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Grecs et indigènes de la Catalogne à la mer Noire

Henri Tréziny

Chapitre 1. Techniques de construction

7. Domestic Architecture in the Northern Aegean:the Evidence from the ancient settlement of Karabournaki

Despoina Tsiafakis


Aim of this paper is to present the domestic features of the ancient settlement located at Karabournaki in North Aegean. The site, placed on the top of a mound above the Thermaic Gulf, includes a settlement, harbor and cemeteries. It should be identified with a part of ancient Therma. Geometric and particularly Archaic times, appear to be the flourishing periods of Karabournaki, which should had gotten an “international” character due to its trading activities. The preserved structures point rather to a permanent occupation with stone built Greek in type, Archaic in date, houses. Except for the purely domestic activities, the findings indicate active workshops for metal-working and ceramics. Its chief attribute, however, is the beehive-shaped semi-subterranean constructions. As for the population of the settlement, there are certainly Greeks there at least from the Archaic period onwards, but the possibility to have a mixed population with also Thracian inhabitants cannot be rejected.

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mer Égée septentrionale

Texte intégral

1. Introduction

1Domestic architecture, although of great importance and interest for the reconstruction of ancient Greek culture, is not well documented through the archaeological evidence, especially for the pre-classical period. The number of Geometric or Archaic excavated houses is limited, as is our understanding of the residential areas of otherwise well-known towns of Greek Antiquity (Drerup 1969 ; Fagerström 1988  ; Lang 1996 ; Hoepfner 1999 ; Lang 2005, 12-35 ; Kourou 2004, 147-162).

2This already partial information diminishes further in the Northern part of the Aegean, where most excavations are more recent than those in the South (Lang 2005, 13-32).

3Although outside the initial borders of Greek territory, the region of the North-eastern Aegean attracted Greek colonists apparently from very early times (Tiverios 2008, 1-17). Even though there are references to the various local inhabitants of the area, such as the Thracians for example, the literary sources do not provide sufficient information about their life and settlements or their relations with Greek colonists (Xydopoulos 2007 ; Tsiafaki 2009).

4“Mixed populations or separate settlements for Greeks and locals ?”, is a critical question to which the literary sources do not provide a clear answer. The scattered archaeological evidence could make a significant contribution to this problem, even though it cannot offer definitive answers. Architectural remains, in combination with the rest of the finds reflect the social structure of the people living on a site. House-types, as well as their arrangement within settlements, can present some kind of information about how the inhabitants structured space and created community.

5The aim of this paper is to present an aspect of the constructions found in pre-classical settlements in the North-eastern Aegean, inhabited by Greeks but in some relationship with the local population. The geographical area of interest is the Thermaic Gulf, and the time period under discussion is mostly the Archaic period, with some references to the Geometric and Iron Age. A limited number of domestic buildings have been excavated and published in the area during that time-frame (Lang 1996 ; Tiverios 2008). The names of some additional sites in the area are known through the literary sources, but without any information about their physical layouts.

6The focus of this study is the settlement at Karabournaki, a site that can contribute to our understanding of the domestic architecture of the region under investigation.

2. The settlement at Karabournaki

7Located in the Northern Aegean, on the edge of the promontory in the center of the Thermaic Gulf, in the area of modern Thessaloniki, Karabournaki or Little Karabournou, preserves the remains of an ancient site including a settlement, a harbour and cemeteries (fig. 259).

Fig. 259. Aerial view of the Karabournaki settlement.

Fig. 259. Aerial view of the Karabournaki settlement.

8The known elements of ancient dwellings indicate that the primary area of the settlement was placed on the top of a low mound, while its cemeteries extended to the area that surrounds the bottom of the hill. The Thermaic Gulf reaches the lower part of the mound and the remains of the ancient harbour are still distinguishable under the water in the zone of the modern Kyverneion (Palataki). Even though no inscription with the name of the ancient city has yet been found, several scholars have argued for the identification of the site with a part of ancient Therma, based upon its location and literary and archaeological evidence (Rhomaios 1940 ; Hammond 1972, 151 ; Tiverios 1987, 247-260 ; Tiverios 1990, 71-88 ; Tiverios 2008, 26-28).

