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RA-PI-NE-U

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Jan Driessen

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

Fig. 0.1. RA-PI-NEU’s Odyssey (N. Kress) 23
Fig. 2.1. The Neolithic settlement and the Mycenaean building on the north-west side of the central court (photo by K. Xenikakis) 39
Fig. 2.2. Aerial photograph of the Dimini archaeological site (photo by K. Xenikakis) 40
Fig. 2.3. General topographical plan of the Dimini archaeological site (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 40
Fig. 2.4. Built cist-tomb with dromos of the LH IIB/LH IIIA phases (photo by the author) 41
Fig. 2.5. Tholos tomb ‘Lamiospito’ of the LH IIIA phase (axonometric plan by R. Georgiou) 42
Fig. 2.6. Pottery kiln (photo by the author; plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 43
Fig. 2.7. Reconstruction of the Mycenaean settlement (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 44
Fig. 2.8. Houses along the central North-South road (photo by the author) 45
Fig. 2.9. Decorated wheel-made bull figure of the LH IIIB2 phase (photo by the author) 45
Fig. 2.10. Plan of the four houses during the LH IIIIB2 phase (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 46
Fig. 2.11. Aerial photograph of the Administrative Centre (photo by K. Xenikakis) 47
Fig. 2.12. Tholos tomb ‘Toumba’ of the LH IIIB phase (photo by the author) 47
Fig. 2.13. Stone by stone plan of the Administrative Centre (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 48
Fig. 2.14. Aerial photograph of Megaron A and the nearby megaron of the south quarter (photo by K. Xenikakis) 49
Fig. 2.15. Stone by stone plan of the south quarter (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 50
Fig. 2.16. Stone object with engraved Linear B signs found in Megaron A of the Administrative centre (photo by the author) 50
Fig. 2.17. Stone mould of the LH IIIB2 phase from Megaron A in the Administrative centre (photo by the author) 51
Fig. 2.18. Open-air circular stone altar south of the main entrance to Megaron A of the Administrative Centre (photo by K. Xenikakis) 51
Fig. 2.19. Aerial photograph of the north quarter (photo by K. Xenikakis) 52
Fig. 2.20. Stone by stone plan of the north quarter (plan by Th. Makri-Skotinioti) 53
Fig. 2.21. Altar in room 1 of Megaron B (photo by the author) 54
Fig. 2.22. Open air circular stone altar in court 2 of the north quarter of the administrative centre (photo by the author) 54
Fig. 2.23. Limestone slab with shallow holes (kernos) (photo by the author) 55
Fig. 2.24. Storage rooms for agricultural produce in the north quarter of the administrative centre.
Storage room 6 for cereals. LH IIIB2 phase (photo by the author)
55
Fig. 2.25. Storage rooms for agricultural produce in the north quarter of the administrative centre.
Storage room 5 for liquid commodities. LH IIIB2 phase (photo by the author)
56
Fig. 2.26. Storage rooms for agricultural produce in the north quarter of the administrative centre.
Storage room 4 for fruits and other agricultural commodities. LH IIIB2 phase (photo by the author)
56
Fig. 2.27. General view of the settlement and the tholos tombs around the harbour in the Pagasitic Gulf (photo by the author) 58
Fig. 2.28. The renewal plan for the coastline in the Volos harbour (plan by Th. Makri- Skotinioti) 59
Fig. 3.1. The fragmentary base of an in-and-out bowl from Bramiana, no. BR 10. Date: MM III-LM IA (drawing by L. Bonga, F.S.C. Hsu, P. Betancourt. Scale 1: 3) 65
Fig. 3.2. Vessels from MM III-LM IA. a, In-and-out bowl from Bramiana, no. BR 6. b, Cup from the Pelekita Cave, no. PC 61. c, In-and-out bowl from Priniatikos Pyrgos, no. Penn MS 4489. d, Cup from Priniatikos Pyrgos, no. Penn MS 4482.μ (drawings by L. Bonga (a, b) and P. Betancourt (c, d). Scale 1: 3) 66
Fig. 4.1. Spouted jug no. 8960 from Akrotiri, Thera (after Papagiannopoulou 2008b: 442, fig. 40.20) 70
Fig. 4.2. Cylinder seal from Palaikastro (CMSII 3, no. 279; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 70
Fig. 4.3. Signet-ring from Tiryns (after CMS I, no. 179; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 70
Fig. 4.4. Pithos no. 8885 from Akrotiri, Thera (after Papagiannopoulou 2008b: 437, fig. 40.8) 72
Fig. 4.5. Bathtub no. 8886 from Akrotiri, Thera (after Vlachopoulos 2015: 55, fig. 13b) 72
Fig. 4.6. ‘Antelope Fresco’ from Beta 1, Akrotiri, Thera (after Doumas 1992: 117, fig. 83) 73
