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Cicero, Philippic 2, 44–50, 78–92, 100–119

Ingo Gildenhard


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§ 44: A Glance at Teenage Antony: Insolvent, Transgendered, Pimped, and Groomed

1Visne igitur te inspiciamus a puero? sic opinor; a principio ordiamur. tenesne memoria praetextatum te decoxisse? ‘patris’, inquies, ‘ista culpa est’. concedo. etenim est pietatis plena defensio. illud tamen audaciae tuae quod sedisti in quattuordecim ordinibus, cum esset lege Roscia decoctoribus certus locus constitutus, quamvis quis fortunae vitio, non suo decoxisset. sumpsisti virilem, quam statim muliebrem togam reddidisti. primo vulgare scortum; certa flagitii merces nec ea parva; sed cito Curio intervenit, qui te a meretricio quaestu abduxit et, tamquam stolam dedisset, in matrimonio stabili et certo collocavit.

2Study Questions:

  • Parse visne.
  • Identify and explain the mood of inspiciamus.
  • Identify and explain the mood of ordiamur.
  • On what noun does the genitive patris depend?
  • Parse inquies.
  • Identify and explain the case of audaciae tuae.
  • What did the lex Roscia stipulate? When was it passed?
  • What noun does the adjective virilem modify?
  • Who was Curio?

3Stylistic Appreciation:

  • How would you describe the overall tone Cicero adopts in this paragraph? Can you point to specific details in the text that epitomize it?
  • What is the rhetorical effect of the word order in the sentence etenim est pietatis plena defensio?
  • Discuss Cicero’s choice of adverbs and adjectives in the second half of the passage, with an eye to the contrast between the seemingly banal (certus, statim, certa, parva, cito, certo) and the more elaborate (virilem, muliebrem, vulgare, meretricio, stabili).

4Discussion Points:

  • What’s Cicero cooking up here (cf. decoxisse, decoctoribus, decoxisset) — or how does he construe a plot reminiscent of Peter Greenaway’s The Cook, the Thief, His Wife, & Her Lover — with Antony performing in all four roles?
  • Clothes make the wo/man: discuss the fashion-show staged in this paragraph (cf. praetextatum, virilem (sc. togam), muliebrem togam, stolam).
  • Why is cross-dressing funny? Discuss with reference to contemporary takes, such as Some Like it Hot, Tootsie, or The World According to Garp.
  • Can you think of more recent instances in which public figures are shamed for (alleged) misdemeanors in their youth? What’s your take on this practice?

inspicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to examine, investigate, consider

opinor, -ari, -atus

to hold as an opinion, think, believe

ordior, -diri, -sus

to embark on, start, begin


being of an age to wear the toga praetexta

decoquo, -quere, -xi, -ctum

to boil down, waste away, squander; to be unable to pay debts; (intr.) to become insolvent

concedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to go away, withdraw; to concede, grant

etenim (conj.)

and indeed; for

audacia, -ae, f.

daring, boldness, impudence, recklessness

sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessum

to sit, be seated



ordo, -inis, m.

row (of seats in a theatre), rank, standing order

decoctor, -oris, m. [decoquo + tor]

an insolvent person, defaulting debtor


to any degree you like no matter how, however much

vitium, -i, n.

defect, fault, disadvantage

sumo, -mere, -mpsi, -mptum

to take up, put on (clothes etc.), seize

toga virilis

the toga worn by free male Roman upon reaching maturity

statim (adv.)

immediately, at once

toga muliebris

a toga worn by prostitutes and other stigmatized females prohibited from wearing the stola

reddo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to give back, restore, repay, render, deliver (w. predicate) to render, cause to turn out

vulgaris, -is, -e

common, ordinary, everyday

scortum, -i, n.

whore, prostitute, harlot

certus, -a, -um

fixed, settled, definite; certain, indisputable

flagitium, -(i)i, n.

shameful / disgraceful act; disgrace, infamy

merces, -edis, f.

payment for services rendered, wage, reward

cito (adv.)


meretricius, -a, -um

of, belonging to, or typical of a prostitute

quaestus, -us, m.

income, profit, occupation

abduco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead away, carry off, remove; to attract away, entice away; divert

tamquam (conj.)

just as, (w. subj.) as though

stola, -ae, f.

garment for upper-class married women

stabilis, -is, -e

steady, lasting, permanent

colloco, -are, -avi, -atum

to put or set up, settle, establish, bestow

§ 45: Desire and Domesticity: Antony’s Escapades as Curio’s Toy-Boy

5Nemo umquam puer emptus libidinis causa tam fuit in domini potestate quam tu in Curionis. quotiens te pater eius domu sua eiecit, quotiens custodes posuit ne limen intrares! cum tu tamen nocte socia, hortante libidine, cogente mercede, per tegulas demitterere. quae flagitia domus illa diutius ferre non potuit. scisne me de rebus mihi notissimis dicere? recordare tempus illud cum pater Curio maerens iacebat in lecto; filius se ad pedes meos prosternens, lacrimans, te mihi commendabat; orabat ut se contra suum patrem, si sestertium sexagiens peteret, defenderem; tantum enim se pro te intercessisse dicebat. ipse autem amore ardens confirmabat, quod desiderium tui discidi ferre non posset, se in exilium iturum.