9The site has been known since the late 19 th century and although the area was used as a military camp continuously until 1989, the earliest archaeological research there already took place during the First World War (Rey 1917-19, 97-100 ; Rey 1927, 48-57 ; Rey 1928, 60-66 ; Rey 1932, 67-76). The detection of the cemetery led to the researching of several graveyards in the area by the military allies the British, French, and Russians. The result of those archaeological activities was the discovery of gold and silver jewellery, bronze and iron weapons, terracotta items, and clay and bronze vessels dating from the 6 th and 5 th centuries B.C.

10The top of the mound, however, was only explored for the first time by Prof. K. Rhomaios, in 1930 (Rhomaios 1940, 1-7 ; Rhomaios 1941, 358-387). This was a brief campaign, but it revealed parts of the ancient settlement with storerooms and houses, as well as substantial quantities of pottery, both local and imported, all dating from the 6 th and 5 th centuries B.C.

11The next archaeological activity at the site was carried out in 1954 by Ph. Petsas, during the course of the construction of the road along the shore (Petsas, 1966/7, 303 ; Petsas 1969, 162 ; Petsas 1974, 318). It unearthed more antiquities of similar date and type.

12The first systematic research in the area began in 1994 as a collaboration project between the Aristotle University and the Archaeological Service of Thessaloniki. The Archaeological Service undertook research in the vicinity of the mound area, as well as the cemeteries and the plateau located nearby (Pandermali, Trakosopoulou 1994, 203-215 ; Pandermali, Trakosopoulou 1995, 283-292). The University carries out the investigation of the mound itself and the settlement located there, under the directorship of Prof. M. Tiverios and his associates Dr. E. Manakidou and Dr. D. Tsiafakis (Tiverios et al. 2007 ; Tiverios et al. 2006, 263-270 ; Tiverios et al. 2002-2003).

13As was already mentioned, the area had been used as a military camp. The military constructions that took place on the top of the mound had entirely destroyed the later phases of the ancient settlement. Furthermore, there is an abundance of 20 th century finds. To this should also be added a significant number of horse burials. Modern constructions, objects, and horse burials have caused severe damage to the architectural remains of the ancient settlement.

14Because of these modern disturbances, the site is excavated horizontally ; the surviving architectural remains closest to the surface are those of the Archaic period. The recent data indicates that the majority of them date from the 6 th c. B.C.

15The contemporary disturbance also renders the limits of the settlement unclear. Part of it is now underwater, while another part of the ancient residential area has been cut by the modern road. Despite all this, what is left reveals sufficient evidence of the daily life of the people living here. The styles of house construction can be used as an indicator of the economic conditions of the site as a whole, through for example, the building materials and techniques used.

16Although not of a large size, the settlement in Karabournaki will have played a significant role not only in the area of the Thermaic Gulf but also in relation to the interior as a result of its location next to the harbour in the centre of the Gulf. Apparently this was the most important harbour in the area at least until the foundation of Thessaloniki, as suggested by Herodotos’ statement (7,127,1) that Xerxes chose to base his army there and by the imports found on the site.

17All this leads to the conclusion that Karabournaki was not a settlement with an agricultural character. Instead, trading operations appear to be dominant, although other activities will also have taken place on the site, as indicated by the architectural remains.

2.1. The architectural data

18The settlement, according to the archaeological data, was unfortified. It was founded and organised much earlier than the Archaic period, perhaps even during the Late Bronze Age (Tiverios 1987, 249-250, 255). Scattered finds in the area indicate that the site might have existed until the Roman era, and certainly after the foundation of Thessaloniki in the 4 th c. B.C. (Tiverios 1987, 249). However, the Geometric and particularly the Archaic periods, appear to be those in which Karabournaki, flourished. It had acquired an “international” character due to its commercial activities throughout the Aegean and even beyond, as is shown by the quality and the quantity of the pottery imports. For the pottery see the article of E. Manakidou in this volume.

19The lack of fortification is characteristic of settlements organised as “komedon”, meaning that a number of small habitations scattered over an area (whether large or not), made a “kome” ; ancient Therma, mentioned by the literary sources as the major “polisma” in the Thermaic Gulf before the foundation of Thessaloniki, seems to have been organized that way (Rhomaios 1940, 4,6 ; Tiverios 2008, 26-27). The placement of the cemeteries in the bottom of the hill in Karabournaki, could be also related to this type of organisation, since it was common to have cemeteries for each settlement making up the “komedon” (Kourou 2004, 160).