Fig. 4.7. Seal image from Haghia Triada (CMS II 6, no. 71; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 73
Fig. 4.8. Seal image from Kato Zakros (CMS II 7, no. 62; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 74
Fig. 4.9. Mural painting from the ‘House of the Frescoes’, Knossos. Detail drawing by M.A.S. Cameron (after Evely 1999: 235, fig. 76) 75
Fig. 4.10. ‘Monkey Fresco’ from Beta 6, Akrotiri, Thera (after Doumas 1992: 120, fig. 85) 75
Fig. 4.11. Mural painting from Xesté 3, Akrotiri, Thera (after Doumas 1992: 149, fig. 113) 76
Fig. 4.12. Gold plates of a wooden pyxis from shaft grave V, Mycenae (after Marinatos & Hirmer 1973: pl. 220 above) 77
Fig. 4.13. Seal image from Kato Zakros (CMS II 7, no. 71; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 77
Fig. 4.14. Stone relief stele from shaft grave Gamma, Mycenae (after Blakolmer 2007b: 69, fig. 7) 78
Fig. 4.15. Seal image from Myrtos-Pyrgos; turned 90° to the left (CMS II 6, no. 233; courtesy of the CMS Heidelberg) 78
Fig. 4.16. Stone relief stele from shaft grave V, Mycenae (after Marinatos & Hirmer 1973: pl. 169) 79
Fig. 5.1. Map of Eastern Boeotia (EBAP Excavations) 85
Fig. 5.2. Ancient Eleon, aerial photograph of Northwest complex (EBAP Excavations) 86
Fig. 5.3. Plan of ancient Eleon, 2015 (G. Bianco) 88
Fig. 5.4. Steatite jewellery mould (B. Burke) 89
Fig. 5.5. Drawing steatite jewelery mould (T. Ross) 89
Fig. 6.1. Plan of Tsoungiza showing locations of LH IIIB2 and later remains at asterisks (W. Payne, J. Pfaff, M. Dabney) 97
Fig. 6.2. Group B deep bowl from above EU 3 exterior surface floor 3 (401-2-2) (J. Pfaff, T. Ross) 98
Fig. 6.3. Group B deep bowl from EU 8 Pit 3 (1338-2-21) (M. Dabney, T. Ross) 99
Fig. 6.4. Linear basin from EU 8 Pit 3 (1338-2-29) (B. Konnemann, T. Ross) 99
Fig. 6.5. Linear basin from EU 8 Pit 3 (1338-2-49) (B. Konnemann, T. Ross) 99
Fig. 6.6. Small bowl with linear decoration from EU 8 Pit 3 (1338-2-36) (B. Konnemann, T. Ross) 99
Fig. 6.7. Rosette-type deep bowl from plow zone over EU 8 pits 1-4 (1302-2-3) (J. Pfaff, N. Wright) 100
Fig. 6.8. Group A deep bowl decorated with stemmed spirals with crosshatched centres from plow zone over EU 8 pits 1-4 (1302-2-4) (J. Pfaff, N. Wright) 100
Fig. 6.9. Group B deep bowl from plow zone over EU 2 (201-2-1) (J. Pfaff) 100
Fig. 6.10. Group B deep bowl from plow zone over EU 7 (1101-2-1) (J. Pfaff, T. Ross) 100
Fig. 6.11. Krater with pendant triangular patch of joining semicircles from University of California at Berkeley trench DDD22 (46-2-17) (M. Dabney, T. Ross) 101
Fig. 6.12. Rosette-type deep bowl from University of California at Berkeley trench DDD22 (46-2-18) (B. Konnemann, T. Ross) 101
Fig. 6.13. Group B deep bowl from University of California at Berkeley trench DDD22 (46-2-21) (B. Konnemann, T. Ross) 101
Fig. 6.14. Group A deep bowl with solidly painted interior from EU 9 floor 1 (1520-2-9) (J. Pfaff, T. Ross) 102
Fig. 6.15. Deep bowl with solidly painted interior from EU 9 floor 1 (1520-2-1) (J. Pfaff) 102
Fig. 6.16. Rosette-type deep bowl from EU 9 space 8 (1519-2-3) (J. Pfaff) 103
Fig. 6.17. Group A deep bowl with solidly painted interior from EU 9 space 8 (1509-2-1) (J. Pfaff) 103
Fig. 6.18. Group A deep bowl with solidly painted interior from EU 9 space 8 (1517-2-3) (J. Pfaff) 103
Fig. 6.19. Amphoriskos from EU 9 space 8 (1519-2-2) (J. Pfaff) 103
Fig. 6.20. Deep semiglobular cup with dotted rim from EU 9 wall 3 destruction debris in space 8 (1521- 2-1) (J. Pfaff) 104
Fig. 6.21. Krater with broad wavy line from EU 9 space I fill (1606-2-2) (J. Pfaff) 104
Fig. 6.22. Medium-band deep bowl from plow zone over EU 9 (1515-2-1) (J. Pfaff) 104
Fig. 6.23. Medium-band deep bowl from plow zone over EU 9 (1560-2-2) (J. Pfaff) 105
Fig. 6.24. Deep bowl with solidly painted interior from EU 10 walls 1, 3, and 4 destruction debris (1757-2-4) (J. Pfaff) 105
Fig. 7.1. Brussels Goblet: Lion side (photo by R. Pessemier ©RMAH, n° 15RA151233 A.2249) 110
Fig. 7.2. Brussels Goblet: Deer side (photo by R. Pessemier ©RMAH, n° 15RA151913 A.2249) 111
Fig. 7.3. Brussels Goblet: Rivet holes (photo by R. Pessemier ©RMAH, n° 15RA163404 A.2249) 111
Fig. 7.4. Brussels Goblet: inside basin (photo by R. Pessemier ©RMAH, n° 15RA161215 A.2249) 112
Fig. 7.5. Brussels Goblet: detail of foot and stem (photo by R. Pessemier ©RMAH, n° 15RA163315 A.2249) 112