6Study Questions:

  • What noun does the genitive Curionis depend on?
  • What kind of ablative is domu sua?
  • Parse demitterere.
  • Explain the syntax of quae (flagitia…).
  • Parse scisne. What kind of construction does it introduce?
  • Parse recordare.
  • Reconstruct the scenario presupposed in the ut-clause introduced by orabat.
  • Explain the grammar and syntax of the phrase sestertium sexagiens.
  • Parse defenderem.
  • What kind of genitive is tui discidi?
  • Parse iturum.

7Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss the word order… te pater eius….
  • Analyze how Cicero correlates and contrasts Curio father and Curio son in the second half of the paragraph (recordare… se in exilium iturum).
  • Cicero here evokes a scenario (two young lovers prevented by an older guardian from carrying on their affair) familiar from New Comedy: can you identify stylistic and thematic touches reminiscent of the genre?

8Discussion Points:

  • How does Cicero construe the relationships between himself, Antony, Curio Junior, and Curio Senior?
  • How would you describe the impact of Antony on the Curio household? (Start by picking out those terms that belong to the semantic field of ‘household’.)
  • Explore the nexus between ‘family household’ (overseen by a paterfamilias) and the ‘commonwealth’ (res publica) in Rome’s cultural imaginary. What makes Cicero’s portrayal of Antony’s impact on the domestic situation in the Curio family so damning from a civic point of view?

nemo, inis, m. /f.

nobody, no one; as adj.: no

puer, -eri, m.

(here) slave boy

emo, emere, emi, emptum

to buy, purchase

libido, -inis, f.

desire, craving, sexual appetite, lust

causâ (abl., governing a gen.)

for the purpose of, for the sake of

quotiens (interr. or exclam.)

How many times? How many times!

domus, -us, f.


eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectum

to throw out, remove, expel

custos, -odis, m. and f.


limen, -inis, n.

threshold, doorstep

socia, -ae f.

a (female) partner, associate

cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum

to drive together, collect, summon, gather
to compel, force, constrain

merces, -edis, f.

payment for services rendered, wage, reward

tegula, -ae, f.

a roof-tile

demitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to let fall, drop, make descend, lower

flagitium, -(i)i, n.

shameful / disgraceful act; disgrace, infamy

diu (comparative: diutius) (adv.)

for a long time, long

recordor, -ari, -atus

to call to mind, recollect

maereo, -ere

to be sad, mourn, grieve

lectus, -i, m.

bed, couch

prosterno, -ernere, -ravi, -ratum

to lay low, strike down, knock down
to lay prostrate on the ground

commendo, -are, -avi, -atum

to commit/entrust someone (acc.) to (dat.)

sestertius, -i, m.
(decies centena milia) sestertium

sesterce (a Roman coin)
a hundred thousand sesterces

sexagiens (adv.)

sixty times

peto, -ere, -ivi/ii, -itum

to go for, seek out, seek to obtain, ask
to sue for, lay claim to, demand

tantum, -i, (pron.)

so much

intercedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to intervene; to exist between; oppose
to intervene as guarantor, stand surety

confirmo, -are, -avi, -atum

to strengthen, make robust; to assert, declare

desiderium, -(i)i, n.

desire, longing; want, need; object of desire

discidium, -(i)i, n.

splitting, separation; divorce

§ 46: Family Therapy: Cicero as Counselor

9Quo tempore ego quanta mala florentissimae familiae sedavi vel potius sustuli! patri persuasi ut aes alienum fili dissolveret; redimeret adulescentem, summa spe et animi et ingeni praeditum, rei familiaris facultatibus eumque non modo tua familiaritate sed etiam congressione patrio iure et potestate prohiberet. haec tu cum per me acta meminisses, nisi illis quos videmus gladiis confideres, maledictis me provocare ausus esses?

10Study Questions:

  • What kind of construction is quo tempore?
  • What kind of ablatives are familiaritate and congressione?
  • What norms and institutions does Cicero evoke with the formulation patrio iure et potestate?
  • What are the swords that Cicero claims he and his audience see (cf. illis quos videmus gladiis)?
  • What kind of conditional sequence does nisi introduce?
  • What does Cicero refer to with maledictis?
  • Parse ausus esses.

11Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Identify the stylistic features by which Cicero announces that he came to the rescue (quo tempore… sustuli!).
  • The middle sentence of the paragraph begins and ends with p-alliteration: patri persuasi… patrio iure et potestate prohiberet. What (if anything) does Cicero thereby wish to emphasize?
  • Analyze the rhetorical design of the ut-clause (ut aes alienum… prohiberet).

