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Fisheries in the Pacific

 | 
Simonne Pauwels
, 
Elodie Fache

The Authors

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1 Valérie Allain is a fisheries research scientist at the Pacific Community (SPC). Her domains of expertise include fish biology and ecology, ecosystem functioning, fisheries, and climate change impact. After studying the deep sea fish populations exploited by trawl fisheries in the north-east Atlantic, she moved to the Pacific where she has spent the last 15 years working on the tuna fisheries of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Her work has particularly focused on understanding the tuna ecosystem through studies of the trophic interactions between fish species as well as an analysis of the various compartments of this ecosystem, from primary producers to top predators. She has also studied the impact of seamounts on tuna catches, tuna fisheries by catches, and tuna movement and ecosystem organization through biological markers such as mercury and stable isotopes. Her recent publications include several co-authored articles in specialised journals, such as Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography (Volume 113, 2015), and in multidisciplinary scientific journals, such as PLoS ONE (Volume 7(5), 2012) and Proceedings of the National Academy of Science US (Volume 107(21), 2010). They also include contributions to SPC’s publications on various topics, for instance the vulnerability of open ocean food webs to climate change in the tropical Pacific (Chapter 4 in Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change, edited by J.D. Bell, J.E. Johnson and A.J. Hobday, 2011, http://www.spc.int/​climate-change/​fisheries/​assessment/​main-book.html).

2 Tamatoa Bambridge is an anthropologist and CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research) Senior Researcher at CRIOBE, Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l’Environnement, Moorea, French Polynesia. His research focuses on the relations between society and environment in Eastern Polynesia, in particular on traditional Polynesian management of the land and the sea. He recently published Rahui in Polynesia. Legal Pluralism in Environmental Management (2015, ANU Press).

3 Sarah Bernard holds a Master of Environmental Anthropology from the French National Museum of Natural History as well as a master’s degree from the College of International Agro-Development (ISTOM). In 2014, she spent six months in New Caledonia as an intern at IRD (Research Institute for Development) and GIE Oceanide (an economic interest group offering expertise in territory development in ocean and island environments) in Noumea.

4 Samuel Cornier holds a degree in marine engineering (SeaTech, Toulon, France) and a Master of Physical and Coastal Oceanography (COM, Marseille, France). In 2006 he started ethnographic research in New Caledonia on Kanak traditional systems of sea management and emerging modes of governance of the marine environment. Based on a methodological approach combining political ecology, cultural technology and marine ethnobiology, his research focuses on relations between society and environment, marine biodiversity conservation, marine protected areas, and complex interactions between Kanak cosmopolitical systems and exogenous conservation and development policies. Since the inscription of six marine clusters in the lagoons of New Caledonia on the World Heritage List in 2008, and with the support of the Yambé tribe, he has been interested in the social issues and controversies associated with the Hyabé/Lé-Jao marine protected area. Between 2010 and 2013, he conducted several field investigations in New Caledonia funded by “Labex Corail” (a cluster of excellence on coral reefs and global changes), CREDO and LACITO.

5 Paul D’ Arcy teaches Pacific, Asian, and environmental studies in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University (ANU). After graduating with a degree in Pacific and African history from Otago University in Aotearoa/New Zealand, he studied at the University of Hawai’i in Manoa and worked as an archaeologist and for Television New Zealand before completing his MA at Otago and PhD at ANU. His current teaching and research focus on the problems and benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration and the history of conflict and conflict resolution in the Asia Pacific region, especially conflicts over natural resources with particular reference to the Pacific Ocean. In 2016, Paul will publish with Polity Press the first general environmental history of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing its geological history from the start of the Anthropocene up to the present.

6 Gilbert David is an IRD Senior Researcher (UMR Espace pour le Développement) based in Montpellier, France. As a geographer of the sea and islands, between 1983 and 1991 he studied the development of artisanal fisheries in Vanuatu and the role of village fisheries in this country’s food security. In 1992, after two years as the head of the research branch at ORSTOM/Fisheries Service in Port Vila, he moved to New Caledonia to work on its spatial and economic rebalancing following the Matignon-Oudinot Accords (1988). Since 1997, he has conducted research on integrated coastal area management of Indian and Pacific Ocean Islands, ecosystem services of coral reefs and mangroves, marine protected areas, and village communities’ adaptation to the constraints imposed by insularity. From 2005 to 2009, as part of the CRISP (Coral Reef Initiative for the South Pacific) programme, he coordinated the GERSA project (GEstion intégrée du continuum bassins versants — Récifs coralliens: du Satellite à l’Acteur) focused on integrated management of the continuum watershed — coral reefs in Fiji, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Vanuatu. Gilbert co-authored the Coastal Fisheries Atlas of Vanuatu (2001, IRD Editions), co-edited the volume, La Nouvelle-Calédonie à la croisée des chemins (1999, Société des Océanistes/IRD), participated in the development of the UNESCO methodological guide, Steps and Tools Towards Integrated Coastal Area Management (2001, UNESCO), and edited the book, Espaces tropicaux et risques, du local au global (2004, Presses Universitaires d’Orléans).