Fig. 7.6. Brussels Goblet: sketch by F. Cumont in a letter of July 13, 1921 to J. Capart (photo author) 113
Fig. 7.7. Brussels Goblet and roll-out of scene (drawing by Gregory Hardy) 114
Fig. 7.8. Map of Argolid (after Hope Simpson 1965: fig. I, with Berbaka modified in Merbaka) 121
Fig. 8.1. Map of Cyprus showing sites mentioned in the text and distribution of cylinder-seal impressions on storage vessels (digital data courtesy of the Cyprus Department of Geological Survey, map drafted by the author) 126
Fig. 8.2. Ground-plan of Maa-Palaeokastro, Floor II (after Karageorghis & Demas 1988: fig. 2) 127
Fig. 8.3. Drawing of the relief-frieze produced by cylinder-seal A, depicting a chariot hunt (after Porada 1988: pl. B: 3) 129
Fig. 8.4. Drawing of the relief-frieze produced by cylinder-seal B, depicting goats feeding from tree (after Porada 1988: pl. E: 3) 129
Tab. 8.1. Catalogue of the cylinder-seal impressions on storage vessels from Maa-Palaeokastro 131
Fig. 8.5. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting a chariot hunt (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 109) 132
Fig. 8.6. Detail of fig. 8.5 132
Fig. 8.7. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting a chariot hunt (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 299A) 132
Fig. 8.8. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting goats feeding from tree (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: No. 410) 133
Fig. 8.9. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting goats feeding from tree (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 484) 133
Fig. 8.10. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting goats feeding from tree (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 534) 133
Fig. 8.11. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting goats feeding from tree (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 570) 134
Fig. 8.12. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting goats feeding from tree (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 624) 134
Fig. 8.13. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting a chariot hunt (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 683) 134
Fig. 8.14. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Maa-Palaeokastro depicting a chariot hunt (photo by the author; Karageorghis & Demas 1988: N° 684) 135
Fig. 8.15. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Alassa depicting a human figure slaying a griffin (after Hadjisavvas 2001: fig. 5a) 136
Fig. 8.16. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Alassa depicting a human figure stabbing a lion (after Hadjisavvas 2001: fig. 5b) 136
Fig. 8.17. Cylinder-seal impressed pithos fragment from Enkomi depicting a human figure separating a pair of fighting bulls (after Caubet et alii 1987: pl 14: 2) 137
Fig. 9.1. Map of Early Philistine Sites and Cypriot Sites Mentioned in the Text (map by J. Rosenberg) 146
Fig. 9.2. Tell es-Safi/Gath ostracon bearing inscription ALWT and WLT, Late Iron I/Early Iron II (courtesy of the Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project) 149
Fig. 9.3. Tell es-Safi/Gath ivory bowl, Late Bronze Age, photographs and drawings (courtesy of the Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project) 151
Fig. 10.1. Map of Troezenia with the locations of excavated ancient sites: 1. Megali Magoula. 2.
Apatheia. 3. Historic Troezen. 4. Haghios Konstantinos (map of the Hellenic Military
Geographical Service 1: 50 000)
157
Fig. 10.2. Rump of wheel-made bovid figure, left side 158
Fig. 10.3. Rump of wheel-made bovid figure, rear side 159
Fig. 10.4. Leg of bovid figure 159
Fig. 10.5. Hom of bovid figure 159
Fig. 10.6. Coil-made bovine with mouth orifice 160
Fig. 10.7. Solid-made bovid figurine 161
Fig. 10.8. Kourotrophos figurine, frontal view 162
Fig. 10.9. Kourotrophos figurine, back view 162
Fig. 10.10. Head of female figurine and torso of proto-Phi 163
Fig. 10.11. Cist-grave in Room C at Haghios Konstantinos 164
Fig. 10.12. Phi type figurine, frontal view 164
Fig. 10.13. Phi type figurine, side view 165
Fig. 10.14. Psi type figurine, frontal view 165
Fig. 10.15. Psi type figurine, side view 166
Fig. 11.1. Plan of the North sector of Haghia Triada, including the Villaggio and the Agora (B. Salmeri; after Privitera 2015 a: fig. 3) 172
Fig. 11.2. Restored view of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente in LM IIIB (A. D’Amico, L.