20The term settlement, however, appear to be the most appropriate for the characterization of the site, according to the available architectural data (fig. 260). The number and the shape of the preserved structures point to permanent occupation, without, however, conforming to a coherent overall layout, a common feature of multi-phased settlements. Buildings located next to another with a dividing wall in common, or very close with a narrow street/corridor between them, are the rule so far, but they appear to follow a consistent orientation, northwest to southeast (NW-SE). Those characteristics place Karabournaki in the “Reihensiedlung” type of settlement (Lang 1996, 60).

Fig. 260. Architectural drawing of the excavated part of the settlement in Karabournaki.

Fig. 260. Architectural drawing of the excavated part of the settlement in Karabournaki.

21The architectural remains of Karabournaki do not yet provide a clear picture of the type or types of the houses present on the site (figs. 261-262). It is not yet known whether a reproduction of the same house type, with possible variations in numbers of rooms, applied across the settlement or whether there were various house types.

Fig. 261. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.

Fig. 261. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.

Fig. 262. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.

Fig. 262. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.

22The preserved data does, however, indicate a few common features. The general hypothesis that emerges from the excavated area is that the settlement consists of stone-built houses, Greek in type, and Archaic in date. The principal shape of the rooms is rectangular ; the long walls run from north to south (N-S) and the narrow walls from east to west (E-W). Although, it is not clear whether the constructions belong to single-room or multi-room houses, the architectural remains show that the spaces were juxtaposed paratactically, thereby creating a radial arrangement. According to Lang (Lang 2005, 17), this layout is characteristic of the Archaic period and, furthermore marks a fundamental change from the Iron Age, when the rooms were situated one behind the other. If this is valid, then it offers another argument in support of the Archaic date of the preserved structures.

23The latest data indicates that the buildings in general conform to the principles of the ancient Greek house (oikia), as described by Xenophon (Memorabilia 3.8.9, Oeconomicus 9.4). Xenophon claims that the most-frequently used rooms should be south-facing to gain sun in the winter while being shaded from the higher sun of summer.

24The great majority of the structures at Karabournaki had stone foundations that were usually only roughly dressed and very occasionally cut rectangular (as ashlars). The superstructure was made of sun-dried mud brick (adobe), as indicated by the destroyed mud bricks found in some cases adjacent to or near the walls. It is possible that those mud-brick walls were strengthened by a few timbers, although no trace of them survives. The thickness of the foundation walls has usually been used as a criterion for determining the possibility of a second storey with 0,45 m. taken to be the minimum necessary, but there is also evidence for walls of ca. 0,30 m. supporting a second storey. The thickness of the walls in Karabournaki ranges between 0,30-0,50 m., a width that would have been enough to support an upper storey, at least hypothetically (Tiverios et al., 2002-2003, 327-338).

25As a rule, the extent of preservation is unimpressive, with stone walls preserved to half a meter in height, and in few instances up to 0,85 m. Due to the preservation of the foundation walls alone, the placement of access to the street is unclear, and it is not known whether it was in the long or in the short side of each house. The same uncertainty affects the siting of doors leading from one room to another, assuming we are dealing with houses of multi-room type.

26The floors of the rooms were normally of beaten earth and are therefore difficult to trace. The roofs will have been formed by timbers covered with straw or rushes and mud, usually topped by long, heavy, baked clay tiles. The most common type of roof tiles found in Karabournaki is the Laconian. Often the roof-tiles were covered with red or black paint to water-proof them. Clay roof-tile is considered to be among the significant inventions and technological innovations that influenced architectural design (Lang 2005, 28). The earliest examples of tiles in the post–Mycenean period seem to be on temples dated to the end of the eighth c. B.C. (Schwandner 1990)

27Some of the structures may also have included a courtyard, as for example in trench 23/3a and perhaps in 23/3c (Tiverios et al. 1995, 279). A courtyard can sometimes be distinguished, occasionally paved with stones in circular shape (fig. 263). Although its role in the overall organization of the house cannot yet be established with certainty, it is possible that it was used for household activities or as foundations for granaries (Schwandner 1990 ; Moschonissioti 1998, 258-259 ; Coldstream 2003, 196).

Fig. 263. Stone pavement in Karabournaki.

Fig. 263. Stone pavement in Karabournaki.

28In one case the stone-paved area is more extensive, set on two levels and attached to the walls of a house. It is carefully-constructed and might belong to a street. If this is true, it will be the first street uncovered so far in Karabournaki. It is noteworthy that there is as yet no other indication for streets among the buildings, apart from some narrow spaces between constructions.

