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Roccagloriosa I

Maurizio Gualtieri
Helena Fracchia

Capitolo 9. Classi di materiali

H. Fracchia, A. Keith, P. Arthur, M. Gualtieri, M. Cipriani et R. R. Holloway

Note de l’auteur

Il capitolo sui materiali è stato curato da H. Fracchia, che è anche l'autrice delle parti riguardanti la Ceramica (Impasto, Ceramica a Bande, Ceramica a Figure Rosse, Ceramica a Vernice Nera, Complessi vari e, Pesi da telaio). A. Keith (Department of Classics, University of Toronto) ha redatto, unitamente a H. Fracchia la sezione sulla Ceramica grezza. P. Arthur (Direttore Scientifico, Progetto EUBEA, Napoli) ha curato lo studio delle anfore. M. Cipriani, Direttore, Soprintendenza Archeologica di Salerno, Ufficio Scavi di Paestum, ha analizzato l’evidenza delle terrecotte figurate. R. R. Holloway (Brown University, Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Providence, R.I., USA) è l’autore dello studio sulla monetazione. L’analisi delle altre classi di materiali (Terrecotte Architettoniche, Louteria, Macine, Vetro, Oggetti di Metallo) è di M. Gualtieri.
Per quanto riguarda il catalogo, il cerchietto vuoto (
) accanto al numero progressivo indica la presenza del disegno; il cerchietto pieno () quella della fotografia. Le date si intendono a.C. quando non venga indicato diversamente.

Texte intégral

1. Pottery

1All pottery excavated after 1981 has been quantified by ware, form and weight. All sherds with some distinguishing characteristic in form, decoration or clay color have been drawn and photographed: it is from those pieces that the selected entries of the various wares have been derived. In general, the material is very fragmentary, often the form is not clearly ascertainable and usually the paint or glaze has not been well preserved. Exceptions are noted in the descriptions. Even though the pieces are extremely fragmentary and therefore for the black-glaze wares the Morel criteria of various proportions cannot be applied, we have referred to Morel series types if they seem pertinent or indicative of a general date or trend. In addition to the entries for known or recognized forms, additional documentation necessary for the dating of layers has been included for some of the wares such as the banded wares. We want to emphasize that in the local production at Roccagloriosa the same form was often produced in a variety of sizes and thus the entries for the individual forms include the range of dimensions in which that form is found at the site as well as the range of clay colors in which the form was produced. All measurements are in centimeters. The numbers in parentheses refer to some of the significant layers in which the form is found: a synoptic concordance at the end of each type lists the entry and a selection of inventory numbers for that form which are usually the best preserved examples.

2The chronology of the Roccagloriosa pottery is obscured by the brief chronological arc of the settlement, by the geological situation at the site (see chap. 1), and by the inconsistencies in the local production especially in the last third of the 4th century B.C. and the early years of the 3rd century B.C.

3Many people over the last decade have helped with the pottery processing, including the numerous students involved in the University of Alberta Summer Field School. To all of those students I am very grateful. My colleagues in the pot-shed, Lynda Salter Mancebo who devised the recording System for the site, Alison Keith and Robyn Thalman deserve special thanks. In particular Junko Ikuta (Institute of Archaeology, London) has provided substantial help in the analysis of the impasto. Others, among them Paul Arthur, Marina Cipriani, Giovanna Greco, Maurizio Gualtieri, John Hayes, Concetta Masseria, Marina Pierobon and Mario Torelli, have been very helpful in discussing the Roccagloriosa pottery.

Fig. 175 Impasto profiles (scale 1/3).

4Lastly it is a pleasure to acknowledge and thank both the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the University of Alberta Central Research Fund for their support of several pottery projects pertaining to the site at Roccagloriosa.


5With the exception of some of the burnished forms we have not attempted to provide a chronological sequence or date for the impasto found at Roccagloriosa. A certain chronological evolution can be seen when forms produced originally in impasto are made in coarse ware but even that development cannot be dated except in the most general terms. The heavy utilitarian forms in impasto were probably always used in some way in the household.

1a.Burnished glossy shallow plate. Simple rounded rim.
rim ø 14.0-20.0, base ø 12.0-18.0, ht. 1.9-2.3
clay 7.5YR 3/2 dark brown
(US: 129, 134, 257, 333)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,9 and p. 65, defined ‘rare’.

1b.Same form but coarse fabric, large inclusions, some mica. Surface wet-smoothed. Base slightly off-set.
rim ø 10.0-12.0, base ø 9.0-10.0, ht. 3.0
clay 7.5YR 5/3 brown, 6/4 light brown
(US: F232, 257, F 301, Saggio A ovest IV A)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,8.

2.○● Pans/Plates with handles at the base. Very fine impasto with small inclusions of mica. Burnt on the inside.
base ø 25.0 with handle, ht. 3.7
clay 5YR 4/6 reddish yellow
(US: F 27)
See also a coarse ware example from
Pontecagnano 1988, p. 160-161, nos. 212-213, tav. XXXIII with similar clay and inclusions. The coarse ware example from Pontecagnano, derivative of the impasto type, is dated to the second half of the 6th-5th centuries B.C.

3a.○● Burnished, very glossy carinated bowls. Flattened rim.
rim. ø 8.0-15.0
clay 7.5YR 7/2 reddish yellow, 7/4 pinkish grey, 7/4 pink 10YR 5/3 brown
(US: 134, 172, 257, CB 172 III, ZA-XA 171 III).

3b.○● Same but less accentuated carination, less projecting rim. Suspension hole below rim. Very sandy clay with volcanic inclusions.
rim ø 15.0
clay 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: YA 172)
Greci Basento 1986, p. 72, no. 4. See the Pontecagnano 1988 kiln deposits F 3, F 7a (nos. 44, 233, 234, tav. V, XXXVI). The form is also found in plain and banded ware at Pontecagnano 1988 (p. 53-56). The form is especially common in Campania and dated from the early 6th until the first half of the 5th century B.C.

3c.As above but with handle stub attached.
rim ø 16.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: XA-YA 172 III, ZA 172 III).

4a.Shallow bowl. Complete profile. Burnished, fine fabric.
rim ø 13.0, base ø 8.0, ht. 4.2
clay 7.5YR 5/4 brown
(US: 413).

4b.Same, with flattened rim.
rim ø not determinable
clay 5YR 5/2 reddish grey
(US: 257).

4c.Same but in a very coarse impasto, simple rims.
rim ø 12.0
clay 5YR 4/3-5/3 reddish brown
(US: XA-YA 172 III, XA 172 III, BB 171-172 III)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,9.

5a.Olla with rounded rim.
rim ø 9.0-15.0
clay 2.5YR 5/2 weak red, 5YE 4/1 dark grey, 5/2 reddish grey
(US: 333, ZA-YA 172 II-III, XA 172 I)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,1.

5b.Larger example, flattened rim. One (P 859)
with graffito on exterior.
rim ø 16.0-24.0
clay 5YE 6/6 reddish yellow, 7.5YR 5/4
(US: 253, 335, CB 172a III)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,5.

6a.Beaker. Burnished, slightly curved body, rounded rim.
rim ø not determinable
clay 5YR 5/2 reddish grey
(US: Saggio A ovest II).

6b.Same but unburnished. Possible graffito (cf. no. 5b) on exterior.
rim ø 15.0
clay 5YR 5/3 reddish grey
(US: ZA 172 III).

7.Beaker with out-turned rim. Fabric is very like coarse ware but the exterior is burnished.
rim ø 12.0
clay 5YR 5/3 reddish brown
(US: 257, 391)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,3.

8a.○● Beaker with off-set neck, slightly out-turned rim on a short neck. Grainy fabric.
rim ø 13.0-18.0
clay 5YR 5/3 reddish brown, 6/6 yellowish red, 7.5YR 5/4 brown
(US: all examples 333).

8b.Same but with a rounded projecting rim and a very triangular off-set handle below a short neck. Sandy, micaceous fabric.
rim ø 11.0
clay 5YR 4/2 dark reddish grey
(US: ZA 172 III).

8c. Same with high neck. Fabric resembles that of coarse ware (cf. no. 7)
rim ø 12.0
clay 5YR 5/3 reddish brown
(US: CB 172a III).

9. Tall casseroles with barely articulated handles or ‘bugne’. Burnished, flat out-turned rim, tiny triangular ‘bugna’ on exterior.
rim ø 9.0-18.0
clay 5YR 4/4 reddish brown, 7.5YR 5/4 brown
(US: 257, 277, 413, area Napoli 1971)
Greci Basento 1986: tav. 27,5.

10a.○● Tall casserole with lug handles, simple rounded rims, not burnished.
rim ø 13.0-18.0
clay 5YR 3/2, 5/2 dark reddish brown, reddish grey
(US: 257, ZA 172 III)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,1; for one of the many Iron Age parallels see Cairano 1980, tav. 40, Tipo 53D.

10b.○● Same but with flattened rims and wet-smoothed exteriors. Possible impressed design on P871 (US ZA 171-172 III)
rim ø 9.0-17.0, most common 9.0-10.0
clay 5YR 4/1 dark grey, 4/3 reddish brown, 5/2 reddish grey, 6/6 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 5/8 red
(US: 129, 165, 253, 333, 395, Saggio A ovest III, AB 172 III, XA-YA 172 III, ZA 172 II, ZA 171-172 III)

10c.Same with projecting down-turned rims.
Coarse unburnished fabric.
rim ø 6.5-13.0, most common 8.0-9.0
clay 2.5YR 5/2 weak red, 5YR 4/1 dark grey
(US: 129, 211, 333, Za 172 II, Saggio A-F-F1 spor.)
Greci Basento 1986, tav. 27,6. See also coarse ware nos. 226-230.
The type in impasto is found at Tempa Cortaglia (Fracchia 1985, p. 249 and note 15), and Oppido Lucano 1980, fig. 229, nos. 27-28, and 1983, fig. 61, no. 5.

11.○● Burnished ovoid handle, carinated. Squarish section.
ht. 1.8, width 3.7
clay 5YR 4/3 reddish brown
(US: 195).

12.○● Burnished handle, long shaft, tanged attachment, flat sides, long central carination. Rectangular section.
length 5.0, thickness 2.0
clay 10YR 4/2 dark greyish brown
(US: 327)

13.Lid pommel and wall. Burnished, very coarse fabric.
knob ø 3.5
clay 5YR 7/2 pinkish grey
(US: VA-XA 116-117 IIA).

14a.Burnished base, offset foot with a channel above the join of foot to body.
base ø 7.0
clay 5YR 5/2 reddish grey
(US: Saggio A ovest III).

14b.Simple variant of 14a, common at the site.
base ø 6.0-18.0
clay 5YR 5/2 reddish grey, 2.5YR 5/6 red, 7.5YR 4/6 strong brown
(US: 165, 257, 333, Saggio A ovest II).

15.○● Corded wall sherd, burnished with a reddish surface.
sherd size 3.5 x 4.0
clay 5YR 4/1 dark grey
(US: 57).

Fig. 176 Impasto (scale 1/3).


“P” Catalogue number



4257, 4866, 6041, 8041


850, 4872, 5141, 6007





851, 852, 4121




854, 855







254, 293, 856



269, 294, 857, 858, 6045


859, 4900b, 6126







4873, 7026









865, 4873, 4893, 5025



866, 7157


867, 868, 869, 870, 871, 4065, 4472, 4900f, 6039, 7037c


872, 873, 4776











876, 4020a, 4736, 6044



Banded ware

6Many of the painted banded wares from the Roccagloriosa site are made of very well-worked clays ranging in color from weak red to a variety of pale browns to whitish clays. The coarser wares are usually in a reddish brown clay. The clays are very similar to those found in vases from Padula and Sala Consilina on display in the Museo della Lucania Occidentale in the Certosa of Padula. The paint preservation of these wares is very poor with the exception of the holkion fragment (no. 30) on which the quality of the paint is superior to any other piece of this ware found at the site. Many of the ‘plain’ or ‘common’ wares may have been originally painted, see, for example, the ‘Pozzo’ deposit, nos. 250, 252 (Fracchia e Girardot 1986).

Fig. 177 Impasto profiles (nos. 10b-15); banded ware profiles (nos. 16-30) (scale 1/3).

7The forms of the banded wares are very fragmentary and difficult to parallel except for the jar or brocca types. The Roccagloriosa examples may be near the end of the indigenous tradition although all the concentrations of the wares are in ‘early’ contexts. One of the most common forms (nos. 24, 25) seems to be a hybrid olla with an external collar below the rim to support a lid. It is very faintly reminiscent of the sub-geometric stamnoid ollas with lids found in Southern Etruria and elsewhere. In general, the Southern Etrurian examples do not have a collar and the lid just sits over the mouth, but one type (De Agostino 1963, p. 220, pl. LXXXVII, 1) does have a collar at the base of the neck. A similar variety in forms is found at both Oppido Lucano and Sala Consilina/Padula. In any case, the attribution or designation of form should be taken as a possibility and not as a definite statement.

8Many of the fragmentary decorative motifs, no. 46, may also be the remains of ‘metopal’ decoration common in the area of Buccino (Johannowsky 1986, fig. 5 and Volcei 1978). Additionally the motif on the jug handle, no. 28a, is very like the body design on both a kantharos and nestoris dated to the end of the VI century B.C. (Johannowsky 1986, figs. 2 and 4).

9The chronological sequence of the banded wares at the site is not clear as many forms continue to be produced for a long time, for example, the one handled bowl (Pontecagnano 1988, pp. 56-59).

16.Out-turned rim, probably a jug.
rim ø 10.0-13.0
clay 10R 4/4 weak red, 5YR 7/6-6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 270, 82, 335, 391, XA85-86 II).
Very like jug rims on display from Sala Consilina/Padula in Padula and from
Holloway 1970, fig. 129, no. 125: “mid-fifth”.

17. Out-turned pointed rim. Small kalathos?
rim ø 12.0
clay 10YR 8/3 very pale brown
(US: F47, F54).
For a kalathos, see
Oppido Lucano 1980, fig. 196, no. 4: “first half of 5th”.

18.Large flaring rim, squared lip.
rim ø 14.0-18.0
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 333, 348).
Jug? See
Holloway 1970, fig. 138, no. 152 where a number of parallels in Lucania and the Salerno region are cited: “fifth-early fourth”. Also the type is on display in Padula.

19a.○● Similar but with a rounded lip edge.

19b.Indent on underside.
rim ø 16.0-19.0
clay 5YR 5/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 6/3 pale brown
(US: 129, F301, DB 171 I).
Holloway 1970, fig. 145, no. 174 and fig. 146, no. 175 with parallels at Atena Lucana and Gioia del Colle: «late fifth-early fourth».

20.Less flaring example of preceding. Traces of red paint.
rim ø 18.0
clay 5Y 8/2 white, 2.5Y 8/2 white
(US: 98, FB 109 III).
Holloway 1970, fig. 133, no. 135.

21. Tall neck, projecting rim
rim ø 16.0
clay 7.5YR 8/4 pink
(US: 253).
Holloway 1970, fig. 135, no. 139: “second half of fifth” and very close in both form and fabric to examples from Sala Consilina on display in Padula.

22.Short, nearly vertical rim, thickened on the inside. Wide shoulder. Black paint on rim, red bands on shoulder. Jar?
rim ø 16.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: F20, XA 172 I).
Holloway 1970, fig. 141, no. 163 with parallels cited at Lipari and Conversano: «late fifth-early fourth». Also similar rim types are on display in Padula.

23.Thick, nearly vertical rim, possible lug handle attached to rim
rim ø 12.0
clay 10YR 8/4 very pale brown
(US: 321).

24. Lidded bowl? Flattened rim, large collar on exterior, curving walls.
rim ø 15.0-16.0
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown
(US: 1, 63, 195) also found in Piani di Mariosa.

25.Like the preceding but more globular and olla like with a larger collar.
rim ø 20.0
clay 10YE 7/3 very pale brown
(US: FB 109 IIIA, Saggio Fl II, Saggio A - F II).

Fig. 178 Banded ware (nos. 19-46); red figure (nos. 52-66) (scale 1/3).

26. Olla with a thickened rim.
rim ø 28.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 134, Saggio A Est II)

27.○● Lid? Fruit bowl? Vertical rim, solid pommel. Red paint on pommel, red bands on the walls.
rim ø 25.0
clay 7.5YR 8/4 pink, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 145, 284).
Possible lid to a form like no. 24 (or 25?)

28a.Rim and handle of a jug. Simple rim, almond handle section. Well-preserved thick black bands along the rim and along the sides of the handle, reserved triangle on the handle.
rim ø 5.0?
clay 5Y 7/2 pale grey
(US: 390).

28b.Handle with red-brown band. Round section.
ht. 6.2; thickness 5.5
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown
(US ZA 172 I-II).

29. Small projecting rim with red paint.
rim ø 11.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: F46).
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 121, no. 266 also with red paint on the rim: «6th-5th centuries».

30.Fragmentary stand of a holkion. Thick black paint on lower surface, off-set ridge, then a black band and rosettes.
max. pres. ht. 2.9
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 150).
A similar type was found in a tomb at
Oppido Lucano 1980, p. 150, fig. 44, no. 9: the tomb is dated to the «first half of the 4th». An earlier type is on display in Padula.

31. Base and wall of an open bowl. Two red bands around the base, black band on the body.
base ø 5.0, ht. 3.3
clay 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown
(US: FB 109 IIIB)

32. Base with two black bands on the foot.
base ø 6.0
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 333)

33.Rim of a coarse ware bowl with a black band on the interior below the rim.
rim ø not determinable
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio N P II).
Decorative scheme similar to a one handled bowl from
Holloway 1970, fig. 106, no. 65: «early 5th» but these bowls are very long-lived. See also Albanella 1989, fig. 14, H16: «second quarter of 5th».

34. Rim and handle stub of a small bowl with a band of black paint on the interior. Coarse fabric.
rim ø 6.0
clay 10YR 6/3 pale brown
(US: 389)
The rim, but not the handle, is similar to
Albanella 1989, fig. 17, H17: «second half of 5th». The Roccagloriosa handle is a flat section ribbon-like handle.

35. Flat base of a bowl in somewhat coarse fabric. Two circles of black paint on the interior walls.
base ø 4.0
clay 10YR 5/3 brown
(US: 147).
Holloway 1970, fig. 135, no. 140: «late 5th-4th».

36. As the preceding example but with a band of red paint on the exterior.
base ø 6.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: FB 109 IIIB).

10There are evidently both painted and dipped examples of such bowls from Cozzo Presepe 1977 (pp. 333-336 and 365). The dipped examples seem to be earlier (late 7th-6th c. B.C.) while the painted examples are considered to be later (6th-4th c. B.C.). None of the Roccagloriosa examples are dipped and therefore should probably date to the second half of the 5th century. On the type and dating problems in general, see Bonghi Jovino 1982, pp. 116-117 and remarks on the Pontecagnano 1988 examples (pp. 56-59).

11A number of painted wall-sherds provide further documentation for the distribution of this class of ware at the site.

37a. Coarse ware-wall-sherd with a solid band of black paint and below, a wavy line of black paint.
sherd size 4.5 x 3.8
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 166)

37b. Same but with a solid thin line of black paint below a solid black band.
sherd size 4.0 x 2.4
clay 10YR 5/3 brown
(US: YA 172 I).
Possibly a one handled bowl fragment, see
Monte Irsi 1977, fig. 22, no. 72 for similar wave decoration which is dated to the late 5th. See also Poseidonia-Paestum I, p. 142, fig. 68, no. 288 for a similar decorative motif dated provisorially from the second half of the 7th to the 6th c. B.C.

38. Wall-sherd with three bands of reddish brown paint.
sherd size 3.0 x 2.9
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: F17)

39. Wall-sherd with three bands of brown paint.
sherd size 3.5 x 3.1
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: room B9).

40. Wall sherd with a wide band of reddish paint.
sherd size 3.1 x 2.7
clay 7.5YR 4/2 dark brown
(US: FB 109 IIIB).

41. Wall sherd with three bands of reddish brown paint.
sherd size 4.9 x 3.6
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 335).

42.Wall sherd with lines of black-brown paint.
3.5 x 2.5
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: N+N-02).

43. Eight wall-sherds from the same pot, all with bands of matt brown paint.
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 98, 290).

44. Wall sherd with two bands of reddish paint.
sherd size 6.0 x 3.2
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: CB - DB 171a III).

45. Wall sherd and part of neck of a closed form. Band of red paint below neck. Possibly same form as no. 22.
sherd size 8.5 x 8.0
clay 10 YR 8/4 very pale brown
(US: CB - DB 171 fossa 1).

46.Wall sherd of seemingly closed form, to judge from the internai ridges. Traces of metopal pattern.
sherd size 9.2 x 4.3
clay 2.5Y 8/4 pale yellow
(US: 352).

47.Wall sherd with two bands of maroon paint.
sherd size 8.5 x 2.5
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown
(US: 195).

48a. Base to a trozzella or nestoris? Large high foot with a thickened and squared resting surface. Black paint on exterior and black bands inside.
base ø 14.0, ht. 2.45
clay 10YR 7/3 very pale brown
(US: 190).

48b. Fragmentary moulded foot. Brown paint in bands.
base ø 14.0
clay 10YR 7/4 pale brown
(US: saggio D ‘muro’)



“P” Catalogue number


7072, 299, 3090, 7012, 5047


4302, 4246,6072


6030, 6156







7063, 832




530, 4056




1003a, 5045, 5077


2, 415, 358, 2050A


4036, 127


4381, 5032




































6116a-d, 6136a-d














‘Attic’ or ‘Ionic’ imitation cups

12These are two extremely fragmentary painted rims which resemble early Attic or Ionic cup rims. Early Attic or Ionic imitation by indigenous workshops is documented in a kiln deposit at Pontecagnano (Pontecagnano 1988, p. 27-40).

49.Offset lip. Straight wall of rim.
rim ø 16.0
clay 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 163)

13Very well preserved thick black glaze. Possibly from a squat stemless kylix. The squat stemless kylix starts ca. 475-450 in the Attic production but has a long life. See Holloway 1970, fig. 104, no. 59: «early 5th», and two examples from Lipari 1965, tav. 56, nos. 4d and 5c/e: «second quarter of the 5th».

50.Rim of a thin-walled cup.
rim ø 19.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: 177)
Holloway 1970, fig. 114, no. 88: «ca. 450».

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number





Red-figure pottery

14The fragmentary red-figure from the habitation complexes at Roccagloriosa provides a partial OverView of the forms found in settlement contexts and can also be put in conjunction with the forms and decorative motifs found in the tombs from the La Scala cemetery.

15The standard range of red-figure forms popular in the South Italian production appears in the habitation debris. The bell-krater and column krater with laurel leaf decoration (types 53-55) on the neck or lip, the lekanides (52, 67-68) and fish plates (59, 60) are common throughout Magna Grecia in the late fifth-fourth centuries. No volute kraters have been identified from the habitation complexes but the shape occurs in one or two of the tombs at the site (tombs 19 and possibly 26, Gualtieri 1989b) and this may be a reflection of a more restricted and funerary usage of the volute krater. On lhe other hand the column krater (no. 53) from the area of the portico in Complex A provides important evidence for kraters used in place of, or in conjunction with, votive or ritual depositions (Bottini et al. 1989).

  • 1 See for example, Holloway 1970, nos. 41, 57, 74, 268; Gravina di Puglia forthcoming, P4024; numerou (...)

16No identifiable fragments of nestorides have come to light although they are popular at more hinterland indigenous sites1. The greater degree of hellenization and/or the Tyrrhenian position of the site may account for that absence. Possibly one large fragmentary splayed foot with a hollow interior in the pale clay typical of the ‘indigenous wares’ may have belonged to a nestoris (or possibly trozella) (no. 48).

  • 2 Andreassi 1979, nos. 91-94 where the larger lekanides tend to date consistently near the end of the (...)

17The lekanides knobs (nos. 67-68, 186) are also typical of the standard motifs with either cartwheel or palmette designs. The knobs seem to have belonged, however, to lekanides that were either smaller or larger than usual in that the average knob size for lekanides is 4.0-5.0 cm. while measurements of 3.0 and 8.0 are less common2.

18Although the red figure vases are fragmentary, several sherds indicate the high quality of the pain ting found in the habitation complex, e.g., the ovolo design on a rim fragment (62), the execution of the female head (63), the precision of the meander and palmette pattern (61).

19It is difficult to judge how common red-figure vessels were in habitation complexes, but red-figure was found also in the habitation nuclei outside of the walls in the DB area, l he majority of the red-figure come s from either the area around the portico in Complex A or in the dump associated with the collapse of the portico: the other surrounding rooms seem to have had continued use and the red-figure in those areas may have been cleaned out, if it ever was there. Both the individual find spots and the inclusion of the late 4th century red-figure epichysis in the F11 votive deposit indicate that the use of red-figure was largely tied to the ceremonial practices that took place in the portico area. Certainly no red-figure has been found in the more ‘utilitarian’ rooms, such as room A7/A8 with the hearth and room A1, the ‘bath’. We note that the early Gnathia type epichysis (219) was also found at the very edge of the original portico and recall that the composition of the Serra di Vaglio pottery deposit included red-figure pyxides, skyphoi, lekythoi, plates and a large number of Gnathia type skyphoi and oinchoe as well as black-glaze pottery (Greco G. 1982, p. 77).

51. Lekanis lid rim and wall with crested wave pattern.
rim ø 14.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 253)
The same type is found in Tomb 15, no. 11 (
Gualtieri 1989b and dated ca. 300-290).

52.Wall sherd with meander pattern.
sherd size 4.3 x 7.7
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 98).

53.Handle plate and rim of a column krater.
Outline of design only.
rim ø 26.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: EB-FB 110).

54.○● Rim and neck of a krater. Laurel band on dull black glaze
rim ø 24.0-25.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: DB 40)
Date: end of 4th or ca. 300.

55a.Overhanging rim and neck of a krater. Lau rel band on dull black glaze.
rim ø 24.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 77, FB109)

55b. Similar but with larger designs, and larger overhanging rim.
rim ø not determinable
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: saggio A Ovest III)
Date: end of 4th century.

56. Neck of a closed form with stripes, probably a lekythos.
sherd size 6.0 x 3.1
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: FB 109 III).

57. Remains of stripes, two reserved lines and then part of a head on a closed form.
sherd size 6.7 x 5.8
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 82)

58. Wave pattern on wall sherd.
sherd size 2.8 x 3.5
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: FB 109 IIIB)

59. Two joining wall sherds of a fish plate. One is part of the lower wall of the plate with reserved bands on the exterior, the other has the tail of a fish.
sherd size 7.6 x 5.4 and 4.8 x 6.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 98, 118).

60. Wall sherd of a fish plate. Eye and line abo ve eye of fish preserved. Very good black glaze.
sherd size 3.9 x 3.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(Piani di Mariosa)

61.Open form. Excellent well preserved black glaze with meander pattern and palmette.
sherd size 4.2 x 2.3
clay 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: ZA - YA 172 II and III)
Suggested date: on the basis of the glaze and execution last quarter of the 5th century.

62.Tiny out-turned rim. Red overpaint on buff clay. Ovolo design, relief dots between the ovules, black relief lines above and below the ovules.
sherd size 1.0 x 1.4
clay 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: VA-XA 116-117 III)
Dated as preceding on the same basis.

63.Head and torso of a woman. Hair in brown wash, eye not quite in profile, relief lines for the drapery.
sherd size 5.5 x 3.0
Clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: FB 109 IIIB)
Date: late 5th - early 4th century

64. Large wall sherd of a closed form, indeter-mined red-figure design.
sherd size 5.8 x 3.3
clay 10YR 6/8 light red
(US: 254).

65.Wall sherd with palmette from a large clo sed form.
sherd size 6.6 x 4.8
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: F56 fill).

66.Wave pattern from a closed form. Red-brown glaze.
sherd size 2.9 x 2.6
clay 5YR 6/6
(US: FB 109 IIIB).

67.Lekanis lid knob. Central depression. ‘Plate’ with palmette, two circles and a raised edge. Two bands of black-glaze on the stem.
knob ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: saggio A Ovest IV).
See Tomb 15, no. 11 for the palmette type, dated ca. 300-290 (
Gualtieri 1989b).

68.Lekanis lid knob Central depression. Dots on the ‘plate’. Raised edge.
knob ø 3.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: saggio A Ovest IV).
See Tomb 15, no. 29 for similar ‘dot’ decoration (
Gualtieri 1989b).



“P” Catalogue number























Piani di Mariosa

















Black glaze pottery

20The black glaze from the settlement tentatively dated to the first half of the 4th century is both very well made and better preserved than the black glaze of the following period. Four types of clay are commonly found at the site during this time: a reddish yellow clay, a pale whitish clay, a pale brown clay and a light red clay. During this early period there are a significant number of imported products, usually in the pale white or the pale brown clay. Amphorae dated to this period and imported from various areas are found at the site and it is possible that the vases in the less commonly occurring clays may also come from some of those contact areas (infra, “The Amphorae”, passim). The open forms dated to this period, usually bowls and skyphoi, are very elegant thin walled forms with simple rims and an excellent lustrous even glaze which was brushed on. The most common imported forms are hemispherical bowls or bowls with the rims angled inwards, skyphoi or salt cellars. The flat salt cellars (no. 95) with thick rims are often found in the whitish or pale brown clay while the stemmed salt cellars are usually in the reddish yellow clay which we consider to be ‘local’ or, more accurately, regional. The infrequent examples of trefoil mouth oinochoe and black glaze pitchers found in the settlement date generally to the first half of the fourth century B.C. A number of early stamps, bolsal and ribbed bowl fragments are also found in the settlement during this time. They are comparable to several of the vases in tomb 6 (dated 400-390) and tomb 12 (dated 370-360) in the style, quality of the workmanship and in the consistency of the pale brown clay color (Gualtieri 1989b). The black glaze ceramic record of the first half of the fourth century at Roccagloriosa reflects the standard developments found throughout Southern Italy, i.e., a dependence on the imitation of Attic forms which were imported from various areas or produced regionally, a preference for moulded feet, thin walls of skyphoi with decorated undersides, with painted circles (this of course continues into the second half of the fourth as well). All are characteristics which reflect the prestige of Greek or Greek imitation products in the fine ware production.

21The numismatic evidence from this period indicates contacts with Sicily and Velia: presumably some of the ceramic imports would also pertain to those areas. Certainly the inclusion of an early Sicilian type goddess (supra, chap. 4, V. 20) in a dump in Complex A is suggestive.

  • 3 Fabbricotti 1979, p. 408-409 and the existence of four kilns in the area of Roccagloriosa, the kiln (...)
  • 4 Cf. Poseidonia-Pœstum II, fig. 60, no. 120 and Praia a Mare 1972, fig. 13, no. 2/14. I thank J.-P. (...)

22The period between ca. 340 and ca. 300-280 B.C. is one of seemingly great contrasts. The apparent economic growth evident in the population expansion outside the walls, the ceramic, terracotta and bronze production at the site and the occurrence of fewer imported products indicate the greater self-sufficiency of the site but this is accompanied by a contemporary reduction in the number of complex closed forms produced in either partially or fully black glazed vases and in the quality of the production. A variety of factors certainly contributed to the explosion in the number of local workshops testified to in the second half of the fourth century and those factors probably differed from site to site3. At Roccagloriosa during this period there is very little elegance to the vases found. The paterae and one-handled bowls are exceptionally top-heavy and disproportionate with very small feet. Curiously this seems to be a ‘regional’ taste as the same lack of proportion in the height and diameter of the bowl to the height and diameter of the foot is also found at Paestum and at Praia a Mare4.

  • 5 The material from the Pozzo deposit has been published in Fracchia e Girardot 1986 (109-1 12), 127- (...)
  • 6 Supra, n. 5. In conjunction with the material presented here.

23While it is true that many of the forms made in the second half of the fourth century continue to be made well into the third, the dating of pieces to the second half of the fourth has been aided by the discovery of several sealed deposits, especially the so-called Pozzo5. The Pozzo material included over 600 black-glaze and coarse ware rims and bases as well as numerous wall-sherds. It was closed around ca. 300-280 B.C. (dated on the basis of drawings and photographs by J.-P. Morel) by the floor of a successive construction. In the light of the ten years of excavation since its discovery in 1977, the Pozzo has been shown to contain a representative sample of those forms in use in the second half of the fourth century6 throughout all the habitation areas at the site. The Pozzo therefore provides a terminus post quem for many of the forms which appear at the site after ca. 300-280 B.C. and which are represented in the layers above both the Pozzo and the other deposits found throughout the habitation nuclei.

24In the period from ca. 340 to 300-280 B.C. the qualitative reduction in the ceramic production is seen in the number of underfired pieces, the increase in sloppily trimmed and dipped pieces and the decadent quality of the very badly preserved blackglaze which did not fuse to the pot surface and thus chips off very easily. It has been suggested by Polish researchers that the glaze may actually only have been a paint which did not bond to the surface of the pot as the glaze did in the Attic and Apulian productions (Skomorowska e Swiecki 1977, pp. 37-47). They suggest that the vessels were fired before applying the slip which was a mixture of paint and possibly animal blood. The painted piece would then be reheated to a low temperature which would explain the lack of paint fusion to the clay which is found on many examples of hinterland black-glaze. Certainly this System allows for both quicker and cheaper production. For the Gnathia wares and other painted wares or pieces intended for tombs the traditional method may have been used and in fact those pieces, even in this period, seem to be imported (Gualtieri 1989b). The acidic soil at Roccagloriosa is very destructive to the pottery but the State of preservation definitely deteriorates on the pots made in ‘local’ clay during the second half of the fourth century. Another factor which may compound the problem is a fairly consistent underfiring of the pottery which is soft, powdery and chalky to the touch. It is noteworthy that in the second quarter of the third century, after ca. 300-280 B.C., the more common defect is overfiring, to judge from the quantity of wasters found.

