, but that by some quaint application of such metaphors to the compositions in hand, they impressed very distinct ideas of their several characters upon his fancy, – whatever they may do upon that of others.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, VI, p. 414)

344Page 230 (c): «Now there are such an infinitude of notes, tunes, cants, chants, airs, looks, and accents with which the word fiddlestick may be pronounced in all such causes as this, every one of’em impressing a sense and meaning as different from the other, as dirt from cleanliness – that Casuists (for it is an affair of conscience on that score) reckon up no less than fourteen thousand in which you may do either right or wrong.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 604)

345Page 230 (d): «– No doubt, Sir, – there is a whole chapter wanting here – and a chasm of ten Pages made in the book by it […].» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 311)

346Page 230 (e): «[…] on the contrary the book is more perfect and complete by wanting the chapter, than having it.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 311)

347Page 231 (a): «– But the painting of this journey, upon reviewing it, appears to be so much above the stile and manner of any thing else I have been able to paint in this book, that it could not have remained in it, without depreciating every other scene; and destroying at the same time the necessary equipoise and balance, (whether good or bad) betwixt chapter and chapter, from whence the just proportions and harmony of the whole work results.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 313)

348Page 231 (b): «[…] in my opinion, to write a book is for all the world like humming a song – be but in tune with yourself, Madam, ’tis no matter how high or how low you take it.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 313)

349Page 231 (c): «[…] run over my notes – so I hummed over doctor Homenas’s notes – the modulation’s very well –’twill do, Homenas, if it holds on at this rate – so on I hummed – and a tolerable tune I thought it was; and to this hour, may it please your reverences, had never found out how low, how flat, how spiritless and jejune it was, but that all of a sudden, up started an air in the middle of it, so fine, so rich, so heavenly – it carried my soul up with it into the other world.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 313)

350Page 232 (a): «The attempt to harmonize dissonant and discordant contraries is among the chief motives behind the musicalization of fiction.» (Freedman, p. 50)

351Page 232 (b): «[…] like the preparation and resolution of the discord into harmony, which is all in all.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IV, p. 278)

352Page 232 (c): «I congratulate Handel on the downfal [sic] of wretched operas; but fear his oratorio won’t have better fate; for Harmony as well as Concord is lost to us, though we are still pretenders to both.» (Cowper, dans Burrows et Dunhill, p. 232)

353Page 233 (a): «Do you know whether my fiddle’s in tune or no? – trut… prut… – They should be fifths. –’Tis wickedly strung – tr..a.e.i.o.u.-twang. The bridge is a mile too high, and the sound-post absolutely down, – else – trut… prut – hark!’tis not so bad a tone. – Diddle diddle, diddle diddle, diddle diddle, dum. [& c.]» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, V, p. 365)

354Page 234 (a): «Upon looking back from the end of the last chapter, and surveying the texture of what has been wrote, it is necessary, that upon this Page and the five following, a good quantity of heterogeneous matter be inserted, to keep up that just balance betwixt wisdom and folly, without which a book would not hold a single year: nor is it a poor creeping digression (which but for the name of, a man might continue as well going on in the king’s highway) which will do the business – no; if it is to be a digression, it must be a good frisky one, and upon a frisky subject too, where neither the horse or his rider are to be caught, but by rebound.» (Sterne, Tristram Shandy, IX, p. 585)

355Page 234 (b): «What is generally understood by harmony, relates properly to hearing; but there is in nature, or rather in the human mind, a system of universal symphony carried on by means of association and contrast; since there is an attractive as well as a repelling power in every thing that concerns our sentiments and sensations.» (Donaldson, p. 33)

356Page 234 (c): «Sterne steps outside neoclassicism altogether and shows the essential futility of its attempts to reanimate the ruins of the ancient world.» (Reed, p. 147)

357Page 235 (a): «To read music as a language is to make music a means, not an end, and hence is to undermine the real significance of music as an alternative to language.» (Clark, p. 203)

358Page 236 (a): «The eighteenth century, the century of revolution, abundantly deserves its reputation with respect to the history of music. When it began, the human voice still reigned, unchallenged after millennia, as the principle and most respected agent of musical expression. If anything, by 1700 its prestige was greater than ever before, thanks to its glorification in the most prestigious musical form of the time: Italian opera seria.» (Marshall, p. vii)