Coluccia & S. Privitera; after Privitera 2015a: fig. 33)
173
Fig. 11.3. Plan of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente with indication of different building phases (S. Privitera) 174
Fig. 11.4. Reconstruction of space A, with schematic depiction of the wall-paintings on both the east and south walls, from the north-west (L. Coluccia; after Privitera 2015a: fig. 29). 176
Fig. 11.5. Fragments of panel representing a woman leading a deer to an altar (photo S. Privitera; after Privitera 2015a: fig. 27) 176
Fig. 11.6. Watercolour by E. Stefani representing the right part of the panel with the ‘Great Procession’ (after Militello 1998) 177
Fig. 11.7. Lyre-player and woman carrying baskets, depicted on the Painted Sarcophagus of Haghia Triada (photo: S. Privitera) 177
Fig. 11.8. First building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 179
Fig. 11.9. Second building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 179
Fig. 11.10. Third building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 180
Fig. 11.11. Fourth building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 181
Fig. 11.12. Fifth building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 183
Fig. 11.13. Sixth building phase of the Casa dei Vani Aggiunti Progressivamente 184
Fig. 11.14. Qualitative properties of the first phase 186
Tab. 11.1. Quantitative properties of the first phase 186
Fig. 11.15. Visual properties of the first phase 187
Fig. 11.16. Qualitative properties of the second phase 188
Tab. 11.2. Quantitative properties of the second phase (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 188
Fig. 11.17. Visual properties of the second phase 188
Fig. 11.18. Qualitative properties of the third phase 189
Tab. 11.3. Quantitative properties of the third phase (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 190
Fig. 11.19. Visual properties of the third phase 190
Fig. 11.20. Qualitative properties of the fourth phase and four bis (the grey link represents phase four bis) 191
Tab. 11.4. Quantitative properties of the fourth phase (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 191
Tab. 11.5. Quantitative properties of phase four bis (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 192
Fig. 11.21. Visual properties of the fourth phase 192
Fig. 11.22. Visual properties of phase four bis 193
Fig. 11.23. Qualitative properties of the fifth phase 194
Tab. 11.6. Quantitative properties of the fifth phase (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 194
Fig. 11.24. Visual properties of the fifth phase 195
Fig. 11.25. Qualitative properties of (a) sixth phase and (b) sixth phase without opening into precinct W 196
Tab. 11.7. Quantitative properties of the sixth phase (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 196
Tab. 11.8. Quantitative properties of the sixth phase without opening into precinct W (higher values in bold; lower values in italic) 197
Fig. 11.26. Visual properties of the sixth phase 197
Fig. 12.1. Tiryns, plan with excavations in the Northern Lower Town (graphics: M. Kostoula) 203
Fig. 12.2. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Aerial photography of the excavated structures (photography: N.E. Maniadakis [AIRmania]) 205
Fig. 12.3. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Architectural remains of the first building horizon, younger subphase (photography: N.E. Maniadakis [AIRmania], amended by M. Kostoula) 207
Fig. 12.4. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Room with stone bases (white arrows) for wooden columns, first building horizon (photography: N.E. Maniadakis [AIRmania], amended by M. Kostoula) 208
Fig. 12.5. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Fragment of sawn stone block reused in Room 4/14, first building horizon, and Early Iron Age wall and graves (photography: J. Maran) 209
Fig. 12.6. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Fragment of sawn stone bloc (photography: M. Kostoula) 209
Fig. 12.7. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Ashlar block with mason’s mark reused as a column base, first building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 210
Fig. 12.8. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Ashlar block with mason’s mark (photography: M. Kostoula) 210
Fig. 12.9. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Destruction deposit in Courtyard 2/15, end of first building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 211
Fig. 12.10. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Ring-based krater from destruction deposit in Courtyard 2/15, end of first building horizon (photography: M. Kostoula) 211
Fig. 12.11. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Carinated ring-based krater from destruction deposit in Courtyard 2/15, end of first building horizon (photography: M. Kostoula) 212
