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Hellenistic and Roman Pontecagnano

List of illustrations

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Cover: Aerial view of Pontecagnano.

Pl. I. View of the excavation area from southwest (top) and from south (below).

Pl. II. Stucco: cat. nos. A-1 - A-6.


Table 1a: Trenches and strata: status and chronology

Table 1b: Trenches and strata: status and chronology, coins inserted

Table 2: Trenches and strata: phases.

Table 3: Trench G: concordance of the strata

Table 4: Stucco: Distribution of fragments according to colour

Table 5: Mortar pavement: Distribution of fragments

Table 6: Floor tiles: Distribution of fragments

Table 7: Opus sectile: Distribution of fragments

Table 8: Mudbricks: Distribution of fragments

Table 9: Distribution of ridgepole tiles types I-III

Table 10: Ridgepole tiles type I: Distribution of fragments

Table 11: Ridgepole tiles type II: Distribution of fragments

Table 12: Ridgepole tiles type III: Distribution of fragments

Table 13: Distribution of cover tiles types I-IX

Table 14: Cover tiles type I: Distribution of fragments

Table 15: Cover tiles type II: Distribution of fragments

Table 16: Cover tiles type III: Distribution of fragments

Table 17: Cover tiles type IV: Distribution of fragments

Table 18: Cover tiles type V: Distribution of fragments

Table 19: Cover tiles type VI: Distribution of fragments

Table 20: Cover tiles type VII: Distribution of fragments

Table 21: Cover tiles type VIII: Distribution of fragments

Table 22: Cover tiles type IX: Distribution of fragments

Table 23: Distribution of pantiles types I.1-IV.4

Table 24: Pantiles type 1.1: Distribution of fragments

Table 25: Pantiles type 1.2: Distribution of fragments

Table 26: Pantiles type 1.3: Distribution of fragments

Table 27: Pantiles type 1.4: Distribution of fragments

Table 28: Pantiles type 1.5: Distribution of fragments

Table 29: Pantiles type 1.6: Distribution of fragments

Table 30: Pantiles type II. 1: Distribution of fragments

Table 31: Pantiles type II.2: Distribution of fragments

Table 32: Pantiles type II.3: Distribution of fragments

Table 33: Pantiles type II.4: Distribution of fragments

Table 34: Pantiles type III. 1: Distribution of fragments

Table 35: Pantiles type III.2: Distribution of fragments

Table 36: Pantiles type IV. 1: Distribution of fragments

Table 37: Pantiles type IV.2: Distribution of fragments

Table 38: Pantiles type IV.3: Distribution of fragments

Table 39: Pantiles type IV.4: Distribution of fragments

Table 40: Water pipes: Distribution of fragments

Table 41: Tombs: Lengths and midshaft diameters of long bone shafts (in mm.)

Table 42: Impasto: Distribution of fragments

Table 43: Bucchero: Distribution of fragments

Table 44: Argilla depurata: Distribution of fragments

Table 45: Black-gloss ware: Distribution of fragments

Table 46: Black-gloss ware with overpainted decoration: Distribution of fragments

Table 47: Brown-gloss ware: Distribution of fragments

Table 48: Red-gloss ware: Distribution of fragments

Table 49: Unglazed wares: Distribution of fragments

Table 50: Unguentaria: Distribution of fragments

Table 51: Thin-walled ware: Distribution of fragments

Table 52: Terra Sigillata: Distribution of fragments

Table 53: Italian Sigillata: Distribution of Conspectus forms

Table 54: African Red Slip Ware: Distribution of fragments

Table 55: African Red Slip Ware: Distribution of identified forms (Hayes)

Table 56: African Utilitarian Ware: Distribution of casserole Hayes Form 23B

Table 57: Common wares: Distribution of carinated bowls

Table 58: Common wares: Distribution of jars types 1-9

Table 59: Common wares: Distribution of krater types 1-4

Table 60: Common wares: Distribution of lekythoi

Table 61: Common wares: Distribution of casserole types A-E

Table 62: Common wares including Pompeian-Red Ware: Distribution of flat-bottomed pans/platters

