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Crisis to Collapse

Tim Cunningham
Jan Driessen

Table des matières

Tim Cunningham

1. Introduction

I. Overture

Felix Riede, Gerald Oetelaar et Richard VanderHoek

2. From Crisis to Collapse in Hunter-Gatherer Societies

A Comparative Investigation of the Cultural Impacts of three Large Volcanic Eruptions on Past Hunter-Gatherers

1. Vulnerability, Resilience and Eventful/Punctuated Societal Change - a Theoretical Framework
2. Case Studies and Volcanic Impacts
2.1. The Aniakchak Eruption
2.2. The Mazama Eruption
2.3. The Laacher See Eruption
Concluding remarks

II. From Epistemology to Ontology : the Paradigm of the Lost Civilisation

Cameron A. Petrie

3. Crisis, what Crisis ?

Adaptation, Resilience and Transformation in the Indus Civilisation

1. ‘From Crisis to Collapse’ or ‘Transformation’
2. Archaeological Evidence of the Origins, Floruit and Decline of Indus Urbanism
3. The Climate and Environment of the Indus Zone
4. Water Availability and Exploitation
5. Diversity and Adaptation, Intensification and Provisioning
6. Climate Change, Crisis and Transformation
Saro Wallace

4. The Classic Crisis ?

Some Features of Current Crisis Narratives for the Aegean Late Bronze-Early Iron Age

1. Background to Collapse : the Aegean and East Mediterranean 1300-1200 BC (Fig. 4.1)
2. Contrasting Experiences of/Responses to Crisis at Subregional Level
3. Modes of Social Adjustment
4. Collapse as Historical Reference Point
5. The Role of Movement
6. Aegean Collapse in a Wider Context
Guy D. Middleton

5. Reading the Thirteenth Century BC in Greece

Crisis, Decline, or Business as Usual ?

1. Narratives of Crisis and Decline
2. Trade
3. Linear B
4. Destructions and Architectural Changes
5. Crisis, Decline, or Business as Usual?
Svante Fischer et Lennart Lind

6. Late Roman Gaul - Survival Amidst Collapse ?

1. What is Collapse?
2. Did Rome collapse?
3. Causes of Collapse or Evidence for Decline?
4. The Impact of the Monetised Economy
5. The Role of Slavery
6. The Barbarians
7. Energy Consumption, Environment and Climate
8. Gaul as a Case Study - The Towns of Notitia Galliarum
9. The Monetised Economy of Gaul
10. The 3rd century Premonition of Collapse
11. Reform from Above
12. The Revival of Regional Identity in Gaul
13. The Gallo-Roman Elite
14. The Gallo-Roman Church
15. The New Fortifications - A New Mentality
16. The 5th Century Collapse of the Central Government in Gaul
Keir Strickland

7. The Collapse of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

A Crisis 1500 Years in the Making

1. The Mahavamsa
2. Environment
3. Anuradhapura
3.1. The Citadel
3.2. The Sacred City
3.3. The Hinterland
4. The Sangha
5. The Collapse

III. Ruin

Lorenzo Nigro

8. The End of the Early Bronze Age in the Southern Levant

Urban Crisis and Collapse seen from two 3rd Millennium BC-Cities : Tell esSultan/Jericho and Khirbet al-Batrawy

1. Tell es-Sultan/Jericho and 3rd millennium BC Urbanisation in Palestine
1.1. Urban Jericho - the First Stage: Early Bronze Age II (3000-2700 BC)
2. Batrawy on the Upper Wadiaz-Zarqa: Synoecism as an Urban Generating Model
3. Crisis and Recovery : The Passage from Early Bronze Age II to Early Bronze Age III
4. Urban Floruit, City Rank and Collapse: The Early Bronze Age III Period (2700-2300 BC)
5. The Two Cities during the Early Bronze III Period (2700-2300 BC)
5.1. Palace G in Jericho
5.2. The ‘Palace of the Copper Axes’ in Batrawy
6. Destroying the Palace - Annihilating the City: The End of the Urban Experience
7. The Destructions of Jericho and Batrawy in a Regional Historical Perspective
Igor Kreimerman