Fig. 12.12. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Cup of the Handmade Burnished Ware from destruction deposit in Courtyard 2/15, end of first building horizon (photography: M. Kostoula) 212
Fig. 12.13. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Stone slab with antler and crushed kylix from destruction deposit in the backyard to the north of Courtyard 2/15, end of first building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 213
Fig. 12.14. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Architectural remains of the second building horizon (photography: N.E. Maniadakis [AIRmania], amended by M. Kostoula) 214
Fig. 12.15. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Remains of three ovens, second building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 215
Fig. 12.16. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Deposition of five ky likes in remains of oven, second building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 216
Fig. 12.17. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2015: Five kylikes from the deposition inside the oven remains, second building horizon (photography: M. Kostoula) 216
Fig. 12.18. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2014: Fragments of intentionally broken rhyton-jug in situ, second building horizon (photography: J. Maran) 217
Fig. 12.19. Tiryns, NW Lower Town 2014: Rhyton-jug with handle (to the left of vessel) (photography: M. Kostoula) 218
Fig. 13.1. Gold foil figure of women with elaborate dress (after Laffineur 2012: pl. IIc) 222
Fig. 13.2. Spirals on gold bracelet from Troy (with kind permission of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, for non-commercial purposes [http://www.arts-museum.ru/data/fonds/ancient_ world/aar/0001-1000/aar 122 braslet/index.php?lang=en & coll=9408]) 224
Fig. 13.3. Drawing of how to make a braided cord of eight strands. The same technique is used for strands of fibre and of metal (drawing: Joy Boutrup; with kind permission of Joy Boutrup) 225
Fig. 13.4. The Troy earrings, beautifully worn by Sophia Schliemann (from Creative Commons https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sophia schliemann treasure.jpg) 226
Fig. 13.5. Troy earrings (with kind permission of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, for non-commercial purposes [http://www.arts-museum.ru/data/fonds/ancient_world/aar/0001-1000/ aar 12 serga/index.php?lang=en & coll=9408]) 226
Fig. 13.6. Poliochni earrings dated 2300 BC (with kind permission of the Penn Museum) 226
Fig. 13.7. a-b: Wool Tassels of the costume in the Bronze Age female grave of Borum Eshøj, Denmark, dated ca. 1350 BC (A. Drawing from Broholm & Hald 1935. B. Photograph by Roberto Fortuna, with kind permission of the National Museum of Denmark) 227
Fig. 13.8. a-d: Examples of modem tablet-woven bands or bands woven with a rigid heddle (produced by the students [including the author] at a workshop run by Agata Ulanowska, University of Warsaw. Photos kindly provided by Agata Ulanowska) 227
Fig. 13.9. Golden head coverings of the treasure of Troy (with kind permission of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, for non-commercial purposes [http://www.arts-museum.ru/data/fonds/ ancient_world/aar/0001-1000/aar 10 small diadem/index.php?lang=en & coll=9408]) 228
Fig. 13.10. Set-up warp of a Roman Iron Age bog find from Tegle, Norway (with kind permission from Museum of Archaeology University of Stavanger) 228
Fig. 13.11. Fragmented blade of a dagger with inlaid gold axes. from Thera, dated LH I (drawing by Poul Wöhliche in Dietz et alii 2015: 23 no. 17, pl. 4. National Museum of Denmark, with kind permission) 230
Fig. 14.1. St. Clement lancet window, University of the South, All Saints’ Chapel, Sewanee, Tennessee (photo by Buck Butler, the University of the South) 236
Fig. 14.2. Close up of area around the feet of St. Clement (photo by Buck Butler, the University of the South) 236
Fig. 14.3. Close up of the inscribed stirrup jar in left diamond-shaped section of the Sewanee lancet window (photo by Buck Butler, the University of the South) 237
Fig. 14.4. Photograph ofTl Z 1 (after Matz 1956b: plate 113) 238
Fig. 14.5. Close up of the inscribed tablet in right diamond-shaped section of the Sewanee lancet window (photo by Buck Butler, the University of the South) 238
Fig. 14.6. Drawing of KN V 831 (after Evans 1935: 699, fig. 683) 239
Fig. 14.7. Kurt Müller’s spoof drawing of a part of KN V 831 as a tablet find from Herculaneum (after Waterhouse 1986: 156) 241
Fig. 14.8. Photograph of KN V 831, then identified simply as Large Tablet with Linear Script (after Evans 1899-1900: plate II facing p. 56) 241
Fig. 15.1. Rhomboid accessory NAM 346: the gold leaf, the worn bone core and a section of the core with the torus base (photo: National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece; drawing: Akis
Goumas)
247
Fig. 15.2. Rhomboid accessory NAM 669A, front and back side (photo: National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece) 247