  • 7 This may be due to a general directional gravitation towards the major indigenous population center (...)

25The rim diameters of many of the bowl forms are standardized during the second half of the fourth century but there are innumerable minor variations in rim profiles as the example of one particular bowl with three distinct rim profiles (and thus, three different dates) illustrates. At Roccagloriosa as elsewhere in Southern Italy, the most common foot for bowls, plates, paterae is rectilinear with a central bump on the underside of the vase. A spreading large foot or a simple ring foot was used for cup skyphoi. The same types of forms are found in either seulement or sanctuary contexts at Ordona, Gravina di Puglia, Metapontum, Cozzo Presepe, Locri, Sibaris, Torre Mordillo, Garaguso, Ruoti, Satrianum, the entire area of Rivello-Lagonegro, Marcellina/Laos, Acquappesa, Paestum and Valle d'Ansanto i.e., the same geographical area over which the imitation Attic pieces of the earlier period could be found. With the possible exception of the Salentine peninsula there seems to be a general, if superficial, ceramic homogeneity over a large portion of inland Southern Italy7.

26After ca. 300-280 B.C. another change occurs. Skyphoi with Gnathia type decoration in ‘local’ clay are found at the site. They share the shape and decorative scheme as those skyphoi found in a kiln deposit at Rivello, dated to ca. 300 B.C. At Roccagloriosa the period after ca. 300-280 B.C. is one of increased contacts, renewed importation and imitation of new forms. These forms are not included in the Pozzo and other dump deposits but are found in the layers over those deposits throughout the entire inhabited area both inside and outside of the walls. Contact with Sicily is documented: a small terracotta disc with the imprint of a coin of Agathocles dated to ca. 290 B.C. has come to light on the Central Plateau (no. 518). The light red, pale brown and pale whitish clays are also present on the site again. At this time there is also a qualitative leap in the local production. A series of thin-walled bowls with two grooves are made at the site (nos. 127 and 218 a-c). Two misfired rim sherds of this bowl type were found stuck to the firing platform of the kiln in Complex A, and numerous wasters were found in the kiln room (pp. 91-92). The bowls may be either fully or partially black glazed or painted with a Gnathia type decoration consisting of white or gold dots on both sides of a reddish yellow line or a simplified guilloche pattern. The high quality of the type is seen in the precision and standardization of manufacture in the rim size, bowl depth, and in the placement of the grooves at 0.2 and 0.5 below the rim: the consistency of the production is such as to make one think that one potter was responsible for all of the bowls of this type found at the site and that they were produced in a short time-span. A similar but thicker walled type (Morel F 2155) is found at Canosa, and dated to the mid-third century B.C. In the first half of the third century the type is found at Laos, Cozzo Presepe, Gravina, Santa Maria del Cedro, Rivello and Paestum. The thicker walled variant enjoys a long popularity and is found through the later third and second centuries at Luni, Pompeii, Settefinestre and in the Lilybaeum wreck as well as at Roccagloriosa (infra, no. 128, no. 336).

  • 8 The two misfired painted sherds stuck to the firing platform of the kiln and the entire kiln conten (...)
  • 9 Green J.R. 1982, p. 258 although no further reference is given.
  • 10 Forthcoming publication PBSR Supplement to Gravina di Puglia, ed. A.M. Small. I thank both A.M. Sma (...)

27In the first third of the third century, around the fall of Taranto, Morel has suggested that there may have been a diaspora of Tarentine artists to other smaller centres (Morel 1981a, p. 55). Regional workshops of Gnathia type decoration are relatively common at this time: they have been identified at Metaponto, near Paestum, in Campania, in Sicily (Green J.R. 1976, pp. 14-16 and 1982, pp. 258-259) and now certainly at Rivello and in a limited scale, at Roccagloriosa8. Green notes that at Metaponto, in the early third century a series of decorated thinwalled bowls derived from Apulian prototypes was being produced9. The closest parallel in decoration for the Roccagloriosa examples comes from Gravina di Puglia10.

  • 11 The tombs, from various locations in the Paestum area were excavated by A. Pontrandolfo Greco in th (...)

28The grooved bowl form is also common at Paestum. They are generally dated to the early third century although some examples are found in tombs dated by the excavator to the end of the fourth11. The decorative scheme at Paestum is more elaborate than that at Roccagloriosa. At Paestum the two grooves on the exterior are often partially obscured by a band of laurel leaves (possibly a red-figure holdhold-over?). The inside of the bowls has a reserved band (found also in examples from Morgantina), and the tondo is emphasized by two white circles. Within the circles there are various motifs - women’s heads, dolphins, rosettes etc. While it may be that the grooved bowls can be pushed back into the end of the fourth century at Paestum, at Roccagloriosa their consistent absence in the various dumps and their consistent presence in the layers over the dumps necessitates a date after ca. 300-280 for their appearance at the site, if the closing date of the dumps is accepted. In fact, the more elaborate decorative scheme of the Paestan examples seems to derive from its well established red-figure and true Gnathia workshops. The simplicity of the line and dot decoration may only be a vestige of true Gnathia and the Gravina, Ruoti and Rivello parallels may indicate a doser connection to the Metapontine area via the inland river valleys, (Green J. R. 1976 and 1982, see, supra and note 9). A single example from Roccagloriosa (identified as a Paestan import by M. Cipriani) also carries the band of laurel leaves on the exterior (no. 218).

  • 12 There are a variety of clay colors found in this production (Morel 1981a, F2981) and imitations wer (...)
  • 13 Satriano 1988, Tav. 11. Also found in the Paestum museum deposit; Dott.ssa M. Cipriani was extremel (...)

29At this same time, in the first third of the third century, both forms and stamps associated with the ‘petites estampilles’ production begin to appear at the site (200, 206, 207). Among the very few fully preserved tondos' only one carries the characteristic grouping of four stamps but the scanty evidence is by no means conclusive. Additionally, a central stamp is common and the scaraboid stamp associated with the workshop is found at the site (Morel 1973, p. 51, fig. 6, nos. 38, 40). The clay of the pieces with the scaraboid stamp is a light reddish color or more commonly the reddish yellow ‘local/regional’ clay. Quite possibly the stamp was copied and then re-used in ‘local/regional’ products12. The ‘petites estampilles’stamps clearly made their way into the hinterland: the recent excavations at Satrianum brought an example of a ‘petites estampilles’ leaf to light13. The source of this new ceramic stimulus is most likely Paestum or Velia or perhaps a workshop a bit further away such as at Minturnae or at Neapolis although a workshop in Paestum seems quite likely (cf. note 12). Paestum became a Latin colony in 273 B.C. thereby surely becoming a source of Roman produced or Roman inspired pottery. By that time, Velia was on reasonable ternis with Rome and, as Greco has suggested, Velia may actually have taken over the old site of Palinuro to use as its port (Greco E. 1975, pp. 138-142). In that case, the distance between the possible port of Velia and Roccagloriosa through the Mingardo valley would have been very short. In any event either site could have provided the inspiration for local imitation of Roman pottery or the conduit for Roman pottery to arrive into the region as the ‘petites estampilles’ production was widely exported into hinterland areas in the first half of the third century (Hayes 1984, p. 85, note 1).

30Another development at the site is the continued evolution of a pre-existing form (117, 122). The shallow bowl or plate with an overhanging lip and carination below the rim was popular earlier and the more rounded less angular versions are found in the various deposits. In the later habitation layers dated to the first half of the third century, however, the form becomes crisper and more ‘metallic’ in that the overhanging lip becomes both longer and larger, the upper surface is still rounded but the underside of the lip is flat and the carination on the wall becomes more pronounced. Some of the most angular examples of this form are found in the pale whitish clay. The Roccagloriosa bowls seem to be a hybrid of Morel forms F1314, which are dated variously from around 300 B.C. to the second half of the second century and form F1315, dated from 200 B.C. ±50 to 150 ±50.

31Many of the late fourth century forms continue to be used and perhaps made at the site in the early years of the third century, for example the bowl forms, but the developments outlined above appear to reflect new models and sources of inspiration.

32Late in the third century and in the early second century Campana A wares and amphora forms (nos. 387-388) normally associated with Roman sites begin to appear in the area. Although the quantity of later material within the walls is limited, a substantial quantity has been found in a dump in the kiln assemblage (see kiln assemblage nos. 306-336) as well as in various areas outside of the wall (see nos. 141-142, 165a, 166), thereby underlining the decline of the nuclei on the central plateau and the change in function of the walls (supra, chap. 7) and site itself. The later material will be fully presented in another volume on the extra-mural areas. Possible numismatic evidence for Campanian contacts as early as the first half of the third century is provided by a coin from Cales with a cock on the reverse reputedly found in the 1971 excavations by M. Napoli in the extra-mural areas.

33N.B. The actual black glaze at Roccagloriosa is very badly preserved. Any exceptions to that general rule are noted in the descriptions: otherwise the glaze is dull and flaking. Additionally, as there are usually numerous examples of each type, the rim, foot/base diameter ranges are given. “Morel” followed by a series or F number refers to the typology set out in Morel 1981a.


69.Very thin-walled, simple or slightly turned out rim.
rim ø 10.0-12.0
clay 2.5YR 6/4 light brown, 7.5YR 8/4 pink
(US: 166, 195, Saggio A Est II [several examples])
Similar in shape to
Cozzo Presepe 1977 (fig. 111, no. 178: «late 5th». At Roccagloriosa, this form should also extend into the 4th.

70.Slightly turned in rim, ovoid and swollen lip. High handle placement. Both large and small examples.
rim ø for smaller examples 7.0-8.0, larger 20.0
clay 5YR 8/4 pink, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 128, 147, 166, F20, Saggio F2, EB-FB 110 III).
The rim is similar to that of Morel F4385al from Ordona: «first half of the 4th»;
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 125, no. 295: «4th-3rd»; Lagonegro 1981, Tomb 4, fig. 13: «first quarter of 4th»; Holloway 1970, fig. 140, no. 162: «second half of the 5th». The Satrianum example has a less ovoid lip: the more developed lip should put the Roccagloriosa examples into the first half of the 4th century.

71.Slightly out-tumed flattened rim, thick wall. high handles
rim ø 7.0-9.0
clay 5YR 7/4 pink, 6/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 7/4 pale brown
(US: Saggio F2 II, 163, F56, Saggio A Est IIa).
Ordona/, fig. 19-20, nos. 14, 18, 20, 22-23, and pl. XLIV: first half of the 4th:
Lagonegro 1981, Tomb 3, fig. 9: «end of 5th».

72.Skyphos rim. Flat rim, thin walled. Excellent glossy black glaze.
rim ø 9.0
clay 2.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown
(US: 195).
Close to
Oppido Lucano 1980, fig. 74, no. 3: «5th». Lipari 1965, tav. b,7: «5th or first half of 4th». At Roccagloriosa, the type is also found in contexts of the first half of the 4th.

73.Simple rim, low handle placement. Short, thick handles.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 166)
The handle placement is odd. With the exception of the handle placement, the shape is like two examples from Nola and Bari (
CVA Copenhagen 7, pl. 281, nos. 12 and 16) and Merzagora 1971, 4-5, no. 17. The simple rim treatment suggests an earlier rather than later date in the 4th century.

74a.Thin walled, straight sided skyphos with an out-turned rim. Excellent black-glaze, brush applied. The interior rim treatment is usually rounded although sometimes il looks slightly angular. Body swells slightly below the handles.
rim ø 8.0-11.0
clay misfired grey, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 8/4 very pale brown, 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 141, 154, 165)

74b.Same, but thicker walls, with rim slightly off-set.
rim ø not determinable
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: ZA 171 I II)
In the thicker walled version.
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 125, no. 291: «4th - early 3rd». The wall thinness and the excellence of the glaze probably place this piece into the early 4th century B.C. or earlier; see Agora XII, nos. 588, 593, 595 all dated to the last decades of the 5th century.

75a.○● Out-turned rim. Thick wall. Body swells below rim and handles are tilted upwards. Complete profile,
ht. 15.0, rim ø 12.0, base ø 7.0
clay blue-grey misfired, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 147. Room Al ‘central baulk’).
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 111, no. 296: «375-300»; Gravina III, fig. 47, no. 219: «second half of the 4th». One example is smaller than might be expected but there are a number of known Campanian examples that are even smaller versions of the same type with rim diameters of 5.4, Hayes 1984, no. 133: «second half of the 4th or lalater». Date: middle - second half of 4th century.

75b. One very large example with a very thick rim and heavy strap handles.
rim ø ca. 18.0
clay 5YR 6/6
(US: Saggio Fl, 119)
A parallel is found at Paestum in an unpublished tomb dated «later 4th c.B.C.»

76.○● Simple thin rim, curving body with very thin up-lifted handles. Interior channel 2.2 below rim.
rim ø uncertain, probably ca. 10.0-12.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: F262).
Squatter version of Morel F4264: «last third of 4th» with a similar example in Tomb 14 at Roccagloriosa which is dated to ca. 330 (
Gualtieri 1989b). See also Lipari 1965, tav. d,7: «first two thirds of 4th c. B.C.»

77.Rounded body with a very slightly out-turned rim.
rim ø 8.0-10.0
clay 10YR 8/4 pale brown, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: VA 86 III, XA-WA 86).
The body treatment is like Morel F2621 h 1: «beginning of the third» with a similar rim treatment found at
Cozzo Presepe 1983, fig. 125, no. 298: «second half or late 4th»; Lipari 1965, tav. f,3: «last third of 4th c. B.C.». Suggested date at Roccagloriosa: late 4th-early 3rd century.

78.Swelling body with the rim inclined slightly inwards. Incised grooves at the handle zone, rim ø 7.0
clay 10YR 7/4 pale brown
(US: 147).
The incised grooves immediately below or at the handle zone on the exterior are a characteristic of the Roccagloriosa skyphoi. In examples with Gnathia type decoration the two lines are replaced by a large channel below the decorative ‘frieze’. No close parallels found although there are similarly incised bucchero and black glaze skyphoi from the pre-Roman cemetery at Nola dated from the 6th to the late 4th (
Nola 1969, Tomb XLII, 1 is closest). A partially glazed skyphos with an incised line on the exterior is on display in Padula and dated 4th-3rd. The form does not appear in the Pozzo deposit and the body shape is reminiscent of later Gnathia type skyphoi. Suggested date: early third century.

Fig. 179 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).

79.Straight sided thickened rim turned slightly outward. On exterior a deep groove 2.0-2.5 cms. below the rim. One example does not have the groove
rim ø 10.0-12.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: Room A1, 335, Saggio A and F II).
Dated as preceding example.

80.Complete profile “S” curved body, slightly turned out rim. Exterior groove 1.0-1.5 cm. below rim at handle zone. Carinated foot. Central bump on underside of foot.
rim ø 6.0, base 0 4.0, ht 8.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: VA 85, pit al)
The form of the body is best paralleled by Morel F4364 which is typical of CentralSouthern Italy from the early third to the second quarter of the third century. The examples listed come from Minturnae, Chieti and Teano. See also
Locri 1983, tav. VIII, no. 43: «3rd», and Albanella 1989, fig. 15, H35: «last decades-end of 4th». The date for the form at Roccagloriosa seems to be early third as it is absent in all the dump deposits.

34The skyphoi fragments from Roccagloriosa which seem to be early in date (nos. 69-74) are very well made, thin walled with a lustrous well-preserved glaze. They evidently come from three sources, one ‘local’ or regional with a color of 5YR 6/6-7.5YR 7/6 both reddish yellow, a second of 10YR 8/4 pale brown and a third of 7.5 YR 7/4-8/4 or 5 YR 7/4-8/4: this last group may be the resuit of a variation in firing of the ‘local’ or regional clay. In the examples dated to the second half of the fourth century the walls thicken, the rims are treated more elaborately (nos. 75-80). The skyphos with the channel on the exterior is very popular at the site: on this particular type there is no trace of overpainting above the incised line. The type is not included in the Pozzo deposit and may be contemporaneous to the thin-walled grooved bowls which date to after ca. 300-280.

Skyphoi bases

81a. Ring base. Carination at lower third of body. Flat underside, rectilinear interior profile. Three painted circles on bottom, redwash on underside.
base ø 8.0-15.0
clay 5Y 5/1 dark grey 9 (misfired), 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 128, EB+FB,110 IIIB)

81b.○● Same with painted circle beneath.
base ø 8.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est IIa, all examples)
This type of base, essentially an imitation of the classic Attic form (
Agora XII, 342) has a very long life. See Lagonegro 1981, Tomb 1, fig: 6: «last quarter of 5th; Ordona 1973, Tomb L, figs. 125-126 and Ordona I, nos. 14, 18, 20, 22, 23: «first half of 4th». A similar example from Holloway 1970, fig. 138, no. 150 is dated to the 4th century.

82. Skyphos base. Off-set at join of foot to body, two sharp grooves on foot. Flat underside. Glossy black glaze, very well preserved. Foot totally glazed underneath.
base ø 10.0
clay 6YR 7/4 pink
(US: ZA-XA 172 III).

83.Skyphos base. Ring foot, definite groove on underside of foot. Very well preserved black glaze.
base ø 6.0
clay 7.YR 7/6 pink
(US: YA + ZA 172 III).

84.○● Skyphos base. Very heavy base, angular foot ring foot. Off-set at body. Straight wall, partially glazed.
base ø 15.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio N-P, spor.).

85.Ring base with an offset at join to body. Flat underneath, two circles and dot in black glaze underneath.
base ø 7.0-11.0
clay 7.5YR misfired grey, 2.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown, 2.5Y 8/2 white, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 86, 129, 166, 273, 338, Saggio F3 II, Saggio D
3 III).
The most popular skyphos base type found on the site. See parallels at
Lagonegro 1981, Tomb 3, fig. 9: «last quarter of 5th»; Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 40, no. 33: «second quarter of 4th». At Roccagloriosa the form, used with both fully and partially glazed pots, is common throughout the first three quarters of the 4th century.

86.A more rounded version of the above without the offset. Flat underside. Generally used for smaller skyphoi.
base ø 7.0-9.0
clay 7.5YR N6 grey (misfired), 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow, 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 91, 129, 339, FB 109 1I1B).
Very common in the dump deposits at the site. This simple version seems to be used equally with several types of skyphoi bodies. Date: mid to late 4th century.

87.Ring base with an offset and then ridge at the join of base and body.
base ø 8.0-9.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 395).
Valle d’Ansanto 1976, no. 494 with a parallel cited at Pontecagnano dated to the second half of the 4th century.

88.Simple rectilinear foot with a slight carination at mid-point. Central projection on underside of pot.
base ø 5.5-8.0
clay 5YR 7/8 and 7.5YR 7/6 both reddish yellow
(US: 82, 119).
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 125, no. 302: «beginning or first half of 3rd».

89.○● Angular exterior, carination near join of body and foot. Flat underside.
base ø 4.0-7.0 although most common 0 is between 4.3-5.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 7/4 pink, 10YR 8/3 very pale brown
(US: 80, 94, 98, 102, 145, 254, Saggio F2 III, F54)
Date: end of 4th, beginning of 3rd century.

90.Rounded spreading foot. Central bump on underside, sharp angle at join of foot to base on underside.
base ø 3.0-5.0, most common 4.0
clay 5YR 7/8 and 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (US: 63, 80, 145, 147, 163, 190, FB 109 IIIB, Saggio F2 III).
Commonly dipped, with partially glazed bodies. See
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 125, no. 304.
Date: like the preceding example.

91. Disc-like large spreading foot. Bump on underside. Very thick bottom.
base ø 5.0-6.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/4 light pink (this clay color is unusual and reminiscent of products from the Bay of Naples (US: 84, 147, FB 109 IIIB)
Very like
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 125, no. 306. Dated as preceding.

92. High rectilinear foot, central projection on underside.
base ø 3.3-4.7
clay 5YR 7/4 pink. 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow (US: 109, 412).
Dated as preceding examples.

93.Solid foot, carination on exterior, partially glazed.
base ø 4.2
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: VA 85 II).

94. Rounded exterior, very thin base at tondo.
base ø 3.3
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 211).

35The early skyphoi bases have a very long life and the two painted circles underneath may appear well into the third quarter of the 4th century (no. 85 and see Morel F4382a) while nos. 86-88 are essentially simplifications of the earlier ring bases. Nos. 93 and 94 are peculiar in general and would seem to be more like feet for unguentaria.



“P” Catalogue number


4465, 4466, 409, 1006


809, 4494


4275, 6203







4370, 4734, 4715





4244, 909






214, 307




354, 465, 6132





4107, 4031










602, 3128, 4139, 4810, 5006, 5023, 6028, 7006


4139, 3134, 847, 7152




3277, 3137


577, 4854, 3238, 3207, 3152, 4378, P490I


4571, 3123, 3144, 3000, 3050, 4097, 4765, 576


3233, 4211, 872


3245, 7057, 2029b





Salt cellars

95.○● Stemless salt cellar. Complete profile. Solid base, depression at centre of base on underside. Raised black dot inside the depression and a black painted circle around the depression. On exterior, a groove at join of cup to base.
rim ø 7.0-8.0, base 0 3.5-5.6, ht. 2.5-3.0. These measurements are consistent over many examples.
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 7/4 very pale brown (many examples)
(US: 108, 311, 335, Saggio F3 II (numerous examples), 352, 147, 134).
An extremely close parallel for this type, including ‘buff’clay and dimensions is noted at Satrianum (
Holloway 1970, fig. 142): late 5th. A larger example in Tomb 6 at La Scala is dated «ca. 390 B.C.» (Gualtieri 1989b). See also Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 42, no. 39: first half of the 4th and Albanella 1989, fig. 16, H39: «first half to third quarter of the 4th». The type, in the pale brown clay, is also found in Tomb 6 at Roccagloriosa dated to ca. 400-380 (Gualtieri 1989b). The form seems to disappear after the third quarter of the 4th, cf. Monte Irsi 1977, fig. 23, no. 91 and remarks here to nos. 88 and 91.

96.Variant of the above type. Complete profile. Flat base, groove on exterior as above.
rim ø 6.0, base ø 4.0, ht. 2.9-3.0
clay 10YR 7/4 pale brown, 7.5YR 7/4 pink (US: Saggio A Ovest II, Saggio C Ovest II) No close parallels found for this slightly changed format. At Roccagloriosa the date of the two types seems to be the same although a larger example of this type from
Holloway 1970, fig. 147, no. 179 is dated to just before 330 while another example from Albanella 1989, fig. 16, no. H40 is dated from the first half to the third quarter of the 4th century.

97.Salt cellar on a low foot, circle or dot painted on underside. Complete profile.
rim ø 6.5, base 0 4.4, ht. 3.2
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Ovest II, VA-XA 116-117, IIIa)
Albanella 1989, fig. 16, no. H41 for a close parallel, dated as the preceding example. Also Lipari 1965, tav. d,5: «first two thirds of 4th c. B.C.»

36The salt cellar type with flat bases are often found in clays which are not local. The flat bases and very thick rim/cup part as well as the standardized and small dimensions are well-adapted to pieces that are imported or exported.

37A similar evolution of form and wide dispersion can be seen in the Attic stemless cups which develop from the delicate stemmed kylikes: the more durable form (no stem, thickened rim) are found throughout the Mediterranean (I thank Dr. B. Shefton for drawing the Attic cup evolution to emy attention). Perhaps the same rationale can be applied to the evolution from thin pre-Campana forms to the thick forms for the various widely exported Campanian products.

98.○● Stemmed salt cellars, slight differences in height and splay of foot but basically all the same. Complete profile. 98a: a small raised edge to the foot. Complete profile.
rim ø 4.8-7.0, most common diameter for the rim is 6.0, base 0 4.2-5.0, ht. 3.6-4.3
clay 5YR 6/6-6/8-7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 7/3 pink, 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: Saggio F, II, F54, 165, 190, PC86, 95, 298, 98: many examples in 190).
This is by far the most common type in Southern Italy. Given the numerous minor variations in local productions, it seems pointless to provide a large range of variations on fragmentary pieces. For a good range of types, see
Satriano 1988, tav. 10; Tolve 1982, fig. 12, nos. 69903-5, 69964; Monte Irsi 1977, fig. 23; Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 128; Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 41, no. 39; Poseidonia-Paestum II, fig. 60, no. 135; Albanella 1989, fig. 16, no. H43. All the examples cited are dated in the second half of the 4th and into the 3rd. No. 98a is paralleled by a more elaborate ribbed version of the basic form included in Tomb 25 at Roccagloriosa which is dated to the last third of the 4th (Gualtieri 1989). This stemmed type was made at the site, see wasters assemblage (supra, pp. 91-92).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


603, 3235, 4213, 4792, 6124


536, 471




3229, 4663, 7000, 916, 552, 331, 6213, DB2026, 4735.4767.

Small Hemispherical Bowls

99. Complete profile. Incurving rim, thickened interior lip. Flat base or ring base with a large circular depression underneath.
rim ø 8.0, base ø 5.0, ht. 2.7
clay 5YR 8/4 pink
(US: 333, Saggio DU)
Torre Mordilla 1977, fig. 94, no. 3 and Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 127, no. 320: parallels cited range in date from ca. 450-350.

100.Complete profile. Simple rim, ring foot. One example has a carination on the ring base.
rim ø 7.3-8.0, base 0 4.0-6.8, ht. 2.4-2.9
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 7/4 pale brown
(US: Saggio N II, Saggio O-N II, Saggio A Ovest IV, 232).
The two examples in pale brown clay are very precisely executed with a rim to base proportion of 2 to 1 and a shallow groove incised on the exterior 0.8 below the rim. On those two examples the ring foot is a bit more angular. Compare the clay color with that for the stemless salt cellars as well (nos. 95-97). Close to
Agora XII, fig. 9, no. 870: 450-400.

101. Complete profile. Variant of the preceding type. Open simple rim, curving wall, ring foot. Very well preserved black glaze.
rim 0 7.0, base 0 6.0, ht. 2.0
clay 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown
(US: Saggio B Est III A, CB 172 II)
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 127, no. 322: «early part of the 4th».

102.Complete profile. Incurving rim. Slight wall carination below rim. High rectilinear foot. Central projection on underside.
rim ø 7.0, base 0 3.2, ht. 3.5
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: PC86)
A good parallel is
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 127, no. 324: «320-270».

103. Complete profile. Small hemispherical bowl, thickened rim, simple foot.
rim ø 7.0, base 0 5.0, ht. 2.5
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A ovest III).
Date: as above.

104.○● Complete profile. Incurving thickened rim; slightly rounded foot, flat underside.
rim ø 7.0-8.0, base 0 4.0-5.0, ht. 2.5-3.0
clay misfired grey to 5YR 5/1-5/6 reddish yellow
(US: 1 18, Saggio A ovest II).
There is an interior ridge on the underside of the foot on one example which is probably a mistake in the trimming. See
Greco e guzzo 1978, fig. 37, no. 42 and fig. 44, no. 41, for close parallels, both dated to the second half of the 4th - early 3rd century B.C. Examples in La Scala, Tomb 15, dated ca. 300-290 B.C.

105.Complete profile. Taller less hemispherical bowl with maximum curve near the rim.
Simple rectilinear foot. Very common type.
rim ø 5.0-7.0, base ø 3.3-3.8, ht. 3.0-3.6
clay 5YR 6/6 and 7/5YR both reddish yellow, 7.5YR 5/6 strong brown
(US: 171, 163, 166, 298, 190, Saggio F ovest II).
Date: as no. 104.

106.Complete profile. As the preceding example but more incurving and hemispherical. The deep incurving rim creates a ‘shoulder’ with a sharp carination. High rounded foot. Incised groove 1.7 cm. below rim on exterior.
rim ø 4.0-8.0 base 3.1, ht. 3.8
clay 5YR 6/6-7/6 reddish yellow. but the example with the incised groove on the exterior is 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 163, 165, 166 VA-XA 85-86 II).
Wide date range: see
Locri 1983, tav. VIII, no. 35: «third century and part of second»; Acquappesa 1978, fig. 4, no. 122: «end of 4th - first half of 3rd»; Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 127, no. 324: «320-270»; Poseidonia-Paestum II, fig. 60, no. 134: «second half of 4th». At Roccagloriosa this form appears in the dump east of Complex B and in the layers above that dump so that it should be dated to the second half of the 4th - early 3rd century B.C. This form resembles very closely one of the forms linked to the “atelier des petites estampilles” production. Since workshops of that production have been postulated at Minturnae, at Giugliano near Naples and at Paestum the example in a pink clay color is noteworthy (Black glaze introduction, note no. 12).

107.Hemispherical body, incurving rounded rim.
rim ø 9.0-13.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 6/3 pale brown, 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 98, 141, 145 (numerous examples in 145) Saggio N-O II).
Several examples have a well-preserved metallic black-glaze. This type looks very much like (even in its fragmentary State) Morel F2783 series dated to the first half of the third century which is suitable also for the Roccagloriosa examples.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue no.




4815, 359, 355










4667, 451, 4503, 5065, 4701, 4354, 6065


4746, 4778, 4147, 4355, 219, 327


375, 4099, 4382, 7004, 4341, 4385


38Some of these may actually be one-handled bowls but in the absence of handles they have been classified as simple bowls.

108. Thin-walled, glossy thick black glaze on a shallow bowl with a carinated wall.
rim ø 16.0
clay 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: Saggio A Est II).
Date: on the basis of the glaze and execution, first half of 4th (?) Resembles
Agora XII, no. 605, dated ca. 375.

109.Complete profile. Thin-walled bowl. Moulded foot with a central bump on underside.
rim ø 10.0-12, base ø 4.0-4.4, ht. 6.0
clay 5Y 6/1 grey (misfired), 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 111, 184, 249).
This derives originally from the Attic form
Agora XII 515 dated 400-375. At Roccagloriosa this may date as early as the mid - 4th on the basis of the very thin walls, but the inclusion of the pot in both US 184 and 249 indicates continued use at the site in the second half of the 4th century and early 3rd.

110.○● Complete profile. Hemispherical bowl with a thickened rim, plain rectilinear foot with central projection underneath.
rim ø 6.0-16.0, base 0 3.0-5.5, ht. 9.0-10.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 98, 190, 232, 237, 375, VA 85 pit a IIB, Saggio A Ovest IV).
See Torre Mordillo 1977, fig. 94, no. 11; Tolve 1982, fig. 11, no. 70033: late 4th-3rd; Valle d’Ansanto 1976, 522 although our foot is higher and simpler in form. Suggested date: second half of 4th - early 3rd century.

111.Ovoid with a thick rim.
rim ø 
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: F356, F34, VA 85II).
Resembles Morel F2981 d 1: beginning of the 3rd. The Morel form is related to the “atelier des petites estampilles” production and imitations thereof.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number




3256, 4539, 5022


326, 4770, 4788, 4812, 6060, 7046


204, 6546, 4524

Bowls with handles

39Many of these examples are only rims with the point of handle attachment evident. They are very popular at the site and have infinite minor variations in lip projection and curvature or carination.

112.Complete profile. One handled “S” curved bowl. Simple foot, central bump on underside.
rim ø 11.5, base 0 4.8, ht. 9.5
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 195).
Very like Morel F6263 dated towards the second half of the 4th century.

113.Thin walled carinated bowls. Flat rim angled slightly outwards. Handle immediately below rim. All examples have a very well-preserved and lustrous black glaze which seems to be applied with a brush.
rim ø 7.0-9.0, base ø 4.0, ht 5.0
clay 5YR 7/6-6/6 and 7.5YR 7/6 all reddish yellow
(US: 2, 118, 191, 237).
Imitation of
Agora XII, 483. 484, 487 all of which are dated the period ca. 450-430 B.C. A similar thin-walled two handled bowl is shown from Praia a Mare 1972, fig. 13, no. 1 and dated to the 4th. At Satrianum, a stemless kylix (Holloway 1970, fig. 146, no. 177) is dated to just before 330 and parallels cited there refer to a piece from Padula (cat. no. 77) dated to the mid-fourth century. At Roccagloriosa a date of ca. mid-fourth century seems appropriate.

Fig. 180 Black gaze profiles (scale 1/3).

114.Slightly out-turned rim, ovoid body. Off-set on interior below rim. Well preserved black glaze.
rim ø 13.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 1 18, 195, 237, Saggio A Est II)
Suggested date: as preceding example.

115.Curving wall, rounded out-turned rim. Handle immediately below rim. Excellent well preserved black glaze.
rim ø 10.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 195)
Suggested date: as preceding example. See
Agora XII, no. 605 dated to ca. 375.

116.Larger and slightly thicker walled than the preceding examples with a turned outward rim.
rim ø 12.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: 91, 195, Saggio F2 II).
Suggested date: as above.

40Variations of these bowls occur along the Tyrrhenian coast some with higher or lower curved bodies e.g., Greco e Guzzo 1978, fig. 37, no. 47 and fig. 37, no. 49 for a more accentuated and larger curved wall as well as fig. 44, nos. 46-48 for other variants as well as Praia a Mare 1972, fig. 13, no. 2/14 and Poseidonia-Paestum II, fig. 60, no. 120. This is a particularly common form in all of its variations in layer 195. the habitation debris from phase IIA of Room A5.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number.




5092, 5093, 5094, 4783, 4017, 4755, 5010, 5091






3139, 4756, 575.