Table 63: Common wares: Distribution of lids

Table 64: Common wares: Distribution of orlo annerito lids

Table 65: Coarse wares: Distribution of fragments

Table 66: Coarse wares: Distribution of basins types A-C

Table 67: Coarse wares: Distribution of bowls types A-F

Table 68: Coarse wares: Distribution of mortaria types A-I

Table 69: Coarse wares: Dolia: Distribution of all fragments

Table 70: Coarse wares: Distribution of dolia types A-M

Table 71: Coarse wares: Distribution of situlae

Table 72: Coarse wares: Distribution of dome-shaped lids

Table 73: Coarse wares: Distribution of circular lids types A-C

Table 74: Coarse wares: Distribution of clibani

Table 75: Amphorae: Distribution of fragments

Table 76: Transport amphorae: Distribution of types A-C5

Table 77: Glass: Distribution of fragments

Table 78: Lamps: Distribution of fragments a-d (Roman lamps, not classified)

Table 79: Lamps: Distribution of types Al-B7b

Table 80: Terracotta: Distribution of figurines

Table 81: Terracotta: Distribution of loomweights

Table 82: Terracotta: Distribution of loomweights types 1-5

Table 83: Terracotta: Distribution of discs

Table 84: Terracotta: Distribution of discs types 1-4

Table 85: Stone: Distribution of pebbles

Table 86: Bone: Distribution of objects

Table 87: Bronze: Distribution of objects

Table 88: Iron: Distribution of objects

Table 89: Iron: Distribution of slags

Table 90: Lead: Distribution of objects


Fig. 1. Map of Southern Italy.

Fig. 2a. Ancient Pontecagnano. Location of remains and excavation areas (from Cinquantaquattro 1994, 121, fig. 1).

Fig. 2b. Ancient Pontecagnano. Prop. Truono and Prop.

Avallone (from Cinquantaquattro 1994, 122, fig. 2).

Fig. 3. Tube-shaped lime sediments (#90-53).

Fig. 4. Prop. Avallone: excavation area.

Fig. 5. Trench A: plan.

Fig. 6. Trench A: double wall and clay floor, from south. Fig. 7. Trenches B and C: plans.

Fig. 8. Trench B: clayish layers, from east.

Fig. 9. Trench C: view from east.

Fig. 10. Trench Ds: plan.

Fig. 11. Trench Dn: plan.

Fig. 12. Trench Dn + Ds: plan.

Fig. 13. Trench Ds: section of wall Dl, from west.

Fig. 14. Trench Ds: eastern section.

Fig. 15. Trench Ds: plan: remains of terra battuta/clay floor west of wall D1; terra battuta and pit to the east.

Fig. 16. Trench Dn, stratum VI: collapse material in situ.

Fig. 17. Trench Ds: outlet on the east side of the wall Dl.

Fig. 18. Trench Ds: outlet on the west side of the wall Dl.

Fig. 19. Trench Ds: terra battuta east of wall Dl and pit.

Fig. 20. Trench Ds: step west of wall Dl.

Fig. 21. Trench Ds: finds below the step.

Fig. 22. Trench E: plan: central part.

Fig. 23. Trench E: plan: western part.

Fig. 24. Trench E (top): plan: eastern part. Trench G (below): plan.

Fig. 25. Trench E (top): plan: whole trench. Trench G (below): plan.

Fig. 26. Trench E: eastern section, wall E3.

Fig. 27. Trench E: western section.

Fig. 28. Trench E: section of wall E4, from east.

Fig. 29. Trench E: northern section and section of wall E4.

Fig. 30. Trench E: wall E4, roof tiles fallen upon the tile pavement.

Fig. 31. Trench E: wall E4, tile pavement.

Fig. 32. Trench E: central part with lowest strata.

Fig. 33. Trench E: drain to the right and cover tile on the floor.

Fig. 34. Trench F: plan: western and central part.

Fig. 35. Trench F: plan: whole trench.

Fig. 36. Trench F: section of wall FI, from west.

Fig. 37. Trench F: section of wall F2, from south.

Fig. 38. Trench F: view from south, postholes.

Fig. 39. Trench F: view from west, posthole.

Fig. 40. Trench G: plan: foundation trench along wall G1 (stratum XV) and cut terra battuta (strata XIV+XVI).

Fig. 41. Trench G: southern section.

Fig. 42. Trench G: wall G1, from west.

Fig. 43. Trench G: votive deposit: concave-convex cup (cat. no. 0-36).