12Discussion Points:

  • What advice would you have given to Curio pater in this situation?
  • To what extent (if at all) should parents be responsible for the extravagances of their offspring?

malum, -i, n.

trouble, distress, pain, hardship; harm, evil

florens, -ntis

flowering; prosperous, flourishing; distinguished

sedo, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to subside; allay, relieve, mitigate

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, raise, hoist; get rid of, remove

persuadeo, -dere, -si, -sum

(usually w. dat. of person) to persuade, prevail upon

aes alienum
(cf. aes, aeris, n.

copper, bronze, brass)

dissolvo, -vere, -vi, -utum

to undo, dismantle, set free, clear up, pay

redimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum

to buy back, pay the cost of; rescue, save

praeditus, -a, -um (w. abl.)

endowed with, equipped / furnished with

res, rei, f.

property, wealth; thing, matter, material

res familiaris

private property, estate, patrimony

facultas, -atis, f.

ability, power, capacity, skill;
(pl., as here) resources, means

familiaritas, -atis, f.

close friendship, intimacy

congressio, -onis, f.

meeting, encounter; sexual intercourse

memini, -inisse

to remember, pay heed to

patrius, -a, -um

paternal; ancestral

confido, -dere, -sus sum (w. dat.)

to put one’s trust in, have confidence in

maledictum, -i, n.

insult, reproach, taunt

provoco, -are, -avi, -atum

to call out, stir up, challenge

audeo, -dere, -sus

to dare, venture, be bold

§ 47: Hitting ‘Fast-Forward’, or: How to Pull Off a Praeteritio

13Sed iam stupra et flagitia omittamus: sunt quaedam quae honeste non possum dicere; tu autem eo liberior quod ea in te admisisti quae a verecundo inimico audire non posses. sed reliquum vitae cursum videte, quem quidem celeriter perstringam. ad haec enim quae in civili bello, in maximis rei publicae miseriis fecit, et ad ea quae cotidie facit, festinat animus. quae peto ut, quamquam multo notiora vobis quam mihi sunt, tamen, ut facitis, attente audiatis. debet enim talibus in rebus excitare animos non cognitio solum rerum sed etiam recordatio; etsi incidamus, opinor, media ne nimis sero ad extrema veniamus.

14Study Questions:

  • Parse omittamus.
  • Parse eo.
  • Parse perstringam.
  • Explain the syntax of quae (quae peto ut…).
  • What kind of ablative is multo?
  • ut facitis: what is the meaning of ut here?
  • Parse incidamus.

15Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the word order in the sentence ad haec enim… festinat animus.
  • Analyze the design of the sentence debet enim… recordatio.

16Discussion Points:

  • What is a praeteritio? Why (and when) is it an effective rhetorical technique? Can you design your own on a topic of the day?
  • What exactly is it that Cicero leaves unspoken? And is it decent to even ask this question?
  • Why does Cicero claim that Antony’s more recent misdeeds are better known to his audience than to himself?

iam (adv.)

now; by now, by then, already

stuprum, -i, n.

dishonour, shame; illicit sexual intercourse

flagitium, -(i)i, n.

shameful/disgraceful act; disgrace, infamy

omitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to let go of; withdraw from; abandon
to leave out of account, pass over, omit

quidam, quaedam, quiddam

a certain person; a certain (undefined) thing

honeste (adv.)

honourably, with propriety, decently

liber, libera, liberum

free; licentious; showing lack of restraint

verecundus, -a, -um

modest, seemly, becoming

inimicus, -i, m.

personal adversary

audio, -ire, -ivi / ii, -itum

to hear; to listen to
to hear said with respect to oneself

reliquus, -a, -um

left, remaining

perstringo, -ngere, -nxi, -ctum

to constrict, brush, graze, skirt, hug

miseria, -ae, f. (esp. pl.)

affliction, distress; trouble, woe

festino, -are, -avi, -atum

to act hurriedly, make haste, move quickly

attente (adv.)

carefully, with concentration

excito, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to move, rouse, stir, provoke

cognitio, -onis, f.

the act of getting to know; investigation

recordatio, -onis, f.


etsi (conj.)

even if, although
(introducing main clause) and yet

incîdo, -dere, -di, -sum [in + caedo] not to be confused with:
incido, -ere, -i, incasum [in + cado]

to cut open, sever, break up, cut short
to fall (into), rush upon, arise, occur

nimis (adv.)

to an excessive degree, too much, unduly

sero (adv.)

late, tardily; too late

extremum, -a, um

situated at the end, last remaining

§ 48: Antony Adrift

17Intimus erat in tribunatu Clodio qui sua erga me beneficia commemorat; eius omnium incendiorum fax, cuius etiam domi iam tum quiddam molitus est. quid dicam ipse optime intellegit. inde iter Alexandriam contra senatus auctoritatem, contra rem publicam et religiones; sed habebat ducem Gabinium, quicum quidvis rectissime facere posset. qui tum inde reditus aut qualis? prius in ultimam Galliam ex Aegypto quam domum. quae autem domus? suam enim quisque domum tum obtinebat nec erat usquam tua. domum dico? quid erat in terris ubi in tuo pedem poneres praeter unum Misenum, quod cum sociis tamquam Sisaponem tenebas?

18Study Questions:

  • What case is Clodio? How does it fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What is the antecedent of qui?
  • What are Antony’s beneficia towards Cicero?
  • What is the verb of the clause eius omnium incendiorum fax?
  • What is the antecedent of cuius?
  • Parse domi.
  • Identify and explain the mood of dicam.
  • Parse senatus.
  • What is the verb of the sentence inde iter… et religiones?
  • What kind of accusative is Alexandriam?
  • Parse qui (tum inde reditus).
  • What is the verb of the question qui tum inde reditus aut qualis?
  • What are the verbs in the sentence prius in ultimam Galliam ex Aegypto quam domum?
  • Explain the mood of poneres.
  • Where is Sisapo?

19Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Quite a few sentences in this paragraph lack a verb: what is the rhetorical effect of these elisions?
  • Analyze the rhetorical design of contra senatus auctoritatem, contra rem publicam et religiones.
  • quid dicam? qui… reditus aut qualis? quae autem domus? quid erat in terris?: the paragraph teems with rhetorical questions: why does Cicero opt for this device here?
  • Explore the rhetorical effect of such indefinite pronouns as quiddam, quidvis, and quisque.

intimus, -a, -um (w. dat.)

(of friends) most intimate, closest

tribunatus, -us, m.

the office of tribune; tribuneship

erga (prep. + acc.)

towards, for, to

beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness, favour

commemoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to recall, mention, relate; place on record

incendium, -(i)i, n.

destructive fire, conflagration

fax, facis, f.

torch, firebrand
(fig.) a person that starts mischief

quidam, quaedam, quiddam

a certain person; a certain (undefined) thing

molior, -iri, -itus

to labour, make efforts, strive, set in motion

intellego, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to understand, realize, discern

inde (adv.)

from there, thence; next

religio, -onis, f.

supernatural feeling of constraint; religious scruple, fear, or awe

habeo, -ere, -ui, -itum (w. double acc.)

to have someone acting in a certain capacity


= cum quo

quivis, quaevis, quidvis (pron.)

anyone, anything

reditus, -us, m.

the act of coming back, return

prius (adv.)

at an earlier time, previously, before

obtineo, -inere, -inui, -entum

to maintain, keep up; to govern, hold
to secure, gain

usquam (adv.)

in any place, anywhere

pedem ponere (in + abl.)

to set foot (in)

20Discussion Points:

21 cuius domi–quam domum–quae autem domus?–suam domum–nec erat… tua [sc. domus]–domum dico: what is Cicero trying to achieve with his relentless focus on the home/household? How does this emphasis relate to the ‘imperial geography’ that his references to Alexandria, Gaul, and Spain evoke?

§ 49: Credit for Murder

22venis e Gallia ad quaesturam petendam. aude dicere te prius ad parentem tuam venisse quam ad me. acceperam iam ante Caesaris litteras ut mihi satis fieri paterer a te: itaque ne loqui quidem sum te passus de gratia. postea sum cultus a te, tu a me observatus in petitione quaesturae; quo quidem tempore P. Clodium approbante populo Romano in foro es conatus occidere, cumque eam rem tua sponte conarere, non impulsu meo, tamen ita praedicabas, te non existimare, nisi illum interfecisses, umquam mihi pro tuis in me iniuriis satis esse facturum. in quo demiror cur Milonem impulsu meo rem illam egisse dicas, cum te ultro mihi idem illud deferentem numquam sim adhortatus. quamquam, si in eo perseverares, ad tuam gloriam rem illam referri malebam quam ad meam gratiam.

23Study Questions:

  • What is the sense of ad in the gerundive phrase ad quaesturam petendam?
  • Parse aude.
  • Parse paterer.
  • Explain the grammar and syntax of quo (quidem tempore).
  • What construction is approbante populo Romano?
  • What does the-que in cumque link?
  • Parse conarere.
  • Parse interfecisses and explain the tense and mood.
  • What does rem illam refer to?
  • Identify and explain the mood of dicas.
  • What kind of clause does quamquam introduce?

24Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the rhetorical design of the cum-clause cumque eam rem tua sponte conarere, non impulsu meo.
  • Analyze how Cicero brings personal pronouns and possessive adjectives into play in this paragraph (te; parentem tuam; mihi… a te; ne loqui quidem sum te passus; sum cultus a te, tu a me observatus…; tua sponte conarere, non impulsu meo;te non existimare…; mihi pro tuis in me iniuriis; impulsu meo; te ultro mihi idem illud deferentem; ad tuam gloriam… ad meam gratiam).

25Discussion Points:

26• The paragraph is stuffed full with technical terms to do with socio-political relations in republican Rome such as satis facere, gratia, colo, observare, as well as practices that smoothed the economy of friendship and patronage, such as letters of recommendation (cf. acceperam iam ante Caesaris litteras). How does Cicero get invective mileage out of this idiom?

quaestura,-ae, f.



to make for, resort to, seek (to obtain);
(here) to be a candidate for, seek (office)

prius… quam…/priusquam



to receive, acquire, get

litterae,-arum, f.

a letter

satis facere,-ere, feci, factum

to meet a person’s needs or desires
(w. dat.) to make amends, give attention to

ne… quidem

not even

gratia,-ae, f.

favour, goodwill, kindness, gratitude; influence

colo,-ere,-ui, cultum

to cultivate, farm, look after, adorn, worship
to pay attention to, cultivate the friendship of


to observe, watch; pay attention to, respects

petitio,-onis, f.

an attack, request, claim; candidature


to make an effort, attempt, endeavour


to kill, slaughter; ruin

(spons), spontis, f.