Bowls or deep plates with curving walls and rilled or projecting rims

41This is one of the most common bowl types at the site. There are innumerable small variations in profile including one example composed of three joining rim sherds which presents three quite distinct degrees of rilling and undercutting (and consequently in theory each joining piece has a different date). All the variants are consistently found throughout Southern Italy, see Tolve 1982, fig. 11, no. 68076, Locri 1983, tav. VIII, no. 42, Valle d’Ansanto 1976, fig. 588-599, Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 129, nos. 331-337. Monte Isri 1977, fig. 27, no. 143.

117.Deep hemispherical bowls with a thick knob-like projecting rim. Both fully and partially glazed examples. Considerable variation in projection and thickness of knobs.
rim ø 14.0-19.0
clay 5YR 7/6-6/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 5/1 grey (misfired)
(US: F42, 59, 80, 147 (numerous examples), 204, F356, FB 109, IIIB VA 85 III).
Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, no. 30; Acquappesa 1978, fig. 44, no. 22; PoseidoniaPaestum I, fig. 42, no. 44: beginning of 3rd; Cozzo Presepe 1970, fig. 24, no. 7: early 3rd and Pompei 1984, tav. 69, CE928. At Roccagloriosa they are also dated to the early third century.

118.Deep hemispherical bowl with a rilled or rolled rim to create a thick lip with a rounded profile. The lip is deeply undercut. The wall may be slightly carinated below the roll of the lip. Numerous variations in the tightness of the roll of the lip. Sometimes there is an interior projection on the rim as well but it is probably caused by the pressure of creating the undercutting of the rim when the wall of the pot would need to be supported on the inside by the potters hand.
rim ø 12.0-19.0 but the most common diameters are 14.0, 16.0, 18.0
clay 5YR 7/6-6/6 reddish yellow and a number of over-fired examples (see Wasters Assemblage, S. 2a, b,
supra, p. 91
(US: 63, 166, 190 (especially common in 190), 381, F211, FB 109 IIIB, Saggio A and F II (several examples), XA 85-86 IIa, VA 85-86 (very common).
The variation with the slight carination on the wall below the rim seems to be a combination of several Morel types and may be slightly later in date. In general terms, the form resembles the Morel F1552 series which ranges in date from the third quarter of the 4th to the mid - 3rd. See also
Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, nos. 31, 64, 66; Acquappesa 1978, fig. 4, no. 9; Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 129, nos. 331, 332 and 336; Tolve 1982, fig. 11, no. 68076. In later versions the walls of this type become less curved, see for example Pompei 1984, tav. 69, no. 8, CE 2183 and no. 10, CE 337. At Roccagloriosa they have a long life and are found in contexts dated from the later fourth century onwards.

119.Deep curved bowls with projecting rims which are triangular in section. Larger than the previous type.
rim ø 16.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6, 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/2 pinkish grey, 2.5Y 8/2 white
(US: 2, 49, 273, 258, 337, FB 109 IIIB).
Especially close resemblance to Morel 15551 b 1 which is typical of central and central Southern Italy in the third century. See also
Torre Mordillo 1977, fig. 94, no. 20; Acquappesa 1978, fig. 4, no. 109; Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 129, no. 333; Valle d’Ansanto 1976, no. 587, Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 42, no. 42: «beginning of the 3rd».

120.Deep or shallow bowls or plates with slightly curving walls, large overhanging rims which are rounded on the upper surface and triangular in section. The overhanging rim is much larger than the preceding example. Thickened interior edge.
rim ø 14.0-20.0 with one small example at 1 1.0 and one very large example with a rim diameter of 26.0
clay 5YR 6/6-7/6, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown, 5Y1 6/1 N5 misfired grey
(US: 141, 167, 84, 117, 190, 201,323, 327, F54, VA 85 pit aI).
Parallels found at Ruoti (
Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, nos. 71-86), Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 129, no. 337; Valle d’Ansanto 1976, no. 611 and 613 although the overhang is less pronounced; Locri 1983, tav. VIII, no. 40; Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 42, no. 43: beginning of 3rd; Pompei 1984, tav. 70, no. CE2184: «mid-3rd».
This type seems to have evolved from the previous types and at Roccagloriosa seems
to be later in date that the previous types as it is absent from all the dump deposits. The form seems to be a ‘transitional’ form or an ‘ancestor’ of the more developed Morel series F1312, 1313, 1314 forms which are often found in the Campanian A production and have straighter, thicker walls: those examples are dated to the 2nd century B.C. The same type of form is also very popular in grey glaze wares although in that production the walls also become less curved: see A.J.N.W. Prag in the forthcoming
PBSR Supplement on Gravina di Puglia, Grey Glaze Wares: dishes (plates with recurving rims).
A good overview of the entire sequence with straight walls is found in Pompei 1984, tav. 70 and 71: all of those examples are carried well into the second century B.C. At Roccagloriosa this type of bowl seem not to date any earlier than the beginning of the 3rd century.

121.Shallow large bowl/plate with a large overhanging rim. Carinated wall. Dull black glaze.
rim ø 21.0
clay 5YR 6/4 light reddish yellow (a great deal of mica visible)
(US: Saggio A ovest IV).
A more developed form of no. 120 and very close to Morel F1315c 1: 200 ± 50.

122. Shallow bowl with a very large overhanging rim. Carination on exterior wall, groove to delineate the base which is flat.
rim ø 9.0, base 4.2, ht. 1.7
clay 5YR 6/4 light reddish yellow (mica visible)
(US: Saggio A ovest IV).
No parallels found but the clay reading is very similar to no. 
121. This may be the product of a new area of production and importation, in which case a date similar to that of no. 121 may be appropriate.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


823, 6554, 4903, 238, 3201,3017, 4398, 855, 414, 4693, 4396, 3151, 4225


4680, 866, 3024, 613, 413, 411, 3058, 4668, 300, 336, 222, 4668b, 4766, 7092, 4083, 202, 244, 284, 201, DB 2013b, 328, 231,305


5040a, 846, 6515,6172, 4867, 2162a, 6180


4377, 252, 828a, 4165, 3019, 412, 239, 4149, 4760, 3170, 6058, 4682, 4221, 4621, 6149, 6066





Bowls with rims angled inwards

123.Very thin straight walled bowls with rims angled inward. Slight depression on exterior where interior rim elaboration ends. Well preserved black glaze.
rim ø 10.0-12.0
clay 5YR 7/6-7/8 reddish yellow and misfired grey
(US: 86, 100 (numerous examples in 100), 113).
The rim profile is very like that of an example from
Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, no. 21 but the walls of our type are much thinner. Found in the Pozzo deposit and in the colluvium layers at Roccagloriosa but a date of ca. early to mid-4th is possible on the basis of the execution of the pieces and on comparison with Agora XII, no. 554 dated 425-400..

124.More hemispherical, thicker walled rim angled towards the interior of the bowl. Well preserved black glaze.
rim ø 10.0-18.0
clay 10YR 7/4 yellow (many examples), 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow and many underfired examples in a soft powdery 5YR 7/4 pink clay
(US: 98, 95, 163, 273, Saggio A Est II (several examples, all in pale clay), CB 172 II).
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 126, no. 309. Included in the Pozzo deposit. Suggested date: mid-to late fourth century.

Bowls with out-turned rims and carinated walls

125.Complete profile. Possibly a one-handled bowl type but no evidence of a handle is preserved. High rectilinear foot. “S” curve body with maximum curve near foot. Rim projects outward slightly.
rim ø 7.0-8.0, base 3.0, ht. 5.5
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 254, 416, XA 170-171 III, Saggio A Est I, XA 171 I)
Common form. One handled example from
Tolve 1982, fig. 12, no. 69914: «fourth-third»; one handled type (the foot is different) from Valle d’Ansanto 1976 nos. 518-518-519; two handled type, Locri 1983, tav. VIII, no. 44: «4th - first half of 3rd». The foot on this type at Roccagloriosa is much like the patera foot, i.e., generally too high and disproportionately small for the vase it carries, see nos. 112, 134 and comments in the general black glaze introduction.

126.Like the previous example except shallower with a carination near the rim. The rim projection remains small and in many examples knob-like, see paterae, no. 138.
rim ø 10.0-20.0 but like the rilled rim bowls, no. 118 the most common dimensions are 14.0, 16.0, 18.0
clay 5YR 7/4 and 7.5YR 7/4 pink, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/0 and 10YR N6 grey, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 2.5YR 5/6
(US: 86, 128, 134, 146, 195, VA 86 III, CB 168 Muro, Saggio F ovest II, VA 85 II, Saggio N + NO ovest III, XA 170+ 171 III).
A good parallel exists with
Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 38, nos. 26-28 all dated 3rd and 2nd centuries, which seems correct for our examples as well.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


3105, 3214, 3213, 3318


6077, 6557, 5059, 3205, 5072


7125, 4852, 404, DB2022, 431, 295


3091, 4185, 3129, 4673, 245, 323, 260, 450, 316, 384, 400, 217, 216, 410, 449, 251, 320, 4103, 4046, 380.

Grooved bowls

42A series of thin-walled hemispherical bowls with two or three grooves immediately below the rim are fully or partially black-glazed or decorated with Gnathia type motifs (infra see Gnathia type). Fragments of this type of bowl were stuck to the firing platform of the kiln and wasters of the type are common in the area around the kiln. It was a very common type at the site and is found in all the habitation areas. The bowl was not included in the Pozzo deposit, the deposit east of wall Complex A, and the SE plateau deposits, all dated ca. 300-280 B.C. They are found in the layers above all of these deposits and thus their appearance at Roccagloriosa should date most probably to ca. the second quarter of the 3rd century B.C., or to after ca. 280, the closing date of the deposits mentioned above.

43In general the Roccagloriosa form resembles Morel F2155, dated to the «second half of the third century (?)»; however, Roccagloriosa examples are much thinner walled and more delicate than the Morel types. The form is a very popular one and continues to be produced with variations, in a thicker walled version, throughout the later third and second centuries at various Roman sites such as Luni (1977, tav. 59), Settefinestre (v. 11, tav. 36,2) and Canosa (Morel F2155a). In its earlier thinner and sometimes over-painted form il is found at Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 42, no. 37, Laos (Greco e Guzzo 1978, fig. 37, no. 38 and fig. 44, no. 39), Rivello, unpublished, Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 130, no. 340, Gravina, unpublished: P4358, P575, P1719.

127.Hemispherical bowl with two grooves below the rim (at 0.2 and 0.5).
rim ø 10.0-16.0 although 10.0 and 14.0 are by far the most common diameters
clay 5YR 7/6, 6/8, 6/6, 7.5YR 7/6 all reddish yellow, 10YR 7/3 very pale brown, 10Y 6/8 light red. Many examples of wasters (see Wasters Assemblage pp. 91-92).
(US: Saggio B Est II, Saggio N + N-O II, Saggio C III, Saggio F II, 128, 190, 165, 33, 29, 35, 163, 327 (numerous examples), Room A8, 375, F356, F376, 98, 141, 425, 348, F46).
The bowls are illustrative of a trend, possibly connected to a diaspora of Tarentine artists after the fall of Taranto (
Morel 1981a, p. 55), to thinner walled products from local workshops. The same tendency has been noted at Metaponto and dated to the early third century (Green J. R. 1976, pp. 14-16 and 1982, pp. 258-259).

128.Thicker walled version of the preceding example.
rim ø 12.0-14.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 337, Saggio B Est II).
Morel F2155: «second half of the 3rd». This thicker variant, not overpainted, has a long life (see introductory remarks)
See also no. 

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number.


221, 6536, 1128, 6555, 1102a, 1123,4761,4067, 6526, 6556, 4453,4395,7150, 357,4208, 6068, 6003, 6057, 6067, 6228, 4034, 4473, 5011, 6155, 6070, 308, 379, 469, 4054, 448, 7093, 924, 925, 926.



Miscellaneous rims

129.Straight walled, thickened rims. Rim is thickened on both the interior and exterior but the exterior thickening is larger.
rim ø 14.0-17.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow and several overfired grey examples
(US: Saggio C2 I, 165, 269).
Very like
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 126, no. 311: 4th-3rd; Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, no. 3. The form resembles the rim treatment of Morel F2538 form which dates to the third quarter of the third, but the walls on the Roccagloriosa examples are much less curved. Not included in the Pozzo deposit, suggested date: early 3rd, probably second quarter.

130a.Curved walls, thick external rim. One example with a large knob for a rim.
rim ø 14.0-20.0
clay 5YR 8/4 pink, 7.5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 7/6-7.5YR 7/4 pink, 7.5YR 6/N6 grey (misfired)
(US: 84, 165 (very common in 165, 286, 433), VA 85-86 II).
This type of bowl presents so many small variations that it is pointless to list exact parallels. The type is included in the Pozzo deposit and therefore appears in the 4th century at the site. As it also appears in the layers sealing the dump deposit it no doubt had a long life and was used well into the 3rd century.

130b.One example only. Like the preceding type but the rim has been emphasized and is more triangular than simply thickened.
rim ø 20.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 416).
Very close to
Tolve 1982, fig. 11, no. 70033: «4th-3rd century». Not in the Pozzo deposit. Suggested date: early 3rd, probably second quarter.

131. More open form than previous examples. Very simple rim.
rim ø 8.0-14.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 168, 327).
Fabbricotti 1979, fig. 16, no. 54 and Cozzo Presepe 1970, fig. 14 and 16. Suggested date: first half of the 3rd century?

132.Open form, like the preceding but the rim has been flattened thickened and undercut. Larger forms than the preceding examples.
rim ø 15.0-19.0?
clay 7.5YR 5/4 brown
(US: 120, PC86).

133.Very squared rim, sharp undercut, straight sides. Very heavy form
rim ø 9.5?
clay totally misfired blue-grey
(US: XA 172 I).



“P” Catalogue number


4614, 4741, 3189, 468, 4905



5043, 3189, 4742, DB2006b, 334, 5021






3303, 5001




44There are numerous variations of both shallow and deep paterae at Roccagloriosa. Most of the variations are the result of a lack of precision and many of the details are in reality ‘accidents’. Many of the patera forms found at Roccagloriosa resemble the later heavier and much larger forms found in the Campana A production. The bulk of the paterae were locally produced to judge from the quantity of wasters of the types and were especially common in the late fourth and well into the third century, but the dating of these pieces is very approximate.

134.Complete profile. Slight carination at join of plate to rim. Very short rim. slightly turned outward. High rectilinear foot carinated at mid-point. Foot appears both too small and too high for the body.
rim ø 10.0-20.0, base 0 4.0, ht. 2.0
clay 7.5YR N6 grey (several examples), 2.5YR 5/4 reddish brown, 5YR 6/6 - 6/8 reddish yellow, 10YR 6/3 pale brown, 5YR 8/4 pink
(US: XA 171 11, 114, 190, XA 170 + 171 III, 145, 128, 163, Saggio A + F II, Saggio A Ovest II).
See also
Torre Mordillo 1977, fig. 94, no. 6, Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 38, no. 26: 3rd-2nd century; Valle d’Ansanto 1976, no. 607.
At Roccagloriosa this appears, with one exception at the bottom of a dump, in the colluvium layers and thus probably dates to the last years of the 4th-early 3rd century.

135.○● Complete profile. More sharply carinated wall, more vertical rim often quite angular. Both large and small versions.

rim ø 10.0-18.0, base 0 4.5
clay 7.5YR N7 grey (misfired), 5YR 7/6 (several examples), 5YR 6/8 pale brown, 10YR 6/4 pale light yellowish brown
(US: 163, 165, 141, VA 85 pit al, Saggio B Est II [several examples]).
Found consistently in the dump deposits and so is dated second half of 4th-early 3rd century.

136.○● Thickened and rounded simple rim, tilted slightly outwards. The outward slant is emphasized by a depression or channel on the exterior wall below the rim which creates a ‘beaked’ lip. Slight carination on the wall which is somewhat curved.
rim ø 9.0-16.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 10YR 5/3 brown (both of these are present in numerous examples), 5YR 6/6-6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Room A8, 120, VA-XA 85-86 III, 416, VA 85 II, F46, 99, 113, 352, 2, 195, EB-FB 1 10 III, 131, 165, 128, WA 86 IIa, VA 85 pit aI, 134, 352, 141).
For parallels, see
Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 38, no. 27: «3rd-2nd». At Roccagloriosa it is common in the dump deposits and probably begins in the second half of the 4th with long continuity into the 3rd. Many of these forms are like the later Campana A forms but the walls are much too thin and the examples are too small to be Campana A products or imitations.

137.Vertical rim, rather thinner walls than previous examples.
rim ø 12.0-20.0
clay 5YR 6/6-7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown
(US: VA 85 pit b, 118).
Found in the Pozzo deposit: date as previous example.

138.Sharply carinated exterior wall, thickened ‘beak’ rim tilted slightly outwards, channels on interior and exterior below rim, straight body walls.
rim ø 12.0-18.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 10R 6/8 light red, 10R 6/2 grey (misfired), 7.5YR 7/6 and 5YR 6/6-7/6 reddish yellow
(US: F42, 80, 134, 147, 327, 190, F252, 163).
For comparanda see
Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 38, no. 28: 3rd-2nd. In Poseidonia-Paesium II, fig. 60, no. 121 the same rim appears on a bowl.
At Roccagloriosa this piece is in the layers above the habitation levels and does not appear in the dump deposits. It closely resembles a later pre-campanian type in the Morel F2275 series which originates in the Bay of Naples and is dated to the second half of the 3rd century.
The examples in the light red clays are interesting in light of that production centre. The type is consistently found in the areas associated with the later activity at the site so that after an initial appearance in the first half of the 3rd century at the site a long continued use would not be surprising.

Fig. 181 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


285, 3254, 4762, 403, 4384, 4104, 4644, 417


4510, 4281, 6178, 418, 4413, 312, 4413, 4091, 3053


6109, 3300, 223, 7139, 321, 5009, 5026, 6517,6109, 3252,6521, 4012, 4686, 819, 4093, 4733, 4712, 4206, 347, 250, 4179, 6207, 4090


311, 3293, 6022, 6120, 6434


3198, 3237, 6025, 4536, 4728, 4666, 5084, 3257, 4446, 4647, 408, 430.


45Some of these may actually be shallow bowls or deep paterae but in fact the basic rim treatments seem to be interchangeable.

46In the absence of complete profiles it is impossible to be certain of the form.

139.Rounded walls, shallow projecting rims.
rim ø 10.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 152, 195, DB area survey Saggio B Est III).
No parallels found. Suggested date: in light of the previous entry and remarks there, as well as its inclusion in US 195, it should be dated first half of 4th to ca. 330.

140.Straight wall, carinated immediately below projecting rim.
rim ø 12.0-21.0
clay 5YR 7/4 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/6-7/6 also reddish yellow, 7.5YR 7/4-8/4 pink, 10YR 8/6 yellow and 11 misfired blue grey examples
(US: 116, VA 85 I II, 63, 165, XA 171 I, XA 170 + 171 III, 141, 145, 134, 165).
Cozzo Presepe 1977 plate sequence is useful here: fig. 129, especially nos. 333-335 all of which are dated to the early to late third which also is appropriate for the Roccagloriosa examples. This form seems to derive from the next entry as straight walls seem to follow the preference for curved forms.

141. One example only. Rounded walls, enlargement on inside of rim, very square projecting lip.
rim ø 16.0
clay 10YR 6/3 pale brown
(US: 63)
Very close parallel at
Torre Mordillo 1977, fig. 94, no. 1 and Poseidonia-Paestum I, fig. 42, no. 43: early to late 3rd century.

142.○● Large plate with a vertical rim very sloppy painting near base.
rim ø 34.0, base 0 9.6
clay 2.5Y 8/4 pale yellow
(US: Saggio Napoli 1971)
This plate is extremely close to Morel F2286al: 150 ± 35, which would fit very well with the other material from the Napoli 1971 excavations.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


4823, 227, 3063, 4612, 4611, 283, 407,4338,4325,4376,4198, 4616


4673, 4239, 4685, DB 2058





Miscellaneous rims to closed form

143.Thick, heavy rim with a carination on the exterior. Groove at join of rim to neck.
rim ø 6.0
clay 5YR 7/4 reddish yellow
(US: 446, Saggio A
1 II).
Much more like a coarse ware rim than a black-glaze form.

144.Bulbous lip, quite thick which joins with a very thin neck. Groove 1.5 cm. below rim.
diameter not determinable
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 141, Saggio A Ovest III).

145a.Hydria neck? Rounded rim with a large channel separating the rim from the rounded overhanging lip.
rim ø 12.0?
clay 5YR 7/4 reddish yellow
(US: 59).
See Morel F4911 or F4933 for the basic type: both are dated to the late 4th or ca. 300.

145b. As above but very fine piece with excellent glaze. The lip is more pointed and the ridge above the lip is smaller.
rim ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/4 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est II)



“P” Catalogue number




4337, 332



3209, 963



Fish plate rims (?)

47Some of the red-figure fragments found in the habitation areas may pertain to these plates. The state of preservation is dreadful.

48Only the overhanging lip and occasionally part of the wall remains.

146.Large overhanging lip of the most simple type
rim diameter not ascertainable.
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink, 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 6/2 light greyish brown (two examples)
(US: Saggio F II, 63, 98, 318, 327).

147.More pointed overhanging lip with a groove on the wall at join of wall and lip.
rim ø 18.0-20.0
clay 5YR 7/1 grey, 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 98, 327, 318, 400, Saggio F II).

Fish plate feet (?)

148.Moulded foot flat undersurface with a central projection. Raised bump in tondo of cup, reserved circle on underside.
base ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/6
(US: 119).

149.Simple foot with black glazed band near resting surface. Stacking ring around tondo.
base ø 8.0
clay misfired grey on inside mixed with 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: 63).

150.○● From the kiln. Very thin walled, with a moulded foot, black band near resting surface and reserved band bottom of wall followed by a black band 1.2 cm. Circle painted on underside of foot. Inside a shallow cup with a raised bump in tondo. Reserved band around the tondo.
base ø 16.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 54).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


3116, 3068


6061, 452, 7134, 5048, 3080, 485, 7137







Pyxides or lekanides (see also red figure nos. 67-68)

151.Shallow rounded body with a vertical rim, slightly thickened. Triangular section ledge on interior to hold lid on interior. Thin walled.
rim ø 13.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6-6/8 and 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 6/2 pale brownish grey (US: 2, 183, XA 85 + 86a, XA 171 I, XA 171-172 II).
Poseidonia-Paestum I. fig. 40, no. 45. Suggested date: second half of 4th?

152.More rounded form, rim curves inward.
rim ø 10.0-24.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 129, east of wall B, XA 171 I)
Close resemblance to
Albanella 1989, fig. 16, H144: «end of 4th - beginning of 3rd» which also seems the date of the Roccagloriosa examples.

153.Rim and collar of an open form. Very sharp rim, shallow bowl with a wide (2.5 cm.) collar 1.0 cm. below the rim on the exterior.
rim ø 10.0
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: 1 183).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


4689, 4037, 329


286, 6153, 4136


287, 4689, 5095.


49These forms are extremely fragmentary. See also ribbed wares.

154. Trefoil oinochoe. All examples have a groove and dropped lip which seems to be a characteristic copied from Attic examples which continued until the late 4th in Etruria (Pianu 1982, p. 91-95).
rims too fragmentary to determine diameter clay 5YR 6/6 - 7.5YR 8/2 all reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est II, 393, 232).
Possibly first half of the 4th century?


155.Tulip/bell-shaped mouth, very delicate and thin walled.
rim ø 4.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 269).
Hayes 1984. p. 74: «Apulian imitation of Attic ca. 350».

156.Larger bell-shaped mouth with a thickened rim. Join of mouth to neck emphasized by a groove.
rim ø 6.0
clay 10YR 6/3 pale brown
(US: VA 85 III)
Date: on the basis of the heavier form and groove, later 4th century.

157.○● Thin walled more curved inward ‘tulip’ type mouths with a thickened interior lip.
rim ø 5.0-8.0, one small example of 0 3.8
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 5YR 7/3 pink and several grey misfired examples
(US: 2. 119, 141, 170, 391, AB 172 II).
Date: ca. 300-290 on the basis of an example from T. 15,
157a, fig. 184 (Gualtieri 1989b).

158.High mouth, turned out and thickened rim. Very dull black glaze.
rim ø inner 2.1, outer 0 2.9
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: AB 172 III).
Same date, also on basis of another example in
T. 15, 158a, fig. 1 84(Gualtieri 1989b).


159.Black glaze off-set wall followed by curving shoulders with ribs.
rim not ascertainable, sherd size 3.5 x 4.0
clay 7.5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 337).

160. Rounded rims, slightly flared outwards. Short necks.
rim ø 7.0-10.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 and 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 98 + 393, 141, F364).

161.○● Complete profile. Projecting rims, curved-necks.
rim ø 8.0-12.0, base ø 7.5, ht 18.5
clay 5YR 7/8-6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 163 (numerous examples), 195, 327, XA 170 IIa, Saggio B Est II)
Date: early to mid - 4th century.

162.Straight necks, very simple, rounded rim. neck ø 6.0-7.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 170, Saggio F est II, XA 172 I).
Date: early to mid - 4th century.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


7117, 1008, 1007,4817






7127,3275 6170, 5024, 4335




299, 3090, 7012


6230, 7132, 4329


2004b, 4672, 6018, 4645


4542, 291, 440.


50The feet/bases found at Roccagloriosa reflect numerous small variations on basic forms and there is a great deal of flexibility as to what type of foot/base can be used with what form.

51This tendency to simplify elaborate feet was also noted in the necropolis (Fracchia 1984, p. 299, no. 23).

52This preference for simple feet may derive from the capacity of local potters although moulded feet were made at the site but they are one of the few types used consistently for smaller forms.

53As noted previously, in the patera and one or two handled bowls the feet are often too small and too tall for the body of the vase itself.

163a.Tall rectilinear feet, angular both on the interior and the exterior, often with a central projection underneath.
base ø 4.0-6.0 with 0 6.0 the most common clay 5YR 6/6-7/6-7/8 reddish yellow, 10R 6/1 grey (misfired)
(US: FB 109 IIIb, VA 85 II, 111, F33, 97, F301, 145, Saggio F ovest II, 102, 97).
Date: later 4th-early 3rd century.

163b.Rectilinear feet, very thick triangular section with a thick tondo.
base ø 3.4-4.25
clay 5YR 6/6-7/8, 7.5YR 6/8-7/8 all reddish yellow
(US: 1, 395, 163, VA 85 II, 97, 393, 177, 165).
Date: as above.

163c.Rectilinear interior with rounded exterior profile.
base ø 4.0-6.5
clay 5YR 6/6-7/6-7/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 5/8 yellowish red, 7.5YR 6/6-7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 166, 165, FB 109 IIIb, 110, 126, 184, 141, 194, 80/F40).
Date: late 4th - 3rd century.

163d. Basically rectilinear but with a small elaboration at resting surface to create an upturned foot.
base ø 3.0-7.0
clay 5YR 5/8, 7.5YR 6/6 + 6/8 reddish yelyellow; 5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 145, 201,385, 166, 232, 128, 2, 98, FB 109 IIIb, 395, 134, Saggio A e Ovest IV)
Date: this type may be a bit earlier, from the middle of the 4th to the end of the 4th.

164a.Rounded exterior with concave interior profiles.
base ø 4.0-7.0
clay 5YR 7/6-6/6 reddish yellow, 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 165 EB/FB 110 III, 80, 129, 165, 63, EB/FB 110 III, 163,374).
Date: later 4th-3rd century.

164b.Very rounded interior and exterior profiles, base 0 3.9-14.0 but the usual range is 4.0-5.5
clay 5YR 7/4 pink red, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, 10YR 8/6 yellow, 10YR 8/3 very pale brown, 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 211, 262, 141, 134, 129, XA 171-172 IIIa, 333, 277).
Date: second half of 4th century.

165a.Unguentarium? Solid short stem on a flange foot.
base ø 3.0
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 1).
See Morel F7111 dated «190-130 or second century». This piece, from topsoil, may well have pertained to the later use of the site. The more usual unguentaria on high stems are found in the Napoli 1971 excavations.

165b.○● Thin stem, tallish, on a moulded flange foot. Possibly an unguentarium?
base ø 5.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 194).

165c.Slender stem, ovoid body.
base ø 2.0
clay 7.5YR//4 pink
(US: Saggio Est II).

166Large simple hollow base, reserved band at join of foot to very short stem. Hollow stem.
base ø 16.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est IIa).

167.Very squared small foot with a very angular interior profile and a circle of string marks on the underside. This looks as though it began as a flat foot (and thus the string circle) and on second thought was attached to a foot.
base ø 3.5
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 327, FB 109 III B)

168a. Thick heavy foot with a deep channel on the underside to create a double resting surface.
base ø 7.0-11.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/6 light red, very frequently misfired (see Wasters Assemblage,
supra pp. 91-92))
(US: Room Al, 277, 177).

168b.Same as above except smaller and more delicate.
base ø 3.5-8.0
clay 5YR
7/6-6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 87, 134, F40, 98, F193).
Common form in Southern Italy, see
Sibari III (Stombi), fig. 140, cat. no. 251 and cat. no. 4924.

169. Very short pedestal-like base with a large channel at join of foot to body.
base ø 2.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: VA 85-86 II)

170.Large, heavy base, combination of no. 168a and 169. Pedestal emphasized by a sharp carination. On underside a wide, deep channel.
base ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: YA 172 I).
Very close parallel with
Agrigento 1980, p. 440, fig. 46, no. 58: «4th».


Pedestal base, flat, with a large spreading resting surface. Two reserved circles on spreading foot surface, black glazed walls incline inward.
base ø 11.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 395).

172.Possibly a chalice type vase? Very well preserved black glaze. Large ridge in center over an up-turned foot.
base ø 14.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 118).
Date: middle-second half of 4th?

173. Elaborate foot for a large vase. Exterior: large convex flange, an angular ridge, a slight raised ridge and then an incised channel. Interior: flat but with a large channel.
base ø 11.0
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: 337).

174. Foot for a large chalice or kantharos cup? Spreading foot with a ledge below a solid stem. Incised circle in center of underside.
base ø 9.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 298).
Very close to the foot of Morel F375 1c1 dated to «ca. 300?»

175. Carinated foot, solid circle of black glaze beneath. Excellent glossy glaze, well-preserved.
base ø 6.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: XA 171-172 IIIa).

176.Delicate foot, very pointed resting surface. Interior: concave-convex profile and a very thin tondo.
base ø 6.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6
(US: 132).

177.° Exterior: small ledge at resting surface. Interior: straight wall with another ledge at join of foot to body, central projection. Thick black glaze with many scratches.
base ø 8.0
clay 10YR 7/2 light grey
(US: 166).
See a similar foot from a tomb in Volterra dated «ca. 280-220», Morel F1171 b2.

178.Simple foot with a carination above the resting surface. Interior: a large ridge at join of body and foot.
base ø 9.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 412).
The interior elaboration indicates a date in the third century for this piece.

179.Straight very rectilinear foot, large channel at join of body and foot. Pointed resting surface, central projection underneath.
base ø 6.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: PC 86 III).
Date: first half to mid 3rd century?

180.Moulded feet with the moulding on the lower third of foot. The usual scheme is a tiny pointed resting surface, a large rounded projection and a thin tondo.
base ø 5.0-6.0
clay 5YR 7/6 - 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 290, Saggio C II).
Date: second half of 4th century.

181.○● Moulded feet with the emphasis in the middle of the foot, usually concave-convex-concave profile.
base ø 3.7-5.0
clay 5YR 5/6-6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 393, VA 85 III, 165, 128, 63, Saggio F II).
Date: second half of 4th - early 3rd.

182.Moulded feet with emphasis at top third of foot. Same concave-convex-concave scheme as above but the placement of the larger element is different.
base ø 3.4-5.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow and 7.5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 416, 191, 190, 128, 98, 77, 98/393, FB 109 IIIb Saggio F1 II).
Date as above.



“P” Catalogue number



859, 203, 3255, 3241, 5147, 4361, 435, 3177, 3157


4381a, 7040, 4357, 200, 3156, 7116, 4436, 4732


4413a, 4731, 829, 3249, 4013, 4808, 4539, 4088, 4719, 858, 3192, 3236


4383, 6527, 4777, 4816, 4205, 4018, 3316, 859, 7118, 852, 4145



4610, 817, 3159, 4138, 4713, 3031, 807, 4288, 7136


5097, 4780, 4877, 4714, 4045a, 4045a, 4793, 4140, 282, 4008, 6033











6151, 861



5098, 6089, 4435


3220, 6142, 3330, 7062, 5107








3307, 4860, 342
















5111, DB 2031b


7115, 314, 4613, 4249, 3064, 426


7123, 4753, 4769, 4204, 6112, 3134, 7129, 830, 436.


183. Tiny totally misfired lid with a knob.
rim ø 2.5, ht. 1.3
clay 7.5YR N6 grey, see Wasters Assemblage
supra, pp. 91-92.
(US: room B8).

184.Tiny lid, very bad State of preservation. Modelled pommel.
rim ø 2.8, ht. 1.6
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(US: 150).

54The size of these indicates that they belonged to miniature vessels such as came from the votive pit in B 8 or may have been included in the pit in front of the paved courtyard.

