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Image, Knife, and Gluepot

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Kathryn M. Rudy

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

1Chapter 1

1 Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing St Barbara, standing with her attribute. Unlabelled documentary photograph housed at the Warburg Institute, London. 16
2a; 2b Manuscript binding, binding front and back, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500 (rebacked after 1861). London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332. 17
3 Opening from the beghards’ book of hours, Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fols 311v–312r (modern foliation) or ccc xlv (original foliation). 19
4 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with part of a hand-painted woodcut depicting the Annunciation, Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 283v (modern foliation). 20
5 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with a printed rosette pasted into the initial. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 254r (modern foliation). 21
6 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with a silhouetted engraving depicting Mary and John, Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 307v (modern foliation). 21
7 Calendar page for the first half of May. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 5r (modern foliation). 22
8 Rubric revealing Franciscan affinities. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 250r (modern foliation). 23
9 Manuscript binding, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462. 28
10 Clock folio, facing January calendar page. Opening folios in a prayerbook made in Maastricht c. 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462. 28
11 Franciscan church, Sint Pieterstraat, Maastricht (now the Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg). Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy. 30
12 Manuscript binding, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500. Amsterdam University Library, Ms. I G 12. 33
13 Opening in a prayerbook made in Maastricht, with computational circles dated 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 15v-16r. 35
14 Diagram for calculating the length of Advent, copied by Jan van Emmerick. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 16v-17r. 36
15 Table with offset from now-missing leaf. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 17v-18r. 36
16 The River Maas, photographed from the bridge, with a view of the medieval Marian church. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy. 37
17 Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing SS Peter and Paul, standing with their attributes. Unlabelled documentary photograph, housed at the Warburg Institute, London. 40
18 Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing St Wolfgang, who has been transformed into St Servatius. Unlabelled documentary photograph, housed at the Warburg Institute, London. 41
19 The interior of the Prints & Drawings Study Room at the British Museum, London. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy. 42
20 Page from Register for 9 November 1861. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy. 48
21 Letter from Mr Carpenter, dated 6 November 1861. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy. 50
22 Engraved roundels representing virgins, some used as initials in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.659, 662, 663, 664, 673, 674. 56
23 Folio from a prayerbook with three engravings by the Master of the Flower Borders glued to it and one sewn to it. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, ser. Nova 12715, fol. 29r. 57
24 Folio from a prayerbook with three engravings by the Master of the Flower Borders glued to it and one sewn to it. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, ser. Nova 12715, fols 29v-30r. 58
25 Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with engravings representing St Francis and others. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 66
26 Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with small engravings. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 66
27 Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with small engravings. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 67
28 Israhel van Meckenem, Christ as Man of Sorrows, engraving. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea 48Res. 76
29 Mosaic icon with the Akra Tapeinosis (Utmost Humiliation), or Man of Sorrows, in a series of frames. Mosaic icon, Byzantine, late 13th–early 14th century. Basilica di Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome. 76
30 Detail of the Mosaic icon from the previous figure. 77
31 Detail of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.637, flipped to reveal the offset inscription. 80
32 Digital reconstruction to show the proposed original state of the opening of the Seven Penitential Psalms (Add. 24332, fol. 104v and Add. 41338, fol. 6r). 82
33 Digital reconstruction to show the proposed third state of the opening of the Seven Penitential Psalms (London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.632 and Add. 41338, fol. 6r). 83
34 Leaf from the beghards’ book of hours, with an engraving depicting the Virgin and Child, by Israhel van Meckenem. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.633. 92
35 Leaf from the beghards’ book of hours, reverse of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.633. 95
36 Two leaves mounted onto a single matte. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.638 and 639. 97
37 Two impressions of an engraving depicting St Mark, mounted onto a single matte. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.643 and 1868,1114.114. 101
38 London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.634 (St Anne, Mary, and Jesus) and three other manuscript leaves, including two from the St Godeleva manuscript. 103
39 Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, which has been partially cut off. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 271v (modern foliation). 105
40 Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, which has been partially cut off. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 309v (modern foliation). 106
41 Zodiac man, from the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 1r. 114
42 Leaf formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 1v. 114
43 Unfoliated front matter, formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 2r. 115
44 Leaf from the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 2v. 116
45 Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, showing the offset of a now-missing image. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 19r (modern foliation). 117
46 Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 3r. 120
47 Incipit of the Hours of the Holy Spirit, formerly fol. xci in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 4r. 121
48 Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms, formerly fol. cxxxiiij in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 6r. 121
49 Skeleton incipit prefacing the Vigil of the Dead, formerly fol. c lxxxiiij in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 7r. 122
50 London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 11v. 122
51 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a marginal pen drawing depicting a kneeling cleric at the foot of the Cross. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 13r. 123
52 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing depicting St Gertrude with mice. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 8v = fol. ccc xiii. 125
53 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing depicting the Virgin of the Sun, with a kneeling portrait of a male cleric and a frame filled with inscribed prayers. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 5r. 127
54 Virgin of the Sun, parchment painting, inserted to face a prayer to the Body Parts of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 75 G 2, fol. 196v-197r. 129
55 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Lambert. The frame measures 123 x 68 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 10r, formerly folio cccc xxiii, BM 696. 131
56 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Trudo. The frame measures 114 x 62 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 12v. 131
57 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with an engraving depicting St Matthew. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 10v. 132
58 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 12r. 133
59 Title page from 1868 catalogue of the Bibliothèque Imperiale. 136
60 Album from Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, with three engravings by Israhel van Meckenem representing Christ as the Man of Sorrows. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 142
61 Virgin of the Sun engraving, hand-coloured and pasted into the letter H in a German prayerbook. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea20aRes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 143
62 Crucifixion, hand-coloured engraving, with a red penwork frame. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea18cRes 28. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 144
63 Israhel van Meckenem, Christ as Man of Sorrows, engraving. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea48Res. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 146
64 Adoration of the Christ Child by the Magi, painted metalcut. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 147
65 Reverse of the previous image. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 147
66 Adoration of the Christ Child by the Magi, engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 57. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec 149
67 St Augustine encountering the infant Jesus on a riverbank, engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 56. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec 150
68 Pentecost, gilt engraving, formerly pasted to fol. cccc xcvii of the beghards’ book of hours? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 54. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec 152
69 Pentecost, gilt engraving, formerly pasted to fol. cccc xcvii of the beghards’ book of hours? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 54. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy 152
70 Christ in Judgment, gilt engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 55. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec 153
71 Christ in Judgment, gilt engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 55. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy 153
72 Virgin and Child on a sliver of moon, surrounded by a rosary, originally in London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332 as fol. ccc xviii? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 69. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec 154
73 Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, in Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. 155
74 Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, for 28 July 1859, BnF. 157
75 Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, Vingt-huit pièces de XVe siècle, 28 March 1860, BnF. 157
76 Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, for 11 August 1868, in the BnF. 158
77 Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing of a kneeling cleric, beneath an initial that probably once contained a print depicting St Clare. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 9v. 161
78 Digital reconstruction: Israhel van Meckenem’s roundel with SS Francis and Clare, superimposed on a leaf from what was the beghards’ manuscript, now London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 9v. 161
79 Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, with a prayer to St Anne, which has been partially mutilated. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 351 (ccc xci). 163