will, volition

sponte mea (tua, sua)

of my (your, one’s) own will, voluntarily

impulsus,-us, m. [impello]

shock, thrust; incitement to action, prompting


to make known, declare, announce


to be utterly astonished at, to wonder

ultro (adv.)

in addition, of one’s own accord

defero,-rre, detuli, delatum

to convey, bring; to entrust, confer
(here) to present for acceptance, offer


to give encouragement to, urge on


(introducing a main sentence) to be sure, however, at any rate


to persist in; continue

refero,-rre, rettuli, relatum + ad

(here) to assign to

§ 50: With Caesar in Gaul: Profligacy and Profiteering

27quaestor es factus: deinde continuo sine senatus consulto, sine sorte, sine lege ad Caesarem cucurristi. id enim unum in terris egestatis, aeris alieni, nequitiae perditis vitae rationibus perfugium esse ducebas. ibi te cum et illius largitionibus et tuis rapinis explevisses, si hoc est explere, haurire quod statim effundas, advolasti egens ad tribunatum, ut in eo magistratu, si posses, viri tui similis esses.

28accipite nunc, quaeso, non ea quae ipse in se atque in domesticum decus impure et intemperanter, sed quae in nos fortunasque nostras, id est in universam rem publicam, impie ac nefarie fecerit. ab huius enim scelere omnium malorum principium natum reperietis.

29Study Questions:

  • What construction is perditis vitae rationibus?
  • What kind of genitives are egestatis, aeris alieni, and nequitiae? On what noun do they depend?
  • Explain the syntax of perfugium.
  • Explain the syntax of te (ibi te cum…)
  • Explain the syntax of the two infinitives explere and haurire. What case are they in?
  • What construction does ducebas govern?
  • Who does viri tui refer to?
  • What kind of ablative is scelere?
  • Parse reperietis.

30Stylistic Appreciation

31• What is the effect of the absence of connectives in the opening sentences (quaestor… ducebas), in particular the two asyndetic tricola sine senatus consulto, sine sorte, sine lege and egestatis, aeris alieni, nequitiae… profugium, and the polysyndeton in the following cum-clause (ibi te cum et illius largitionibus et tuis rapinis explevisses) and the rest of the paragraph (in se atque in domesticum decus; impure et intemperanter; in nos fortunasque nostras; impie ac nefarie)?

32• What does the hyperbaton id enim unum… perfugium enact?

33• Analyze the rhetorical design of Cicero’s transition from a focus on domesticum decus to one on universa res publica.

34Discussion Points:

  • What image of Caesar do you get from this paragraph? To what extent is it historically accurate?
  • What is the scelus that Cicero refers to at the end of the paragraph? Why does he call it the source of all evils?
  • How does Cicero entwine the personal and the political here?

quaestor, -oris, m.

quaestor (a Roman magistrate)

facio, -ere, feci, factum

to do, make, construct, produce
(here) to appoint to an office

continuo (adv.)

forthwith, immediately

senatûs consultum

decree of the senate

sors, -rtis, f.

lot, appointment, allocation
sphere of duty assigned by lot

egestas, -atis, f.

extreme poverty, need, destitution

aes alienum
(cf. aes, aeris, n.

copper, bronze, brass)

nequitia, -ae, f.

moral worthlessness, profligacy, vice

perdo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to ruin, destroy, dissipate, waste

ratio, -onis, f.

(here) ‘guiding principle’

perfugium, -(i)i, n.

refuge, shelter, sanctuary

duco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

(here) to consider, believe, think

largitio, -onis, f.

largess, gift; bribe, dole

rapina, -ae, f. [rapio + ina]


expleo, -ere, -evi, -etum

to fill up, satisfy, make good,
carry to completion, achieve

haurio, -rire, -si, -stum / -ritum

to draw, scoop up; drink, imbibe
to consume, absorb

effundo, -undere, -udi, -usum

to pour out, shed, discharge, expend, use up

advolo, -are, -avi, -atum

to fly towards, approach swiftly

egens, -ntis

poverty-stricken, needy, indigent

quaeso ( -ere)

(in 1st pers. parenthesis) I ask/implore you please

decus, -oris, n.

high esteem, honour, glory
honourable/seemly behaviour, dignity

impure (adv.) [impurus + e]

foully, vilely, infamously

intemperanter (adv.) [intemperans + ter]

without self-control or restraint
excessively, violently

universus, -a, -um

the whole of, entire; universal

impie (adv.) [impius + e]

disrespectful (of the gods)

nefarie (adv.) [nefarius + e]

wickedly, foully, monstrously

principium, (i)i, n. [princeps + ium]

start, origin, founding

nascor, -i, natus

to be born, come into being, arise

reperio, -ire, repperi, -tum

to find by looking, discover

§ 78: Caesar’s Approach to HR, or Why Antony Has What it Takes

35Et domi quidem causam amoris habuisti, foris etiam turpiorem, ne L. Plancus praedes tuos venderet. productus autem in contionem a tribuno pl. cum respondisses te rei tuae causa venisse, populum etiam dicacem in te reddidisti. sed nimis multa de nugis: ad maiora veniamus.