359Page 237 (a): «Music, therefore, is pleasing, not because it is imitative, but because certain melodies and harmonies have an aptitude to raise certain passions, affections, and sentiments in the soul. And, consequently, the pleasures we derive from melody and harmony are seldom or never resolvable into that delight which the human mind receives from the imitation of nature.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 146)

360Page 237 (b): «Sounds are disagreeable, which hurt the ear by their shrillness, or which cannot be heard without painful attention on account of their exility. But loud and mellow sounds, like those of thunder, of a storm, and of the full organ, elevate the mind through the ear; even as a vast magnitude yields a pleasurable astonishment, when contemplated by the eye. By suggesting the idea of great power, and sometimes of great expansion too, they excite a pleasing admiration, and seem to accord with the lofty genius of that soul whose chief desire is for truth, virtue, and immortality, and the object of whose most delightful meditation is the greatest and best of Beings. Sweetness of tone, and beauty of shape and colour, produce a placid acquiescence of mind, accompanied with some degree of joy, which plays in a gentle smile upon the countenance of the hearer and beholder. Equable sounds, like smooth and level surfaces, are in general more pleasing than such as are rough, uneven, or interrupted; yet as the flowing curve, so essential to elegance of figure, and so conspicuous in the outlines of beautiful animals, is delightful to the eye; so notes gradually, swelling, and gradually decaying, have an agreeable effect on the ear and on the mind; the former tending to rouse the faculties, and the latter to compose them; the one promoting gentle exercise, and the other rest.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 150-151)

361Page 238 (a): «But of all sounds, that which makes its way most directly to the human heart, is the human voice: and those instruments that approach nearest to it are in expression the most pathetic, and in tone the most perfect. The notes of a man’s voice, well tuned and well managed, have a mellowness, variety, and energy, beyond those of any instrument; and a fine female voice, modulated by sensibility, is beyond comparison the sweetest, and most melting sound, in art or nature.» (Beattie, Essays, p. 151-152)

362Page 239 (a): «I bought at Hamburg such a piano forte, and so cheap, it is a harpsichord too of 2 Unisons and the Jacks serve as mutes (when the Piano Forte is play’d) by the cleverest mechanism imaginable.» (Mason, cité dans Ripin, p. 78)

363Page 241 (a): «[its tone] was superior to that produced by quills, with the additional power of producing all the shades of piano and forte by the finger.» (Burney, Cyclopedia)

364Page 243 (a): «The true modulation of the voice then may be thought to lie between the two extremes of monotony & desultoriness […].» (Bayly, p. 376)

365Pages 243 (b): «But Mrs Fletcher, the wife and shop-woman of a Butcher in Leadenhall Market, lamenting, though very civil to me, the loss of their late Organist, Mr Hart, says “he was a charming man, and used to make the Organ go round the Church, & round the Church!” – meaning the effect of the Swell.» (Burney, Memoirs, p. 90)

366Page 244 (a): «In delicacy of tone, probably Mr Green never was equalled, certainly never excelled.» (Wickens, p. 52)

367Page 244 (b): «To acquire a rich, full, and mellifluous tone is the desideratum beyond all other qualities in a Performer… The mellow, impressive, organlike Tone is superior in significance and effect to that quilly and vapid sound produced by the Generality of Piano Forte Players.» (Komlós, p. 27)

368Page 246 (a): «[My pianoforte] arrived safe at the proper time, without being even much put out of tune by the jumble. I am much pleased with the tone of it, which is sweet and even; in the pianissimo it is charming. Altogether the instrument is delightful, and I play upon it con amore, and with the pleasure I expected. If it has defects which a good harpsichord has not, it has beauties and delicacies which amply compensate, and which make the harpsichord wonderfully flashy and insipid when played after it; though for some purposes, and in some of my musical moods, though not the best I confess, I might turn to the harpsichord in preference. There are times when one’s ear calls only for harmony, and a pleasant jingle; when one is disposed to merely sensual music, that tickles the auditory nerves, and does not disturb the indolence of our feelings or imagination. But as soon as ever my spirit wakes, as soon as my heart-strings catch the gentlest vibration, I swivel me round incontinently to the piano-forte.» (Twining, Recreations, p. 25)