29A type of flooring consisting of seashells and pebbles has been sporadically revealed in various parts of the excavated area. These cobbled surfaces are found in multiple superimposed levels. Their fragility was apparently the reason why they had to be repeatedly resurfaced. For the same reason they are poorly preserved and survive only alongside walls. Their role is not clear. Until recently we suspected that they might have been used as substructures for courtyards or even streets. One of the most recent to be found, however, preserves some indications that it was placed indoors. Roof tiles were found on top of it and it was placed next to a hearth in the room. Despite their problematic function, it is clear that these pavements were used all over the settlement for a long period of time. The archaeological data from the site indicate that their use begins from at least the late 8 th century B.C. and extends without any doubt up to the 6 th century B.C.

30Specific architectural storage features such as “cellars” are commonly found in Karabournaki (figs. 264-265). More than 15 different storerooms preserving pithoi in situ, have so far been certainly identified within the settlement. The modern disturbances unfortunately do not allow any estimate of the total number of the pithoi stored in each room but the preserved examples, in relation with the surrounding walls, indicate the existence of more than 10 pithoi in each storeroom. As a rule the pithoi were sunk into the ground with their base often placed below the level of the foundation walls.

Fig. 264. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.

Fig. 264. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.

Fig. 265. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.

Fig. 265. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.

31Most of the pithoi appear to be placed in separate storerooms, but recent findings show that some of them were placed in the “kitchen” of the house (optanion). They were placed next to hearths uncovered in those spaces that prove cooking activities took place there. The existence of pithoi in the “kitchen” of a house does not necessarily rule out its having other storage areas besides. They may well have had “cellars” (= storerooms) to store goods on an annual basis, while keeping what was immediately needed in pithoi in the space where they carried their cooking activities.

32Samples of the earth found inside some of the pithoi have been submitted for analysis. The preliminary results have shown burnt seeds from various cereals, grain, wheat, and grapes (Valamoti 2003, 201-204). The preference of the inhabitants for wine also emerges very clearly from the numerous imported amphorae found all over the mound. It is worth noting that all major centers of the Greek world are represented through their distinctive types of amphorae. A number of them apparently contained olive oil. Wine and olive oil were two of the products probably stored in the pithoi. When we add to the above the bones from small animals and fish, and the large quantities of seashells found scattered across the area, we get a picture of the dietary habits of the people living on the site. Other samples of earth coming from the beehive-shaped dugouts contained burnt seeds from ancient lentil and bitter vetch, a kind of pulse used to feed animals (Tiverios et al., 2002-2003, 333 ; Tiverios et al. 2003, 192-193).

33Remains of storage vessels, especially when actually set into the floor, indicate the use of rooms, but it is apparent that the rooms might well have had other functions related to the various needs of the household. A type of multi-functional room can easily be accepted in the case of Karabournaki, particularly since the number of the rooms in each house is not known. The rooms of the houses could have been used for the processing and storage of food and textiles from its agricultural property or for the working of materials and storage of supplies from non-agricultural activities. Hearths, or parts of them, have been uncovered to date in a few spaces of the settlement, particularly in the area situated on the top of the mound slightly to its eastern side (fig. 266). In some cases they were placed next to the walls of the rooms, or they might have adjacent to them a space or a clay construction for food preparation.

Fig. 266. Hearths in Karabournaki.

Fig. 266. Hearths in Karabournaki.

34It is generally accepted that the household was considered a miniature centre of production in which clothes and food were made from wool and crops. Taking that into consideration helps to explain the finds made within the structures.

35Many mortars and hand grindstones were found, the latter for the preparation of grain in the house. For weaving textiles, the upright loom might have been set up as needed and then disassembled and stored away. The numerous examples of loom weights, some of them stamped to indicate their owner or producer, show that weaving was a common activity on the site. Substantial quantities of cooking ware, coarse ware, plain pottery, and fragmentary portable hearths or ovens for the preparation and cooking of food are indicative of the domestic use of the buildings. Taken together these findings confirm the general assumption that the house was both residence and workplace for most crafts, aside from those that required specialised equipment such as a forge or a kiln, or direct communication with the outside such as a shop or a tavern.