36C. Caesari ex Hispania redeunti obviam longissime processisti. celeriter isti redisti, ut cognosceret te, si minus fortem, at tamen strenuum. factus es ei rursus nescio quo modo familiaris. habebat hoc omnino Caesar: quem plane perditum aere alieno egentemque, si eundem nequam hominem audacemque cognorat, hunc in familiaritatem libentissime recipiebat.

37Study Questions:

  • Parse domi and foris.
  • Explain the syntax of te (… respondisses te rei tuae…).
  • What is the verb in the sentence sed nimis multa de nugis?
  • Identify and explain the mood of veniamus.
  • Parse redeunti and explain its syntax.
  • Parse isti.
  • Whom does ei refer to?
  • What is the antecedent of quem?
  • What is the verb of the relative clause introduced by quem?
  • Parse cognorat.

38Stylistic Appreciation:

  • How does design enhance sense in the sentence factus es ei rursus nescio quo modo familiaris?
  • Cicero must want to have himself say-isti … isti…-isti this way — so why?

39Discussion Points:

  • What kind of principles (moral, utilitarian, any) do you apply in choosing your friends? What do you think of Caesar’s approach?
  • Can we (ever) tell from what they write to each other if any Romans were what we’d like to think of as friends? (E.g. Cicero and… Atticus?)

causa, -ae, f.

judicial proceedings, trial; case, cause; an alleged reason or extenuating plea; excuse, pretext a ground (of action), (good) reason

foris (adv.)

out of doors, outside; away from home

turpis, -is, -e (adj.)

offensive, loathsome; shameful, disgraceful

praes, -dis, m.

one who acts as surety or security

vendo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to sell; to dispose of; to promote the sale of

produco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to bring forth, lead out
to bring before a public meeting; to present
to extend in time, draw out

contio, -onis, f.

a public meeting, assembly; public speech

dicax, -acis (adj.)

having a ready tongue, witty

reddo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to give back, restore, render; to pay; bring about, produce

nugae, -arum, f. pl.

trifles, frivolities

obviam (adv.)

in the way, towards, against, to meet

procedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to go / move forward, advance, come forth

strenuus, -a, -um

active, vigorous, keen, energetic

rursus (adv.)

backwards; once again

nescio quo modo

in some (strange/unaccountable) way somehow or other

familiaris, -is, -e

of or belonging to one’s household
closely associated by friendship, intimat
well-known, familiar
(as noun) friend

omnino (adv.)

in every respect, absolutely, altogether

plane (adv.)

plainly, clearly, distinctly

perditus, -a, -um

debilitated, broken, ruined, bankrupt
morally depraved

aes alienum


egens, -ntis

poverty-stricken, needy, indigent

nequam (indeclinable)

having no value, useless
morally worthless, depraved

familiaritas, -atis, f.

close friendship, intimacy

libenter (adv.)

with pleasure, willingly, gladly

§ 79: The Art of Nepotism

40His igitur rebus praeclare commendatus iussus es renuntiari consul et quidem cum ipso. nihil queror de Dolabella qui tum est impulsus, inductus, elusus. qua in re quanta fuerit uterque vestrum perfidia in Dolabellam quis ignorat? ille induxit ut peteret, promissum et receptum intervertit ad seque transtulit; tu eius perfidiae voluntatem tuam ascripsisti. veniunt Kalendae Ianuariae; cogimur in senatum: invectus est copiosius multo in istum et paratius Dolabella quam nunc ego.

41Study Questions:

  • How does qua fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What kind of clause does quanta introduce? What noun does quanta modify? What case is it in?
  • What kind of genitive is vestrum?
  • What kind of ut-clause is ut peteret?
  • What is the accusative object of peteret, intervertit, and transtulit?
  • How do promissum et receptum fit into the sentence?
  • Who does eius [in the phrase eius perfidiae] refer to?
  • Parse copiosius and paratius.
  • What kind of ablative is multo?

42Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What might praeclare commendatus be dripping with?
  • Why might Cicero rely on a rhetorical question (… quis ignorat?) when invoking the notoriety of Caesar’s and Antony’s perfidy towards Dolabella?
  • Analyze the rhetorical design of invectus est… quam nunc ego.

43Discussion Points:

  • Discuss the implications of the passives in the passage (iussus es; renuntiari; est impulsus, inductus, elusus; cogimur).
  • What kind of picture does Cicero draw of Caesar’s coterie here? How does he position himself (and the rest of the senators) within Caesar’s universe?

praeclare (adv.)

very clearly; very well;
with conspicuous merit or success

commendo, -are, -avi, -atum

to entrust, commit;
to bring to the favourable notice of,
to recommend

renuntio, -are, -avi, -atum

to take/send back a message, report;
to announce; to proclaim

quidem (particle)

certainly, indeed, at any rate;
and what is more

queror, -ri, -stus (de)

to complain, protest, grumble

nihil, n. (indecl.)