Fig. 15.3. Rhomboid accessory NAM 669B, front and back side (photo: National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece) 247
Fig. 15.4. Microscopic views of the gold surface of NAM 669A (left) and the bone core of NAM 346 (right) (photos by the authors) 249
Fig. 15.5. Microscopic views of NAM 669A, showing irregularities in the outline of circular motifs (left) and in the curving ends of spirals (right) (photos by the authors) 249
Fig. 15.6. Microscopic views of the gold surface of NAM 669A (left) and the underside of NAM 346 (right), showing irregularities in the lines which connect confronting arcs (photos by the author s) 250
Fig. 15.7. Microscopic views of the back side of NAM 346 (left) and NAM 669A (right), showing the folding of the gold sheet (photos by the authors) 250
Fig. 15.8. Microscopic view of NAM 669A showing shallow parallel lines on the gold surface, possibly caused by the final polishing process (photo by the authors) 251
Fig. 15.9. The tools used in the experiment (photo by the authors) 252
Fig. 15.10. The cutting of the bone with a bronze saw (photos by the authors) 252
Fig. 15.11. The transfer of the basic design from the clay plaque to the bone surface with the help of a bronze sheet (photos by the authors) 253
Fig. 15.12. The carving of the bone core with rotating devices featuring two parallel projecting points (photos by the authors) 253
Fig. 15.13. The carving of lines connecting confronting arcs with a pointed tool (photos by the authors) 254
Fig. 15.14. The carving of long straight lines using a graver with indentations (photos by the authors) 254
Fig. 15.15. The carving of spiral ends (left) and the sharpening of the background (right) with a pointed tool (photos by the authors) 254
Fig. 15.16. Cutting excess material with a bronze saw (left) and smoothening the surface with a grindstone (right) (photos by the authors) 255
Fig. 15.17. Scoring the gold sheet with a bronze graver (left) and cutting excess material with a bronze chisel (right) (photos by the authors) 255
Fig. 15.18. Placing the ornament in a clay depression and wrapping the gold sheet around the bone core (photos by the authors) 256
Fig. 15.19. The impression process: ‘reading’ the motifs (left), stretching the gold into the slots (middle) and polishing (right) (photos by the authors) 256
Fig. 15.20. Microscopic views of the central part of the gold surface in the modern replica (left) and on NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 257
Fig. 15.21. Microscopic views showing irregularities in the lines which connect circular motifs on the modern replica (left) and on NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 257
Fig. 15.22. Microscopic views showing irregularities in the curving lines which connect parallel contours of circles on the modern replica (left) and on NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 257
Fig. 15.23. Microscopic views showing irregularities in the outline of circular motifs on the modern replica (left) and on NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 258
Fig. 15.24. Microscopic views showing the morphology of the long straight lines of the lozenge on the modern replica (left) and on NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 258
Fig. 15.25. Microscopic views of the underside of the modern replica (left) and of NAM 669A (right) (photos by the authors) 258
Fig. 15.26. Suggested stages of manufacture for a rhomboid accessory (drawings by Akis Goumas) 260
Fig. 15.27. The motif drawing process (drawings by Akis Goumas) 261
Fig. 16.1. Jug with human head from Mycenae (NAM 1249) 264
Fig. 16.2. Jug with human head from Mycenae (NAM 1249) 264
Fig. 16.3. Jug with human head from Mycenae, drawing 264
Fig. 16.4. Excerpt from Stamatakis’ diary during Schliemann’s excavations at Mycenae 265
Fig. 16.5. Jug with human head from Mycenae, Granary (NAM 6245) 266
Fig. 16.6. Jug with human head from Mycenae, Granary (NAM 6245) 266
Fig. 16.7. Jug with human head from Mycenae, Granary, drawing 267
Fig. 16.8. Ring Vase from Mycenae, NAM 5427 268
Fig. 16.9. Ring Vase from Mycenae, NAM 5427 268
Fig. 16.10. Ring Vase from Mycenae, drawing 268
Fig. 16.11. Ring Vase from Mycenae, drawing 269
Fig. 16.12. Ring vase from Mycenae, detail: the snake’s head 269
Fig. 16.13. Ring vases from Mycenae, NAM 9877, 9878 270
Fig. 16.14. Miniature conical rhyton from Mycenae, NAM 2691 271
Fig. 16.15. Miniature conical rhyton from Mycenae, drawing 271
Fig. 17.1. The gold pendant from Aspis Argos (photo R. Prévalet) 275
Fig. 17.2. Topographic plan of the Aspis hilltop with excavated MH settlement remains (EFA, L. Fadin) 276
Fig. 17.3. Plan of the North sector. The red star indicates the place of discovery of the gold pendant (EFA, W. Philippa) 276
Tab. 17.1. Quantitative elemental analysis 277
Fig. 17.4. Gold pendants from Mochlos (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, after Demopoulou-Rethemiotaki 2005: 59) 278