7 Elodie Fache is an anthropologist who has conducted research since 2007 on policies and projects combining objectives of environmental conservation, sustainable development and local empowerment in northern Australia. Her PhD thesis, “Ecological Imperialism or Development? The Actors of Natural Resource Management in Ngukurr, Australia” (2013), offers a critical analysis of so-called “community-based natural resource management” initiatives implemented in this region. Her recent publications demonstrate that such initiatives involve complementary processes of mediation (e. g., Journal de la Société des Océanistes 132(1), 2011) and bureaucratisation (e. g., Anthropological Forum 24(3), 2014) and are extremely complex as they rely on systems of interaction between many social actors, levels of decision-making and action, and rationales (e. g., Journal of Ethnobiology 35(1), 2015, with Bernard Moizo). Élodie was also part of the French team (Aix-Marseille University/CREDO) of the EU-funded ECOPAS project (European Consortium for Pacific Studies, 2012-2015). In 2016-2017, she will conduct postdoctoral research on “community-based” management of coral reefs in Fiji at IRD (UMR GRED).

8 Yan Giron is an engineer in agronomy specialised in the management and development of maritime fisheries. He has been working for 20 years in the domains of food production for sustainable food security, maritime economic intelligence, and strategy consulting in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, both at national and international levels. His expertise regarding the sustainable development of maritime potentials focuses on capacity-building, the optimisation of formal and informal activities, the creation of tailored methodologies, and the implementation of network approaches. In the domain of strategy, he is interested in public and private plays for power and geopolitical and geostrategic issues. He is also involved in strategic assistance, within and beyond the maritime sector, in the context of enterprises, industries, territories, national policies, and international fora. In parallel with his presentations in scholarly and public contexts, Yan animates the blog http://bluelobby.eu/​.

9 John Hampton has worked for more than 30 years in the area of tuna biology and ecology, stock assessment and fisheries management. He joined SPC in 1987 after having worked for seven years at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Australia) on the stock assessment of southern bluefin tuna. He has been instrumental in the implementation of formal assessments for tuna stocks in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Since 2002, he has been the Chief Scientist of the Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) at SPC, one of the world’s most respected pelagic fisheries research programmes and the key provider of scientific services and advice regarding tuna fisheries to the island states and territories of the Pacific, the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) and the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). His key references include articles in Nature (Volumes 389, 1997 and 434, 2005), the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Volumes 55(9), 1998 and 57(5), 2000), and Science (Volume 314(5806), 2006).

10 Shelton Harley is currently the Principal Fisheries Scientist and team leader of the Stock Assessment and Modelling section within the Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) at SPC. His team is responsible for undertaking stock assessments for the major tuna stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Shelton has 14 years of experience in Pacific tuna fisheries science. In addition to his time at SPC, he was New Zealand’s scientific representative for the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and the Commission for the Conservation of the Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT) from 2004 to 2008. He also worked as a scientist at the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission.

11 Nathalie Hilmi is a specialist in macroeconomics and international finance. In 2010, she joined the Centre Scientifique de Monaco as the head of the environmental economics section and collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Environment Laboratories to initiate correlation studies between environmental sciences and economics and, thereby, better evaluate the socioeconomic extent of impacts and costs of action versus inaction with regard to carbon emissions. In 2011, she obtained her accreditation to supervise research (HDR) on “Multidisciplinarity and Sustainable Development”. Her research area encompasses economic impacts of climate change and ocean acidification, evaluation of ecosystem services, such as those offered by coral reefs, sustainable development and environmental policies.