185. Simple lid, depression in center of knob.
rim ø 10.0, ht. 2.0
clay 5YR 7/3 pink
(US: 358).

186. Lekanis lid knob. Central depression ridge and collar with moulded neck. Remains of a circle on ‘plate’.
max. rim ø 7.5, ht. 4.0
clay 5YR 8/4 pink
(US: 82).
The simplicity of the design in the tondo and the complexity of the actual lid profile may put this in the first half of the 4th. Additionally, the size of the knob indicates that it accompanied a rather large lekanis. Tomb 15, no. 11 (Gualtieri 1989b) has an even larger knob, rim ø 1 1.0, which belonged to a lekanis with a rim ø of 20.5 and preserved height of 9.0. See also red-figure, nos. 67-68.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number









Ribbed forms

187.○● Large black glaze ribbed vase, seemingly meant to be suspended. Nearly vertical walls, with moulded rim. Ca. 1.8 cm. below the rim a projecting handle with two large holes pierced in it. Ribs begin 2.0 cm. below the rim.
rim ø 12.0
clay 10YR 7/6 yellow
(US: 393).
There is no trace of added paint in the ‘frieze’ between the rim and the ribbing. Very lustrous glaze. The delicate ribs which are quite thin and end in little arcs date earlier than ribs with rounded tops. No parallelsfound. On the basis of the quality of the production, the absence of painted decoration and parallels for the arcs, clay and glaze found in a ribbed oinochoe in Tomb 12 fig. 182,
187a, dated 375-350 (Gualtieri 1989b), this piece should date to the first half of the 4th.

188.Ribbed bowl with a sharply angled over hanging rim. Ribs begin 1.9 cm. below the rim. Two incised lines above the ribs. Ribsare very thin and end in impressed arcs. Interior: two incised lines 0.9 and 1.2 cms. below the rim. Lustrous well preserved black glaze.
rim ø 8.0
clay 10YR 7/6 yellow
(US: Saggio F ovest II).
No parallels found.
The grooves may have served as guide lines above the ribbing. See remarks to no. 187: for the same reasons the suggested date is the first half of the 4th century.

189. Larger version of the above piece. Ribs begin 3.0 cm. below the rim. Lustrous well preserved black glaze. Ribs end in arcs but it is generally heavier than the preceding types.
rim ø 11.0
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown
(US: Saggio B est II).
Date: on the basis of the heavier aspect, mid to second half of 4th century.

190.Bowl which resembles the grooved bowls except that it is more ovoid in form and the grooves are larger and angular in appearance. Ribs ending in impressed arcs begin 2.0 cm. below the rim and there is one lightly incised line above the arcs. Well preserved glossy black glaze.
rim ø 10.0
clay 10YR 7/6 yellow
(US: Saggio F Ovest II)
Compare with preceding examples for remarks and date.
A much coarser and probably later version (larger ribs, no arcs, over-painted) was found at
Tolve 1982, fig. 10, no. 70048.
In addition to the superior workmanship found on these pieces and on the trefoil oinochoe from Tomb 12, all the vases are in clay which gives a reading in the yellow or pale brown range with a base component of 10YR.
These pieces all appear to be imported from the same source as do many of the very high quality tomb goods.
This basic clay color was also found in the flat-bottomed salt cellars (nos. 95-96). It is not what is normally considered ‘Paestan’ nor it is typical of the Bay of Naples.
More probably it originates from an Apulian site on the Ionic coast, where either the area of Taranto or Metaponto might be a possibility given the close communications that the site of Roccagloriosa enjoyed with that area. See also the comments to Amphora, Type P6012, nos. 

191. Ribbed wall sherd of a lekythos?
Flaking black glaze
sherd size 5.0 x 3.0
clay 5YR N/6 grey
(US: 254).

192. Ribbed wall sherd of a lekythos? Very fat spreading ribs.
sherd size 4.7 x 7.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 63).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number













Askoi and Gutti

55In general ribbed wallsherds of closed forms and spouts and ‘duck tails’ appear with some frequency in the habitation layers but they are very fragmentary. Several ‘strainer’ insets have been found as have the very-worn remains of gutti with lion-head spouts.

193.Large lion head spout for a guttus, very worn, and attached wall-sherd.
sherd size 5.0 x 6.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 109).
Date: To judge from the angle of the head and the attached sherd, this is probably most like Morel type F8184 dated «3rd (?)»

194.Smaller lion head spout, extremely worn.
sherd size 4.2 x 4.6
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(found in DB survey area).
Date: this most resembles Morel F8183, dated «300 ± 50 (?)»

195. Central strainer part of a large guttus (probably belongs to no. 193 since the wall thickness and clay color are identical and so is the layer in which they were found). Raised large rim, with a ‘collar’ at join of the body, deep strainer.
ø of strainer 5.4, ht. 1.8
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 109).
Date: see no. 

196. Very worn foot and wall sherd of a guttus.
Ribbed body, ‘X’ between the ribs.
ht. 1.9, width 3.5
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: CB + DB 171a).
Date: very close to Tomb 24, no. 17 bis, da ted ca. 350.

Fig. 182 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).


197. Misfired part of a duck-tail
length 4.5, width 4.2
clay 5YR 6/1 grey, see Wasters Assemblage, S. 16 (supra, p. 92)
(US: 109).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number











Impressed Designs

198.○● Three compact palmettes linked by incised arcs on a flat sherd. Very glossy black glaze, very well preserved.
sherd size 3.0 x 4.5
clay 10YR 7/6 yellow
(US: 327).
The compactness of the palmettes and incised arcs should belong to the late 5th - early 4th:
Corbett 1955, p. 181, no. 10, from a well deposit dated 380-350 B.C. (See also ribbed types nos. 187-190).

199.Small sherd with a possible ovolo design, a reserved band two rings and then a palmette in a ovoid frame with the beginning of a stamp in the tondo. Very well preserved black glaze.
sherd size 5.1 x 4.4
clay 7.5YR 6/6 yellow
(US: 110).
The piece itself is very thick. Date: 4th, towards the middle? See
Corbett 1955, p. 178, no. 3 in a dump closed in the late 4th c. B.C.

200.Foot and tondo of an open bowl. In tondo, 4 palmettes linked by a circle. Moulded foot.
Excellent black-glaze.
sherd size 4.4 x 2.1
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 177).

201. Small base and tondo with two petals of a rosette stamp. Thick black glaze on insideof foot.
base ø 4.0, ht. 2.2
clay 7.5YR pink
(US: 98).

202a.○● Complete profile of a small hemispherical bowl with a large shoulder (see no. 106) and simple foot. Partially glazed. Slightly off-centre: twelve petalled rosette.
rim ø 7.3, base 0 4.2, ht. 3.2
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(found in DB survey area).

202b.Tondo and base of an open form. Six petalled rosette stamp with dots between petals. base ø 6.0, ht. 1.8
clay 7.5YR 6/& reddish yellow
(US: Saggio B Est II)
Date: late 4th century.

203.○● Tondo and base of a large plate. Swastika impressed in centre. Very clear deep stamp. Metallic black glaze. Simple foot.
base ø 7.0, ht. 2.5
clay 5YR 8/3 pink
(US: XA 170+ 171 III).

204.Base and tondo of a small bowl. Central palmette stamp. Five fronds preserved, very thin, palmette ends in curls. Well-preserved black glaze.
base ø 4.8, ht. 1.8
clay 5YR 8/4 pink
(US: Saggio A ovest IV).

205.○● Three pieces, two joining, of the base and tondo of a bowl. Excellent and glossy black glaze. Six small palmettes linked by arcs, base ø 6.5
clay 7.5YR reddish yellow with a core of 7.5YE 7/2
(US: 181).
Corbett 1955, p. 179, no. 5, from a foundry pit dated «375-350 B.C.». See also Lipari 1965, tav. K, 5: «5th».

206.Large heavy base and tondo of an open form. Part of a scaraboid stamp preserved off-centre. The base is high and rectilinear. The stamp is a large blob inside of a raised line inside of the actual perimeter of the stamp.
base ø 8.0, ht. 3.0
(US: F185).
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow with a misfired core of 7.5YR 7/2
(US: F185).
The stamp is very close to that shown in
Morel 1973: fig. 6. no. 38 or 39, “atelier des petites estampilles”, ca. first half of the 3rd century.

Fig. 183 Black glaze (scale 1/3).

207. Same as above with ‘scaraboid’ stamp off-centre.
base ø 4.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 216)
See remarks to no. 206.

208. Tiny wall sherd with the remains of a rosette or palmette stamp in centre. On underside, black glaze circles.
sherd size 2.0 x 2.4
clay 7.5YR 7/2 pinkish grey
(US: Room A6/99).

209. Wall sherd with three rows of rouletting.
sherd size 4.6 x 5.2
clay 10YR 6/1 grey
(US: 327).



“P” Catalogue number











DB 1001a

















Gnathia type decoration

Skyphoi, cup kotyle, cup skyphoi. etc.

210. Slightly projecting rim, straight wall. Two grooves, ovoli, two red bands.
rim ø 12.0?
clay 5YR 7/3 pink
(US: Saggio A Ovest IV)
Date: early 3rd, motif also found in lekythoi front Tomb 15 (
Gualtieri 1989b).

211.Thickened out-turned rim. Incised groove 1.5 cm. below rim. Tendrils with dots on either side between rim and groove. On the incised skyphoi see no. 78.
rim ø 9.0
clay 5YR 7/3 pink
(US: 134).
Date: first third of 3rd.

212.Large skyphos, turned out rim. Two incised lines at 1.4 and 1.8 cm. below rim. Purple ‘squares’ painted ever 1.5 cms.
rim ø 12.0
clay 2.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown
(US: 110).
Hayes 1984, no. 134 for the rim andpartial body parallel. Date: first quarter of 3rd century.

213.Skyphos with a large thickened rim, slightly turned outward. Interwoven tendrils barely visible 0.7 cm. below rim.
rim ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 170).
Dated as the preceding examples. All of the above types are absent in the Pozzo deposit.

214.Skyphos. Two incised lines at 0.3 and 0.6 below rim. Incised tongues with added white inside, two more incised lines followed by a space of 1.1 cms. and finally two more incised lines.
rim ø 14.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 335).
This is the most common decorative sche-me on and shape of the skyphoi found in the kiln at Rivello which is dated to ca. 300. The same motif is found at
Oppido Lucano 1980, p. 259, fig. 199. At Roccagloriosa a date of the early third century or ca. 300 also seems justified.

215.Rim to an open form. Immediately below simple rim: incised line, triangles and two incised lines, with another incised line visible below.
rim not ascertainable
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: XA 85).
No close parallels for the decoration although it resembles the cross-hatching found on Late Gnathia pieces of the early third century.

216. Rim to an open form. Very angular rim. On rim, two lines of white paint and then two lines of vertical paint.
rim ø 12.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: PC 86).
No parallel for form or color, but associated with material of the early third century.

Fig.184 Black glaze (nos. 198, 202, 203, 205, scale 1/1; all the others, scale 1/3).


217.Very precise piece. Thin walled bowl, single groove very close to rim. At 1.5 cms. below rim three very neat bands of purple exactly 0.5 cms. apart. The paint on this piece is of noteworthy quality.
rim ø 17.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 357).

218.○● Grooved hemispherical bowls. Two grooves below rim.
Decorative schemes:
a. dots on both sides of two painted bands
b. two painted bands and then ‘hooks’
c. ivy trails entwined below the grooves
d. tondo of the same type of bowl with tondo emphasized by two red circles and then a white fat petal of a rosette. This example is imported from Paestum (identified as Paestan by Dott.ssa M. Cipriani)
rim ø 10.0-15.0
clay 2.5YR 6/4 light reddish brown (compare with skyphos no. 212), 2.5YR 6/8 light red, 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 5R 6/1 reddish grey, and several grey wasters. No. 218 d gives a clay reading of 5YR 6/6. Dott.ssa M. Cipriani examined this bowl and identified it as a Paestan product, see her study of these bowls with the Paestan interior decoration (seemingly lacking on the examples produced at Roccagloriosa) in
Poseidonia-Paestum II, p. 106-107.
(US: VA 85 pit aI, 167, F54, VA 85 III, 249, 327, VA 86 II, 371).
The same bowl type (unpublished) with the ‘dotted’ decoration is found at Gravina di Puglia. There are similar examples in the kiln deposit at Rivello.
Date: first quarter-half of the 3rd century.

Miscellaneous Forms with Gnathia type decoration

219.○● Epichysis. Complete except for spout. High convex shoulder flange at join of dome to barrel. The flange is triangular in section although longer underneath than on top, concave barrel, spreading base. Decoration: on shoulder, one white line, tendrils of grape bunches and grape leaves; on the collar, teeth in white; on the barrel, two white meander bands, white band and then a reserved band. Foot is black-glaze.
ht. 5.2, base ø 8.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 195).
The shape is best paralleled by examples dated to the second-third quarter of the 4th (
Hayes 1984, no. 243). Compare also with the slightly larger and less domed piece (no. 219b) from La Scala, Tomb 24, dated to ca. 350 B.C. The major part of the decoration is more exuberant than most late Gnathia vases.

220. Bowl? Open form on a moulded foot. Tondo with white 7 petalled rosette in centre. This may also be a Paestan imitation or import.
base 4.26, ht. 2.15
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: VA 85 II).
See also Poseidonia-Paestum II, p. 106-107.



“P” Catalogue number



















243, 253, 6148 a-c, 6530













56The thymiateria from Roccagloriosa are not like those found at other sites with the exception of nos. 221-223. They resemble lamp supports more closely than anything else although they may have also been holkia or derived from that tradition which was still current in the first half of the 4th, although in tomb contexts (Oppido Lucano 1972, p. 524, fig. 44, no. 9, and on display in Padula from a necropolis at Sala Consilina). Nos. 221 and 223 are vaguely reminiscent of the Valle d’Ansanto 1976, p. 469, no. 472 and fig. 39, ‘barrel’type of thymiateria. The thymiateria are included in the black-glaze section because their fabric is without exception extremely fine and all were probably painted.

221.○● Fragmentary thymiaterion. Large collar above a moulded ‘barrel’. No black glaze preserved but the ware is so fine that il probably was glazed.
ht. 6.0, base ø 5.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 96).

222.Possible thymiaterion. Part of a solid stem with three concave-convex ‘drums’ or segments.
ht. 4.8, max ø 3.2
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: EB + FB 109 IIId).
Lagonegro 1981, tav. XXV, no. 3.

223.Possible thymiaterion. Solid stem, moulded barrel.
ht. 4.5, stem ø 2.6
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 91).

224.○● Very worn possible thymiaterion. Large spreading foot. In both hollow and solid stems. Stem has a collar.
ht. 7.2-11.0, base ø 6.6-9.0
clay 5YR 6/0 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: F 11 N/52).
These really resemble lamp supports more than actual thymiateria. See
Greco e Guzzo.1978, p. 457, fig. 44, no. 45 and fig. 45, no. 45, but see also Lagonegro 1981, tav. XXV, no. 5

225.○● Similar to preceding example. Not hollow inside. Much larger collar and moulded foot with a large channel above foot.
base ø 9.0, ht. 11.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: F47/F48).

57At Fontana Bona (Fabbricotti 1979, nos. 266, 268-269, 271, 273-275, 280-283) and Valle d’Ansanto (1976, p. 469, no. 471, and fig. 39) the thymiateria are much more elaborate but that may be due to the fact that those examples are found in a primarily ritual context and not part of a habitation complex. In the domestic context in which these were found, all were around the Fl 1 votive deposit, and possibly even stemmed lamps may have served the same purpose as thymiateria as the repeated occurance of the simple types (nos. 224-225) in the central courtyard near the shrine indicates.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number








3309, 937, 2090a, 4050



H. Fracchia

Coarse Ware

58This section treats the domestic coarse ware pottery, the large quantity of which establishes the locations of the habitation areas of the site. While the site has produced a vast quantity of coarse and utilitarian ware pottery in terms of the number of sherds and their weight, the variety of forms is limited which of course indicates the relatively restricted chronological arc for the major habitation of the plateau within the fortification.

59Finds from the ongoing Mingardo valley survey demonstrate that the same forms appear throughout the entire valley and many of the forms are found throughout Magna Graecia.

60The majority of the domestic coarse ware pottery is of a distinctive gritty orange clay with numerous inclusions. This emphasis on the ‘local’ or regional fabric for cooking wares is interesting in light of the nurnber of different fabrics found in the loomweights from the site. The pots are all wheel-made and appear to have been fired at a relatively low temperature because they have a soft powdery i.e., underfired, appearance. This characteristic is especially common in the jars and storage vessels (see the ‘kiln assemblage’).

Cooking Vessels

Tall Casseroles with lug handles

61An impasto vessel of this form with the distinctive lug handles has been found in Iron Age

62contexts at Roccagloriosa as well as at other sites (nos. 9-10). The retention and continuity of this form is indicative of the conservative tradition in utilitarian pottery. The evidence from the site suggests that the form was used in the 5th to 3rd centuries B.C. Traces of fire-darkening is common on the exterior surfaces of many of these vessels and indicates that they were cooking pots, but it is possible that they also may have functioned as storage jars as indeed may have all cooking pots in general. The pots have an average rim diameter of ca. 16.0 cms. and a wall thickness that varies from 0.4-1.3 cm. No complete profiles have been recovered and the their use at the site in coarse ware is concentrated in the 4th - possibly the second half - and first decades of the 3rd century B.C.

63At Cozzo Presepe the form is found without lug handles and without being fire-darkened (Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 138 and remarks on p. 369). The type there is considered a storage jar and ranges in date from ca. 600/575 to ca. 300 B.C. At Locri (1983, tav. IX, no. 12) the type exists in a version with an elaborated rim with lug handles and was used as a cooking pot.

226.Flat rim with lug handle. Fire-darkened.
rim ø 8.0-16.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: DB survey, 129, 128, 333, 166).

227.○● Flat topped rim with carinated neck and lug handle. Not fire darkened
rim ø 16.0
clay 7.5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: FB 109 IIIA).

228.Well-made flat topped rim with carinated neck and a lug handle. Wet-smoothed exterior.
rim ø 17.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est II B).

229.Inward sloping flat or rounded rim with lug handle.
rim ø 13.0-29.0, the ø is usually ca. 13.0-17.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 10YR 5/1 grey
(US: DB survey, Saggio A Est I-II, 165, 333).

230○● Turned out rim with rounded lip, carinated neck and lug handle.
rim ø 1 1.0-24
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: EB FB 110 III, 132, 352).
Possibly like
Albanella 1989, fig. 18, H96 but the lug handle - if that is what it is - is very different: «4th».

Lidded Cooking Pots

64This form was introduced at Athens in the 6th century B.C. and is commonly found all over the Mediterranean from the 5th century onwards (Agora XII, p. 225). No lidded cooking pots were found with the handles attached so we cannot say whether the forms had ribbon or arched handles but at other sites the two handle types have been found together (see Cozzo Presepe 1977, pp. 374-375).

231.Everted rim with two sharply moulded edges bounding the internal hollow. Fire darkened inside and out
rim ø 15.5-24.0
clay 7.5YR 5/6 strong brown
(US: Saggio F, EB/FB 110 III (many), 191, 128)
Very common form in Southern Italy, see
Locri 1983, tav. III, no. 4.2, Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 146, nos. 454-455.

232.Everted rim. Sharp ledge, hollowed rim. Slightly fire darkened.
rim ø 27.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: DB survey)
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 146, no. 454.

233.Everted rim, rim profile nearly vertical and ledge not pronounced.
rim ø 19.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: 129).

234.Sharply everted rim with sharply projecting inner ledge. Rim slightly burnt.
rim ø 24.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: PC1/30).

235.Rounded rim with sharply projecting inner ledge. Exterior fire-darkened.
rim ø 13.0-24.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio O-N II, DB survey).

236.Rim with blunted lip, small projecting internai ledge. Burnt exterior.
rim ø 15.0-21.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 163, 375).

Casseroles (Lopas)

65Lidded casseroles with arched handles applied against the rim are found at Hellenistic sites all over the Mediterranean. The casserole forms at Roccagloriosa are found in the habitation debris of the second half of the 4th century and seem to have no Iran Age precursors on the site. The casseroles in general have rim diameters of 14.0-26.0, are consistently of the ‘local’ gritty orange fabric and usually show traces of fire-darkening. These same types of vessels, in infinite slight variations, are found in habitation contexts at Locri (1983, tav. X, nos. ΙΟΙ 3), Cozzo Presepe (1977, fig. 147, all examples and in Cozzo Presepe 1970, fig. 60 268), Tolve (1982, fig. 15, no. 69748 and 70054), Acquappesa (1978, fig. 4, middle of page), Paestum (Poseidonia Paestum II, fig. 66, nos. 183-185 but only the rims are similar, the bodies are larger and rounded), Sybaris (Sibari I, fig. 49, no. 27; Sibari II, fig. 205, no. 8421 and Sibari III, fig. 255, no. 154), Tempa Cortaglia (Fracchia 1984, p. 250, note 19), Minturnoe (1935, p. 105, type 2, pl. XVII, 2a-h), Santa Maria del Cedro (Greco e Guzzo 1978, fig. 38, no. 40), Oppido Lucano (Oppido Lucano 1983, fig. 123, no. 15 and fig. 144, no. 7), Taranto (Museo Taranto 1988, p. 436, no. 3412h and tav. XCII). The type is also on display in the material from Sipontum in the Foggia museum.

Fig. 185 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).

66Many are also found in tombs at other sites: Assoro (1966, fig. 16f, 17, 60), Gioia del Colle (1961, col. 217 no. 4 and col. 273, no. 106), Ordona (1973, p. 389-390, fig. 138, 4), Ceglie Peuceta (1982, p. 182, tav. 30) and Arpi (Tiné Bertocchi 1985, fig. 425, no. 72).

67Morel (Assoro 1966, p. 242-251) has attempted the only classification of the form, dividing into types with respect to the base treatment.

68The rounded base types tend to be earlier, dated to the late 4th - early 3rd than the straight-walled flat-bottomed type which is dated from ca. 300 to the end of the third century: obviously the types overlap. This chronological division can be seen in the Pozzo deposit in which only the round bottomed types are included but in the hearth assemblage (no. 240) the type is flat-bottomed. Is a change in brazier design linked to this evolution?

69One last note: the cooking pots on the central plateau are uniformly of the carinated rounded and flat bottom types while those casseroles from the southeast plateau are the round very globular and large ‘Paestan’ type: here this last type is included in the discussion of ‘miscellaneous cooking pots’ (no. 261).

70NB: There are numerous specimens of each example: a selection of the best preserved catalogued pieces is given in the concordance.

237.○● Carinated form with forked rim, arched handle applied to body and rim.
rim ø 23.0-29.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: DB survey, 63, 184).

238.○● Carinated form with forked rim. Fire darkened on rim.
rim ø 17.0-18.0
clay 2.5YR 5/8 red
(US: 119, 327).

239.Forked rim with arched handle applied on top of rim. Blackened on both sides.
rim ø 14.0-16.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: PC 1/52, 134, F 193).
This is a round-bottom form.

240.Carinated flat bottom form with forked rim and applied arched handle.
rim ø 19.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A ovest II).

241. Carinated form with forked rim, blunt lip and arched handle applied to rim.
rim ø 22.0-35.0 (exceptionally large)
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 166, 1, FB 109 III B).

242.○● Carinated form as previous examples. Exceptionally large handle.
rim ø 22.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio F 2 II).
See also
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 147, no. 469 and Locri 1983, Tav. X, no. 13.

243. Carinated form with shallow forked rim.
rim ø 16.0-17.50
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 166, 165).
Comparable to
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 147, no. 462, Locri 1983, Tav. V, no. 10.

244. Forked rim, hollowed internally above ledge. Fire darkened on both sides.
rim ø 26.0
clay 2.5YR 5/8 red
(US: WA 86 I).
Close to
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 146, 457 and Locri 1983, Tav. X, no. 10.

245.Carinated form with forked rim and arched handle applied to rim.
rim ø 19.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio O-N II).

246.Carinated form with forked rim and arched handle applied to rim.
rim ø 20.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 165, many examples).

247.Carinated form with forked rim and arched handle applied to rim. rim ø 21.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: EB, FB 110 III).

Fig. 186 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


2567, 4462, 4065, 4058, 6039




939, 3013


2557, 491, 4472, 6099


620,4053, 6219


439, 810, 802, 4754, 4051




2628, 4041




941, DB 20 II B


2414, 4266, 7035


2886, 3057, 4532


6221, 3325, 6010


2021a, 4301, 6152




364, 4461, 6090, 844




2012, 4807, 4711






4479, 3219, 4708




71This form of cooking vessel, with one or two ribbon handles, is common throughout the Mediterranean from ca. 500 B.C. onwards. The most common form at Roccagloriosa has a slightly down-turned almond-shaped rim and shows fire-darkening on the exterior surface, confirming its function as a cooking pot. Most specimens were not found with handles and no complete profiles have been recovered. The dimensions are standardized, with a rim diameter range of 8.0-14.0. All vessels are in a gritty orange fabric, most likely ‘local’.

248.Rounded slightly inturned rim with two handles (handle springs remain) probably ribbon type.
rim ø 14.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: 141, 163)
Close to
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 145, no. 442.

249.Out-turned almond shaped rim. Fire darkened on exterior.
rim ø 1 1.0-17.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 144, 128, 129, Saggio Fa II, Saggio A
Est/parete, Saggio A + F).

250.Almond shaped rim with curved shoulder. Both surfaces blackened by fire.
rim ø 22.0-27.0
clay 7.5YR 5/6 strong brown
(US: 1 19 (many examples), EB-FB 110 III, 166, 111).

251.Turned down rim with rounded lip, short vertical neck and curved shoulder. Exterior is fire-darkened.
rim ø 22.0
(US: 191, Saggio A Est II,
Napoli 1971).

252. Well-made “S” shaped profile of rim with curving shoulder. Rim and exterior are fire-blackened.
rim ø 19.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: YA 172, 216).

253.Slightly down turned rim, “S” shaped profile of rim with curved shoulder. Fire darkened on exterior.
rim ø 12.0-14.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 163, 335, YA 172 I).

Miscellaneous Cooking Pots

254.Pots with large spreading rims and a channel (but not seemingly for a lid) on the rim.
rim ø 11.0-14.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 473 dark reddish grey, 5YR yellowish red (US: 119, 132, 147, 99, 183)
Included in the Pozzo deposit which also had a representative selection of types nos. 
226-253. More spreading but vaguely resembles Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 145, no. 440, called a chytra. The parallels noted there include Agora XII, pl. 93, fig. 18 dated ca. 600-575 as well as two other early examples from Corinth VII, 2, pl. 82, nos. 291, 303 dated ca. 625-600 and Sibari III, fig. 66, no. 91 which is also dated to the 6th century. In support of such an early date, no other similar examples are noted from the sites of Tolve, Locri, Acquappesa, Cosa, Sutri or Buccino. This piece actually resembles most the finer textured banded wares although it is in a very coarse fabric in these examples under discussion. The context of US 147 is room A5 and it was found with earlier banded material but the form seems to continue for a long time.

255.Flat rim, triangular section, short neck.
rim ø 8.0-11.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/6 light red
(US: 111, F54, 167, 147, 211, 128, 165, 134).
Also found in the Pozzo deposit.
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 145, no. 446 and Albanella 1989, fig. 18, H80: «4th». They were also in use at Roccagloriosa du-ring the fourth century but it should be no-ted that they have a long life: see Sutri 1965, form 36a, dated 2nd-1st centuries B.C.

256.Squared rim.
rim ø 12.0-16.0
clay 5YR 3/1 very dark grey, 5YR 6/8 red-dish yellow
(US: F54, F374)
Included in the Pozzo deposit. See also
Cozzo Presepe 1977, fig. 145, no. 445: «ca. 300».

257. Everted squared off rim.
rim ø 8.0-13.0
clay 5YR 5/4 reddish brown and 5YR 5/6 reddish yellow
(US: 194, 232, 254).
Not in the Pozzo deposit, not at
Cozzo Presepe 1977: perhaps later 3rd century?

258. High out-turned rim, rounded edge. Ledge for lid and curved shoulder.
rim ø 10.0
clay 7.5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: CB 172 II, FB 109 III).

259 Slightly out-turned flaring rim, “S” profile to rim on exterior, very rounded body. Interior edge for a lid. Wet-smoothed surface, fire-darkened on exterior.
rim ø 13.0
clay 5YR 5/6 stong strong brown
(US: Saggio A est II, EB/FB 110 III, F54/167).
Very close to
Albanella 1989, fig. 20, H127: «end of 4th».

260. Very heavy large cooking pot with a large collar elaborated by both a ledge and then a ridge for a lid at the join of collar and body, immediately below the collar there is a hole made before firing. Wet-smoothed surface.
rim ø 23.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 400).

261. Cooking pot with a very rounded body.
rim ø 12.0-22.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: CB 168 I).
Very like examples from
Poseidonia-Paesium II, fig. 66, nos. 183-185 and Albanella 1989, fig. 20 H127.

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number




4328, 4040, 4140a, 2766, 508, 416


3783, 800, 3279, 6509, 4635


4080, 463a, 568


876, 4748


4270, 6130 a-b, 4886


4470, 4794, 4470, 3281, 4918, 4816a, 5023a


6509, 4118, 4060, 4534, 4738, 4519


7082, 4772


4720, 4795


380, 843


190, 811, 4446






262.Complete profile. Jug with a trefoil mouth, thickened lip slightly turned outward.
rim ø 10.0, ht. 22.0, base 0 6.6
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 167).
Best paralleled by an example from Tomb 15, dated ca. 300-290 (
Gualtieri 1989b).

263. Similar to the preceding example but slightly thickened flat rim.
rim ø 9.0
clay 5YR 6/6
(US: F54, 167).
Both of these rim types have been found at
San Mango d’Aquino (1988, site 40, nos. 159, 168, 178, 190 and site 41.

264a.Thickened large ‘tulip’ like mouth. Flat upper surface
rim ø 8.0
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: PC86 II).

264b.Numerous small variants of the ‘tulip’ type a mouth. Very sharp rim, rounded or somewhat squared and thickened outer lip
rim ø 5.0-16.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 6/4 light reddish brown, 5YR 6/2 pink grey
(US: 93, F374, 333 (very frequent in 333), 358).

265. Rim very like bowl no. 277 but with a short neck above a swelling body
rim ø 8.0-14.0
clay 5YR 6/6-7/6 reddish yellow, 5YR 5/8 yellowish red, 5YR 6/2 pinkish grey
(US: 98, 163, 165, 118, 232, Saggio A Est I-II, EB-FB 110 III).
Found in the Pozzo deposit but has a long continuity into the 3rd century.

266a. Squared rim, very common form. Often quite thin walled and precise.
rim ø 8.0-18.0
clay 5YR 5/2 reddish grey, 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: 63, 118, 141, 163, 239, 254, FB 109 III).
Found in the Pozzo deposit. See also a close resemblance to
Albanella 1989, fig. 18, H97 and H100: both dated «4th».

266b. As above but larger with an undercut under the lip. Very common form.
rim ø 8.0-24.0
clay 5YR 6/6-7/8 reddish yellow, and several examples in misfired grey blue
(US: 63, 154, 167, 237, F374).
This type has a very long life: it is found in the Pozzo deposit but continues into the Roman period, see the remarks in
Cosa 1976, 24-25. Also found at Pompeii (unpublished) in the second and first centuries B.C.

267. Squared exterior rim profile as no. 266 but the interior rim profile is modelled to follow the exterior profile. Thin-walled and often wet-smoothed. Fewer quartzite inclusions.
rim ø 12.0-16.0
clay all varieties of reddish yellow (US: 36, 63, 83, 113, 118, 381, 119, 84, 95, F40, 99, DB 2 II, WA-XA 86 II, YA 172 I). The general impression of this type is of a high quality production. The most developed examples of this type do not appear in the Pozzo deposit. Suggested date: late lst - early 2nd quarter of the 3rd century. The form is extremely common in 3rd-2nd century Roman colonial sites.

268. Simple out-turned rims, swelling bodies, short necks.
rim ø 8.0-12.0
clay 10YR 6/3 pale brown, 2.5Y 5/2 grey brown
(US: 163, 166, 168, 387, F193, XA 172 I, 194).
These resemble the
chytrai types but the generally smaller rims seem to indicate jugs.

Miscellaneous Featured Rims

269. Thickened incurving rim with a ridge on the exterior 1.5 cm. below rim.
rim ø 7.0-12.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 340, 335, 327).
No parallels found although given the context it could belong to the later 3rd century.

270. Thickened rim with a ridge at join of rim and neck.
rim ø 4.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: 395).
Date: probably second half of the 3rd century.

271. Squared rim with a ridge 5.3 cm. below rim.
rim ø 11.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: EB FB 110 III, 314).
Date suggested is the second or at least the middle of the 3rd century.

272. Flat rim, spreading with a moulding underneath at beginning of neck.
rim ø 12.0
clay 5Y 6/1 grey
(US: F285).
Rather close parallel with
Cosa 1976, Capitolium Fill, fig. 6, CF 76, dated to 275-150 B.C. and also found at Nocera Terinese 1988, site 6. Probably pertains to the third century phase at the site.

273. Rimless jug with a strap handle.
rim ø 11.0
clay 2.5YR 5/6 red
(US: 171).

274. Jug with a nearly vertical neck, slightly turned out rim.
rim ø 16.0-19.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 141, 333, 216, 391).



“P” Catalogue number









6050, 6053, 4268, 4704, 7078, 6009


5084, 4353, 4737, 4800, 4351, 4346, 6135, 495, 815.



4861, 4085, 5108, 6118, 4021, 9329, 4328, 4814, 841, 3312


7084, 7076, 4785, 5105,4624, 7083, 7085, 7147, 3096, 3097.


7023, 2304, 625, 2142, 876, 3323, 3312, 3283, 3173, 3190, 3187, 3231, 3247, 3234


4270, 7095, 4507, 4457, 6119, 875, 4720, 4507, 4457


6550, 6128 a-b, 6001




806, 6021






4328, 6038, 4748, 4747, 7070.