2Chapter 2

80 Calendar in the beghards’ book of hours for the end of September and beginning of October. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 9v–10r. 170
81 Calendar in the beghards’ book of hours for the beginning of May. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 5r. 170
82 Explanation of the Table of Contents in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. ii (modern foliation 14r). 173
83a St Catherine, hand-coloured woodcut print, Southern Germany or Swabia. Paris, BnF, Rés. Ea-5 (8)-Boîte (Schreiber 1317/Bouchot 136). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 175
83b St Mary Magdalene, hand-coloured woodcut print, Southern Germany or Swabia. Paris, BnF, Rés. Ea-5 (8)- Boîte (Schreiber 1594/ Bouchot 139). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 175
84 Book of hours with original foliation reading lvii (although it has lost its table of contents). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 E 36, fol. 45v–46r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135e36%3A045v_046r 178
85 Calendar in a Golden Legend turned into table of contents: months of November and December, Amsterdam, 1450. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 73 D 9, fol. IIIr. 180
86 Folio in a Golden Legend showing original foliation in the upper border, Amsterdam, 1450. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 73 D 9, fol. 179r. 181
87 Table of contents in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 14v-15r. 185
88 Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, with the Pater Noster, and beginning of Ave Maria. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 26r. 186
89 Opening in an English book of hours, in English and Latin, and with red lines to mark rhyming lines of poetry. Glasgow, University Library, Ms. Hunter, H512, fol. 32v-33r. 188
90 Opening in the beghards’ book of hours: the beginning of the benediction, with interlineal rubricated translation. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 27v-28r (modern foliation). 190
91 Symposium at Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, June 2016. 191
92 Weert, Gemeentemuseum Jacob van Horne, Museum interior in 2016. 191