Fig. 44. Trench G: votive deposit: oinochoe (cat. no. 0-88). Fig. 45. Trench H: plan.

Fig. 46. Trench H: view from south, stone-paved area.

Fig. 47. Trench FI: lime sediment in stratum III.

Fig. 48. Trench H: Tomb 6008: amphora in situ (cat. no. G-1).

Fig. 49. Trench J: plan.

Fig. 50. Trench J: stones and roof tiles east of wall J1 and north of wall J2.

Fig. 51. Trench J: Tomb 6093: amphora in situ (cat. no. G-2).

Fig. 52. Trench K: plan: strata IV-V.

Fig. 53. Trench K: plan: stratum VI.

Fig. 54. Trench L: plan.

Fig. 55. Trench L: view from south.

Fig. 56. Trench L: Tomb 6092: amphora in situ (cat. no. G-3).

Fig. 57. Trenches H, J, K, L: plan: Courtyard House.

Fig. 58. Trench M: plan.

Fig. 59. Trench M: view from west.

Fig. 60. Trench N: bedrock.

Fig. 61. Prop. Avallone: plan with walls from the first phase of occupation.

Fig. 62. Prop. Avallone: plan with walls from the second phase of occupation.

Fig. 63. Prop. Avallone: plan with walls from the Imperial period.

Fig. 64. Courtyard House: reconstruction with roof and stone paving (drawing by Pernille Foss).

Fig. 65. Fragments of mortar pavements: cat. nos. B-l, B-2.

Fig. 66. Mudbrick: cat. no. C-l.

Fig. 67. Mudbricks: cat. no. C-2.

Fig. 68. Floor tiles: cat. nos. B-3, B-4; ridgepole tiles: cat. nos. D-l, D-2; ridgepole tile and cover tile: #90-151 +... + #90-849 and #90-916; cover tiles: cat. nos. D-6 - D-13, D-15.

Fig. 69. Pantiles: typology; types 1.1-1.6: cat. nos. D-16 – D-21.

Fig. 70. Pantiles types II.1-IV.4: cat. nos. D-22, D-23, D-26 - D-34; miscellaneous tiles: cat. nos. D-35 - D-40, D-43, D-44; architectural terracottas: cat. nos. E-l, E-2; water pipes: cat. nos F-l, F-2.

Fig. 71. Pantile type II.2: entire width preserved: cat. nos. D-24, D-25; tiles with paint: cat. nos. D-41, D-42; pantile type 1.3 with print of a child’s hand: cat. no. D-18; tile with footprint of animal: cat. no. D-45.

Fig. 72. Trenches H, J, K, L: plan with tombs.

Fig. 73. Amphorae from the tombs: Trench H, Tomb 6008: cat. no. G-l; Trench J, Tomb 6093: cat. no. G-2; Trench L, Tomb 6092: cat. no. G-3.

Fig. 74. Archaic pottery: impasto: cat. nos. H-l - H-9; bucchero: cat. nos. J-l - J-9; argilla depurata: cat. nos. K-l - K-6.

Fig. 75. Black-figure pottery: cat. no. L-l. Red-figure pottery: cat. nos. N-l - N-4. Black-gloss ware with over-painted decoration: cat. nos. O-37, O-38, O-65, O-67, O-73, O-111, O-116.

Fig. 76. Black-figure pottery: a: #90-650 (top left), #160-2-24 (top right), cat. no. L-l (bottom); b: Pagenstecher Class (top from left to right: #89-135, #89-655, #160-2-32; bottom from left to right: #89-455, #160-2-25, #90-2). Red-figure pottery: cat. nos. M-l, N-l, N-2, N-4, N-5.

Fig. 77. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-l - O-18.

Fig. 78. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-19 - O-36, O-39, O-40.

Fig. 79. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-41 - O-61.

Fig. 80. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-62 - O-64, O-66, O-68 - O-72, O-74 - O-81.

Fig. 81. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-82 - O-95.

Fig. 82. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-96 - O-110, O-112 - O-115.

Fig. 83. Black-gloss ware: cat. nos. O-36, O-88; black-gloss ware with overpainted decoration: cat. nos. O-65, O-67, O-73; reticulate lekythoi/flasks: cat. nos. O-117 - O-120.

Fig. 84. Red-gloss ware: cat. nos. P-1 - P-16.