275. Projecting rims, slightly angled downwards and undercut. Curving walls, slight carination below rim.
rim ø 20.0
clay totally burnt black
(US: PC 86, 298, 333).
Not in the Pozzo deposit, possibly mid to later 3rd. Very like a form from
Nocera Terinese 1988, site 18.

276. Similar to 275 but without the undercut and with straight walls.
rim ø 16.0-18.0
clay 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: 134, 98, PC 86 II, 314, 333, F56).
Not in Pozzo deposit, suggested date as above.

277. Thickened rounded rim often with traces of red slip or paint.
rim ø 18.0-24.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, 2.5YR 5/6 red
(US: 129, 141 [many examples], 152, 164, 333 [many examples]).
Possibly quite early, may be a banded coarse ware phase, cf. no. 

278. ‘Hammer-head’ rims, quite thick, with thick curving walls.
rim ø 22.0-24.0
clays 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, 5YR 7/2 pinkish grey
(US: 35, PC1, 134, 3871, EB-FB 110 III, FB 109 III B).
Poseidonia-Poestum II, fig. 67, no. 279; Nocera Terinese 1988, site 18; Albanella 1989, fig. 17, H69: «mid-5th through 4th».

279. Angular rims, tilted downwards, carinated wall below rim.
rim ø usually 20.0-22 but one example 13.0 clay 7.5YR 6/2 pinkish grey, 2.5YR n/3 very dark grey, and exceptionally for the example with the small diameter, 5GY 5/1 greenish grey
(US: F19, 134).
Date: late 4th-early 3rd century.

280. Small projecting rim, tilted upwards, slight depression in middle of rim; slight carination below rim.
rim ø 20.0
clay 10YR 5/2 greyish brown
(US: 165).
Date: late 4th-early 3rd century.

281. Bowls with simple rims. One example has a channel on the wall surface.
rim ø 10.0-27.0
clay 2.5Y N7 light grey, 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow, 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: 134, 145, F374, 254, 327, 333, 349).
Date: as above.

282. Rim and dropped collar.
rim ø 19.0-22.0
2.5YR 6/6 light red, 7.5YR 5N5 grey black, 7.5YR 6N6 grey 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 119, VA-XA 86 II,2, Saggio F2 ovest II, 393).
Late form: see
Assoro 1966, fig. 11, Tomb 7 bis, «end of 3rd», and Sutri 1964, fig. 5, no. 16. Date: mid-to late 3rd century.

283. Deep bowl with a projecting rim, deeply undercut lip and two grooves on rim.
rim ø 37.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: DB survey).
Very close to
Albanella 1989, fig. 17, H69: «mid 5th-4th».


284. Carinated plates with flat rims, derivative of the impasto types (nos, 3a-c) found on the site.
rim ø 15.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio ZA-YA172)
This type is especially common on the southeast plateau but rare on the central plateau.

285. Less pronounced carination, more rounded form, flat projecting rim.
rim ø 15.0-20.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: XA-ZA 172 III).

286. Shallow plate with a projecting rim decorated with three grooved lines.
rim ø 24.0
clay 5YR 6/1 grey
(US: CB 169 I).


287. Large almond rim and wall of a cooking pot, very fire-darkened. Sponge like fabric.
rim ø 17.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 119).
Found in Roman colonial sites from ca. 275 onwards, see
Sutri 1965, form 38b; Cosa 1976, Forum Gate deposit, no. 34, dated 200-175 and Cosa 1976, Capitolium Fill deposit, no. 32, dated 275-150.

Large Bowls (Mortaria) and Large Basins

288. Flat topped rim, exterior wall decorated with grooves.
rim ø 20.0-33.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: DB survey, I)

289. Thick rounded and projecting rim with carinations.
rim ø 26.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(US: 91).

290. Thick rounded rim, two grooves on exterior surface.
rim ø 24.0-30.0
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: 129,333).

291. Thick collar-like rim with grooves and a spout.
rim ø 32.0
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: CB 168 I)

292. Pie-crust or crimped edge on rim of a large bowl.
rim ø 30.0
clay 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: 128, 391).
Like examples from
Poseidonia-Paestum II, fig. 65, no. 188, Monasterace Marina 1972, figs. 26 and 175, Oppido Lucano 1983, fig. 96, no. 8. The motif has a long life, see Sutri 1965, form 50 where it reappears on a lid.

293. Basin with a scalloped decoration at midpoint of basin. Large projecting rim.
rim ø 43.0, ht. 6.6
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(DB: Piani di Mariosa).

294. Large basin with a thick projecting ‘serrated’ handle.
rim ø 40.0-43.0?
clay 5YR 6/7 reddish yellow
(Piano di Palombi).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


5002, 6015, 6037


4143, 6129, 6224, 6020, 6051, 6059, 6100


4236, 4353a, 4064, 6052, 6054, 4142,4047


4181, 7003, 424, 1124,816, 840, 853


4168, 5015, 4035, 5003




4856, 7077, 4375, 4257, 6137, 6073a, 6069


2734, 2828, 344, 3320, 4001,609, 4777,7101




970, 971








2103, 6008




4063, 6047




4210, 7028




4210, 2078a


72All of the following lids are common throughout the Mediterranean between the second half of the 6th and the second century B.C.

295. Lid knob, circular depression on top.
knob ø 1.9-8.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio F2 II,48, 147).

296. Same but larger and more modelled.
knob ø 2.0-5.2
clay 2.5YR 6/8 light red
(US: 166,48)
Albanella 1989, fig. 22, H. 165-167.

297.○● Simple circular knob without depression.
knob ø 3.8
clay absolutely burnt black
(US: BB 172 IIIA).

298.○● Rough knob, central depression on top, indented underneath, curved wall.
knob ø 2.0
clay 5YR 7/8 reddish yellow
(DB survey, Room Al).

299. Large knob, well-finished. Fire darkened on both surfaces.
knob ø 3.0-5.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est II, 113).

300. Well made knob with central depression and indentation under lip of knob.
knob ø 2.5
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: Saggio F 1 II).

301. Well-made knob, wet-smoothed.
knob ø 4.3
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(DB survey).

302. Lid knob and part of wall. Elaborate knob with squared edges, short stem.
knob ø 3.5
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: 165).

Fig. 187 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).

Miscellaneous Coarse Wares

303. Coarse ware spouts which seem to come from the walls of vases rather than serve as a neck. Feeder bottles?
ht. 4.6, mouth and collar 0 2.8
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: 125, AB I + 2 III, YA-ZA 172 III).
See Infant burial-Saggio 6 in black-glaze (
Gualtieri 1989b).

304. Part of a potter’s wheel. At 9.0 cm. from edge, a line.
thickness 1.5
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red
(US: DB survey).

305. Crucibles? Flat bases, thick walls.
base ø 4.6-5.0
clay 5YR 6/8
(US: Saggio Ο I).

Entry no.

“P” Catalogue number


6167, 882, 2028, 4700


6166,6095, 4496






1009a, 3317








7001,983, 984




985, 986.

H. Fracchia

A. Keith

‘Kiln assemblage’

73A number of pottery finds (mostly coarse ware) found in the kiln (underneath the collapse of a lean-to roof) and in the immediately adjacent area appear to be a fairly homogeneous group, and are to be linked with the later use of the kiln as an oven or even a storage place. The careful filling of the holes in the firing plateform, some repairs of the dome (with a flat tile and using the lid no. 306) and finally the presence of a cobbled area to the south (F85, supra ch. 4) all provide evidence for such a reuse of the kiln and the area immediately around it.

74The pieces listed here will be treated more completely in “Roccagloriosa II” as they pertain to the later use of the central plateau.


306.○● (P6502) Coarse ware lid rim, slightly upturned, knob with a central depression.
rim ø 15.5
clay misfired grey

307.○● (PF54/jug) Jug with a turned back rim, ovoid swelling body on a short neck. Strap handle. Wet-smoothed, few large inclusions. Seems to have undergone a higher firing temperature as many of the quartzite inclusions have dissolved.
ht. 7.5, rim ø 7.5
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow

308.(P3285) Jug rim and strap handle with a central groove. Powdery surface.
rim ø 10.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow

Fig. 188 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).

309. (P5034) Jug and many joining body sherds. Rim incomplete. Simple projecting rim, long neck, groove on body below neck. Many white inclusions, very powdery to the touch as is no. 308 whereas no. 307 is of a different firing and surface treatment, much like no. 335.
rim ø 9.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow

310. (P4275) Jug with simple projecting rim, long neck, ovoid body: very close to no. 307 for finishing and type.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow.

311. (P4519) Rim like no. 309. Powdery feeling to clay.
rim ø 11.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow

312. (P4472) Rim possibly same pot as no. 314.
rim ø 10.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

313. (P4387) Jug with a slightly back turned rim, rounded and with handle spring evident. Wet smoothed.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow.

314. (P4268) Rim type like no. 316.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow

315. (P4653) Simple turned back rim. Very hard surface to pot. Neck not elaborated.
rim ø 8.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow

316. P4624) Turned back rim with a very sharp undercut lip, beginning of pouring spout, short neck. Very hard surface.
rim ø 22.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow

317. (P4442) Possibly same pot as no. 319.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow.

318. (P4567) Possibly same pot as no. 316.
rim ø 22.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

319. (P4469) Jug with rounded rim, strap handle attached. Hard surface, virtually no inclusions.
rim ø 10.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow.

320. (P4447) Jug with a large projecting rim. Very hard wet-smoothed surface. Few inclusions.
rim ø 6.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

321. (P4658) Cooking pot identical to no. 235. Soft surface, lots of white large inclusions.
rim ø not determinable
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

322. (P4446) Larger overhanging rim. Seems a more evolved type than no. 324. Slight carination to body. Smooth hard surface quite different from the grainy texture of the types listed nos. 237-247.
rim ø 20.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

323. (P4467) Identical to no. 316.

324. (P4422) Jug.
rim ø 11.0
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red.

325. (P4659) Possibly same vase as no. 315 to which it is identical.

326. (P4484) Fragment of a lid rim, smooth hard surface.
rim ø not determinable
clay 2.5YR 6/6 light red.

327. (P4625) Like preceding but thicker. Smooth hard surface.
rim ø 14.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.


328. (P4554) Flat base. Slight elaboration at join of base to body. Smooth hard surface.
base ø 8.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

329. (P4655) Larger version of preceding.
base ø 9.0
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow

330. (P4528) Larger version of preceding.
base ø 12.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow

331. (P4630) Very fragmentary but surface treatment and clay as no. 329.

332. (P4128) Flat base and body (12 joining sherds) of a coarse ware jug.
base ø 11.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.


333. (P4469) Flat handle. Wet-smoothed with few inclusions.
length 5.8
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow.

334. (P4425) Identical to preceding example.

75The following two pieces were found beside the kiln not in it, but the excavator associates them with the kiln dump (see Chap. 3).

335.○● (P 165) Coarse ware cooking pot. Very large and heavy. Large handles pushed up under rim which is turned back and flattened against the wall of the pot. Very rounded body. Wet-smoothed very hard surface. No visible inclusions.
rim ø 23.0
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red.

Fig. 189 Coarse ware (nos. 227-335) and amphorae (nos. 358 and 378) (scale 1/3).

336. (P 165a) Grooved black-glaze bowl. See entry no. 128.

  • 14 Paul Arthur very kindly provided me with his drawings of the coarse ware found in the excavations w (...)

76Some of the pottery in the kiln ‘dump’ deposit documents very clearly the later use of the complex. The more sophisticated surface treatment and the finer clay are in themselves indications of a different source for the pieces. A certain number of forms are paralleled by examples from Pompeii in form, dimensions and clay14. Those vases paralleled by forms from Pompeii are nos. 316, 322, 336, 313, 315, 319, 320, 335. All can be dated from the midthird through the second centuries B.C.

H. Fracchia

A. Keith

Hearth Assemblage

77These are all objects which came from the hearth in Room A7/A8. There appears to have been a shelf above the hearth which slid into it after it went out of use. Probably all the black-glaze material came from the self. The assemblage presents a good cross-section of the kitchen apparatus in the last decades of the 4th and first half of the 3rd centuries B.C.

Black Glaze

337. (P6537) Shallow dish, see no. 139.
rim ø 14.0
clay 7.5YR 7/8 reddish yellow.

338. (P6554) Bowl with out turned rim, see no. 118.
rim ø 16.0
clay misfired blue grey.

339. (P6546) Bowl or one handled cup. Raised bump (very worn stamp?) in tondo, see no. 107.
rim ø 8.7, ht. 5.8, base 0 4.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

340. (P6555) Grooved bowl fragment, see type 127.
rim ø 12.0
clay 7.5YR 7/8 reddish yellow.

341. (P6536) Neck and shoulder of a closed form-jug? brocca?
sherd size 8.0x5.0
clay grey misfired.

Coarse Ware

342. (P6544) Elaborate rim of a ‘bean-pot’ with a carinated shoulder, a combination of nos. 230 and 244. Wet-smoothed surface treatment. Exterior fire-darkened.
rim ø 13.0
clay 7.5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

343. (P6534) Bean pot type no. 228.
rim ø 14.50
clay 2.5YR 5/6 red.

344. (P6542) Lidded cooking pot, see no. 232.
Fire blackened exterior.
rim ø 14.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

345. (P6544) Flat bottom Casserole, see no. 240.
rim ø 14.0, base ø 10.0, ht. 3.0
clay 2.5YR 5/6.

346. (P6539) Very large coarse ware jug handle with a large portion of ovoid body attached. Like no. 262.
sherd size 14.0 x 9.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

347. (P6543) Chytra? with a dark brown slip. See no. 252.
rim ø 15.0
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

348. (P6548) Shallow plate, see no. 286.
rim ø 12.0
clay 10YR 7/4 very pale brown.

349. (P6531) Lid knob, see no. 297. This piece is very soapy to the touch, possibly burnished or wet-smoothed.
ht. 2.2
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow.

350. (P5547) Lid rim and wall. Possibly attached to no. 349, although the clay is slightly different but they both have a very soapy feeling.
rim ø 20.0
Clay misfired blue grey on surface, 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow.

351. (P6547) Large strap handle, possibly attached to no. 346.
clay misfired blue grey.

352. (P6538) Unidentified rim.

78The hearth assemblage is significant for its association of the black-glaze and coarse ware forms, the evident standardization of sizes found in a kitchen complex and the continued use of the area. Both the misfired wasters and the slipped, burnished or wet-smoothed examples as well as the grooved bowl, no. 340, indicate the continued use of the hearth in association with the working of the kiln area. H. Fracchia

2. Amphorae


79The site and territory around Roccagloriosa have yielded 119 rim sherds identified as belonging to transport amphorae, excluding those from the tombs, datable from classical Greek times down to the later Roman Empire. Though republican and imperial vessels are scarce, the quantity of earlier amphorae present enable a preliminary pattern of commodity consumption and extra-territorial exchange to be defined, principally for the fourth and first half of the third century B.C. Internal chronological subdivisions are, unfortunately, unachievable given that the bulk of the material from the excavations derives from the thick colluvial deposits that were found to blanket the area.

80An attempt has been made to assign vessels to production areas not only on form, which alone is unadvisable, but also on fabric characteristics noted on a macroscopic level. Further research should require petrological analyses. Some fabrics are fairly recognizable, whilst others bear similarities to other ceramic classes present in the area. Until more detailed work is carried out, which may confirm or refute the postulate, the latter fabrics will be termed ‘regional’.

81By ‘regional’ I mean fabrics for which I conjecture an origin lying somewhere to the south of the volcanic area around the Bay of Naples and Vesuvius, and to the north of the Calabria granitic massifs. In effect the area is that of Southern Campania to the Calabro-Lucanian border, whose clay formations differ internally because of the diverse sedimentary episodes or the various geological ter rains (principally from the “flysch of the Cilento” (auct.), the carbonatic massifs and a calcareous-silico-marly succession (Lagonegro basin), which generated them. It is clear that in this area many local lithological distinctions may be made, which should, in future, help in the characterization and provenancing of locally-made ceramics through petrological analysis.

82The soil around Roccagloriosa is particularly acidic. This, together with the fact that a large quantity of the pieces presented here were found in colluvial deposits and were thus subjected to a certain amount of weathering, has meant that the original surfaces of the sherds have not, normally, been preserved. This constraint, which will almost certainly have entailed the decay of slips or paint, must be kept in mind when attempting to identify the amphorae from the site.

83Given the difficulty of recognizing the handles and stubs of certain vessel types, quantification is based on rim counts alone. Though the number is low, and absence is therefore unlikely to be particularly significant, even with this quantity the commonest types will probably emerge strongly.

84The quantities of the various amphora types found at Roccagloriosa are presented in Table III, below, whilst the catalogue illustrates a selection of fragments which the writer considers to be particularly significant.

Corinthian A

85These are possibly amongst the earliest amphorae attested at Roccagloriosa, and are assignable to a group produced at Corinth from the seventh to the third centuries B.C. and known as Corinthian A jars (Koehler 1981). They are already present in Italy in the seventh century B.C., as is demonstrated by finds at l’Incoronata, Metaponto (Panzeri Pozzetti 1986, pp. 134-135). These vessels are generally held to have contained oil, though this has by no means been ascertained.

86For the fabrics of Corinthian amphorae see, now, Whitbread 1986, pp.97-100.

353. US 232/285. One very heavy base sherd in classic mudstone fabric.

Corinthian A’

87These vessels appear during the last quarter of the VIth century B.C. and continue down into the IVth century.

88This type of amphora seems to have been produced principally at Corinth and on Corcyra and perhaps carried wine (Koehler 1981, pp. 452-454).

89Its identification as a wine amphora may be reinforced by the ritual status accorded to the two vessels from Roccagloriosa which were found placed in tombs: it is generally accepted that wine was a complex and vital Symbol within the funerary contexts of various cultures in Italy and beyond (see, for example, Cerchiai 1981, p. 48 and note 80; and the discussion of the cremation burials at Roccagloriosa in Gualtieri 1989b).

354. Tomb 13. Datable, by association, to around 330 B.C.

355. Tomb 25. Virtually whole vessel in a light grey fabric, overfired during cremation. Datable, by association, to around 300 B.C.

356. P2115A DB survey DI IV. Soft brownish-orange fabric (2.5YR 5/6) with calcareous reaction rims and occasional sub-angular to rounded quartz. Uncertain provenance.

357. P5 FB 109 IIIA. Stub in a soft and fine cream-yellow fabric (10YR 7.5/3) with occasional dark (volcanic?) inclusions.

358.○● P2812 DB E141? Handle and rim extremity in the ‘classic’ Corinthian mudstone fabric.

Corinthian R

90This development of the Corinthian A amphora appears to have been produced from about the second quarter of the Vth century B.C. as is testified by finds from the “Punic Amphora Building” at Corinth (Koehler 1981, p. 454). It, again, was produced both at Corinth and Corcyra, if not elsewhere.

359. P6046. Soft, fine, cream-yellow (10YR 8/4) fabric, with few visible inclusions. Compare Cavalier, 1985, p. 63, pl. XVIII and fig. 16, no. 55, identified as Corinthian B and coming from a context at Lipari dated from the mid sixth to the second half of the fifth century B.C.


91The development of this Greek container, produced on the island of Chios from the VIth to the Ist century B.C., is illustrated by Grace (1961, figs. 44-47). It probably contained the famous wine noted in the sources.

360. ZA+YA 172 II-III. Two rim fragments in a soft, medium beige fabric (7.5YR 6.5/6) with a light grey core (7.5YR 7.5/2), occasional minute lime specks, rare small angular crystals (quartz?) and rare minute mica. Presumably an early type (Vth-IVth century B.C.).


92Only one stub been recognized as belonging to a class of Hellenistic (Zeest 48; Berenice HA 4) and early Roman (Mau XXXVIII) amphorae generally acknowledged as coming from Knidos, and other areas, and probably containing wine, for which Knidos is remembered. The Roccagloriosa fragment belongs to the earlier series and the fabric appears to be true Knidian.

361. P2162. DB HIV. A very eroded stub fragment in a soft, fine, light brown fabric (5YR 5.5/6) with abundant minute mica.

Vessels of type Tomb 23

93This vessel type is characterized by a flattened rim and absence of cordon. It is possibly a precursor to later, Graeco-Italic type amphorae, and it is worth comparing to vessel no. 378 below, possibly datable slightly later, where the rim form starts to assume a disc-like appearance. The fabric is macroscopically similar to the pseudo-Chian series listed below, and a regional origin is suspected. It may be noted that the type, with a macroscopically similar fabric, is fairly frequent at Elea and in its hinterland. Slip was not noted on the exterior surfaces of the various examples, though this could be due to corrosion of the surfaces because of acidic soil conditions and, otherwise, it is worth noting the type’s similarity to vessels from Ischia known by Di Sandro (1986, pl. 9, esp. sg 109) as “imitations of Marseille amphorae”. Furthermore, the type could be comparable to two vessels from Lipari, dated to the second half of the fourth century B.C. (Cavalier 1985, pp. 51-52, nos. 36-37).

94On wine as possible contents, because of the discovery of example no. 362 in a tomb, see the remarks on Corinthian A’ amphorae, above.

362. P2563+4 DB NE (DA). Two joining rim fragments in a medium orange fabric (2.5YR 7/8) with a grey core (2.5YR 6/0), abundant rounded to angular quartz-quartzite inclusions. (<1mm, with occasional pieces up to 5mm).

363. Tomb 23 - Probably complete during cremation. Datable, by association, to around 325-300 B.C. Similar fabric to no. 362 above.

Fig. 190 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).

Vessels of type Tomb 19

95This type is represented by an almost complete amphora from tomb 19, though two very similar rim sherds, both in fabric and form, were discovered in the DB area (nos. P2946 and P2367). This is possibly the same type as the vessel from tomb 23, supra, and the fabric appears similar.

96On wine as possible contents, because of the discovery of example no. 364 in a tomb, see the remarks on Corinthian A’ amphorae, above.

364. Tomb 19 - Probably complete during inhumation. Datable, by association, to around 330 B.C.


97These belong to the class of the so-called Chian amphorae (see, for example, Di Sandro, 1986, 59-68, from Ischia). They are, however, not from Chios, which yields a very fine, distinct, fabric, now known directly from kiln waste (Tsaravopoulos 1986). Similarities to the fabrics noted in other ceramic artifacts from Roccagloriosa and Elea suggest that a regional origin is quite possible.

98Thougth none are closely dated, I suspect that they belong principally to the fourth century B.C., with little or no production in the succeeding century.

99They possess macroscopically similar fabrics, a more or less pronounced cordon, and convex rims, sometimes assuming a sub-triangular shape.

365. P362 SA Ovest IV. Soft, orange-red fabric (10R 5.5/8) with pale orange surfaces (5YR 7/8), angular to rounded inclusions of quartz, quartzite and occasional minute dark pebbles, limestone and red-brown grog (?)

366. P2554 DB AM II(same fab. as no. 370?). Soft, medium orange fabric (2.5YR 7/8) with a light grey core (5YR 6.5/1), abundant sub-angular quartz/quartzite (<2mm) and occasional dark specks.

367. AB 172 II. Soft, orange fabric (lighter 2.5YR 6/8), with a grey core (2.5YR 5.5/0), traces of a cream-coloured surface, angular limestone, quartz and reddish brown inclusions.

368. P6076. BD106/BEI07 (333). Dump canal NW of complex A. Soft, medium orange fabric (2.5YR 6/8) with minute quartz, quartzite, mica and other unidentified inclusions.

369. P4326. BE1 15/BF116 (141). Colluvium. Soft, medium orange fabric (2.5YR) with a grey core (5YR 6/2), abundant inclusions of a minute angular quartz and quartzite, occasional limestone and red-brown lumps. The rim of the vessel was placed, inverted, on a sandy surface during drying in a leather-hard stage.

370. P6225a. Same fab. as no. 369 above. Soft, reddish-orange fabric (2.5YR 6/8), with abundant minute sub-angular to angular quartz/quartzite, occasional limestone voids and unidentified dark inclusions.

Type P6012

100This type, not yet provenanced, is characterized by an almond-shaped rim attaching, without a cordon, directly to the neck of the vessel. The fabric range is macroscopically similar to fabrics from Locri and other parts of Calabria, and amphorae with similar rims were certainly produced at Locri in the fourth and third century B.C. (Manzo 1983, p. 39, tav. XI, 12-13). It may thus be worthwhile searching for an origin of the type at the Greek colony or in other areas of similar clays, through petrological analysis. It is also worth noting that the same provenance has been suggested for comparable vessels such as those from the Porticello shipwreck, and elsewhere (Eiseman 1987, p. 50 and note 43). Claude Livadie remarks (pers. comm.) that she does not remember having seen vessels of this type at Poseidonia, Elea, or in other parts of Campania.

371. P6012 P1. BG111/BH112 Topsoil complex A. Soft cream-brown fabric (7.5YR 8/4) with frequent biotite mica flecks (1<1mm), scattered angular and opaque white quartzite (?) (<1mm) and some angular black inclusions.

372. P2686. Soft beige fabric (7.5YR 7/6) with large angular white quartzite (?) and black inclusions (<3mm) and minute mica.

373. SA Est I-II. Soft, coarse, yellow-green fabric (10YR 8/4), with similar inclusions to no. 372 above, though not very micaceous.

Fig. 191 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).

Type P7178

374. P7178 (391). Two joining rim sherds in a soft orange fabric (5YR 7/8) with a grayish-brown core (5YR 6.5/3), abundant subangular to angular limestone, quartzite, a little mudstone/chert or similar and rare mica. Destruction W. of complex A. Possibly a ‘regional’ product.

Graeco-Italic (and similar)

101The class of wine amphorae known generically as Graeco-Italic includes a large variety of containers, with certain common morphological traits, that cover a period extending from the later fourth to the first half of the second century B.C. Originally of Greek origin, they are fundamental to our understanding of changing economic regimes during Hellenistic times, with the progressive extension of Rome’s hegemony over the Mediterranean. Though the subject of various studies (e.g. Lyding Will, 1982; Tchernia, 1986), problems of production and distribution are still far from settled. The internai chronology of the group is also unresolved and, although guidelines are available for whole vessels, the innumerable rim variants are difficult to classify and date by themselves. The examples from Roccagloriosa seem to be of ‘Italic’ origin, coming mainly from Sicily or from the coastal areas of Campania and Calabria (cf. Tchernia et al. 1989).

102The first three vessels listed are not true Graeco-Italic.

375. P2223. DB D III. Graeco-ltalic similis. Soft and fine pale orange-brown fabric (2.5YR 6/7) with a cream coloured exterior surface (7.5YR 7/5) and few visible inclusions.

376. P2636. DB AK 1. Graeco-ltalic similis. Soft, fairly fine dark orange-brown fabric (2.5YR 5/6) with scattered, minute angular quartz and limestone and occasional reaction rims (<0.5mm).

377. Tomb 23. Graeco-ltalic similis. Probably complete during cremation. Datable, by association, to around 325-300 B.C.

378.○● P3308 BG112/BH111 IV US 121 - Bottom of dump east of complex A, dating to the very early III century B.C. Hard, dark brown fabric (2.5YR 4/2) with orange-brown surfaces (5YR 6.5/6), abundant minute angular quartz, limestone and other inclusions (<1mm).

379. P4626 Kiln US 167. Five joining rim sherds. Medium hard orange fabric (5YR 6.5/8) with abundant small angular inclusions (<1mm), mainly of white and grey limestone, and rare minute mica. Perhaps assignable to Lyding Will’s type A (1982), and datable to the later IV - early III century B.C. Regional production?

380. P3204. BF114/BG113 IV US 87 - Dump east of complex B. Soft, pale pink-orange fabric (5YR 8/6), with abundant pyroxene (<1mm), scattered minute mica, occasional calcareous lumps (<2mm), angular quartz and red-brown grits. Perhaps assignable to Lyding Wills type A (1982), and datable to the later IV - early III century B.C. Possibly Bay of Naples area.

381. P107. EB-FB 110 III - Dump east of complex A. Soft, medium pink-brown fabric (5YR 6/5) with scattered pyroxene crystals, occasional iron-oxide nodules, minute limestone and rare mica flecks. Looks similar to northern Campanian (Mondragone and Minturnae area) fabrics.

382. FB 109 IIIB. Context dating to ca. 300 or earlier. Soft orange fabric (lighter 2.5YR 6/8) with abundant sub-angular white and grey limestone, scattered quartz and other inclusions (<5mm). Possibly regional. Note the similarity in form to the previous vessel.

383. P837. FB109 1IIB. Context dating to ca 300 or earlier. Dump east of complex A. Soft, pale pink fabric (7.5YR 8/5) with an orange core, scattered pyroxene crystals, minute calcareous specks and occasional minute mica. Possibly from the Bay of Naples area.

384. P2571. DB NE/DA. Possibly Graeco-ltalic type. Soft orange fabric (5YR 7/7), grayish-green exterior surface (10YR 6.5/3), abundant angular pyroxene (occasional evident green augite), a little rounded quartz, rare calcareous specks (all <0.5mm) and occasional reddish-brown grog lumps (?) (<2mm).

385. P619. EB-FB 110 III. Soft, light orange fabric (5YR 7/8) with abundant pyroxene inclusions (<1mm) and occasional minute limestone.

386. P2977. PC I east extension. Possibly Graeco-Italic type. Orange-red fabric (2.5YR 6/6) with a mauve interior (2.5YR 6/4), scattered small angular quartzite (?), reddish-brown lumps, rare minute calcareous inclusions and dark water-worn grits.

Fig. 192 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).

Dressel 1A

103This is the principal late Republican Italian wine amphora, produced from about 130 to 10 B.C. on the western coast of the peninsula. Form 1A, with a triangular rim, was the successor to the Graeco-Italic type and was produced until the mid first century B.C.

387. P455. SF Ovest II. Graeco-Italic/Dressel 1A. Medium hard, orange-brown fabric (2.5YR 6/4) with pale orange surfaces (5YR 7/6), abundant pyroxene crystals (<1mm), occasional minute limestone, angular quartz and rare iron-oxide (?) nodules (<2mm). Perhaps datable to the first half or mid II century B.C. Quite possibly from the Bay of Naples area.

388. P2335. DB AW II. Dressel 1A or Graeco-Italic/Dressel 1A transitional form in a soft light orange-brown fabric (5YR 6.5/6) with a paler core (5YR 7/3.5), abundant pyroxene, occasional angular limestone, volcanic glass (?) and mica (<1mm).

Punic Amphorae

104These vessels from Roccagloriosa may be divided into three principal types, usually sharing the same fabric, within which variations are present: I. Cylindrical vessel with a thickened and squat vertical rim rising directly from the oblique, almost horizontal, shoulder which, in turn, forms an angle of about 100° with the vertical walls of the vessel’s body. The two vertical handles drop from the shoulder carination to lute onto the body. This is the most frequent of the three types, judging by the number of rim sherds found at Roccagloriosa. This also appears to be the most frequent ‘Punic’ amphora distributed on sites in Basilicata (Greco G. 1983). An example, in a different fabric, come s from Berenice (Riley 1979, 143, D91).

105II. A very similar cylindrical vessel to type I above, though distinguished by a slightly taller rim, short neck and rounded, not angular, shoulder. The two handles are similarly placed to those on type I. A general parallel is to be found in Bartoloni’s form G (1985), apparently produced in Sardinia, dated to the fourth century B.C.

106III. The so-called hole-mouth jar. This type was certainly produced in North Africa, in Libya, Tunisia, or both, and probably elsewhere (cf. Bartoloni 1988). It was probably the precursor to form Cintas 315/Maña D, which is generally dated to fourth and third centuries B.C., and perhaps continued to be produced, at least, into the beginning of the second century B.C. (Cintas 1950; Dell’Amico 1986, pp. 128-129; see also Kenrick 1986, pl. 13). The general form is illustrated by vessels from the Porticello shipwreck (Eiseman 1987, fig. 4.5-4.9), dated to 415-385 B.C., although the vessels from Roccagloriosa possess a slightly different rim form and no Punic body sherds from the site appear to be ribbed. It bears doser similarities, perhaps, to hole-mouthed vessels, dated to the fourth century B.C., from Sardinia (Bartoloni 1985, p. 107, form F).

107Although it is often claimed that later Punic vessels contained oil, it is possible that some types may have contained fish products and, in this context, it may be worth noting the difficulty involved in pouring liquid products from the hole-mouthed jars (type III) (see Eiseman 1987, p. 48).

Type I

389. Pl FB109 IIIA. Soft and fine orange fabric (5YR 7/8) with grey surfaces and scattered minute calcareous reaction rims.

390. P101 EB+FB 110 III. Very fine, soft orange fabric (5YR 7/8) with occasional minute mica.

Type II

391. P4269 Rim BF112/BG113 IV US 163, three stub fragments, (FB 109 IIIB), one handle P6 (F8 109 III A), and one body sherd (FB 109 IIIA) probably all from the same vessel. The rim, from the bottom of the dump east of complex B, may be dated on stratigraphic evidence to c. 300 B.C. or earlier. Medium hard, yellowish fabric (10YR 8/5) with a pale orange core (5YR 7/5) and abundant minute sub-angular to rounded quartz grits. This is a classic North African fabric, also encountered in later amphorae.

392. P2704 DB AW IV. Very fine soft orange fabric (5YR 7/8) with pale brown surfaces (5YR 6/4).

393. SP 5051. Fabric similar to above.

Type III

394. P599. SF2 Ovest III. Fabric similar to above.

395. P2945. Fabric similar to above.

396. Punic hole-mouth vertical-rim type. EB-FB 109 IIIA Dump destruction/complex A. Soft and fine orange fabric (2.5YR 6/8) with pale brown surfaces (5YR 6/5) and a grey core.