12 Isabelle Leblic is an ethnologist and CNRS Senior Researcher at LACITO (LAngues et CIvilisations à Tradition Orale), Paris, France. She initiated her research in maritime anthropology in 1979 with her PhD study focused on a small French island (Molène, Bretagne) whose whole history is based on the exploitation of the sea (see Molène, une île tournée vers la mer, 2007, Peeters). Since 1982, she has been conducting research in maritime anthropology in New Caledonia, specifically with the Kanak fishing clans of southern New Caledonia. The findings of her research have been disseminated in numerous publications over the years, including the summary book, Vivre de la mer, vivre avec la terre… en pays kanak. Savoirs et techniques des pêcheurs kanak du sud de la Nouvelle-Calédonie (2008, Société des Océanistes). Since 1989, she has also oriented her field studies on social change and development projects in New Caledonia, particularly in Ponérihouen (see Les Kanak face au développement. La voie étroite, 1993, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble). In parallel, she has worked on kinship and adoption in the Paicî area through the comprehensive documentation and analysis of clan genealogies. Among other publications on this topic and, more generally, in the field of the anthropology of kinship and childhood, she edited the volume, De l’adoption. Des pratiques de filiations différentes (2004, Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal), and co-edited with Chantal Collard a special issue of the journal Anthropologie et Sociétés on childhood at risk (Volume 33(1), 2009). In addition, she has worked on cultural technology and, in this research field, she co-edited a double special issue of the Journal de la Société des Océanistes (volume 136–137, 2013) on the “immaterial” components of “material” culture. Isabelle has also been the editor of this journal since 2004.

13 Esaroma Ledua is involved in marine resource management activities and advises the Cakaudrove/Tunuloa Customary Fishing Rights Owners Trust, Vanua Levu, Fiji. He also teaches at the School of Marine Studies, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. After graduating from the University of the South Pacific in 1983, he joined the Fisheries Department of the Ministry of Primary Industries in Fiji as a research worker specializing in giant clam population field surveys on Fijian reefs. Later, realizing that many reef food fishes and shellfish were overfished in Fiji, he expanded his interest into aquaculture. It was in this capacity that he designed the Makogai Mariculture Research Station and the successful breeding of giant clams, trochus, turtles, oysters, milkfish and other species. He graduated from Stirling University, Scotland, with a Master of Science degree in Aquaculture in 1994 and became the head of Fisheries Research and Development Programmes in Fiji. Esaroma also worked for SPC as an Integrated Fisheries Management Associate and Inshore Fisheries Scientist. In 2012, convinced that tuna was overfished in Fiji, he enrolled at the University of the South Pacific and completed a PhD thesis, “Evaluating the Tuna Fisheries Management Framework in Fiji”.

14 Simon Nicol is currently the Principal Fisheries Scientist and team leader of the Ecosystem Monitoring and Analyses section within the Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) at SPC. He undertakes primary research and analyses on tuna species and the ecosystem they are dependent upon in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. This works encompasses life-history studies, tagging to estimate exploitation and movement rates, trophic ecology, and the modelling of ecosystem dynamics and climate impacts. He has over 25 years of experience in the field of ecology and has worked closely with senior resource managers, scientists and industry representatives on matters ranging from the implementation and interpretation of applied research to the modelling of ecosystems and applications of adaptive management. His key references include articles in scientific journals such as Climatic Change (Volume 119(1), 2013), Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography (Volume 113, 2015), and Fish and Fisheries (doi: 10.1111/faf. 12126, 2015).

15 Simonne Pauwels is an anthropologist and CNRS Researcher at CREDO, Centre de Recherche et de Documentation sur l’Océanie (AMU-CNRS-EHESS), Marseille, France. She conducted research in the Tanimbar archipelago in eastern Indonesia. She currently works in Fiji on issues regarding land tenure, chiefdoms and chiefs, and the representations of fertility associated with the balolo marine worm (Eunice viridis). Her publications include Metanleru, un voilier prédateur: Renommée et fertilité dans l’île de Selaru (2009, Les Indes Savantes) and the co-edited volumes D’un nom à l’autre en Asie du Sud-Est. Approches ethnologiques (1999, Karthala) and Living Kinship in the Pacific (2015, Berghahn Books).