(used adverbially) in no respect, not at all

impello, -ellere, -uli, -ulsum

to strike or beat against; assail
to impel along, push forward, urge on

induco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead to, bring to, induce, prevail on

eludo, -dere, -si, -sum

to deceive, trick, fool;
to avoid or escape from; baffle; elude

perfidia, -ae, f.

faithlessness, treachery, falsehood

peto, -ere, -ivi / -ii, -itum

to seek, reach out for, go for, aim at to be a candidate for, seek (a magistracy)
to stand for election

promitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to send forth; to promise, guarantee

recipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to admit (to shelter), receive; to accept
to regain, recover

interverto, -tere, -si, -sum

to embezzle, tamper with; cancel, revoke

transfero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum

to carry or convey, transport
to transfer (from one person to another)
to translate

ascribo, -bere, -psi, -ptum

to write in addition; to enrol, enlist
to reckon as belonging to, assign, ascribe
to attribute

kalendae, -arum f. pl.

the first day of the month, the Calends

cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum

to drive together, round up
to bring together, assemble, muster
to summon, convene
to compel, force, constrain

inveho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to carry / bring in; import; to ride into attack
(pass.) to attack with words, inveigh (against)

copiose (adv.)

abundantly, copiously
(rhet.) with a wealth of words and arguments, eloquently

parate (adv.)

in a state of readiness, after due preparation

§ 80: Antony Augur, Addled and Addling

44Hic autem iratus quae dixit, di boni! primum cum Caesar ostendisset se, priusquam proficisceretur, Dolabellam consulem esse iussurum — quem negant regem, qui et faceret semper eius modi aliquid et diceret — sed cum Caesar ita dixisset, tum hic bonus augur eo se sacerdotio praeditum esse dixit ut comitia auspiciis vel impedire vel vitiare posset, idque se facturum esse asseveravit. in quo primum incredibilem stupiditatem hominis cognoscite.

45Study Questions:

  • What is the subject accusative and the verb of the indirect statement introduced by ostendisset?
  • Explain the syntax of Dolabellam.
  • Explain the syntax of quem.
  • Why are faceret and diceret in the imperfect subjunctive?
  • What kind of clause does ut introduce?
  • Explain the syntax of id.
  • What does the -que after id link?
  • Explain the syntax of quo.

46Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the rhetorical design of the exclamation Hic autem… di boni!
  • What is the rhetorical effect of the parenthesis quem negant… et diceret?

47Discussion Points:

  • What role and function did ‘religious objections’ play in the political culture of the Roman republic? Can you think of possible advantages of involving the gods in this way in political decision-making?
  • Compare and contrast the appeals to the divine sphere in ancient Rome with the ways in which the supernatural is brought into play in contemporary politics.

iratus, -a, -um

angry, enraged, furious

primum (adv.)


ostendo, -dere, -di, -tum/ -sum

to show, display; to make clear
to make known, disclose (a fact / opinion)

priusquam (conj.)


proficiscor, -icisci, -ectus

to set out, depart

nego, -are, -avi, -atum

to say (that… not), deny

semper (adv.)

always, all the time; at all times, invariably

augur, -uris, m.


sacerdotium, -(i)i, m.


praeditus, -a, -um (w. abl.)

endowed/provided (with); possessed (of)

comitium, -ii, n.

the place for assemblies

comitia (pl.)

a (voting) assembly

auspicium, -(i)i, n.

auspices; omen
the right to take auspices; augural powers

impedio, -ire, -ivi / -ii, -itum

to restrict the movement of; obstruct, hinder

vitio, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause faults/defects in, spoil, harm, impair
to invalidate (because of some technical fault)

assevero, -are, -avi, -atum

to assert emphatically, declare, affirm

§ 81: Compounding Ignorance through Impudence

48Quid enim? istud quod te sacerdoti iure facere posse dixisti, si augur non esses et consul esses, minus facere potuisses? vide ne etiam facilius. nos enim nuntiationem solum habemus, consules et reliqui magistratus etiam spectionem. esto: hoc imperite; nec enim est ab homine numquam sobrio postulanda prudentia. sed videte impudentiam. multis ante mensibus in senatu dixit se Dolabellae comitia aut prohibiturum auspiciis aut id facturum esse quod fecit. quisquamne divinare potest quid viti in auspiciis futurum sit, nisi qui de caelo servare constituit? quod neque licet comitiis per leges et si qui servavit, non comitiis habitis sed priusquam habeantur, debet nuntiare. verum implicata inscientia impudentia est: nec scit quod augurem nec facit quod pudentem decet.

49Study Questions:

  • Explain how istud fits into the syntax of its sentence.
  • Parse sacerdoti.
  • What do you need to supply to complete the ne-clause (vide ne…)?
  • Whom does Cicero have in mind when he says nos (nos enim…)?
  • What is the difference between nuntiatio and spectio?
  • Parse esto.
  • Explain the syntax of hoc and imperite.
  • Identify and explain the case of viti.
  • What kind of ablative is comitiis (quod neque licet comitiis per leges…)?
  • What construction is comitiis habitis?

50Stylistic Appreciation:

51• How does Cicero generate a sense of ridicule at Antony’s supposed stupidity and a sense of outrage at his impudence in this paragraph?