Uncertain punic types

397. P821 FB109 II. Soft, fine, orange fabric (2.5YR 7/8), speckled with abundant minute calcareous reaction rims. African.

398. P330 XA 85-86a. Dump, buildings E. of postern gate B. Shoulder and handle of type A or B in a fine, medium orange fabric (2.5YR 7/8) with scattered minute calcareous inclusions, occasional quartz and dark grits.

Early Imperial Amphorae

108These are limited to two Dressel 2-4 wine amphorae, one from the site outside the walls (infra) and a handle from field survey (SP 3005A). This is the classical early imperial Italian wine amphora, derived from a Koan prototype (supra), produced from the second half of the first century B.C. until, at least, the second half of the second century A.D. Its floruit seems, however, to have been around Augustan and Tiberio-Claudian times. The principal Italian kiln sites stretched from Etruria down to Calabria, though it was also produced in Apulia and even at Alessandria in Piemonte. Provincial production stretched far and wide, from Egypt to Britain, including Southern and central France, Catalonia and Baetica in Spain and certainly elsewhere. For this reason studies cannot ignore the various clay fabrics involved. The bibliography is immense, though an orientation may be obtained from Tchernia 1986.

399. P558. L114 I (Area Napoli 1971 - Topsoil). Hard, light reddish (2.5YR 7/7) fabric, with lighter, perhaps slipped surfaces, and abundant inclusions of pyroxenes (<1mm), occasional limestone and angular quartz (?). Two slight finger impressions are visible on the elbow of the double-barreled handle. This is probably a Campanian fabric from the area of the Bay of Naples, although it is not exactly like the ‘black-sand’ fabric of the L.EVMACHIVS class (for this, see Peacock 1977).

Late Roman Amphorae

400. North Gate Scasso ruspa area porta N. Medium hard mauve fabric (10R 5/5) with a grayish-cream exterior surface. African. This is Keay type XXV (1984, 184-212), datable to the later fourth or fifth century A.D.

401. P2521 DB HI. Hard reddish-brown fabric (2.5YR 5/6) with pale orange-pink surfaces (2.5YR 7/6), hackly fracture, abundant calcareous reaction rims and scattered subangular to rounded quartz. African. Probably dating to the fifth-sixth century A.D.

402. P2181 DB AM. Hard brown fabric (5Y R 6/4), darkish grey-brown towards the interior surface (5YR 6/2) and light cream-brown surfaces. Hackly fracture and abundant calcareous reaction rims. African. Though not typical, this is probably a variant of Keay type LXIIA (1984, pp. 309-350), datable from the later fifth to the mid sixth century A.D.

Unidentified Types

403. P303. VA-XA 86 II. Stub in an orange fabric (5YR 7/6) with a dark grey core, abundant angular to sub-angular grog or mudstone, minute angular quartz/quartzite and occasional calcareous inclusions.

404. P302 XA 170a. Soft orange fabric (5YR 7/3), frequent angular reddish-brown lumps (<4mm) and scattered angular calcareous inclusions and quartz/quartzite (<1mm).

405. P597. F2 est III. Medium hard orange-brown fabric (5YR 6/7) with bluish-grey surfaces (10YR 5/1), abundant angular quartz/quartzite inclusions (<1mm) and occasional minute reddish and dark specks.

406. P100. EB+FB 110 III. Stub in a soft, fine, light pink fabric (5YR 7.5/4) with abundant minute calcareous and angular dark specks.

407. P6231. Medium hard, coarse, light reddish-brown fabric (5YR 6/6), with abundant minute angular quartz and scattered black pyroxene crystals. Possibly the stub of a pseudo-Chian amphora, though in a different fabric to the group of pseudo-Chian rims described above.

408. CB 168 II. Similar to no. 407 above.


  • 15 Lepore 1967, p. 252, on Graeco-Italic at Ischia, in the territory of Neapolis. Cf. also Tchernia et (...)
  • 16 The Metapontine amphorae were produced, at least, at Pizzica, in the colony's hinterland (Brehob 19 (...)
  • 17 Manzo 1983.
  • 18 Van der Mersch 1986, p. 573.
  • 19 At Pian della Tirrena, according to Prof.ssa N. Valenza who has conducted the excavations, Graeco-I (...)
  • 20 Van der Mersch 1986, p. 573. Amphorae appear on the local coin-types.
  • 21 See text above on pseudo-Chian amphorae.
  • 22 Van der Mersch 1986.

109It is unfortunately true to say that we are still at the beginning of a long journey in understanding the dynamics of trade in Magna Grecia. Amphorae should be able to contribute much to the issue in the future, though a general awareness of their potential in this field is in itself embryonic, and we are still far front the stage reached in like-studies of Roman material. Few finds are properly characterized, if and when published, typologies are virtually nonexistent, production areas are still to be located, chronologies float, and the general tendency in many studies seems to be that of a chase for parallels amongst the far-better documented amphorae of the eastern Greeks. Indeed, very recent work reveals the tip of an iceberg: amphorae were produced as commercial containers for local surplus at Neapolis15, Metapontum16, Locri17, Medma18, at Pian della Tirrena19, probably at Hipponion20, possibly at Elea21, in Sicily22, and presumably in many other areas of Megale Hellas. However, despite the potentially rich information be gleaned from excavated material, as Albore Livadie rightly notes (1985, p. 127), much of what is published consists of virtually whole vessels from tomb-groups which, though interesting in their own right, cannot provide us with an accurate picture of what was really consumed.

110Similar uncertainty seems to reign over the socalled Punic amphorae. Aside from the true levantine vessels, it is now established that Punic containers or derivatives were produced along most of the north African coast, in Spain, the Balearic islands, Sardinia and parts of Sicily (see, now, Bartoloni 1988). The North African amphorae produced after the Second Punic War seems to be tolerably well understood, those earlier, obscure, on account of innumerable fabric and morphological variations, almost certainly revealing a more fractioned number of production areas.

111Though I do not intend to be apologetic, it should be clear that whilst the careful publication of large groups such as that found at Roccagloriosa will help to lay the foundations for future studies, little of conclusive may be said at present. Nonetheless, one or two words may be spent.

112The most striking general conclusion is that the Lucanian settlement of Roccagloriosa was supplied with a notable range of imported transport containers, presumably indicating commodity supply, particularly of wine and oil, and perhaps of salted fish or fish sauce in the case of the Punic vessels, from far and wide. A quantitative breakdown of the amphorae from the site gives the following results:







Punic I + II












Punic III



Type tomb 23



Corinth. A’



Type tomb 19






Corinth. A



Corinth. B











Table I. Quantity of amphora types at Roccagloriosa based on rim counts. Late republican and imperial types are not calculated.







Western Greek











Table II. Quantity of amphorae from major cultural areas reaching Roccagloriosa, based on rim counts. Late republican and imperial amphorae are not calculated.

113Present knowledge suggests a rarity of amphorae from Greece or from the oriental Greek world at the site, accounting for some 9.4% of the rim sherds. In addition, one fragmentary stub is almost certainly of Knidian origin, whilst three rim fragments could belong to true and not pseudo-Chian vessels.

114Supposed Western Greek amphorae, instead, account for almost 60% of the amphorae found on site. Noticeably absent amongst this group is the series from the area of Massalia, which does appear in Southern Italy, though perhaps more specifically in assemblages earlier than those that characterize Roccagloriosa.

115The commonest Western Greek type from the site is represented by the varieties of Greek amphorae in a relatively coarse orange fabric with oval to triangular rims and cordon, here termed pseudo-Chian (23.1%), which appear related to the vessels of type Tomb 23. Their very number might be indicative of a regional origin, and their fabric range would seem to be in keeping with such a suggestion. I had wondered if one should not look for a provenance in sites such as Elea which, one might add, furnished the site with 2/3 of its coin finds (cf. Holloway, infra). Indeed, the forms and fabrics are present at Elea.

116However, given certain geological similarities in the stretch of land from Poseidonia southwards to Roccagloriosa and beyond, other areas and multiple production sites are not to be excluded, including Roccagloriosa itself. In the absence of sufficient information regarding agricultural production capacities, types of cultivation, population estimates and the like, it is not, at present, possible to draw up estimates of relative surplus productions for the agricultural hinterland of sites such as Poseidonia, Elea, Pyxous and Laos, and thus to propose a scale of probabilities regarding the production and distribution of amphorae. Thus, for the moment, I will propose that the pseudo-Chian amphorae and the vessels of type Tomb 23 from Roccagloriosa may be regarded as probably originating from Coastal areas in and around the present province of Salerno.

117The commonest amphorae on site, after the pseudo-Chian, are the Punic I and II types (17.9%), whilst Punic amphorae as a whole represent 24.8% of finds. Whether they represent the importation of oil, fish-sauce, or both, types I and II are well-known in other contemporary indigenous settlements (cf. Greco G. 1983). This abundance is, perhaps, remarkable and renders all the more urgent the identification of their exact provenance.

118Although macroscopically, the principal fabric present could be North African, it is hard to find close parallels amongst the abundant and similar Punic amphorae published from North African sites. Perhaps amongst the closest morphological parallels for types II and III are the amphorae for which a Sardinian origin is claimed by Bartoloni (1985). However, vessels no. 391 and 397, in a slightly different fabric from the rest, are almost certainly from around the area of present-day Tunisia.

119This strong Punic (and North African?) connection is of interest and perhaps represents the beginning of what was to become a relative flood of importation, particularly after the Second Punic War, represented above all by containers of type Mana C/Dressel 18.

120The ‘Graeco-Italic’ forms from the site (12%) are amongst the earliest in the ‘Graeco-Italic’ series, though seem to cover a chronological span through the fourth century B.C. down to the later third. Whilst some are similar to examples from the Bay of Naples area, others may be Sicilian, and others again are lacking even hypothesized provenances. Van der Mersch (1986) has outlined the difficulties involved in their study and the dangers of placing too much weight on typological variations at this preliminary stage of analysis, and it is perhaps to his work that we shall have to turn in the near-future.

121The amphora types are distributed around the site of Roccagloriosa as in table III:



Table III. Quantified amphora distribution by rim types.

S.E. plateau

122The amphorae from the south-east plateau are, perhaps, remarkable in so far as 10 of the 14 rims recovered are assignable to the pseudo-Chian group. Furthermore, two of the three possible Chian rim sherds from Roccagloriosa come from this area. Perhaps the absence of Graeco-Italic amphorae is due to chronological factors, as none from the central plateau are necessarily earlier than the later fourth-early third century B.C., whilst punic amphorae were present as body sherds.

DB area

123The amphorae from the DB area seem to fall within the same chronological range as the vessels from the excavations on the central plateau and, as a group, are much the same, both in quality and in relative quantities. This presumably indicates contemporaneity of occupation and possibly coincidence in appointment, in so far as both areas seem to have been domestic, with related agrarian and ‘industrial’ functions.

124In summing-up the results of the identification and quantification of the amphora types from Roccagloriosa, it appears evident that the site, in the fourth century B.C., looked south, with its only major point of reference to the north being possibly Elea, into whose economic sphere it seems to have fallen. Perhaps towards the end of the century, or in the first half of the third, with the ever-increasing involvement of Rome in the south, it consolidated commercial links with Campania, from Naples to Latium Adiectum.

125Little may be deduced for the period following the abandonment of the ‘oppidum’ in the later third century. Habitation continued, especially in the DB area, where a few later republican and early imperial amphorae have been found. However, the identification of ‘late Roman’ amphorae from surface survey between the DB area and the North gate, is probably indicative of the nearby presence of a rural site, possibly reusing earlier habitation debris, towards the later fifth or sixth century A.D.


126This analysis has been improved by discussion with my friends and colleagues Helena Fracchia, Claude Livadie and Maurizio Gualtieri. Furthermore, I am grateful to Antonella Fiammenghi, Inspector of the Ufficio Scavi di Velia, and the excavation assistant, Elio De Magistris, for having illustrated to me current knowledge of the amphorae found at Velia. P. Arthur

3. Vasi miniaturistici

127Oltre al deposito nel complesso A, sono stati trovati in altri luoghi dello scavo altri vasi miniaturistici che elenchiamo qui, coi contesti.

409. (VA 85-86 II). Vaso miniaturistico, frammentario ma con quasi tutto il profilo tranne l’orlo. Alto piede, corpo svasato, un’ansa la cui forma non è chiara. Al punto di congiunzione tra l’alto piede e il corpo, presenta una accentuata carenatura
alt. (conservata) 3.8, ø piede 1.8, ø corpo 2.9.
Argilla 5YR 6/8 rossastro giallo. L’argilla è grezza e molto simile a quella dei vasi rinvenuti nel deposito F11. Si vedano i raffronti del santuario di Demetra ad Heraklea in
Pianu 1989, tav. 15, n. 2.

410. (US 175). Vaso frammentario, fatto a mano. Corpo molto tondo su un piede basso. Il vaso ha pareti molto spesse e sembra essere una forma chiusa.
ø piede 2.0, ø corpo 4.0, alt. conservata 3.0, spess. delle pareti 0.9-1.2
argilla 7.5YR 6/6 rossastro giallo. L’argilla è molto ben lavorata, mancano inclusioni. Nessuna traccia di vernice nera.

Fig. 193 Lucerne, terrecotte architettoniche, vetro (scala 1/3).

411.○● (BD 117 BE118 III US 242). Vaso miniaturistico. Hydriska. Completa tranne l’ansa verticale.
alt. 4.5, ø orlo 2.8, ø piede 2.2, max ø del corpo senza anse 3.9. Argilla fine ma non verniciata 5YR 6/6 rossastro giallo.
Il corpo è carenato alle anse e vicino al piede.

412.○● (Pianoro Napoli 1971. Spor.) Balsamario acromo. Corpo ovoidale con un collo alto e sottile. Nell’aspetto della continuità della linea senza una ‘rottura’ chiara tra corpo e collo, la forma è più vicina agli esempi in vetro che ceramica.
base 1.5, alt. 5.7 argilla 7.5YR 7/4 rossa
Numerosissimi confronti in Taranto soprattutto nelle tombe del III secolo: si veda
Museo Taranto 1988, p. 198 e 199, 17.8b-8c e Tav. XL.

413.(DB, superficie). Rotelle e parete di un vaso miniaturistico. Sotto le rotelle sporge la parte dell’attacco di un’ansa. alt. conservata 2.6, largh. della rotella 1.0, lungh. della rotella 1.8
argilla grezza 5YR 6/8 rossastro giallo.

4. Lucerne

414.○● (BD 106/BE 107 IV US 333) Lucerna a corpo circolare e poco profondo, spalla arrotondata e largo foro circolare. Mancano il becco e l'ansa, a bastoncello orizzontale, impostata sul lato posteriore. V.n. quasi interamente corrosa. argilla 5YR 7/4
ø 7.5; ø foro centrale 4.5; alt. 2.1
Molto vicina a un esemplare pubblicato da
Hayes (1980, 6, n. 11, tav. 2) ritenuto l’equivalente magno-greco del tipo Howland 21 B-C, per cui «fabric suggests Apulian or Lucanian source» (ibid.) e datato alla fine del V secolo a.C.

415.(BG 109/BH 110 II US 327) Parte posteriore di lucerna a corpo circolare con probabile attacco di ansa a bastoncello verticale e foro di sospensione laterale. Tracce di vernice nera all’interno.
argilla 5YR 6/4
ø 6.0; alt. 2.5.

416a.○● (s. A ovest IV) Becco e frammento di parte anteriore di lucerna. Vernice nera conservata all’interno. argilla 5YR 7/4
alt. 2.9.
Del tipo ‘Apulo’, più comune nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. Si veda
Hayes 1980, 7, n. 16 e tav. 2,16.

416b. (CB DB 171) Parte anteriore di lucerna a corpo circolare, con becco allungato. Vernice nera conservata in chiazze.
argilla 5YR 6/6
ø 5.8; alt. 3.0
Probabilmente una variante del tipo ‘Apulo’ più diffuso nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. Si veda
Hayes 1980, 7, η. 16 «standard Apulian type, late IV century B.C.» Si vedano anche gli esemplari nella Collezione Viola del Museo Nazionale di Taranto, datati da L. Masiello nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. (Museo Taranto 1988, p. 93, n. 101 h-i e Tav. 9-10). Per il tipo si veda anche Bailey 1975, p. 331, tavv. 128-129.

417. (s. A est III) Frammento di spalla di lucerna circolare e poco profonda. Vernice nera matta, conservata all’interno e all’esterno. Parete molto sottile. argilla 5YR 7/4
ø 6.5; alt. 1.9.
Si veda l'esemplare Q663 in
Bailey 1975, p. 329, tavv. 128-129, datato nella seconda metà del V sec. a.C.
Assimilabile al tipo Broneer IV, datato nel V secolo a.C. Si raffronti anche con il η. 1, che, tuttavia, ha il corpo assai più spesso. Si raffronti anche con Pesemplare nella Collezione Viola del Museo Nazionale di Taranto, datato da Masiello nella prima metà del V sec. a.C. (
Museo Taranto 1988, p. 92, n. 101,c e tav. 16).

418.(Ambiente B8 - US 249) Becco e frammento della parte anteriore di lucerna a vernice nera, con attacco della base. argilla 7.5 YR 55
alt. 3.3; lungh 5.4; largh. 3.6
Molto probabilmente simile al n. 

419. (BG 107/B H 108 I US 147) Becco di lucerna. Vernice nera matta all'interno e all’esterno.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/6
alt. 2.4; largh. 1.7
Assimilabile al n. 

420. (s. A2 I) Becco di lucerna a v.n. con frammento della parte anteriore a corpo appiattito. Chiazze di vernice nera visibili.
argilla 5YR 7/4 alt. 1.8; lungh. 3.0; largh. 4.1.
Assimilabile al n. 

421. (s. A est I) Frammento di becco di lucerna. argilla 5YR 7/4 lungh. 2.3; largh. 3.1

422. (s. F ovest II) Becco di lucerna con frammento della parte anteriore del corpo, piuttosto profondo. Chiazze di v. matta conservate all’interno e all’esterno. argilla 5YR 7/4
alt. 3.5; lungh. 4.2; largh. 4.3
Raffrontabile con il tipo L2 da Torre Mordillo, datata agli inizi del IV secolo a.C. sulla base di raffronti con Olinto (
Torre Mordillo 1977. p. 510-511, fig. 98).

423.○● (CB DB 171 - ‘pozzo’) Lucerna (miniaturistica?) intatta. Nessuna traccia di v.n. argilla 5YR 7/4
alt. 2.3; lungh. 6.7; largh. 4.2.
Paragonabile ad una lucerna da Cozzo Presepe datata fra la fine del IV e l’inizio del III secolo a.C. (
Cozzo Presepe 1977, p. 362-363, n. 362).

424.○● (US 303) Lucerna a corpo circolare in ceramica grezza. Intatta. Senza diaframma di divisione fra il foro centrale e il becco. Base piuttosto rozza; visibili i segni dei fili che l’hanno staccata dal tornio. argilla 7.5 YR 7/6
ø 7.0 (ø foro centrale 3.5); alt. 3.2.
È raffrontabile con il tipo n. 414, anche se ne differisce per la mancanza dell’ansa. Inizi IV secolo a.C. (?).

425. (BC 109/BD 110 US 435) Becco di lucerna a vernice nera, a corpo approssimativamente circolare e piuttosto profondo. argilla 5 YR 7/4
alt. 2.2 (all’attaccatura con la spalla); lungh. 3.6; largh. 3.2.
Paragonabile con Fesemplare L3 da Torre Mordillo, datato intorno alla metà del IV secolo a.C. (
Torre Mordillo 1977, p.510, fig. 98). Si veda anche Gioia del Colle 1961, p.290, Tomba 7 (datata nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C.).

128Nel complesso, la documentazione delle lucerne e le indicazioni cronologiche fornite dagli esemplari rinvenuti, coincidono con quanto già notato da altri studiosi sull'uso dell’olio a partire dalla seconda metà del V secolo a.C. in una vasta area dell’hinterland magno-greco (Bottini A.1982a, p. 100 e n. 27). M. Gualtieri

5. Loomweights

129The numerous loomweights found at Roccagloriosa are in keeping with its function as a seulement. The same is true for other such sites as Gioia deI Colle (1962, p. 161), Monte Irsi (1977, p. 203), Sybaris (Sibari I, p. 88 and Sibari II, p. 188), Locri (1983, p. 43). The most common form, as at the sites above named, is the pyramidal loomweight, usually with one suspension hole. A number of impressed designs on the top of the loomweights are found at Roccagloriosa: crosses (nos. 426, 427, 428, 437, 440), a rosette (no. 441), an ovoid stamp which seems to be empty (nos. 427, 430, 431, 432, 442, 444), circles (nos. 438, 445), and hexagonal designs (no. 434). The same types of designs, particularly the cross, is also found at Monte Irsi (1977, pp. 203 ss) and Cozzo Presepe (1977, pp. 381-382). Another type of dEcoration on the sides, rather than on the top, is two Unes composed of small holes or dots (nos. 426, 428) or an ‘X’ (no. 427). At Roccagloriosa, conical topped loomweights are not frequent, which is also in keeping with other sites (Monte Irsi 1977, no. 344). Disc loomweights of various types are also found throughout Magna Graecia but they too are less frequent than the pyramidal type. The ones with pinched in sides and oval stamps (nos. 500-502) found at Roccagloriosa are best paralleled by examples from Locri (1983, Tav. XIII, 1). The grey color of two of the ‘disc’ type is curious. There is considerable doubt that they are merely misfired. Another detail which appears infrequently are the pyramidal loomweights with two suspension holes (nos. 429, 443, 444): it is considered an unusual feature at Cozzo Presepe (1977, fig. 151, no. 4 and p. 382).

130Noteworthy at Roccagloriosa are the number of clays in which the loomweights are found. Many of these clays are also found in the fine wares or in tiles which are thought to be imported.

Pyramidal Loomweights

426. Ll. Intact. On top circular stamp with a cross. On the side, two horizontal impressed lines of small dots. One hole.
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est II).

427. L5. Intact. Single hole, ovoid depression on top. Cross on side.
ht. 6.2
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red
(US: Saggio A Est II).

428.L7. Intact. Very well made, hard surface. Two impressed lines of dots (cf. no. 426 which was found in the same area). Cross inside of a circle on top. Single hole.
ht. 6.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio F Est II).

429. L3005C. Nearly whole except for the corners. Two suspension holes.
ht. 4.8
clay 5YR 5/6 reddish yellow
(US: 92).

430. L4005. Intact. One suspension hole. Impressed oval on top, cf. 431 and 442 for the same design.
ht. 10.0
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 147).

431. L4007. Intact. One suspension hole. Impressed oval design on top. See 430 and 442 for the same design.
ht. 10.2
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 147).

432. L4011. Intact. One suspension hole. Small oval impression on top. See 430, 431, 442 or the same stamp.
ht. 7.9
clay 5YR 5/8 yellowish red
(US: 249).

433.L6500. Complete. Impressed line on top.
One suspension hole.
ht. 6.3
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Room A7/371).

434. L4000. Nearly intact. One hole. Impressed hexagonal design on top.
ht. 6.4
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red
(US: BE 106/B F 107).

435. L4008. Nearly intact except for one corner. Impressed circular design on top.
One suspension hole.
ht. 8.3
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: BH 108/BI 109).

436. L14. Intact. One suspension hole. This fabric is very like that found on tiles that are not common at the site with lots of mica and black volcanic inclusions.
ht. 7.6
clay 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(Spor. Central plateau).

437.L377. Intact except for lower corner. Cross made by string on top a ‘Y’ made by string on the side. One hole.
ht. 6.6
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(Spor. Central plateau).

438. L11. Intact, larger than usual. Round circle impressed on the bottom. One suspension hole.
ht. 10.0
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: CB 171 I).

439. L366. Very worn lower portion only. Damaged before fired, a large slash on one surface.
ht. 7.1
clay grey blue totally misfired
(US: Saggio Ο II).

440. L367. Almost intact. One hole. Partially preserved incised cross on top.
ht. 9.3
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: Saggio O).

441.L1002. Smaller than usual. Intact. Very well made, surface seems wet-smoothed. Stamp of a 12 petalled rosette on top.
ht. 6.5
clay 5YR 6/8 reddish yellow
(Contrada Carpineto, surface collection).

Fig. 194 Gruppo di pesi da telaio.

442. L2874. Almost intact. Single hole. Numerous volcanic and micaceous inclusions. Possible ovoid stamp on top, cf. nos. 430-431 for the same stamp.
ht. 7.9
clay 7.5YR 7/4 pink
(DB survey).

443. L2031. Very small loomweight with two suspension holes. Hard surface.
ht. 4.0
clay 2.5YR 4/8 red
(DB survey).

444. L15. Intact. Two suspension holes. Appears to have a faint ovoid impression over one of the holes.
ht. 7.3
clay 7.5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(Survey Piano dei Palombi DB Area).

445. L2075a. Complete. Extremely coarse clay. Round impression stamped on top.
ht. 6.5
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(Piano dei Palombi).

446-482Thirty-seven loomweights of the plain pyramidal type from contexts on the Central Plateau.

483-487 Five loomweights of the plain pyramidal type from contexts on the SE Plateau.

488-489 Two loomweights of the plain pyramidal type from contexts in the north gate area.

490-497 Eight loomweights of the plain pyramidal type from the DB area.

Cortical loomweights

498.L7002. Upper portion only. Single hole seems to be quite low on the body.
ht. 5.2
clay 5YR 6/6 reddish yellow
(US: 429).

499.L7003. Intact. Single hole.
ht. 7.9
clay 5YR 7/6 reddish yellow
(US: 443).

Fig. 195 Cartina di distribuzione dei pesi da telaio rinvenuti nell’area del Complesso A.

6. Fusaiole

Round Loomweights

500. L20. Round loomweight with the sides pinched in and two oval impressions. Two suspension holes.
ø 6.0
clay grey 5YR 6/1 grey
(US: Saggio A + F2 + F3 IV).

501.L20a. Round loomweight, two suspension holes, pinched in sides. Oval impressions on both sides.
ø 8.0
clay 5YR 6/1 grey
(US: Saggio A Est II).

502. L22. Fragmentary round loomweight. Only one suspension hole and one oval impression preserved.
ø 8.0
clay 5YR reddish yellow
(US: Saggio A Est I II).

131In one of the test trenches opened in 1989 in the upper and previously unexplored area of the Central Plateau (Saggio Vauzi 1989), a large wall and a number of loomweights were uncovered. As they present additional evidence for the extent of habitation on the Central Plateau they are included here.

503. L8000. Pyramidal loomweight. Intact. Very large suspension hole. The fabric contains a great deal of grog and mica. Slightly fire darkened.
ht. 7.8
clay 7.5YR 6/4 light brown
(US: Vauzi 2).

504. L8005a. Pyramidal loomweight. Intact. Two holes. Very micacous fabric. Slightly fire-darkened.
ht. 7.0
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red
(US: Vauzi 2).

505. L8005. Conical loomweight. Missing lower portion. Single hole, volcanic inclusions in fabric. Partially burnt, extremely heavy for its size.
ht. 6.6
clay 5YR 5/6 yellowish red
(US: Vauzi 2).
H. Fracchia

506.(VA-XA 116-117 III) Fusaiola d’impasto di forma biconica a superficie nero-lucida. Argilla stracotta.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/6
ø 2.8; alt. 1.9.
Forma di tradizione della seconda età del ferro. Si veda
Cairano 1980, p. 117, n. 71, dall’abitato di Cairano.

507. (s. A est III) Fusaiola di ceramica grezza, assai corrosa, di forma approssimativamente biconica. argilla 2.5 YE 5/6
ø ca. 4.0; alt. 1.8.
Simile alla precedente, ma di maggiori dimensioni e di fattura assai più grossolana. M. 

7. Terrecotte figurate

  • 23 È il frammento di immagine di divinità in trono di IV secolo, rinvenuta presso la Porta Centrale de (...)
  • 24 Carettoni 1941, p. 85 ss.; Levi 1926, p. 114, n. 646.
  • 25 Affine all'esemplare di Roccagloriosa è il frammento di oscillum appartenente al ricco corredo dell (...)
  • 26 Satriano 1988, p. 51, tav. 14, al centro in basso.

132A parte i copiosi documenti restituiti dal deposito e da tutto il complesso e da qualche altra isolata testimonianza23, i dati più significativi sulla produzione locale di terrecotte figurate vengono dai saggi, ancora poco estesi, effettuati sul cosiddetto pianoro sud-est entro la zona fortificata (fig. 110) e dalla ricognizione in area extramurana (fig. 139). In entrambi i casi si sono rinvenute tracce cospicue di impianti artigianali legati al funzionamento di fornaci per terrecotte, la cui attività pare riferibile ad un momento inoltrato del IV secolo coerentemente col massimo sviluppo degli impianti abitativi gentilizi e delle necropoli. Dai saggi sul pianoro SE vengono infatti tre grossi nuclei di argilla concotta (N. 509) interpretabili come residui della lavorazione di una fornace. Le ricerche nella zona extramurana fanno intuire i segni di una attività figulina ancora più articolata e complessa. Oltre al rinvenimento di frammenti di pareti di fornaci (N. 514) l'area si segnala per aver restituito terrecotte figurate e matrici di notevole impegno esecutivo prodotte nella argilla locale. Fra le prime è degno di nota il frammento di un oscillum (N. 511) con busto di donna che tiene nella destra il manico di un ventaglio (fig. 196). Il pezzo si inserisce in una tradizione che, se rimanda all'ambiente campano, trovando confronti puntuali con esemplari di provenienza e forse di fabbricazione nolana della fine del IV secolo24, si trova comunque documentata per lo stesso periodo in un orizzonte culturale assai più ampio che interessa la Lucania, dai contesti tombali pestani25, alle offerte votive del santuario di Torre di Satriano26.

Fig. 196 Lucerne, vasi miniaturistici, pesi da telaio, terrecotte figurate (scala 1/3).

  • 27 Bedello 1975, p. 76. Cfr. anche Heraion 1937, p. 334, fig. 84.
  • 28 Si tratta dell’ex n. 21046 conservato nei depositi del Museo di Paestum.
  • 29 M. Cipriani, in Poseidonia-Pœstum II, pp. 123-124, nn. 228-230, figg. 81-82 e pp. 132-133.
  • 30 Panofka 1841, p. 143, Tav. LIV.l da Paestum.
  • 31 Esemplari provenienti dall’Heraion di Foce Sele (scavo 1937), inediti.
  • 32 Sono note circa 15 statuette dello stesso tipo inedite, rinvenute, in prevalenza, nell’area del san (...)
  • 33 Pontrandolfo Greco 1977, pp. 53-54 e 56, fig. 29,2 (erroneamente citata nell’articolo come a fig. 1 (...)
  • 34 Lagonegro 1981, p. 46, tav. XXI,3.
  • 35 Satriano 1988, p. 50, tav. 13 (3a fila, ultimo frammento a destra).

133A questo si affianca la matrice di una testa femminile di dimensioni reali, coperta da polos e velo (N. 512, fig. 196), che fa parte di una produzione dai caratteri classicheggianti largamente diffusa fin dal V secolo inoltrato in Sicilia e in Italia Meridionale e si estende nei medesimi ambienti fino a tutto il secolo successivo27. L’esemplare, pur rientrando in questa vasta tradizione, si avvicina per stile e caratteristiche tecniche alla miglior produzione pestana di busti, come dimostra il confronto con un pezzo, derivato da matrice assai simile, proveniente dai depositi del santuario settentrionale28. Analoghi e stringenti confronti possono essere altresì istituiti con le matrici di teste e busti rinvenute nello scarico con cui i Romani obliterarono il Bouleuterion di Poseidonia nella prima metà del III secolo29. La derivazione da modelli di Poseidonia elaborati ancora nel corso del V sec. a.C. caratterizza anche un’altra matrice fittile, prodotta in argilla locale, raffigurante un celebre tipo di kourotrophos forse seduta in trono, che stringe a sé un bimbo avvolgendolo nel suo stesso mantello (N. 513, fig. 196). Il prototipo, identificato come pestano già dal Gerhard e dal Panofka30 è ampiamente diffuso per un arco di tempo quasi secolare attraverso numerose repliche provenienti dall’Heraion di Foce Sele31 e dai santuari urbani di Poseidonia32, oltre che da contesti tombali femminili dei decenni iniziali del IV secolo33. La sua irradiazione massiccia in ambiente indigeno, che avviene per tutto il IV secolo, è ben documentata, encora una volta, nei santuari di Colla di Rivello34 e di Satriano35. In conclusione si può affermare che la produzione di terrecotte di Roccagloriosa, che nel IV secolo si organizza in modo complesso, facendo capo ad una serie di impianti artigianali distinti, di cui alcuni sono individuati, pur rifacendosi in maniera quasi integrale alla dominante tradizione culturale di Poseidonia-Paestum, raggiunge un buon livello esecutivo che si traduce, non tanto nella piccola plastica votiva, di qualità molto modesta, quanto soprattutto nelle opere di maggiori dimensioni, come la matrice della testa di grandi dimensioni, che, seppure testimonianza ancora isolata, fa intuire l’esistenza di una produzione non economica, indirizzata agli strati abbienti del mercato locale.

Porta Centrale

Piccola Plastica

134Frammenti di statuette di divinità in trono pertinenti a tipi non determinabili.

508. Frammento comprendente la gamba destra panneggiata fino al dorso del piede.
Matrice stanca. Argilla: 7.5YR 7/6
alt. 8.6; largh. 6.

Pianoro sud-est

135Residui di lavorazione ed elementi pertinenti a fornaci.