3Chapter 3

93 Matte from 1868, with Christological prints removed from Add. 31002. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 199
94 ‘Trimmed and silhouetted saints’ affixed to a matte assembled in 1868. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 200
95 Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with Virgin of the Sun standing on the moon (added engraving), c. 1525. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 138r. 203
96 Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, c. 1525, from which an engraving depicting a bishop’s upper body was removed in 1868. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, 62r (original fol. 272). 205
97 Opening from the calendar of the beghards’ later book of hours for August-September. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fols 8v-9r. 208
98 Opening from the calendar of the beghards’ later book of hours for September-October. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fols 9v-10r. 209
99 Multiplication tables. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 14v-15r. 215
100 Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Lambert. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 106r. 216
101 Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting Brother Leo kneeling before St Francis. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 114v. 217
102 Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting a church. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 50v. 218
103 Folio in the beghards’ later manuscript with a space reserved for an image of Veronica. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 34r. 221
104 Electronic reconstruction of Veronica page: superimposition of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1868,1114.24 onto London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 34r. 221
105 Folio from the beghard’s later manuscript with a prayer, an indulgence, and a blank area where a Marian roundel was formerly pasted. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 76r. 231
106 Folio from the beghard’s later manuscript with a prayer and a blank area where a Marian print was formerly pasted. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 75r. 232
107 Israhel van Meckenem, St Quirinus and three other saints, separate engravings mounted on one sheet. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea48aRes (IvM). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 236

4Chapter 4

108 Opening at the Hours of Eternal Wisdom, in a book of hours from the region of Arnhem. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 17524, fol. 109v-110r. 249
109 Opening at the Hours of the Cross, in a book of hours from the region of Arnhem. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 17524, fol. 59v–60r. 251
110 Opening in a book of hours probably made by Franciscan women in Zutphen, with space left for prints to be pasted in. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 77 L 58, fol. 85v-86r. 253
111 Matte from 1868, with prints taken from two manuscripts. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. 255
112 Ten hand-coloured engravings removed from what is now London, British Library, Ms. 31001. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1868,1114.222-231. 257
113 Instructions for visiting sites around Jerusalem. Opening of a prayerbook with texts for conducting virtual pilgrimages. London, British Library, Ms. 31001, fols. 71v-72r. 258
114 Calendar with indulgences for virtual visiting the Seven Principal Churches of Rome. Opening of a prayerbook with texts for conducting virtual pilgrimages. London, British Library, Ms. 31001, fols. 59v-60r. 259
115 Attributed to the Monogrammist LF, Basilicas of San Lorenzo and San Sebastiano surmounted by an image of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss, painting on panel, 1502. Commissioned by Helena Rephonin for the Dominican convent of St Catherine in Augsburg. 262
116 Folio removed from a manuscript, with a woodcut print depicting St Opportune. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. (Courboin 614; Bouchot 140; Schreiber 2716). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 264
117 Pentecost engraving pasted into a painted initial removed from a manuscript. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea 18 c Res (Lehrs 25). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. 266
118 St Augustine, woodcut print, hand-painted. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Box 107 A3A. (Schreiber 1244 E). 269
119 Master the Berlin Passion, Stripping of Christ, hand-painted engraving. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Inv. 2-56. (Lehrs 28 I). 270
120 Master of the Dutuit Garden of Olives, Virgin and Child engraving, printed on parchment and gilt. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Inv. 446-I (Lehrs 49). 272
121 Monogrammist AG, Large Crucifixion, hand-painted engraving on parchment. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, nr 998-I (Lehrs 3b). 272
122 Opening in a prayerbook, with prayers for the weeks of the liturgical year, each one beginning with an initial filled with a hand-painted engraving. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fols 27v-28r. 276
123 Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers for the feast of the Sacrament. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 49v. 278
124 Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers for the feast of the Holy Cross. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 54v. 279
125 Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers to ‘our holy father’ St Augustine, with an Augustinian sister kneeling before him. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 79v. 280
126 Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers to St Elisabeth. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 85r. 281
127 Opening in a prayerbook, with an initial depicting Christ releasing his arms from the cross in order to embrace an Augustinian sister. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 137v-138r. 283
128 Folio in a prayerbook, with an initial depicting Christ opening his side wound in the presence of an Augustinian sister. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 109r. 283
129 Opening in a prayerbook with an added engraving depicting St George. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 158* b 32. 286
130 Opening in a prayerbook with an added roundel by Israhel van Meckenem. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 366v-367r. 287
131 Music manuscript with pasted-in roundels made by Israhel van Meckenem, from Soeterbeeck in Deursen near Ravenstein, a convent of Augustinian canonesses. Soeterbeeck, IV 136. 288
132 Opening in a prayerbook with an added engraving depicting the Virgin of the Sun. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 280v-281r. 289
133 Opening in a prayerbook with the remains of added engraving, opposite a prayer to a personal angel. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 364v-365r. 290
134 Opening in a prayerbook with the remains of added woodcut depicting St Barbara. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fol. 384v-385r. 291
135 Opening in a prayerbook with the ghost image of a print probably depicting the Virgin and Child. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fol. 406v-407r. 292
136 Opening in a book of hours, featuring a mounted engraving by Israhel van Meckenem depicting Christ before Annas. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1897,0103.3, also known as London, British Library, Sloane Ms. 3981, fols 14v-15r. 297
137 Opening in a book of hours, featuring a mounted engraving by Israhel van Meckenem depicting Christ awaiting crucifixion. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1897,0103.9, also known as London, British Library, Sloane Ms. 3981, fols 33v-34r. 298

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