369Page 247 (a): «English pianos possess rounder sounds and a somewhat heavier touch [than German ones]: they have caused the professors of that country to adopt a grander style, and the beautiful manner of singing which distinguishes them; to succeed in this, the use of the loud pedal is indispensable, in order to conceal the dryness inherent to the pianoforte.» (Karlbrenner, cité dans Komlós, p. 28)

370Page 248 (a): «Artificial music is an imitation of these natural variations [of the voice], as they are more or less expressive of passion, or of all those tender depressions and rapturous elevations of the soul, when she pours herself forth in generous ectasy [sic]: those notes and combinations which please the ear, being adapted to the pleasing of passion; the sad and discordant moods, as in the passions themselves, to set off the more melodious and cheerful: for our joys are continually mingled with abatement or sorrow, and are best perceived by a certain degree of contrast; gravity of sound being an approach to silence, as shade to darkness, and as slowness of motion is a drawing nearer to rest. We cannot judge of any thing but by relation, and it is in the changes of things that we perceive them.» (Donaldson, p. 24-25)

371Page 248 (b): «A proper direction for the piano and forte, is also a part of expression, and though when it is judiciously done, we are apt to pass it over unnoticed, yet if the terms are wrongly used, we presently perceive the want of a right application.» (The Gentleman’s Magazine, XXXIII, p. 58)

372Page 249 (a): «The power of Music is, in this respect, parallel to the power of Eloquence: if it works at all, it must work in a secret and unsuspected Manner. In either case, a pompous Display of Art will destroy its own Intentions: on which Account, one of the best general Rules, perhaps, that can be given for musical Expression, is that which gives Rise to the Pathetic in every other art, an unaffected Strain of Nature and Simplicity.» (Avison, Essay, p. 28)

373Page 249 (b): «Of sounds, the mellow, soft, and gentle, are most pleasing to sense, and best adapted to express the gentle sentiment. Sweetly modulated whispers, are the language of delicious passion. Deep tones associate with deepness of shade, and with slowness of motion. The loud, the sharp, and the shrill, rank with other painful modes of perception.» (Donaldson, p. 21)

374Page 250 (a): «The swell by Byfield. The Diapasons, the Swell, of this Instrument are most excellent. The Swell diminuendo went to the softest that I ever heard in an Organ.» (Stevens, p. 168)

375Page 251 (a): «Aesthetic theory lagged way behind changes in musical style. Only in the 1790s was there an attempt to explain the whimsical contrasts of modern instrumental music, which accorded neither with the sublime nor with the beautiful.» (McVeigh, p. 160)

376Page 255 (a): «Without a proper step and motion, the observation of tune alone will not make a dance; time alone, without tune, will make some sort of music.» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 248)

377Page 255 (b): «The imitative powers of Instrumental are much inferior to those of Vocal Music; its melodious but unmeaning and inarticulated sounds cannot, like the articulations of the human voice, relate distinctly the circumstances of any particular story, or describe the different situations which those circumstances produced; or even express clearly, and so as to be understood by every hearer, the various sentiments and passions which the parties concerned felt from these situations […].» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 217)

378Page 257 (a): «In the contemplation of that immense variety of agreeable and melodious sounds, arranged and digested, both in their coincidence and in their succession, into so complete and regular a system, the mind in reality enjoys not only a very sensual, but a very high intellectual, pleasure, not unlike that which it derives from the contemplation of a great system in any other science.» (Smith, «Imitative Arts», p. 235)

Conclusion: L’impossible portrait de la musique

379Page 263 (a): «[…] a revolutionary portrait of royal sitters; depicting them at their ease in a favourite occupation, wholly without pretensions or idealisation.» (Hayes, Polite Society)

380Page 264 (a): «In portraiture, for women the escape – if it can be called that – from the imagery of domesticity and implicit confinement was metamorphosis into heavenly creatures.» (Leppert, p. 194)

381Page 266 (a): «All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music because, in its ideal, consummate moments, the end is not distinct from the means, the form from the matter, the subject from the expression […].» (Pater, p. 135)

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