509. (BB 172 II III) Tre grossi nuclei di argilla concotta costituenti verosimilmente scarti di lavorazione di una fornace.
argilla 5YR 6/6
dimensioni del pezzo maggiore: alt. 6.3; largh. 10.

Fig. 197 Guttus, elementi architettonici (NN. 518-520, scala 1/1; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/2).

Area extramurana

Plastica di medie dimensioni

136Gruppo D: Busti

510.DI al (DB Al, superficie) Frammento comprendente la parte marginale destra di una testa femminile velata, con capigliatura pettinata in piccole ciocche fiammate. matrice unica, abbastanza fresca, retro cavo, aperto
argilla: 2.5YR
alt. 7.5; largh. 8

137Gruppo E: Oscilla

138È presente un unico tipo El che genera una sola variante:

511.EI a1 (DB sud, superficie). Frammento pertinente a busto femminile di prospetto. Si conserva solo la mano destra chiusa a stringere il manico di un oggetto, verosimilmente un ventaglio.
matrice abbastanza fresca. Argilla: 2.5YR 6/6
alt. 6.9; largh. 4.6.


512.(DB, area centrale) Frammento comprendente la parte superiore sinistra di una testa femminile coperta dal polos e dal velo discendente sulla spalla. La capigliatura è bipartita ed acconciata nella pettinatura “a melone”. La fronte è alta, convessa e gli occhi sono contornati da palpebre spesse e ben marginate. All’orecchio orecchino globulare di forma schiacciata.
argilla: 2.5YR 6/6
alt. 16; largh. 17.5.

513(DB, BA III) Frammento comprendente la parte superiore sinistra di una Kourotrophos. Si conservano la metà del volto e parte della capigliatura bipartita coperta dal mantello, che scende ad avvolgere anche il capo ed il busto del bambino che la figura stringe a sé all'altezza del proprio volto.
argilla: 2.5YR 6/6
alt 5.7; largh. 6
inv. RG89 DB BA III TC 2681.

Elementi pertinenti a fornaci

514. (DB AY III) Frammento di argilla concotta pertinente a parete di fornace.
argilla: 2.5YR 6/6 - 5YR 7/6
alt. 6.5; largh. 3.2.

515. (DB E a nord della strada) Idem.
argilla: 5YR 6/6-6/8; 5YR 7/6-7/8
alt. 10; largh. 6.5.

516. (DB AY I) Idem.
argilla: 2.5YR 5/8-6/8/10/R 6/8. Il nucleo interno è grigio e varia tra 5YR 6/1-5 YR 7/1
alt. 5; largh. 3.

516 bis (DB AY III) Idem.
argilla: 2.5YR 6/N6
alt. 5; largh. 3.

M. Cipriani

Placchette di rivestimento

517. (BC 118/BD 119 US 249) Placchetta circolare con decorazione a rilievo. Foro di attacco per chiodino all’estremità inferiore. argilla 5YR 7/4
ø 3.2.
La decorazione include una figura maschile con torso frontale e testa rivolta verso la sinistra. Le braccia in posizione di torsione sembrerebbero riferire il soggetto ad Ercole che strangola i serpenti di Hera. Per l’interpretazione specifica della iconografia e la funzionalità dell’oggetto si veda
Fracchia 1987, pp. 86-88.

518.(PC 86 II) Placchetta circolare o tondello con decorazione incisa, chiaramente ottenuta mediante calco da moneta o oggetto simile. Foro per chiodino nella parte inferiore (chiodino di bronzo rinvenuto associato). argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
ø 2.1
La testa femminile, con acconciatura ‘a melone’ è tratta da un tipo di moneta siracusana riferibile al periodo di Agatocle (primo decennio del III sec. a.C.). Per l'iconografia e la funzionalità dell’oggetto ed i relativi raffronti nell’area Magno Greca si veda
Fracchia 1987, pp. 87-88.

Medaglioni di gutti a rilievo

519.(s. A Ovest IVA) Medaglione di guttus a v.n. con decorazione a sfingi contrapposte. argilla 5Y 7/4
ø 6.8
Raffronti generali sul tipo e l’iconografia su
Pagenstecher 1909, nn. 239-240. Per il motivo della sfinge nei gutti apuli si veda Jentel 1976, p. 321.
Databile nella seconda metà del IV sec. a.C.

520.(Area DB, superficie) Medaglione di guttus a v.n. con decorazione a testa barbata (Zeus o Dioniso). argilla 2.5 YR 6/4 (stracotta)
ø 7.1
Identico ad un esemplare di guttus apulo da Cozzo Presepe, che è ritenuto riferirsi alla effigie di Zeus. Datato alla fine del IV secolo a.C. (
Cozzo Presepe 1970, p. 104, fig. 27). Si veda anche l’esemplare da Rossano di Vaglio con effigie di “sileno”, Popoli Anellenici 1971, p. 183.

M. Gualtieri

8. Terrecotte architettoniche

A) Antefisse

521.(BD 115/BE 116 I US 166) Frammento di gorgoneion del tipo ‘orrido’. Conservata la parte immediatamente al di sotto del naso con bocca e lingua ‘a smorfia’.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 9.2; alt. 8.00
Assai vicino ad alcuni esemplari da Lavello classificati da
Greco G. (1977, 142, tav. 7-8) datati intorno alla metà del V secolo a.C.

522.○● (PC 1 US 27) Frammento di antefissa a nimbo. Conservate due foglie di palmetta del nimbo, a rilievo (invece che incavate) che si saldano ad un piccolo cordolo circolare che costituiva l’inquadratura della effigie e dell'antefissa.
argilla 2.5YR 6/6
largh. 7.3; alt. 4.5
Molto probabilmente da accostarsi al tipo di antefissa a nimbo di manifattura velina (databile nel corso del V secolo a.C.) cui è stato anche accostato l'esemplare rinvenuto a Napoli, nel lato ovest di via Duomo (si veda W. Johannowsky in
Napoli antica 1985, p. 213; si vedano anche i commenti di J.-P. Morel in Atti Taranto, 25, 1985, p. 311e tav. 17).
Un tipo paragonabile di antefissa a nimbo, con palmetta a rilievo piuttosto che incavata, proviene da Castrovillari (
Guzzo 1976, 41, fig. 6, e 43, datata nella prima metà del V sec. a.C.).
Per il tipo in generale, si veda il recente studio di
Knoop (1987).

523.○● (EB-FB 110 III) Frammento di palmetta con petali incavati e margini rilevati con elementi divisori.
Conservati i tre petali della parte sommitale della palmetta.
argilla 2.5 YR 6/8
largh. 6.1; alt. 4.2
Potrebbe appartenere ad un embrice con decorazione a palmetta, quali quelli rinvenuti a Monte Sannace (
Gioia del Colle 1962, fig. 201, datato nel corso del IV sec. a.C.) e Gela (NSc 1955-1956, p. 227). Si veda anche il tipo di tegola decorata con rosetta ad otto petali da Cuma (Scatozza Höricht 1987, p. 109, tav. 23 RIal) classificato come tardo-arcaico.

524.(BG I 11/BH 110 I US 119) Frammento di antefissa (?) o placca.
Conservato l’angolo inferiore sinistro e l’inizio della decorazione a rilievo.
argilla 5YR 5/4
lungh. 1 1.5; alt. 10.0.

B) Placche di rivestimento

525.(BG 111/BH 110 I US 118) Frammento di placca di rivestimento rettangolare, con decorazione incisa a foglia d’edere a palmette. Conservato l’intero angolo superiore sinistro.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 7.2; alt. 7.1; spess. 2.0
Il tipo di decorazione ricorda quello dei
pithoi ad incisione e bacini di louteria.

526.○● (NW di F 1 1 US 52) Placca di rivestimento della parte frontale del columen del piccolo oikos votivo F 1l. Visibili tracce di ingubbiatura chiara. Conservata intatta, eccetto l’angolo inferiore destro ed il bordo semicircolare.
argilla 5YR 7/8 (esterno); 5YR 5/6 (interno)
largh. 17.5; alt. 10.9
Si raffrontino gli esemplari da Gela (
Adamesteanu 1953) con decorazione dipinta. Non è da escludere che anche questo esemplare fosse originariamente dipinto.

C) Gocciolatoi

527. (Area DB - superficie) Gocciolatoio a testa leonina. Conservata solo parte della protome leonina in stato di notevole corrosione. argilla 5YR 7/6
largh. 4.2; alt. 3.5
Si veda il tipo di gocciolatoio a testa leonina rinvenuto ad Arpi (
Coroplastica Daunia 1979, fig. 38), inquadrabile nell’ambito del IV secolo a.C.

D) Acroteri (?)

528.(Ambiente A1 - sponda - US 335) Acroterio a disco con scanalature concentriche. Tracce di ingubbiatura chiara.
argilla 7.5 YR 6/4
largh. 14.8; alt. 17.0; ø (ricostruito) 55.0.

529.(PC 86, ad ovest di F 349) Frammento di acroterio a disco con scanalature concentriche.
argilla 2.5 YR 6/6
largh. 10.8; alt. 16.0; ø (ricostruito) ca. 48.0.

530.(BH 109/BG 110 III US 50) Frammento di acroterio a disco con tracce di ingubbiatura chiara.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
largh. 7.8; alt. 15.8; 0 (ricostruito) ca. 35.0.

E) Elementi di rivestimento del tetto

Kalypteres (fig. 198)

I) Tipo con costolatura larga al margine

531.(BG 111/BH 112 I-IV US 253) Frammento di parte terminale di coppo del culmine con costolatura marginale.
argilla 2.5 YR 5/8
largh. 10.5; alt. 22.1.

Fig. 198 Cartina di distribuzione dei kalypteres rinvenuti nell’area del Complesso A.

532. (BH 109/B G 110 III US 50, ad est di F11) Frammento di coppo simile.
argilla 5YR 6/6
largh. 11.8; alt. 12.3.

533. (Crollo a NO di Fl1 US 50) Frammento di coppo simile, con costolatura leggermente più larga.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 10.4; alt. 9.8.

534. (BF 109/BG 108 III F 52) Frammento di coppo simile.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 16.3; alt. 16.2.

535. (BE 107/BF 108 US 258) Grosso frammento di coppo del culmine con costolatura assai vicina al margine. Conservata la parete piatta del lato sinistro che permette di ricostruire l’intero arco del coppo, sagomato a ferro di cavallo.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 24.6; alt. 25.4.

536.(BE 106/BF 107 US 134) Frammento di coppo del culmine a singola costolatura marginale.
argilla 5YR 7/8
largh. 8.8; alt. 17.8.

537. (Ambiente A6, parete NE US 347) Due frammenti di coppo del culmine con costolatura assai prossima al margine.
a) argilla 5YR 6/6 largh. 9.1; alt. 11.2
b) argilla 5YR 6/6 largh. 9.8; lungh. 10.1.

538. (EB-FB 110 III) Frammento di coppo del culmine con singola costolatura, assai larga e prossima al margine.
b) argilla 5YR 6/8
13.1; alt. 16.5.

539. (EB-FB 110 III) Frammento di coppo del culmine simile, con costolatura leggermente più alta.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 11.9; alt. 22.1.

540. (VA 85-86 II) Frammento di coppo del culmine con singola costolatura, assai larga e prossima al margine.
argilla 5 YR 5/6
largh. 10.5; lungh. 12.2.

541. (Sporadico, pianoro centrale)
Frammento di coppo del culmine con costolatura larga ed alta e margine più spesso.
argilla 5YR 6/6
largh. 10.4; alt. 9.8.

II) Tipo con costolatura centrale, larga, fra due costolature laterali poco pronunciate

542.(VA 85 II)
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 8.8; alt. 11.2; ø (ricostruito) 38.0.

543.○● (FB 110 III)
argilla 10. YR 6/4
largh. 12.2; alt. 8.5; ø (ricostruito) 37.0.

544. (BG 113/BH 112 Ill-IV US 253)
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 9.5; alt. 10.2; ø (ricostruito) 38.0

II bis) Tipo simile, a costolatura centrale più stretta e costolature laterali più accentuate

545.(FB 109 III)
argilla 7.5 YR 6/6
largh. 13.2; alt. 15.8; ø (ricostruito) 35.0.

546. (Pianoro U. Balbi US 400)
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 11.2; alt. 15.1; ø (ricostruito) 34.0.

547. (DB 7 US 40)
argilla 2.5 YR 5/6
largh. 8.5; lungh. 12.6.

III) Tipo a triplice costolatura con scanalature profonde

548.○● (BE 107/BF 108 US 259) Grosso frammento di coppo del culmine con costolature ben definite e squadrate
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 19.8; alt. 24.5.

549. (CB-DB 171, superficie del pozzo) Grosso frammento di coppo del culmine con costolature ben definite ed arrotondate
argilla 7.5 YR 6/6
largh. 18.6; alt. 14.8.

139È un tipo diffuso nel corso del IV secolo d.C. anche per edifici di uso pubblico quali la stoa dell'Heraion di Foce Sele (Heraion 1937, p. 288, fig. 58). Per la diffusione del tipo su di una vasta area geografica ed in un arco cronologico più ampio, si considerino i raffronti dalla grande villa repubblicana di Selvasecca (Blera), in Andrèn e Berggren 1969, p. 62, fig. 9.

IV) Tipo con costolatura larga al margine e costolatura ‘a scaletta’ sul lato interno

550. (BF 113/BG 112 II US 87)
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 11.8; alt. 16.8.

140Tegole ad ‘opaion’ (fig. 199)

551.(Crollo a NE di Fl 1) Frammento di keramìs opaia con apertura ovale delineata da una costolatura a sezione rettangolare.
argilla 5YR 6/6
largh. 16.5; alt. 21.0.

Fig.199 Cartina di distribuzione delle tegole ad ‘opaion’ e per camino rinvenute nell’area del Complesso A.

552.(Ambiente A5) Frammento di keramis opaia di tipo simile.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 6.6; alt. 7.2.

141Tegole per camino

553.(Crollo ad est di F11, US 50) Frammento di tegola per camino o focolare con foro centrale a canale circolare (altezza del canale ca. 7.0; ø ca. 10.0).
argilla 5YR 6/6
largh. 8.3; lungh. 12.2.

554.(BG 108/BH 109 II US 154) Frammento di tegola per camino di tipo identico dall’ambiente A5.
argilla 5YR 5/8
largh. 5.4
lungh. 9.5.

555. (Ambiente Al US 335) Frammento di tipo simile; ø del canale 11.0.
argilla 10.YR 7/4
largh. 6.0; lungh. 14.4.

556. (Ambiente A1 US 335) Frammento di tipo identico al precedente.
argilla 10. YR 7/4
largh. 5.8; lungh. 11.6.


557.(Crollo intorno F11) Frammento di tegola piana con stampo di planta pedis.
argilla 5YR 6/8
largh. 12.3; lungh. 19.2.
Sulle possibili implicazioni dell'uso di un marchio di tipo raffrontabile su di una tegola (quasi certamente di manifattura locale) si vedano le considerazioni di
Bottini P. 1986, p. 91, che giustamente sottolineano il significato del bollo laterizio a forma di mano eseguito dai ceramisti di Rivello/Piani di Pignataro. Più in generale su stampi e marchi su terracotta, quale riflesso dell’organizzazione produttiva, si veda Morel 1982, p. 198-199.

Fig. 200 Elementi architettonici (scala 1/3)

9. Louteria


a) Frammenti di basi sagomate

558.(FB 109 III; FB 109 III; BH 110/BG

559.111 I US 49) Tre grossi frammenti di

560.base di louterion (che attaccano). Ricostruibile il perimetro quadrato della base di cm. 38 x 38. Diametro della base circolare di ca. cm. 25. La base, come pure il fusto, della colonnina è scanalata e presenta una modanatura all’attacco con la base quadrata. Tracce di ingubbiatura chiara.
argilla 5 YR 7/4
Dimensioni: 558. 7.4 x 12.0
559. 11.0 x 18.2
560. 10.6 x 22.4

143È il tipo di louterion più comune sul sito, come dimostrano i frammenti di louteria in pietra, di tipo analogo, rinvenuti sia sul pianoro centrale che nell’area DB. Si confronti il tipo in terracotta da Civita Castellana presentato in StEtr, 1967, p. 435, fig. 2,1 erroneamente ritenuto un frammento di decorazione architettonica. Si confrontino anche gli esemplari da Monte Sannace (Gioia del Colle 1962, p. 159).

144A questo stesso louterion, dal complesso A, sembrerebbe appartenere il frammento di colonnina scanalata n. 567.

561.(Area DB, superficie) Frammento di base di louterion a tamburo con modanature. La superficie di appoggio è costituita dalla parte inferiore della parete del tamburo stesso, opportunamente ingrossata.
argilla 5YR 7/4
largh. 12.0; lungh. 20.0; alt. (del tamburo di base) 10.2; ø (ricostruito) ca. 40.0.
Si confronti il tipo da Civita Castellana presentato in
StEtr, 1967, p. 435, fig. 2,1.

b) Frammenti di colonnine di sostegno della vasca

562. (FB 109 IIIB) Frammento di attacco della parte superiore della colonnina alla vasca. Si nota la parte terminale della scanalatura della colonnina ed una decorazione a cordolo intorno all’attacco della vasca stessa.
argilla 5YR 7/4
largh. 6.2; lungh. 10.1
Si veda il frammento di colonnina da Civita Castellana presentato in
StEtr, 1967. 435, fig. 2,4 e quelli da Monte Sannace (Gioia del Colle 1962, p. 139).

563.(BG 109/B H 110 IV US 98) Frammento di fusto di colonnina del tipo di colonna ‘dorica’ con scanalature; abbondanti tracce di ingubbiatura chiara.
argilla 5YR 7/4
largh. 8.2; alt. 9.2; spess. 2.5.

564.(Area DB, superficie) Frammento di fusto di colonnina simile. Tracce di ingubbiatura sulla superficie.
argilla 5YR 6/6
largh. 11.2; alt. 13.6; spess. 3.1.

565. (BD 118/BE 117 US 201) Frammento di fusto di colonnina simile.
argilla 5YR 5/6
largh. 7.4; alt. 8.2; spess. 2.1.

566. (BG 110/BH 109 IV US 38') Frammento di fusto di colonnina con decorazione a striature che si restringono verso l’alto.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
largh. 6.0; alt. 6.5; spess. 2.1.

567. (BG 111/BH 110 III US 122) Frammento di fusto di colonnina simile.
argilla 5 YR 6/6
largh. 8.8; alt. 11.6; spess. 2.6.

568. (FB 109 III) Frammento di colonnina (?) a superficie liscia, con incisione a cerchi concentrici intorno al fusto.
argilla 5 YR 6/8
alt. 20.0; ø 22.0; spess. 2.9.
Non esistono raffronti specifici. Potrebbe trattarsi di un elemento di canalizzazione in terracotta, anche se il notevole spessore delle pareti rispetto al diametro del tubo rende una tale ipotesi assai incerta.

c) Frammenti di vasca

569.(EB-FB 110 III) Grosso frammento di vasca a calotta sferica. Bordo ingrossato a superficie piatta con decorazione a solco inciso.
argilla 7.5 YR 6/6
largh. 15.0; lungh. 38.0; spessore (orlo) 5.0; ø (ricostruito) ca. 60 cm.
Si vedano gli esemplari da Reggio Calabria in
Jozzo 1981, p. 158, fig. 2 da Caulonia.

570.(BG 111/BH 112 IV US 254) Frammento di vasca simile alla precedente.
argilla 2.5 YR 6/6
largh. 20.0; lungh. 23.0; spess. (orlo) 4.0.

571.(PC 86 III) Frammento di vasca poco profonda con orlo appiattito e decorato ad incisione (scanalature ai due margini).
argilla 10 YR 8/3
largh. 12.0; lungh. 34.0; spess. (orlo) 6.2.
Si vedano alcuni esemplari da Reggio Calabria in Jozzo 1981, pp. 170-172, nn. 30-34.

572.(BE 115/B F 116 US 128) Frammento di orlo di vasca poco profonda. Decorazione a quattro solchi incisi lungo la faccia esterna dell’orlo ingrossato.
argilla 10 YR 8/3
largh. 16.6; lungh. 16.2; spess. (orlo) 4.8; ait. (orlo) 5.2.

573. (BD 116/BE 117 US 244) Frammento di vasca assai poco profonda, a base piana. Decorazione a quattro solchi incisi lungo la faccia esterna dell’orlo ingrossato.
argilla 5 YR 7/4
largh. 15.2; lungh. 16.1; spess. (orlo) 3.5; alt. (orlo) 4.3.

574. (BG 111/BH 110 I US 119) Frammento di vasca assai poco profonda con base appiattita. Faccia esterna dell’orlo bombata con scanalatura. Decorazione dell’interno a scanalature e ‘pointillé’.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
largh. 12.2; lungh. 13.0; spess. (orlo) 4.0; alt. (orlo) 5.6.

575. (BG 111/BH 110 US 86) Frammento della parte interna di vasca simile alla precedente (decorazione incisa a ‘pointillé’).
argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
Parete piatta di forma approssimativamente triangolare di ca. 6.0 x 8.0. Probabilmente appartenente allo stesso

576. (BD 105/BE 106 I-II US 333) Frammento di vasca poco profonda ad orlo ingrossato e sagomato.
argilla 7.5 YR 7/4
largh. 4.8; lungh. 8.2.

577. (PC 86) Frammento di vasca approssimativamente a calotta sferica, con parete esterna dell’orlo sagomata
argilla 5 YR 7/4.
largh. 11.2; lungh. 11.4.

578. (BG 110/B H 109 II US 95) Frammento di vasca assai poco profonda a base piana, orlo ingrossato e faccia esterna dell’orlo sagomata, identica a quella del N. 574.
argilla 7.5 YR 6/4
largh. 10.6; lungh. 11.2; spess. (orlo) 3.2; alt. (orlo) 5.5.

145Anche i bacini da Monte Sannace, con orlo spesso e decorato sono in genere poco profondi e con un diametro compreso fra 40 e 60 centimetri (Gioia del Colle 1962, p. 159), inferiore a quello degli esemplari rinvenuti ad Olinto (Olynthus VIII, p. 319-320) e Gela (Orlandini 1957, p.64). Per una discussione generale dei tipi e della decorazione si veda Allegro 1982 e Jozzo 1981.

Fig. 201 Louteria (N. 579, scala 1/10; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/3).


579.(Complesso A, sporadico) Colonna di louterion scanalata (16 scanalature). Rotta all’attacco con la base, dove si nota l’inizio dell’allargamento delle scanalature.
alt. 58.2; ø (sommità) 27.0; ø (base) 32.0.

580.(Area DB, superficie) Base di louterion in calcare. A forma circolare con la parte terminale delle scanalature del fusto.
ø (ricostruito) 44.0; alt. (faccia esterna dell’orlo) 4.0; alt. (sino all’attacco della colonnina) 1 1.5.

146Frammenti di louteria in calcare, di forma e dimensioni paragonabili, provengono dall'acropoli di Monte Sannace (Gioia del Colle 1962, p. 159). Più in generale, si vedano i louteria rappresentati sui pinakes locresi (Zancani Montuoro 1954).

147Per il rinvenimento di louteria in contesti di edifici pubblici, si veda l’esemplare da Paestum in Poseidonia-Paestum II, p. 136, fig. 82, n. 253. È da osservare che i rinvenimenti di louteria sono localizzati quasi esclusivamente nell’area del complesso A e zone adiacenti, sul pianoro centrale. Non è chiara, allo stato attuale della ricerca, la distribuzione dei frammenti rinvenuti nell’area DB, dato che si tratta di rinvenimenti sporadici di superficie.

10. Elementi architettonici in pietra

A) Pianoro Centrale

581. (Parte di F 12, incorporata nella metà ovest del muro) Frammento di colonna di calcare
alt. ca. 36.0; ø 32.0.

582. (Crollo ad est di F 11) Due frammenti di colonna di calcare
alt. 23.5; ø 30.0.

583. (BG 107/B H 108 II - F 12) Frammento di colonna in calcare
ø 29.0.

584(BF 106/B G 107 IV US 356) Frammento di colonna in calcare
alt. 24.0; ø 29.5.

585.(Crollo, angolo nord-ovest dell’ambiente A7/A8) Rocchio di colonnina in calcare
alt. 51.0; ø (sommità) 20.0; ø (base) 22.0.

Fig. 202 Oggetti in pietra (scala 1/5).

B) Pianoro sud-est

586. (Angolo esterno sud-est del cortile basolato) Frammento di colonna in calcare alt. 20.0; ø ca. 32.0.

C) Pianoro U. Balbi

587.(Sporadico, ca. 10 m. ad est del saggio E) Rocchio di colonna in calcare
alt. 55.0; ø (sommità) 26.5; ø (base) 28.5.

D) Pianoro C. Balbi

588. (Sporadico) Rocchio di colonna in calcare spaccato dallo escavatore
alt. (cons.) 50.0; ø ca. 33.0.

E) Area DB / Piani di Mariosa

589. (Sporadico) Blocco quadrato di calcare con protuberanza circolare, rastremata verso l’alto. Probabilmente base per colonna lignea. Appartenente ad edificio con lungo muro in grossi blocchi rettangolari, sconvolto
lato del blocco 60.0; ø base circolare 26.0.

11. Macine

590.(VA-XA 116-17 IV) Parte (circa la metà) di ‘macina a mano’ di forma ovale, con superficie finemente lisciata. Pietra vulcanica (analisi petrologica in corso).
largh. 12.0; lungh. 12.2; alt. (centra) 5.0.

591.(Ambiente A5, appoggiata alla US 28) largh. 44.0; lungh. 50.0; alt. 12.0.
Macina del tipo ‘hopper-rubber’ secondo la classificazione proposta per le macine da Morgantina (
White 1963). Intatta. Pietra vulcanica (analisi petrologica della provenienza in corso). Per il funzionamento si veda Olynthus VIII, p. 328, fig. 34.
Assai diffusa nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C.: si veda
Gioia del Colle 1962, fig. 136 per un altro esemplare rinvenuto in situ e Gravina II, pp. 147-148 (esemplare rinvenuto nella casa B). Si vedano anche i molti esemplari dal relitto del Sec a Palma di Maiorca, datato alla metà del IV secolo a.C. (Pallarès 1972) e quelli dal naufragio di Kyrenia (Cipro), datato all'ultimo terzo del IV secolo a.C. (Expédition, 1 1/2, 1969, p. 57). Si veda anche la discussione sul commercio di tali macine in Gianfrotta e Pomey 1981, p. 220. Per rinvenimenti di un tipo simile nell’area egea, si veda Seuthopolis 1978, fig. 35.

592.(Ambiente A5, appoggiata alla US 28) Piattaforma quadrangolare della macina stessa. largh. 43.2; lungh. 51.0; spess. 5.5.

593.(Area scavo Napoli 1971, superficie) Frammento di macina rotatoria. Conservata circa la metà della parte inferiore, circolare, con superficie tronco-conica scanalata (si contano 4 scanalature). Pietra vulcanica (analisi petrologica della provenienza in corso).
ø (ricostruito) ca. 25.0: alt. 12.0.
Appartiene ad un tipo tecnologicamente più evoluto del N. 
591, significativamente rinvenuto nel l’area extra-murana. Moritz (1958, p. 52) colloca il passaggio dal tipo “hopper rubber” al tipo rotatorio nella seconda metà del III sec. a.C.

12. Vetro

594.○● (BG 109/B H 110 IV US 38) Frammento di parete di vaso allungato. Vetro blu con decorazione in bianco/azzurro.
alt. 2.2; largh. 1.4
Molto probabilmente si tratta di un frammento di
alabastron del tipo rinvenuto, intatto, nella tomba 14 in contrada La Scala (ca. 330-320 a.C.) (fig. 193) e parzialmente conservato nella T. 15 (ca. 300-290 a.C.). Si tratta di vetro ottenuto a fusione su nucleo (di sabbia o materiale friabile refrattario). Per la tecnica si veda Goldstein 1979. Per il tipo si veda un esemplare identico in Hayes 1975, 6 e tav. 2, n. 25, datato nell’ultimo quarto del IV secolo a.C. Probabilmente di fattura magno-greca o, almeno, di atelier nell'area mediterranea occidentale. Hayes 1975, p. 6, ritiene che «an Aegean source is unlikely» per il tipo. Per un raffronto puntuale in contesto paragonabile si veda l'alabastron dalla tomba 63 di Avella, presentata nel catalogo della Esposizione provvisoria nel Museo irpino nel maggio 1977, curata dalla Soprintendenza Archeologica di Salerno.

595. (BG 108/B H 109 II US 195) Frammento di parete di vaso allungato. Vetro blu chiaro con decorazione in azzurro e giallo.
alt. 1.8; largh. 1.5
Molto probabilmente frammento di
alabastron. Si veda N. 594.

596. (DB survey 9-10-11) Frammento di vaso a corpo globulare, probabilmente appartenente a piccola oinochoe (paragonabile a quella rinvenuta nella T. 17 in contrada La Scala, datata nella seconda metà del IV secolo a.C.). Vetro blu con decorazione in giallo. alt. 1.9; largh. 1.0.

597.(DB survey BL III) Frammento di grosso vaso a corpo cilindrico. Vetro blu chiaro con decorazione in bianco
alt. 2.4; largh. 2.3.
Probabilmente appartenente ad una
oinochoe ad alto corpo cilindrico del tipo rinvenuto nella necropoli rurale di S. Angelo di Ogliara (Salerno) (Pontrandolfo Greco 1980, p. 98, n. 13, fig. 15) datata nell’ultimo quarto del IV secolo a.C. Per la forma, si veda Hayes 1975, 188, n. 22.

598. (DB survey D’ IV) Frammento di spalla di vaso. Vetro blu, decorazione in azzurro e giallo. Molto probabilmente frammento di spalla di un alabastron del tipo N. 594. alt. 1.2; largh. 1.7

599.(DB survey AY I) Frammento di orlo di vaso. Vetro blu con linea di marginatura gialla (cf. alabastron dalla T. 14)
lungh. 1.1; largh. 1.0.
Quasi certamente frammento di orlo di
alabastron, come il N. 594.

13. Vaghi di collana

600.(BC 117/BD 118 US 1) Pendente cilindrico di osso.
ø 0.7; alt. 0.7.

601. (Saggio N-O II) Pendente cilindrico di osso
ø 1.5; alt. 0.6

602.(DB FIV) Pendente sferoidale in terracotta, frammentario.
ø (ricostruito) 1.5.

603.(DB a Sud-Ovest di A) Pendente a forma discoidale in pietra grigio-nera.
ø 1.1. M. 

14. Coins

  • 36 Boehringer 1978, p. 49, Tusa Cutroni 1968, p. 220, Guzzetta 1979, p. 141.
  • 37 Jenkins e Lewis 1963, appendix 3.
  • 38 Kraay’s arrangement is found in SNG Ashmolean Museum.
  • 39 Mangieri 1986, pp. 75-76.

148The coins from excavation and survey at Roccagloriosa provide an interesting view of monetary circulation in the area during the fourth century B.C. Taken together they are remarkably homogeneous and belong to the fourth century B.C. It is difficult to draw more precise chronological implications from the coins alone. The best dated piece is the Syracusan bronze of the reign of Dionysius I of Syracuse, 405-367 B.C., no. 63336. The coin from Adranum in Sicily, no. 632, is probably contemporary. The Siculo-Punic piece, no. 634, was based on Carthaginian gold and electrum coins issued between 350 and 290 B.C.37. The two Velian staters, nos. 615-616, belong to Kraay’s Group VII, and so to the latter third of the fourth century38. Kraay did not deal with the bronze of Velia, but it is most likely that the issues which comprise the overwhelming majority of coins found at the site belong to the second half of the fourth century. Mangieri (1986) believes (on the basis of unpublished excavation results from Velia) that the series with obverses head of Athena and head of Zeus is to be dated after the second quarter of the third century39.

  • 40 Aristotle Oikonomikos 2, 20c = p. 1349a.

149Plated coins of Velia, found in eleven of the bronze issues documented at Roccagloriosa, are of particular interest because they consist of a bronze envelope over a lead core. The ubiquity of this expedient makes it appear that the coins are actual issues of Velia, not forgeries, and that the use of the lead core was a device employed to extend short supplies of bronze. The use of lead cores may be related to the “tin” coins attributed to Dionysius I of Syracuse40.

150In citations SNG is used for Sylloge Nummorum Groecorum (ANS = American Numismatic Society, Cop. = Copenhagen) and ANSMN for American Numismatic Society, Museum Notes.



604.obv., Head of Athena, r.
rev., Herakles r. strangling lion, above traces of legend, below E. AR diobol, gm. 1.03,
SNG Ashmolean Museum, no. 74.
Layer 183, occupation of the 2nd half of the 4th century B.C.



605.obv., Head of Demeter veiled, r.
rev., Grain ear.
AR stater plated, pierced, gm. 6.36, S.P.
Noe, The Coinage of Metapontum (ANSMN 32 and 54, 1927 and 1931, ed. 2, 1984) no. 322-323.
Layer 372, stratified below layer 371, the latter consisting of occupation material in Room A8 of the 2nd half of the 4th century B.C.

606. obv., Head of Athena, r.
rev. META Grain ear, cornucopia
AR diobol, gm. 1.12,
SNG Cop. no. 1232.

607. obv., Female Head, r.
rev., Grain ear.
AE, gm. 3.2,
SNG Cop. no. 1245-1246.

Fig. 203 Coins (scale 1/1).


608. obv., Bull butting 1.
rev., Poseidon r., to r. traces of letters.
AE, gm. 1.2,
Sallusto 1971, no. 9-10.