Fig. 17.5. Gold pendants from Sphoungaras (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, after Demopoulou-Rethemiotaki 2005: 59) 279
Fig. 17.6. Gold strip from Tsepi Marathon (Archaeological Museum of Marathon, courtesy M. Pantelidou-Gofa) 279
Fig. 17.7. Gold diadem from the Thyreatis Treasure (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) 279
Fig. 17.8. Gold pendants from Malia (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, after Demopoulou-Rethemiotaki 2005: 326) 280
Fig. 17.9. Gold diadem from Keos (after Overbeck 1989, courtesy of the Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati) 280
Fig. 17.10. Gold diadem from Warrior’s Grave of Aegina (lost, after Hiller 2009: fig. 135) 281
Fig. 17.11. Gold diadems from the Aegina Treasure (British Museum, after Fitton 2009: fig. 66) 281
Fig. 17.12. Gold diadem from Asine (Archaeological Museum of Nauplion, photo by the authors) 281
Fig. 17.13. Gold diadem from Corinth (Archaeological Museum of Corinth, courtesy ASCSA) 281
Fig. 17.14. Gold diadem from Argos (Archaeological Museum of Argos, courtesy of the Ephorate of Antiquities of Argolid, photo by G. Touchais) 282
Fig. 17.15. Triangular gold pendants from Mochlos (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, photo by the authors) 283
Fig. 17.16. Gold pendant from Trapeza (courtesy of the Archaeological Museum of Herakleion) 283
Fig. 17.17. Gold pendant from Archanes (courtesy of the Archaeological Museum of Herakleion) 283
Fig. 17.18. Gold pendant from Haghia Triada (courtesy of the Archaeological Museum of Herakleion) 283
Fig. 17.19. The gold pendant from Aspis Argos (Archaeological Museum of Argos, photo Ph. Collet, EFA) 284
Fig. 17.20. Gold pendants from the diadem of the Thyreatis Treasure (after Reinholdt 1993: fig. 9) 284
Fig. 17.21. Bronze cosmetic scraper (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, photo by the authors) 284
Fig. 17.22. Pendants from the Aegina Treasure with long suspension stem (after Fitton 2009: fig. 12) 285
Fig. 17.23. Gold pendant from Kythera (courtesy of the National Archaeological Museum) 285
Fig. 17.24. Loop-in-loop chain from Malia (Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, after Demopoulou-Rethemiotaki 2005: 326) 286
Fig. 17.25. Loop-in-loop chain from the Aegina Treasure (after Fitton 2009: fig. 53) 286
Fig. 17.26. Gold band with rhomboid pendants, Grave Circle A (courtesy of the National Archaeological Museum) 287
Fig. 17.27. Gold pendants suspended from chains, Grave Circle A (courtesy of the National Archaeological Museum) 287
Fig. 17.28. Aegina Treasure, detail of diadem (after Fitton 2009: fig. 67) 288
Fig. 18.1. Stirrup jar with bull protomes from Klavdhia (GR 1899.1229.117, AN512579001) (courtesy of the British Museum) 297
Fig. 18.2. Shallow bowl with bull protomes from Klavdhia (GR 1899.1229.124, AN847358001) (courtesy of the British Museum) 297
Fig. 18.3. Trefoil-mouthed jug with bull protomes from Hala Sultan Tekke (GR 1898.121.227, AN927226001) (courtesy of the British Museum) 298
Fig. 18.4. Map of south-east Cyprus (drawn by Jan Coenaerts) 301
Fig. 19.1. Map of Marathon (by the authors) 305
Fig. 19.2. Plan of the old excavations at Plasi (after Travlos 1988: fig. 272) 307
Fig. 19.3. The MH megaron, from the east (photo by the authors) 308
Fig. 19.4. MH II pottery from the megaron (drawings by Anthi Balitsari) 308
Fig. 19.5. The MH ceramic kiln (photo by the authors) 309
Fig. 19.6. The fortification wall (photo by the authors) 309
Fig. 19.7. The MH III/LH I grave before and after the removal of the covering slabs (photos by the authors ) 310
Fig. 19.8. Vases from the MH III/LH I grave (photos by the authors) 311
Fig. 19.9. Fine and standard pottery of LH I-II and LH IIIA-B date (photos by the authors) 312
Fig. 19.10. LH IIIA-B kylikes (photos by the authors) 313
Fig. 19.11. LH 111C late bowl (photo by the authors) 313
Fig. 20.1. Plan of Petsas House, 2013 (N. Mitrovgeni & G.C. Price) 318
Fig. 20.2. Miniature Goblet (05/<7>17266, BE 32409), Room Sigma, burial 319
Fig. 20.3. Decorated stirrup jars in proportional scales, Room Alpha 320
Fig. 20.4. Undecorated carinated kylix fragment with fingerprints in paint (06/(280)16589, BE 37594) 321
Fig. 20.5. Middle Terrace, view from east with Room Pi and well in left foreground 322
Fig. 20.6. Carinated kylikes, Room Pi, well deposit 323
Fig. 20.7. Piriform jars from Room A (50A<10>BE 150) and Room Pi, well deposit (06/<240>16627, BE 38345) 323
Fig. 20.8. Phi type figurines, Room Gamma (by J. Tseng) 324
Fig. 21.1. Senmut’s ‘Keftiu’ cup with bulls’ heads (after facsimile by Nina de Garis Davies, MMA 30.4.49, www.metmuseum.org) 327
Fig. 21.2. Malkata Palace, Amenhotep Ill’s robing room ceiling, New York, MMA (photo author) 328
Fig. 21.3. ‘Keftiu’ cups in Theban tombs (courtesy of Dagmar Kubat 2012: 230, Table I, after Laboury 1990: pl. XXV) 329
Fig. 21.4. Senmut’s wall, Hay’s sketch ca. 1837 (courtesy of Uroš Matić 2015: 40, fig. I, after H. R.