9. A Typology for Destruction Layers

The Late Bronze Age Southern Levant as a Case Study

1. Introduction
1.1. The Late Bronze Age Southern Levant
1.2. The Collapse of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean
2. A Typology for Destruction Layers
2.1. Defining Destruction Layers
2.2. Primary Correlates
2.2.1. De facto Refuse
2.2.2. Evidence for Conflagration
2.2.3. The Outcome of the Destructions
2.3. Secondary Correlates
2.3.1. Crisis Architecture and Termination Rituals
2.3.2. Presence of Long Range Weapons
2.3.3. Evidence for Earthquakes
2.3.4. Intentional Mutilation of Objects
2.4. Destruction Layers in their Geographic Context
3. The Destructions of the Late Bronze Age Southern Levant
3.1. Destruction Types that Appear in the Period
3.1.1. Type 1: Complete Burning of an Entire City
3.1.2. Type 2: Signs of Fire only in the Public Buildings
3.1.3. Type 3: Signs of Fire by the Fortifications
3.1.4. Type 4: No Signs of Fire
3.1.5. Other Destructions
3.2. Late Bronze Age IIA
3.3. Late Bronze Age IIB
3.4. Late Bronze Age III/Iron Age IA
4. Reconstruction of Historical Events
4.1. Literary Sources
4.2. Interpretation of the Destruction Types
4.3. The End of the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Levant - a Re-Evaluation
Megan Cifarelli

10. Archaeological Evidence for Small Scale Crisis

Hasanlu between Destructions

1. The Hasanlu Context
1.1. Historical Geography
1.2. The Development of the Site
2. Hasanlu Period IVb (1050-800 BC)
2.1. Signs of Crisis on the High Mound
2.2. Period IVB: A View from the Graves
2.2.1. Men’s Burials
2.2.2. Women’s Burials

IV. Modelling Climate and Reading Response

Bulent Arikan

11. Crisis in the Highlands

Agent-based Modelling of the Early Bronze Age I (ca. 4950-4700 BP). Socio-economic Transformations at Arslantepe (Eastern Anatolia)

1. Malatya-Elazig Plain
1.1. The Environment
1.2. Brief History of Arslantepe
2. Theoretical Background and Research Questions
2.1. Social Organisation, Crisis and Collapse
2.2. Research Questions
3. Research Methods
3.1. Macrophysical Climate Model (MCM)
3.2. Mediterranean Modelling Laboratory (MML)
4. Research Results
4.1. The Results of the Macrophysical Climate Model
4.2. The Results of Agent-based Modelling for Arslantepe
4.2.1. The Cumulative Impacts on the Landscape
4.2.2. Grazing Returns
4.2.3. Changes in Land Cover
4.2.4. Changes in the Rates of Erosion
4.2.5. Changes in Soil Depth
Christian Isendahl et Scott Heckbert

12. Pathways to Sustainable Development or Poverty

Water Security and Wealth in the Pre-Columbian Puuc-Nohkakab Maya Lowlands

1. Freshwater Security and Archaeology
2. Theoretical and Methodological Baseline
3. The Maya Lowlands
4. Water Security and Wealth in the Puuc-Nohkakab Maya Region
4.1. The Fertile Soilscape was a Potential Key Resource, but Water Scarcity Formed a Limiting Factor
4.2. The Solution to Water Scarcity was the Development of an Effective Water Management System Providing Freshwater Security
4.3. Developing the Water Management System was Linked to Increasing and Costly Regional Social Complexity and a Strategy of Agro-Economic Maximisation
4.4. As Regional Population Increased and Tributary Taxation on Labour and Surplus intensified, the Primary Resource Became Fully Exploited with Agro-Production at a High Level of Intensification, Producing a Situation where EROI Plummeted
4.5. The Elite Segments of Polities had locked into Dependency on Constant Growth and failed to adapt to Diminishing Returns, which led to Organisational Collapse and Abandonment of Centres
Timothy A. Kohler et R. Kyle Bocinsky

13. Crises as Opportunities for Culture Change

1. Estimating Size and Location of the Maize Dry-Farming Niche
2. Determining the Relationship Between Tree-Ring Dates and the Maize Dry-Farming Niche
3. Exploration vs. Exploitation
4. Crises as Opportunities for Culture Change

V. Metanarratives of Collapse

Miroslav Bárta

14. Temporary and Permanent

Status Race and the Mechanism of Change in a Complex Civilisation: Ancient Egypt in between 2900 and 2120 BC

1. Multiplier Effect and Punctuated Equilibria
2. Overview of the Punctuated Equilibria Periods
3. Noble Decline
4. Status Race Phenomenon
Stephen O’Brien

15. Boredom with the Apocalypse

Resilience, Regeneration, and their Consequences for Archaeological Interpretation

1. Overview of Resilience Theory
2. Resilience in the Aegean Bronze and Iron Ages
3. What Are the Politics of Boredom?
Patricia A. McAnany et Maxime Lamoureux-St-Hilaire

16. The Fragility of Political Experimentation from the Perspective of Classic Maya Cities

1. Movement of Rulers within the Nodal Network of Classic Maya Royal Courts
2. Archaeological Patterns and How ‘the Leaving’ Occurred
3. Terminating the Experiment of Classic Maya Royal Courts
4. Conclusions
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