36Although some specialised activity spaces, such as courtyards, kitchens, and storerooms, can be identified in Karabournaki, the archaeological record is difficult to interpret and the houses seem to have been somewhat irregular in organization. Some of the most characteristic features of the typical Greek house, as we know it from the late Classical and Hellenistic periods (at, e.g. Olynthus, Pella, etc.), are lacking. There are, for example, no specialised facilities for the entertainment of guests (banquet room) or porticoes beside the courtyards. Their absence could be due to the fact that the preserved houses in Karabournaki date from the Archaic period, and our knowledge regarding Archaic oikia is extremely limited (Lang 1996 ; Lang 2005). It is therefore possible either that the space known in later periods as andronas (men’s quarters) may not have developed that early or that there was not a fixed type of house at that time. But such a difference from the so-called typical Greek oikia might also signify dissimilarities in social structure and character between the inhabitants of Karabournaki and the occupants of other Greek sites.

37It is not possible thus far to attribute a public character to any of the excavated buildings, either because they were located somewhere else or because they have not been found or identified yet. However, parts of architectural terracottas (fig. 267) preserving painted decoration (Tiverios et al. 2002-2003, 331) found scattered across the site indicate buildings constructed more carefully than the ones presented above, and may point to the existence of public or simply more official constructions in the area. This separation of private and public buildings is considered to be a significant change that occurred in Archaic period, and is possibly related to the emergence of a different political and social organisation from that which existed in the Iron Age (Lang 2005, 18). The fact that the social or political structure in Karabournaki is not yet known presents a further difficulty in identifying public buildings – if any existed – on the site. Furthermore, the site extends to the nearby plateau and any public constructions could be located there.

Fig. 267. Architectural terracotta.

Fig. 267. Architectural terracotta.

38The chief features of Karabournaki, however, are the beehive-shaped semi-subterranean constructions spread out on the mound (figs. 268-269) (Tiverios et al. 2002-2003, 333-335) that are reminiscent to a certain extent of similar structures in the area of the Black Sea (Solovyov 2001, 120-140 ; Tsetskhladze 2004).

39The beehive-shaped structures unearthed in Karabournaki have a number of characteristics in common : a) construction partially underground and partially above the surface, b) a similar beehive shape larger in diameter at the base than the top, c) an upper part, now lost from all of them, apparently built in stone, as indicated by the stones found on some of them, at least to a certain height (mud-brick may have been used for the upper parts), d) similar construction, dug into the same surface layers in their underground part, e) a base that goes down to the natural ground of the region, a whitish, very hard earth, called “mellagas” in the local dialect. It is not unusual for them to be found in pairs, occasionally with an opening that connects one to the other (fig. 10) (Tiverios et al. 1998, 224-225).

Fig. 268. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.

Fig. 268. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.

Fig. 269. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.

Fig. 269. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.

40The archaeological evidence suggests that these structures were already built in the earlier phases of the settlement, perhaps in the late 8 th or early 7 th century B.C., perhaps before the constructions of Greek type. However, they were apparently still in existence alongside the later Archaic constructions of the site and it is probable that they adapted them for secondary use. No evidence has yet been found to suggest their initial function. Nor is it known how they were used in the Archaic period when they were incorporated into the buildings of Greek type.

41The content of these semi-subterranean constructions indicates that they were closed up and abandoned at the same time. They are all filled with a similar type of earth containing animal bones, seashells and large quantities of pottery, imported and local. The majority of the pottery found within most of them dates from the 7 th and 6 th centuries B.C. This makes me wonder whether they were abandoned some time in the early 5 th century B.C., perhaps in connection with the presence of the Persians in the area at that time. According to Herodotos (7,127,1 ; 7,123,7 ; 7,121,1), Xerxes camped at the site on his way to the south.

42Alongside purely domestic activities, the finds indicate that there were workshops for metal-working and ceramics on the site. The wheel-made “ionizing eggshell” type of pottery that has been proven through archaeological data and archaeometric analysis to have been produced in Karabournaki (Tiverios et al. 2002-2003, 347-348 ; Tsiafaki, Tsirliganis 2008), indicates the existence of an organized workshop with a commercial character. Apart from the immense quantities of this ware found in Karabournaki itself, its distribution across various sites in Macedonia points in that direction (Chrysostomou, Chrysostomou 1993, 163 ; Lioutas, Kotsos 2001, 193, fig. 54 ; Chrysostomou 2002, 239, fig. 15 ; Tzanavari, Filis 2003, 156, fig. 1). Taking into consideration that the waste-heap of the workshop was located on the top of the mound, the workshop itself should be located somewhere nearby, and therefore within the settlement. As a rule, large-scale workshops were placed away from houses, because of their spatial needs. It is known elsewhere that pottery workshops were located near sanctuaries or cemeteries or in specific areas (e.g. Athens, Corinth). It is unclear, however, when this separation began ; it was known already in Mycenean times, but there is information for workshops located within settlements during the Protogeometric period (Kourou 2004, 157-158).