Hall, Civilization of Greece in the Bronze Age, 1928, 199)
330
Fig. 21.5. Senmut’s wall, Mond’s photograph early 20th century (after Hall: 1909-1910, Frontispiece) 330
Fig. 21.6. Senmut’s wall, Dorman’s photograph ca. 1990 (after Dorman 1991: pl. 21d) 330
Fig. 21.7. Senmut’s spiral cup (after facsimile by Nina de Garis Davies, MMA 30.4.49, www. metmuseum.org) 331
Fig. 21.8. Mycenae, Shaft Grave V, gold cup with spirals (after Kubat 2012: fig. 29 with permission) 331
Fig. 21.9. Vaphio Tholos, gold cups (Zde 080873, commons.wikimedia.org) 332
Fig. 21.10. Dendra Tholos, silver cup (after Xénaki-Sakellariou 1989: pl. XI, 1) 332
Fig. 21.11. Enkomi, silver cup (after Xénaki-Sakellariou 1989: pl. X, 3) 332
Fig. 21.12. London cup, unrestored (after Åström 1972: 51 above) 333
Fig. 21.13. London cup, unrestored (after Åström 1972: 51 below) 334
Fig. 21.14. London cup, restored (after Davis 1977: fig. 96) 334
Fig. 21.15. Aström and Verdelis at Dendra, chamber tomb 12 (after Åström 1972: 47) 335
Fig. 21.16. Nauplion fragments (after Verdelis in Åström 1977: pl. IX, 1-2) 336
Fig. 21.17. Nauplion fragments, Verdelis’ reconstruction (after Verdelis in Åström 1977: pl. IX, 3) 337
Fig. 21.18. Diagram of triple-layered wall construction (after Davis 1977: fig. 213) 338
Fig. 21.19. Nauplion fragments, Davis’ new reconstruction (after Davis 1977: fig. 211) 339
Fig. 21.20. Nauplion, all fragments (modified by author after Xénaki-Sakellariou 1989: pl. XIII, 1,2,3) 340
Fig. 21.21. Piece 8, Nauplion Museum (after Xénaki-Sakellariou 1989: pl. XIII, 3) 341
Fig. 21.22. Nauplion Archaeological Museum, Cuirass Tomb, 2015 (courtesy of Dimitri Laboury) 343
Fig. 21.23. Nauplion Archaeological Museum, Cuirass Tomb, restored inlaid cup (see n. 22) 344
Fig. 21.24. Nauplion Archaeological Museum, Cuirass Tomb, restored inlaid cup (see n. 22) 344
Fig. 21.25. Nauplion Archaeological Museum, Cuirass Tomb, restored inlaid cup (see n. 22) 344
Fig. 22.1. The Mycenaean Mediterranean as indicated by the presence of Mycenaean type pottery, ca. 1600-1100 BC 350
Fig. 22.2. Fragment of LH I-II alabastron, Lipari, Italy. Lipari, Archaeological Museum ‘L. Bernabò Brea’ inv. No. 9320 (after Stampolidis 2003: cat no. 202) 352
Fig. 22.3. Egyptian alabaster vase from the LH I-II tholos tomb at Vapheio, laconia. Athens Archaeological Museum inv. No. 1890 (after Stampolidis 2003: cat no. 642) 352
Fig. 22.4. Canaanite Amphora from the tholos tomb at Menidhi, Attica, Greece. National Archaeological Museum at Athens, inv. no. 2016 (after Stampolidis 2003: cat no. 202) 354
Fig. 22.5. LH IIIB shallow bowl (FS 296) from tomb A5 at Klavdia on Cyprus. British Museum, no. 1899, 1299.125 (courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 355
Fig. 22.6. Hand-Made Burnished jar with plastic cordon from Korakou (Dartmouth Classics department) 357
Fig. 22.7. A small sword of Naue type II from British tomb 47 at Enkomi. British Museum, no. 1897 0401.963 (courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 357
Fig. 24.1. ‘Ashdoda’ figurine from Ashdod (after Yasur-Landau 2001: pl. XCIXa), Ekron and Ashkelon (after Ben Shlomo 2010: fig. 3.10) (courtesy of Dr. David Ben Shlomo) 380
Fig. 24.2. Representations of ‘Ibex and Palm Tree’ on Bronze Age pottery from Lachish (1-3) and Megiddo (4) (after Yasur-Landau 2008: fig. 2: 1-5) 381
Fig. 24.3. Representations of birds on Philistine pottery from Ekron, Ashkelon and Ashdod (after Yasur-Landau 2009: fig. 2) 382
Fig. 24.4. Palm tree decoration on Aegean-style kraters from Ekron and Azor (after Ben-Shlomo 2010: fig. 87: 1-3) (courtesy of Dr. David Ben Shlomo) 383
Fig. 24.5. The ‘Naos’ from Tel Qasile (after Mazar 1980: fig. 20) (courtesy of Prof. Amihai Mazar) 384
Fig. 24.6. A bird-shaped offering bowl and a cultic jar decorated with a palm tree from the Tel Qasile temple (after Mazar 2000: fig. 11.6: A, C) (courtesy of Prof. Amihai Mazar) 385
Fig. 24.7. Two goddesses on two of the stands from Yavneh (after Ziffer & Kletter 2007: 60) (courtesy of Dr. Irit Ziffer. Photo by Leonid Padrul-Kwitskowski) 386
Fig. 24.8. An Assyrian relief from the south-west palace at Nimrud from the days of Tiglath Pileser III (Ben Shlomo 2010: fig. 3.51) (courtesy of Dr. David Ben Shlomo) 387
Fig. 25.1. Plan of the Gournia Megaron (adapted by the author from Fotou 1993: plan B) 391
Fig. 25.2. Abbreviated plan of the Mycenaean palace at Pylos (adapted by the author from Blegen & Rawson 1996: vol. I: end plan) 392
Fig. 25.3. Plan of the Pylos central megaron (adapted by the author from fig. 25.2) 392
Fig. 25.4. Plans adapted by the author of the Menelaion Mansion and the Phylakopi megaron (phase 4, LH IIIA), both at the same scale 393
Fig. 25.5. Plans adapted by the author of Plati and of Dimini Megaron A (both to the same scale as Fig. 25.4) 394
Fig. 25.6. Plan of Gla (adapted by the author from Iakovidis 1983: 99, fig. 19) 395
Fig. 25.7. Plan of Gla (adapted from Fig. 25.6), the two wings separated and placed side by side 395

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