609. obv., Head of Athena r., Scylla on helmet. rev., ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ. Bull butting r., in exergue, dolphin.
AR stater.
SNG ANS no. 1046-1047. Published in NSc, 1978, p. 406, fig. 39,1.

610. obv., similar.
rev., similar, in exergue EY owl Φ[Ρ].
AR stater.
SNG Ashmolean Museum no. 1063. Published in NSc, 1978, p. 406, fig. 39,r.

611. obv., Head of Athena 1.
rev., ΘΟΥΡΙ Bull walking 1., in exergue, a fish.
AR diobol, gm. 1.0,
SNG Cop. no. 1474 (obv., type r.)

612.obv., Head of Athena r.
rev., ΘΟΥ Bull walking r.
AR diobol, gm. 1.05,
SNG Cop. no. 1475.

613. obv., Head of Athena r.
rev., Bull butting r., in exergue, a fish.
AE, gm. 6.2,
SNG ANS no. 1190.

614. obv., illegible.
rev., Bull r.
AE, gm. 1.35,
SNG Cop. no. 1495.


615.obv., Head of Athena r. A-I.
rev., ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ in exergue. Lion walking r. Above grain stalk, below, Π.
AR Stater, gm. 7,2,
SNG Ashmolean Museum no. 1349 ff., Mangieri 1986, no. 172.

616. obv., similar.
rev., similar. Above, caduceus.
AR Stater, gm. 6.65,
SNG Ashmolean Museum no. 1390.

617. obv., illegible.
rev., in exergue YE[]H[] lion 1.
AE core of plated coin, gm. 1.2.

618. obv., Head of Athena r.
rev., Owl 1.
AE, gm. 0.35, 0.6, (both plated)
SNG Cop., 1607.

619. obv., Female head 1.
rev., Owl 1.
AE, gm. 1.3,
SNG ANS no. 1416.
obv., illegible (probably similar).
rev.,]EA[Owl 1.
Ae, gm. 1.2 (plated)
SNG ANS no. 1415.
obv., illegible (probably similar).
rev., Owl 1.
AE, gm., 1.7, 0.8, 0.7, 3.2, 1.2, 0.9, 0.7, (4 plated).

620. obv., Female head r.
rev., Ow 1 r.
AE, gm. 1.2, 1.3, (1 plated)
SNG Cop. no. 1599.
obv., illegible (probably similar).
rev., Ow1 r.
AE, gm. 0.9, 0.6, 1.15, (2 plated).

621. obv., Female head r.
rev., Owl to front.
AE. gm. 1. 1,
SNG Cop. no. 1600.

622. obv., Male head r.
rev., Owl to front.
AE, gm. 0.95,
SNG ANS no. 1436.

623. obv., Head of Zeus r.
rev., Ow1 to front.
AE, gm. 1.4, 1.55, 0.85, 1.2, 0.8, (2 plated)
SNG ANS no. 1422-1429.
One front interface of occupation/tile collapse in Portico A3, 2nd half of 4th century B.C. One front earlier phase of Portico A3, before 330 B.C.

624. obv., Head of Zeus 1.
rev., Ow 1 to front.
AE, gm. 3.9, (plated)
SNG Cop. no. 1601.
obv., illegible (probably similar to no. 
620 and 621).
rev., Ow1 to front.
AE, gm. 1.6, 0.7, 0.3, 1.0, 1.1, 1.0, 1.25, (1 plated).
Two front EB-FB 109/10 III. dump ca. 300/280 B.C.

625.obv., Head of Herakles 1.
rev., Ow1 to front.
AE, gm. 2.4, 1.5, 3.5, 2.9, 1.0, (1 plated)
SNG Cop. no. 1594.
One front main occupation of Room A6, 2nd half of 4th century B.C.

626. obv., Head of Herakles r.
rev., Owl to front in wreath.
AE, gm. 3.3, 2.55, 1.1, (2 plated)
SNG Cop. no. 1595.

627. obv., similar.
rev., Ow1 r. in wreath.
AE, gm. 1.25, 1.75, 2.1, 1.7, 2.1, 1.6, 2.1, 3.75,
SNG Cop. no. 1595 and 1597.
One front interface of roof collapse/occupation in Portico A3, second half of 4th century B.C.

628. obv., similar.
rev., Ow1 1.
AE, gm. 3.3, 3.9, 3.25,
SNG Cop. 1598.

629. obv., Similar.
rev., Ow1 1.
AE, gm. 1.4, (plated)
SNG ANS no. 1412-1413.

630. obv., Head of Herakles 1.
rev. Ow1.
AE, gm. 1.5, 0.8, 1.1,
SNG ANS no. 1410.



631. obv., Lion’s scalp.
rev., Male head r.
AE, gm. 1.3,
SNG Cop. no. 1943.
Layer CB-DB 171, “pozzo”-dump ca. 300 B.C.



632.obv., Female head r.
rev., Hippocamp r.
AE, gm. 1.8,
Cahn et al. 1988, no. 247, Cammarata 1984, pl. 111, no. 49, previously unrecorded specimen.


633.obv., ΣΥ[P]A Head of Athena 1.
rev., Hippocamp 1.
AE, gm. 6.15,
SNG Cop. no. 721-722.

Siculo Punic

634. obv., Head of Tanit 1.
ev., Horse standing before palm.
AE, gm. 1.3,
Arslan 1976, no. 1300 ff. R. R. Holloway

15. Fibule


A) Arco semplice

635. (BH 108/BI 107 III US 63) Arco leggermente ingrossato. Conservato l’arco con la molla e l’attaccatura della staffa, a lamina rettangolare (?)
lungh. 2.5; alt. 1.8.

636. a. (BE 107/BF 108 I US 150) Conservato l’arco con molla ed attaccatura della staffa
lungh. 3.6; alt. 2.2.
L’arco presenta un lieve ingrossamento centrale. Il tipo è diffuso a Roccagloriosa almeno dagli inizi del IV secolo a.C., come mostrano gli esemplari rinvenuti nella Tomba 6. Si raffronti anche l’esemplare dalla tomba messapica di Ugento (
Lo Porto 1970-1971, p. 145, n. 47). Sono altresi strettamente collegati a questo tipo di fibula gli esemplari in argento dalla Tomba 9, in contrada La Scala (636 b, c) i cui raffronti più stringenti sono da rinvenirsi nelle necropoli sannitiche di Cuma (Gabrici 1914, col. 707, fig. 44). E presente nella stipe di Colla/Rivello (Lagonegro, 1981, p. 52-53), considerata di tipo ‘sannitico’.

637. (BH 109/BG 110 IV US 38') Di tipo assimilabile alla precedente. Conservata solo una parte dell’arco
largh. 1.8.
Del tipo ad arco semplice. Si veda l’esemplare dalla T. 25 di Satriano (
Holloway 1970, p. 77, fig. 139, n. 155), datato alla fine del V secolo a.C.

B) Arco a ‘doppia gobba’

638.a. (s. A Est II) Conservato l’arco a doppia gobba
lungh. 3.2; alt. 1.6.

639. (‘Pozzo’ CB-DB 171) frammento di arco di fibula probabilmente di tipo sintile (Fracchia e Girardot 1986, tav. 21 n. 263).

640. (VA-XA 116-17 III) Frammento di arco di fibula a doppia gobba. Arco ingrossato, più largo del tipo precedente
largh. 1.3.

641. (XA 170 IIa) Frammento di arco di fibula a doppia gobba
largh. 2.6.

151Si confrontino gli esemplari in oro dalla Tomba 9 in contrada La Scala (638 b, c) (Gualtieri 1989b). Probabilmente con staffa lunga, anche se non è possibile precisare data la frammentarietà degli esemplari rinvenuti. I raffronti più frequenti sono da rinvenirsi nell’area apula, dove è diffusa soprattutto nel periodo arcaico (Gervasio 1921, p. 264), ma è presente anche in tombe di IV secolo (Ceglie Peuceta 1982, p. 82, tav. 5). A Paestum è nota in argento in tombe degli inizi del IV secolo a.C. (Pontrandolfo Greco 1977), ed è altresì presente nella stipe di Rivello Colla/Rivello. Si veda la discussione sulla distribuzione del tipo in Lagonegro 1981, p. 52. Il tipo in bronzo è presente in tombe della seconda metà del VI secolo a.C. nella necropoli di Palinuro (Sestieri 1948, p. 345).

Fig. 204 Oggetti di metallo (scala 1/3).

C) Arco a losanga e staffa a lamina terminante a bottone

642. a. (s. A ovest IV) Intatta, mancante di ardiglione
lungh. 4.3; alt. 1.9. (Si vedano i raffronti in argento dalla T. 15 in contrada La Scala:
642 b, c)

643.○● (BG 107/B H 108 IV US 99) Arco intatto, con molla e ardiglione.
lungh. 2.7; alt. 2.4.

644. (BG 110/BH 111 II US 393) Intatta, con decorazione ‘a spina di pesce’ sulla staffa lungh. 4.3; alt. 2.6.

645. (s. F1 ovest III) Staffa di fibula di tipo simile
lungh. 1.5; largh. 0.8.

646. (Pianoro sud-est, sporadico) Bottone della staffa di fibula di tipo simile
lungh. 1.2.

152È il tipo di fibula più diffuso sul sito, come dimostra la sua presenza (in diverse varianti) nelle tombe 3, 14, 16 e 17 della necropoli in Loc. La Scala. In argento, è presente anche (almeno sei esemplari) nella tomba 15 (NN. 642 b, c). Assai comune nell’area Magno-Greca durante la seconda metà del IV secolo a.C., come dimostrano i numerosi raffronti da vari siti. Si vedano, in particolare, Rivello (Lagonegro 1981, p. 52-54), Praia a Mare (1972, pp. 536-538), Strongoli (Guzzo e Luppino 1980, p. 907) e Cirò Marina (Capano 1979, fig. 18).

D) Altri tipi

647.○● (BC 118/BD 119 US 240) Arco doppio foliato (rinvenuto appiattito) con apofisi laterali. Decorazione incisa sull’arco.
lungh. 5.9; largh. 1.8 (con apofisi), 1.2 (senza apofisi).
Tipo di derivazione arcaica. Sembra rifarsi al tipo a navicella con apofisi laterali.
Si raffronti con gli esemplari dalla stipe di Colla/Rivello (
Lagonegro 1981, p. 53-54).

648.○● (Ambiente A7/A8 US 40) Arco semplice, con piccola staffa quadrangolare terminante a pomello sagomato. Ardiglione mobile, lungh. 3.0; alt. 1.8.
Vari esemplari, in bronzo, provengono dal santuario campestre di Albanella e sono datati alla seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. (
Albanella 1989, p. 52 e fig. 13, H4). Un esemplare simile, in oro, è stato rinvenuto nel ripostiglio di Oppido Lucano (Oppido Lucano 1980, p. 248, fig. 184) della seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. Si confrontino anche gli esemplari in bronzo da Gravina di Puglia, in una tomba di IV secolo a.C. (Gravina I, tav. 29,bl, fig. 7,d) e da Buccino (Dyson 1983, p. 27, fig. 51). A Monte Irsi è stato rinvenuto lo stampo di una fibula di questo tipo su di un peso da telaio in terracotta (Monte Irsi 1977, p. 343, n. 347, fig. 37).


649.○● (EB-FB 110 III) Fibula con arco ingrossato.
Conservato l’arco con attacco dell’ardiglione. Sezione approssimativamente ovale lungh. (arco) 3.4; alt. (arco) 2.2.

650. (s. A ovest II-III) Fibula ad arco ingrossato lungh. 2.9; sezione (ovale) 0.9.
Di un tipo piuttosto generico, comune nella seconda età del Ferro (
Cairano 1980, p. 39 e Tav. 76). In mancanza della staffa non è possibile darne una qualifica cronologica più precisa.

651. (WA 86) Fibula ad arco approssimativamente trapezoidale. Conservato solo l’arco lungh. 3.7; alt. 1.3; largh. max (arco) 1.6.

652.○● (EB-FB 110 III) Fibula con arco a losanga.
Conservato solo l’arco
lungh. 4.3; alt. 2.1.
Si vedano, anche in questo caso, alcuni prototipi della seconda età del Ferro dalla tomba 10 di Cairano (
Cairano 1980, p. 39 e Tav. 80).

653. (s. A ovest II) Fibula ad arco a losanga con costolatura centrale. Conservato solo l’arco lungh. 2.7; alt. 1.6; largh. max (arco) 1.3. Può assimilarsi al ben noto tipo ‘a navicella’. Per la diffusione del tipo in contesti funerari di IV secolo a.C. si veda Locri 1917, p. 139).

654. (s. D ovest II) Arco di fibula ingrossato a losanga frammentario
lungh. 3.0; spess. 0.9.

655. (VA-XA 116-17 II) Arco di fibula ingrossato, a losanga
lungh. 3.5; largh. 1.2.

656. (BC 118/BD 119 US 212) Arco di fibula ingrossato, a losanga
lungh. 3.0; spesso. 0.9.

153Per i tipi con arco ingrossato, lievemente a losanga, si vedano vari esemplari dalla stipe di Colla/Rivello (Lagonegro 1981, p. 54, fig. 26).

Fig. 205 Oggetti di metallo e vetri (NN. 657 e 659, scala 2/1; NN. 594 e 670b, scala 1/3; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/1).

16. Armi


A) Punta di freccia

657.○● (s. N IIB) Tipo a tre alette. Attacco a cannone circolare alt. 2.2.
I raffronti più prossimi sono quelli da Palinuro (
Greco E. 1975, p. 135, fig. 44b).

658.○● (s. A ovest II-III) Tipo a tre alette. Attacco a cannone circolare
alt. 1.2.

659.○● (s. A ovest II) Tipo piramidale
alt. 1.6.

660.(BB 109/BC 110 IV US 435) a sezione triangolare (tipo piramidale?). Attacco mancante
alt. 1.9.

B) Puntale

○● (VA 86 II) Sauroter in bronzo con anima in ferro. Sagomato in maniera assai elaborata. Iscrizione incisa sul fondo, da leggersi orizzontalmente dalla base del puntale verso la sommità della lancia
alt. (della parte in bronzo) 21.0; alt. (con asta di ferro) 28.0; 0 max 4.8; 0 cannone in ferro 2.8.
Frammenti dell’asta in legno sono stati rinvenuti nel cannone in ferro con cui termina il puntale in bronzo. L’aspetto più interessante è costituito dalla iscrizione
(molto probabilmente per demosion) con disposizione delle lettere identica a quella che si rinviene sui mattoni velini (si vedano i tipi presentati in Gallo 1966). Potrebbe, molto probabilmente, trattarsi di un oggetto di bottino proveniente da Velia stessa. È altresì di rilievo il suo rinvenimento nel complesso in VA-XA 85-86 (supra, p. 84) associato con altre punte di lancia, in ferro (NN. 669-670), che costituiscono l’unico gruppo di armi di una certa consistenza rinvenute sul sito. Per il tipo di sauroter si veda Gabrici 1927, p. 364, fig. 157,f. Ardovino 1980, p. 64, sottolinea l'uso di un simile sauroter sagomato quale “arma da parata”.

662. (VA 86 II) Frammento di sauroter sagomato, di tipo simile. Conservata la parte dell’attacco con l’anima in ferro
alt. 3.2; largh. 2.0; spess. 0.7; ø ca. 3.0.

Fig. 206 Gruppo di oggetti in bronzo provenienti dal ‘tesoretto di fonditore’ rinvenuto nel saggio N-O II (si veda il N. 665 del catalogo).

Fig. 207 Cinturone di bronzo dalla tomba 21 (si veda il N. 664 del catalogo) (scala 1/3).

Fig. 208 Sauroter N. 661, in situ.

C) ‘Testa di mazza’

663.○● (s. F1 II) Elemento cilindrico a spessa lamina con sei file di denti simmetricamente disposti lungo la superficie esterna
alt. 2.9; 0 1.7 (2.8 con i denti).
Si vedano i raffronti da Tiriolo (
Ferri 1927, p. 348, fig. 20: esemplare definito “ghiera di clava votiva”) e dal santuario della dea Marica alle foci del Garigliano (Mingazzini 1938, col. 914, tav. 42, n. 9: oggetto presentato come elemento per cardare la lana). Vari esemplari sono in mostra al Museo Civico di Cortona, dove vengono etichettati quali “strumenti per bardatura di cavallo”. Si vedano gli esemplari dell’area laziale in Guidi 1980, p. 24, nn. 26-28, fig. 5 per cui Guidi giustamente sottolinea l’uso per la bardatura equina, citandone i prototipi dall’Asia Minore.

D) Apprestamenti difensivi

664. (s. 1985) Gancio di cinturone di bronzo a forma triangolare con incisione a linee. Conservato anche un frammento dell’attacco a lamina incisa
lungh. 6.4; largh. 1.7.
Per il tipo di gancio e la decorazione si vedano gli esemplari rinvenuti in alcune delle tombe della necropoli in loc. La Scala. Si raffronti in particolare, con i ganci del cinturone della T. 21 (fig. 207). Per i ganci di cinturoni di tipo ‘sannitico’, a cui l'esemplare appartiene, si veda
Rebuffat-Emmanuel 1962.

665. (s. N-NO, dal ‘tesoretto di fonditore’) Frammento di lamina di bronzo con finissima decorazione zoomorfa lungh. 2.6; largh. 2.6.
Per il cd. ‘tesoretto di fonditore’(cioè un gruppo di oggetti in bronzo, frammentati, associati con vari Chili di scorie, nel saggio N-O II), si veda la fig. 206.
Probabilmente appartenente a decorazione di elmo o corazza?

666.○● (s. F ovest II) Umbone di scudo, sagomato con protuberanza al centra. Attacco a sezione quadrangolare sulla superficie interna.
ø 4.6.

667. (VA 86 II) Cinque frammenti di lamina di bronzo con fori (da 1.5 a 3.55 mm.) sui margini ed un gancio in fora corrispondente (3.5 mm.) nella parte interna. Molto probabilmente appartenenti ad un pezzo di armatura (elmo o schinieri)
I) alt. 6.9; largh. 4.3 Con quattro fori piccoli sul margine esterno ed uno grande all’interno.
II) alt. 5.0; largh. 4.3
Con un piccolo gancio.
III) alt. 5.1; largh. 3.7.
IV) alt. 4.2; largh. 2.2
Un fora sul margine esterno.
V) alt. 2.3; largh. 2.1.


Punte di lancia o giavellotto

668. (WA 86 II) Punta di lancia con immanicatura a cannone, punta romboidale e costolatura centrale lungh. 14.8 Si confronti con l’esemplare della T. 43 di Melfi/Pisciolo, datata nella seconda metà del V sec. a.C. (Popoli Anellenici 1971, p. 121).

669. (VA 85 pit a1) Simile alla precedente, a punta più stretta e di dimensioni minori. Assai corrosa lungh. 10.1.

670.(WA 86 II) Punta romboidale con costolatura centrale. Conservata solo la parte superiore della punta lungh. 6.2.
Un raffronto generico è fornito altresì dall’esemplare rinvenuto in una tomba sconvolta (di IV sec. a.C.?) dall’agglomerato rurale in località Mortelle (
supra, cap. 7, p. 189).

17. Piccoli oggetti in metallo

A) Pesetti di piombo

671.○● (US 48) Pesetto piramidale a sezione quadrangolare. Reca decorazione incisa
alt. 3.5; largh. 1.0.

672.(US 246) Pesetto piramidale a sezione rettangolare.
alt. 2.7; largh. 0.8.

673.○● (Area DB/Piani di Mariosa, superficie) Pesetto piramidale a sezione quadrangolare. Decorazione incisa a punzone sulla faccia sommitale.
alt. 3.5; largh. 1.2.

154Diffusi sia in contesti votivi (Lagonegro 1981, p. 56-57, dalla stipe di Colla/Rivello) che in contesti abitativi. A Monte Irsi (Monte Irsi 1977, p. 204, n. 354), un peso piramidale in piombo alto cm. 7.8 mostra che il piombo veniva adoperato anche per pesi da telaio.

B) Appliques in bronzo

674.○● (XA 85-86) Concentrazione di due appliques del tipo a scudo ovale con anello di attacco ovale. Include un esemplare conservato a metà con anello di attacco ed un attacco ovale, intatto alt. 2.5; largh. 2.8.

675.(XA 86 22.IV.77) Applique di bronzo a forma di scudo ovale con anello di attacco. Intatta alt. 4.0; largh. 2.4.

676. (XA 86) Applique simile. Placchetta intera ma corrosa; manca l’anello di attacco lungh. 3.7; largh. 2.5.

677. (XA 86 II 12.IV.77) Applique simile. Anello di attacco completo; conservata solo una piccola parte della placca a scudo, inserita in esso alt. 1.7; largh. 1.5.

678.○● (XA 86 III) Applique simile. Completa con anello di attacco, ma corrosa alt. 4.0; largh. 2.4.

679. (WA 87) Concentrazione di due appliques simili
a) Conservata una metà della placchetta a scudo, con anello di attacco frammentario alt. 2.2; largh. 2.8.
b) Conservata una metà della placchetta a scudo con anello di attacco alt. 2.6; largh. (ricostr.) 4.6.

680. (FB 109 III B) Conservata solo metà placchetta senza anello di attacco alt. 2.6; largh. 2.7.

681. (FB 109 III B) Parte della placchetta rotta; completo l’anello di attacco alt. (ricostr.) 4.6; largh. 2.7.

682. (s. A ovest III) Conservata solo una metà della placchetta
alt. 2.9; largh. 

683.○● (BE 113/B F 114 IV US 84) Applique simile, intatta
alt. 4.3; largh. 

684. (BF 113/BG 112 III US 87) Applique simile. Conservata metà placchetta
alt. 2.3; largh. 2.9.

685. (BH 107/BI 108 US 99) Applique simile.
Conservata metà placchetta
alt. 2.5; largh. 2.4.

155Piccolo oggetto di bronzo assai diffuso sul sito, con concentrazione dei rinvenimenti sul pianoro centrale (complesso in VA-XA 85-86 e complesso A).

156A giudicare dagli esemplari rinvenuti intatti. con una piccola grappa ovale ad estremità assottigliate ed allungate usata per agganciarlo, le placchette sembrerebbero piuttosto appartenere a decorazioni di tessuto o cuoio che ad oggetti di legno (quali, ad esempio, mobili). Le estremità della piccola grappa ovale, che avevano funzione di attacco, sono assai allungate e sottili e solo con difficoltà avrebbero potuto essere inchiodate su di una superficie lignea.

157Non si conoscono raffronti coevi. Per l’iconografia della placchetta a scudo ovale «con due fenditure laterali che si allungano ad occhio» si veda l’anello d’oro dalla tomba D di Megara Hyblaea (Gentili 1954, p. 90, figg. 12-13) e l’anello d’argento dalla tomba 25 di Scornavacche (Di Vita 1959, p. 355).

C) Varia

686.(XA 171 III) Borchia di bronzo a calotta emisferica, con chiodo in ferro sulla superficie interna. Probabilmente per ricopertura di grossa porta in legno 0 3.6.

687.○● (US 40) Amo in bronzo alt. 3.1; largh. 2.0.

688.○● (VA 85 pit b) Uncinetto in bronzo con decorazione incisa sulla parte superiore alt. 10.9.

689.(CB-BB 171 a8) Piastrina quadrangolare in bronzo con pomello da presa. Probabile sigillo (?).
largh. 2.2; lungh. 2.6.

690.(BD 106/BE 107 I II US 340) Parte terminale di ansa di situla in bronzo. Include la parte terminale dell’asta con pomello ripiegato all'insù lungh. 2.5.
Identica alla parte terminale delle anse della situla rinvenuta nella T. 10, datata intorno al 400 a.C. (fig. 204).

691.○● (AY 124/AZ 125 IV US 397) Parte terminale di ansa di mestolo o colino (?), conformata a testa di anatra lungh. 2.2.
Raffronti puntuali con i mestolini dalla T. 6 e T. 10 in loc. La Scala, datate intorno al 400 a.C.

692.○● (Ambiente B8 US 249) Coperchio circolare di scatoletta (pisside) di piombo, con pomello.
alt. 3.6; ø 6.5.
Probabilmente appartenente a cofanetto adoperato per cosmetici o per gioielli, a giudicare dai raffronti esistenti. Si veda l’esemplare nel Museo Nazionale di Taranto (Ori
Tarante 1984, p. 65), ritenuto contenere gioielli. L'esemplare nel Museo Archeologico di Bari (Museo Bari 1983, Tav. 90,4) è presentato come «pisside di piombo da toto-letta» (ibid.), su cui si veda anche Forti e Stazio 1983, p. 664, fig. 680. Un esemplare paragonabile proviene dalla necropoli di Metaponto (1966, fig. 78). Simile per dimensioni l'esemplare dalla necropoli ellenistica di Sciatbi/Alessandria (Breccia 1912, p. 174. n. 554, fig. 103).

18. Piccola plastica in bronzo

693.(Ambiente B9 US 246/F 247) Clava in bronzo, a fusione piena.
alt. 8.0; 0 (max) 1.2.

158Forse derivante da statuetta di Ercole, appartenente ad un tipo del primo ellenismo. La sommità della clava mostra chiaramente il punto di frattura da un insieme più ampio. Sembra pertanto probabile la sua appartenenza ad una statuetta rappresentante l’eroe in riposo, o in atto di sacrificare, spesso rinvenuto con la clava mancante (si veda, ad esempio, Sannio 1980, pp. 237, 369 e Di Niro 1977, passim).

159Si vedano i raffronti con il tipo di Ercole rappresentato in monete di Heraklea della seconda metà del IV secolo a.C. (Volkommer 1988, p. 59 e fig. 78-79). Più in generale, si veda LIMC, vol. IV,1, pp. 762-763, figg. 360-361, nn. 660-661. Una clava, di dimensioni maggiori, è stata rinvenuta nel santuario di Serra Lustrante/Armento (Popoli Anellenici 1971, p. 67); le sue dimensioni (alt. ca. 18 cm.) non sembrerebbero escludere una sua possibile appartenenza alla statuetta di culto, di cui sono illustrati altri frammenti (ibid.). M. Gualtieri


1 See for example, Holloway 1970, nos. 41, 57, 74, 268; Gravina di Puglia forthcoming, P4024; numerous examples from Atena Lucana on display in Padula.

2 Andreassi 1979, nos. 91-94 where the larger lekanides tend to date consistently near the end of the 4th century.

3 Fabbricotti 1979, p. 408-409 and the existence of four kilns in the area of Roccagloriosa, the kiln at Rivello, at Marcetlina and the local production of Gnathia at Paestum document the argument.

4 Cf. Poseidonia-Pœstum II, fig. 60, no. 120 and Praia a Mare 1972, fig. 13, no. 2/14. I thank J.-P. Morel for this observation.

5 The material from the Pozzo deposit has been published in Fracchia e Girardot 1986 (109-1 12), 127-151. The material presented there is a selection of the more representative pieces. It is referred to in the text as ‘Pozzo’.

6 Supra, n. 5. In conjunction with the material presented here.

7 This may be due to a general directional gravitation towards the major indigenous population centers in this period, cf. PCIA 8, 1986, chap. 5.

8 The two misfired painted sherds stuck to the firing platform of the kiln and the entire kiln contents at Rivello provide clear evidence for these two new places of local production.

9 Green J.R. 1982, p. 258 although no further reference is given.

10 Forthcoming publication PBSR Supplement to Gravina di Puglia, ed. A.M. Small. I thank both A.M. Small and A.J.N.W. Prag for sharing the Gravina material with me prior to publication.

11 The tombs, from various locations in the Paestum area were excavated by A. Pontrandolfo Greco in the course of the 1970’s.

12 There are a variety of clay colors found in this production (Morel 1981a, F2981) and imitations were a characteristic of indigenous productions, Italian and others, cf. Morel 1981a, p. 516. Additionally, Morel 1969, p. 100 postulates the presence of workshops of ‘petites estampilles’ at Minturnae, near Naples at Giugliano and at Paestum.

13 Satriano 1988, Tav. 11. Also found in the Paestum museum deposit; Dott.ssa M. Cipriani was extremely helpful and generous in providing access to the material not on display

14 Paul Arthur very kindly provided me with his drawings of the coarse ware found in the excavations which he conducted at Pompeii.

15 Lepore 1967, p. 252, on Graeco-Italic at Ischia, in the territory of Neapolis. Cf. also Tchernia et al. 1989.

16 The Metapontine amphorae were produced, at least, at Pizzica, in the colony's hinterland (Brehob 1983). Some examples were stamped DAMOKRATES (in Greek characters) and, apparently, belong to the Graeco-Italic series, although the misfired amphora illustrated by Brehob is of a different type. Cf. also D'Andria 1980, fig. 71.

17 Manzo 1983.

18 Van der Mersch 1986, p. 573.

19 At Pian della Tirrena, according to Prof.ssa N. Valenza who has conducted the excavations, Graeco-Italic amphorae were produced, at least, during the third century B.C.

20 Van der Mersch 1986, p. 573. Amphorae appear on the local coin-types.

21 See text above on pseudo-Chian amphorae.

22 Van der Mersch 1986.

23 È il frammento di immagine di divinità in trono di IV secolo, rinvenuta presso la Porta Centrale della cinta muraria.

24 Carettoni 1941, p. 85 ss.; Levi 1926, p. 114, n. 646.

25 Affine all'esemplare di Roccagloriosa è il frammento di oscillum appartenente al ricco corredo della tomba 1 della necropoli pestana di Laghetto (scavo 1954) databile tra la fine del IV e gli inizi del III sec. a.C.
Un altro
oscillum simile proviene dalla seconda deposizione della tomba 58 di Spinazzo (scavo 1976) datata dalla Pontrandolfo al periodo 300-290 a.C., cfr. Pontrandolfo Greco 1983, pp. 69 e 75, tav. XI,1.

26 Satriano 1988, p. 51, tav. 14, al centro in basso.

27 Bedello 1975, p. 76. Cfr. anche Heraion 1937, p. 334, fig. 84.

28 Si tratta dell’ex n. 21046 conservato nei depositi del Museo di Paestum.

29 M. Cipriani, in Poseidonia-Pœstum II, pp. 123-124, nn. 228-230, figg. 81-82 e pp. 132-133.

30 Panofka 1841, p. 143, Tav. LIV.l da Paestum.

31 Esemplari provenienti dall’Heraion di Foce Sele (scavo 1937), inediti.

32 Sono note circa 15 statuette dello stesso tipo inedite, rinvenute, in prevalenza, nell’area del santuario urbano meridionale.

33 Pontrandolfo Greco 1977, pp. 53-54 e 56, fig. 29,2 (erroneamente citata nell’articolo come a fig. 19,4)

34 Lagonegro 1981, p. 46, tav. XXI,3.

35 Satriano 1988, p. 50, tav. 13 (3a fila, ultimo frammento a destra).

36 Boehringer 1978, p. 49, Tusa Cutroni 1968, p. 220, Guzzetta 1979, p. 141.

37 Jenkins e Lewis 1963, appendix 3.

38 Kraay’s arrangement is found in SNG Ashmolean Museum.

39 Mangieri 1986, pp. 75-76.

40 Aristotle Oikonomikos 2, 20c = p. 1349a.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 175 Impasto profiles (scale 1/3).
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Légende Fig. 176 Impasto (scale 1/3).
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Légende Fig. 177 Impasto profiles (nos. 10b-15); banded ware profiles (nos. 16-30) (scale 1/3).
Fichier image/jpeg, 212k
Légende Fig. 178 Banded ware (nos. 19-46); red figure (nos. 52-66) (scale 1/3).
Fichier image/jpeg, 300k
Légende Fig. 179 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 180 Black gaze profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 181 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 182 Black glaze profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 183 Black glaze (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig.184 Black glaze (nos. 198, 202, 203, 205, scale 1/1; all the others, scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 185 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 186 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 187 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 188 Coarse ware profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 189 Coarse ware (nos. 227-335) and amphorae (nos. 358 and 378) (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 190 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 191 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 192 Amphora profiles (scale 1/3).
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Légende Table III. Quantified amphora distribution by rim types.
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Légende Fig. 193 Lucerne, terrecotte architettoniche, vetro (scala 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 194 Gruppo di pesi da telaio.
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Légende Fig. 195 Cartina di distribuzione dei pesi da telaio rinvenuti nell’area del Complesso A.
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Légende Fig. 196 Lucerne, vasi miniaturistici, pesi da telaio, terrecotte figurate (scala 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 197 Guttus, elementi architettonici (NN. 518-520, scala 1/1; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/2).
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Légende Fig. 198 Cartina di distribuzione dei kalypteres rinvenuti nell’area del Complesso A.
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Légende Fig.199 Cartina di distribuzione delle tegole ad ‘opaion’ e per camino rinvenute nell’area del Complesso A.
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Légende Fig. 200 Elementi architettonici (scala 1/3)
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Légende Fig. 201 Louteria (N. 579, scala 1/10; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 202 Oggetti in pietra (scala 1/5).
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Légende Fig. 203 Coins (scale 1/1).
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Légende Fig. 204 Oggetti di metallo (scala 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 205 Oggetti di metallo e vetri (NN. 657 e 659, scala 2/1; NN. 594 e 670b, scala 1/3; gli altri pezzi, scala 1/1).
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Légende Fig. 206 Gruppo di oggetti in bronzo provenienti dal ‘tesoretto di fonditore’ rinvenuto nel saggio N-O II (si veda il N. 665 del catalogo).
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Légende Fig. 207 Cinturone di bronzo dalla tomba 21 (si veda il N. 664 del catalogo) (scala 1/3).
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Légende Fig. 208 Sauroter N. 661, in situ.
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© Publications du Centre Jean Bérard, 1990

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