43Indications of metalworking are also evident from individual finds such as moulds and from some traces of workshops found in the recent excavations (Tiverios et al. 2007). A few pits and a certain amount of slag and clay vessels with metal residue at the bottom suggest the existence of at least one organized workshop. The slag analysis proved it to be iron, while the archaeological data indicate the existence of the workshop perhaps antedates the Archaic period.

44The recent data do not allow an estimation of the population within the settlement. There is certainly a Greek population present during the Archaic period, as indicated by the Greek-type houses and contemporary Greek-type burials revealed on the site. The possibility, however, that Thracians were also present cannot be ruled out. Hekataios from Miletus is the earliest preserved literary source to mention the inhabitants of the area, and Therma in particular, as “πόλις Ἑλλήνων Θρηϊκῶν” (FGrHist 1, F 163) (‘In the Thermaic Gulf there is Therma, a “polis” of Greeks Thracians’). The interpretation of this reference to “Greeks Thracians” has been much discussed (does it mean Greeks and Thracians living together as a mixed population, or Greeks in Thrace ? ), but the existence of indigenous inhabitants, in this case Thracians, in the area appears to be certain (Xydopoulos 2007, 44-46). Hekataios confirms this by mentioning clearly the Thracians in Chalastra, a site near to Therma. His work dates from the late 6 th c. B.C., before the expansion of the Macedonian kingdom during the reign of Alexander A’ (479-452 B.C.) (Xydopoulos 2007, 39). It was during the latter’s rule that the area of the Thermaic Gulf was incorporated into Macedonian territory. At the time of Hekataios the Axios river was the boundary : for Thrace to be extended to its east (Hammond 1972, 146). Therma and Chalastra are the first places to be mentioned in the area and they are clearly linked with Thrace and Thracians. In the case of Therma in particular it has been suggested either that Hekataios considers it one of the barbarian sites (Hansen 1997, 19-20) or that it had a mixed population (Hatzopoulos 1996, 107).

45Despite the problems and the difficulties encountered in all of the above interpretations, the one thing on which all are agreed is the Thracian presence in the region at least in the period under consideration. Moreover, Therma was part of Thracian territory until the end of the Archaic period and it was probably organised as a “komedon”. Even if in the part of Therma located in Karabournaki the residents of the Archaic, Greek-type buildings were Greeks, somewhere nearby there were therefore local Thracians.

3. Conclusions

46The settlement in Karabournaki appears to be a multi-phase site, in use perhaps from the Late Bronze Age down to the Roman era, with a flourishing period in Geometric and particularly in Archaic times.

47The architectural remains presented here belong to the Archaic period and mostly to the 6 th c. B.C. The excavated structures belong to Greek- type buildings similar to those found in various places in Greece in that period, although there are clearly various regional patterns. The major features of the buildings (room-shape, construction technology, arrangement, courtyard) are identified by modern scholars as indicative of changes in domestic architecture that appear in Archaic times, and are significantly different from the characteristics of houses of the Iron Age.

48There is insufficient data to distinguish the character of the buildings uncovered on the top of the mound. Although a residential aspect could be traced in a certain number of them, there are also indications of workshops located in the same area, at least until the 6 th c. B.C.

49Even so, the preserved archaeological data, despite their scarcity, indicate the existence of a “cosmopolitan” wealthy settlement at Karabournaki, a place where there was a meeting of influences from the East and the West.


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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 259. Aerial view of the Karabournaki settlement.
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Titre Fig. 260. Architectural drawing of the excavated part of the settlement in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 261. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 262. Architectural remains from the settlement in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 263. Stone pavement in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 264. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 265. Storerooms with pithoi in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 266. Hearths in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 267. Architectural terracotta.
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Titre Fig. 268. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.
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Titre Fig. 269. Semi-subterranean constructions in Karabournaki.
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