16 Graham Pilling is currently a senior fisheries scientist at SPC. With over 20 years of experience in analyzing, assessing and providing scientific advice on tropical, temperate and polar marine and freshwater ecosystems and fisheries, he currently performs scientific assessments of tuna stocks and fisheries within the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. He also provides scientific advice to underpin the decisions of regional and subregional tuna management bodies in the region, including the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA), Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) and Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). His areas of work include the development of biological and economic reference points for tuna stocks, the examination of effort creep in tuna fisheries, and food security for Pacific Islands. His recent references include articles in scientific journals such as Food Security (Volume 7(1), 2015) and working papers for WCPFC (see the “Management issues theme” tab at https://www.wcpfc.int/​meetings/​11th-regular-session-scientific-committee).

17 Bran Quinquis is an economist specialised in climate change issues and the evaluation of ecosystem services. He was a postdoctoral research fellow at CRIOBE in 2013 and currently works for the government of French Polynesia as an inter-ministerial delegate for climate change and as a research and innovation advisor for the Ministry of Health and Research.

18 Manuel Rauchholz is a researcher and lecturer of anthropology at Heidelberg University. He was raised and educated in Micronesia, Japan, United States of America and Germany. After a Master of Theology, he completed his PhD in Cultural Anthropology at Heidelberg in 2010 (summa cum laude). In 2011, he received the Frobenius Research Award of the Goethe-University in Frankfurt a. M. for his study on the emotional effects of adoption in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, entitled, Towards and Understanding of Adoption, Person and Emotion: The Ideal Norm and Reality of Life amongst the Chuukese of Micronesia (publication in progress with Berghahn Books). His research interests are cross-cultural ethics, legal and political anthropology, religion, gender and kinship studies. His current research inquires into the ethics of micro and macro forms of exchange and exploitation with an article entitled, “Masculine Sexuality, Violence and Sexual Exploitation in Micronesia” (publication in progress) and an upcoming edited interdisciplinary volume on Law and Custom in Micronesia with the journal, Pacific Studies.

19 Catherine Sabinot holds a PhD in ethnoecology from the French National Museum of Natural History. She is a permanent researcher at IRD (UMR Espace pour le Développement) based in Noumea, New Caledonia. Using an anthropological and comparative approach (based on field investigations in Africa, America, and in the Indo-Pacific region), she studies the evolution of interactions between societies and their coastal and marine environments. Her research aims to contribute to the understanding of the way populations acquire, transform and share knowledge, know-how and perceptions relative to their environment, and how local and global environmental norms and values are articulated and negotiated.

20 Alain Safa is specialised in macroeconomics and international finance. He is a professor at the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis and EDHEC Business School, the founder and manager of the research and advisory structure Skill Partners, and a participant in several European and international research projects. He works on the capacity of countries to adapt to major economic, environmental and social changes. His research focuses particularly on the integration of environmental considerations into national, regional and international governance, and the economic and social impacts of ocean acidification. He has recently published several papers on this last topic (e.g., in Water, Volume 6 (6), 2014 and in Marine Biology, Volume 160(8), 2013) and participated in three workshops on the economic impacts of ocean acidification held in Monaco in 2010, 2012 and 2015.

21 Joeli Veitayaki is an Associate Professor at the School of Marine Studies at the University of the South Pacific. He is also the Director of the International Ocean Institute-Pacific Islands Operational Centre at the university. He collaborates with a number of external partners in Norway, France, Scotland, Korea and Japan. Joeli has spent the last decade working with coastal communities around the Pacific Islands to effectively manage their marine resources and to articulate sustainable development. His research is based on the philosophy that a healthy natural environment is critical for the improvement of the livelihoods of all Pacific Islanders. In his view, this is the best way to fight the negative impacts of global changes such as climate change and to respond to local challenges such as overfishing and environmental degradation.

22 Peter Williams obtained a BSc in marine biology from Sydney University in 1978. After further professional education in computer programming, he pursued a career in corporate information technology (IT) in Australia from 1979 through 1987. During this time he completed post-graduate studies in IT at Macquarie University, Sydney. In 1999, he also obtained an MBA (Technology Management) from Deakin University, Melbourne. Peter joined the Oceanic Fisheries Programme (OFP) at SPC in 1987 to take a lead role in establishing the databases which have been fundamental for the stock assessment work conducted by OFP over the past two decades. He is currently the Principal Fisheries Scientist in charge of the Data Management section within OFP. Other than database-related work and interacting with colleagues from Pacific Island countries, he has a keen interest in various tunafishery areas, particularly bycatch issues and the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)’s work on improving fisheries monitoring and data management in the diverse domestic tuna fisheries of Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam.

© pacific-credo Publications, 2016

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