Fig. 85. Banded ware: cat. nos. Q-l - Q-2. Unglazed wares: cat. nos. R-l - R-27.

Fig. 86. Unguentaria: cat. nos. S-l - S-10, S-12 - S-21, S-23. Relief ware: cat. no. T-l.

Fig. 87. Thin-walled ware: cat. nos. U-l - U-24, U-28 - U-30.

Fig. 88. Thin-walled ware: cat. nos. U-26, U-27.

Fig. 89. Pompeian-Red Ware: cat. nos. V-l - V-4.

Fig. 90. Italian Sigillata: cat. nos. W-l - W-21.

Fig. 91. South Gaulish Sigillata: cat. nos. X-l - X-12.

Fig. 92. African Red Slip Ware: cat. nos. Y-l - Y-13, Y-15 - Y-21.

Fig. 93. African Red Slip Ware: cat. nos. Y-14, Y-22 - Y-40.

Fig. 94. Common wares: cat. nos. Z-l - Z-17.

Fig. 95. Common wares: cat. nos. Z-l9 - Z-36, Z-39 - Z-44, Z-46 - Z-48.

Fig. 96. Common wares: cat. nos. Z-49 - Z-54, Z-56, Z-58- Z-68.

Fig. 97. Common wares: cat. nos. Z-69 - Z-90.

Fig. 98. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-1 - AA-9.

Fig. 99. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-10 - AA-17.

Fig. 100. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-18 - AA-25.

Fig. 101. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-26 - AA-29.

Fig. 102. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-30, AA-31, AA-34 - AA-41.

Fig. 103. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-42 - AA-47.

Fig. 104. Coarse wares: cat. nos. AA-50 - AA-52, AA-54, AA-55.

Fig. 105. Transport amphorae: cat. nos. BB-1 – BB-17; table amphora: cat. no. BB-18.

Fig. 106. Lead-glazed ware: cat. no. CC-1. Glass: cat. nos. DD-1 - DD-20, DD-26.

Fig. 107. Glass: cat. nos. DD-21 - DD-25, DD-27 - DD-39.

Fig. 108. Lamps: cat. nos. EE-1 - EE-3, EE-5 - EE-12, EE-15, EE-16, EE-18.

Fig. 109. Lamps: cat. nos. EE-19, EE-21, EE-23, EE-25, EE-32 - EE-34, EE-36.

Fig. 110. Lamps: cat. nos. EE-39 - EE-41, EE-47, EE-54, EE-57, EE-59, EE-65, EE-67 - EE-70.

Fig. 111. Terracotta figurines: heads: cat. nos. FF-1 - FF-5; other parts: cat. nos. FF-7 - FF-10; box: cat. no. FF-13.

Fig. 112. Loomweights: cat. nos. GG-1 - GG-9.

Fig. 113. Loomweights: cat. nos. GG-10 - GG-15; spindle whorl: #160-3-255.

Fig. 114. Terracotta discs: cat. nos. HH-1 - HH-4, HH-7; theatre ticket?: cat. no. HH-8.

Fig. 115. Objects in stone: cat. nos. JJ-1 - JJ-6, JJ-22; a: pebbles: top row, from left to right: cat. nos. JJ-15, JJ-9, JJ-18, JJ-7; second row, from left to right: cat. nos. JJ-11, JJ-8, JJ-14, JJ-11; third row, from left to right: cat. nos. JJ-11, JJ-16, JJ-12; bottom row, from left to right: cat. nos. JJ-10, JJ-19, JJ-17.

Fig. 116. Coins: cat. nos. LL-1 - LL-3, LL-6.

Fig. 117. Objects in bone: cat. nos. KK-1, KK-5 – KK-8.

Fig. 118. Objects in bronze: cat. nos. MM-1 - MM-6, MM-8 - MM-13.

Fig. 119. Objects in iron: cat. nos. NN-1 - NN-3, NN-6 - NN-13.

Fig. 120. Objects in iron: cat. nos. NN-14 - NN-24.

Fig. 121. Objects in iron: cat. nos. NN-25 - NN-34, NN-36 - NN-54.

Fig. 122. Object in iron: cat. nos. NN-57. Objects in lead: cat. nos. OO-1, OO-2, OO-4 - OO-11.

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