52Discussion Points:

53• Explore the ways in which Cicero draws on Rome’s civic religion to expose Antony as supposedly ignorant. Then ask yourself whether Antony did not know very well exactly what he was doing.

sacerdotium, -(i)i, n.


ius, iuris n.

law, code

augur, -uris, m.


minus (compar. adv.)

(as a mild neg.) not (so) very, not fully

nuntiatio, -onis, f.

the announcement (by an augur) of the signs he had observed

magistratus, -us, m.

magistracy; magistrate

spectio, -onis, f.

the act / the right of observing omens

imperite (adv.)

in an ignorant or unskilful manner

sobrius, -ia, -ium


postulo, -are, -avi, -atum

to ask for, demand; expect

prudentia, -ae, f.

wisdom, sagacity, intelligence

impudentia, -ae, f.

shamelessness, effrontery, impudence

mensis, -is, m.


comitia, -orum, n. pl.

voting assembly

prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to keep off, hold at bay; prevent, stop, forbid

auspicium, -(i)i, n.

augury; omen; augural powers; auspices

quisquam, quicquam (pron.)

any (single) person, anyone (at all)

divino, -are, -avi, -atum

to practise divination; to foresee

vitium, -(i)i, n.

defect, fault, shortcoming unfavourable augury; augural impediment

de caelo servare

to watch the sky

constituo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to set up, establish, decide, decree, resolve

licet, -ere, -uit/ -itum est

it is permitted; one may

implico, -are, -avi/ -ui, -atum/ -itum

to fold or twine about itself; entwine, enfold
to intertwine, involve, entangle

inscientia, -ae, f.


pudens, -ntis

behaving properly; decent

decet, -ere, decuit

(impers.) it is right, proper, fitting

§ 82: Antony Galloping after Caesar Only to Hold his Horses

54Itaque ex illo die recordamini eius usque ad Idus Martias consulatum. quis umquam apparitor tam humilis, tam abiectus? nihil ipse poterat; omnia rogabat; caput in aversam lecticam inserens, beneficia quae venderet a collega petebat. ecce Dolabellae comitiorum dies. sortitio praerogativae; quiescit. renuntiatur: tacet. prima classis vocatur, renuntiatur. deinde, ita ut assolet, suffragia; tum secunda classis. quae omnia sunt citius facta quam dixi.

55Study Questions:

  • Parse recordamini. What is its accusative object?
  • What noun does eius depend on?
  • Parse Idus.
  • What is the verb in the sentence quis… abiectus?
  • Explain the tense and mood of venderet.

56Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What is the point of the hyperbaton eius… consulatum?
  • In the second half of the passage (ecce… dixi), how does Cicero rhetorically re-enact what he claimed was an extremely smooth and quick dispatch of proceedings?

57Discussion Points:

  • What associations do you think Cicero wanted to invoke with the image of Antony sticking his head into the rear end of Caesar’s litter (caput in aversam lecticam inserens)?
  • How’s your grasp of Roman voting assemblies? Can you explain what the technical terms in this passage mean (sortitio praerogativa, renuntiatur (2x), prima classis, suffragia, secunda classis)?

recordor, -ari, -atus

to call to mind, give one’s thoughts to

usque (ad)

all the time (up to), right (until)

Idus, -uum, f. pl.


Martius, -a, -um

of or belonging to Mars; of March

umquam (adv.)

at any time, ever

apparitor, -oris, m.

an attendant on a magistrate;
lictor, servant, clerk

humilis, -is, -e

low, low down; humble, lowly
submissive, abject, ignoble, mean

abiectus, -a, -um

dejected, downcast; humble, commonplace groveling, subservient

rogo, -are, -avi, -atum

to ask, to ask for, request; to ask approval for

caput, -itis, n.


aversus, -a, -um

having the back turned, facing in the opposite direction; situated at the back

lectica, -ae, f.

a litter

insero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to put or thrust in, insert, introduce

beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness; favour

vendo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to sell; betray for money

collega, -ae, m.

a colleague

ecce (interjection)

See! Behold! Look! Lo and behold!

sortitio, -onis, f.

lottery, allocation by lot

praerogativus, -a, -um

(of a centuria) appointed by lot to vote first

quiesco, -ere, quievi, quietum

to repose, rest;
to take no action, stand by, do nothing

renuntio, -are, -avi, -atum

to proclaim (the results of)

taceo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be silent, say nothing

classis, -is, f.

one of the five classes into which the Roman citizens
were divided on the basis of property

assoleo, -ere

to be a customary accompaniment
to be usual, go with
(impers.) it is usual, the custom is

suffragium, -(i)i, n.

a vote, resolution

(sex) suffragia

a group of six out of the eighteen equestrian centuriae

§ 83: Antony’s Fake Auspices

58Confecto negotio bonus augur — C. Laelium diceres — ‘alio die’ inquit. o impudentiam singularem! quid videras, quid senseras, quid audieras? neque enim te de caelo servasse dixisti nec hodie dicis. id igitur obvenit vitium quod tu iam Kalendis Ianuariis futurum esse provideras et tanto ante praedixeras. ergo hercule magna, ut spero, tua potius quam rei publicae calamitate ementitus es auspicia; obstrinxisti religione populum Romanum; augur auguri, consul consuli obnuntiasti. nolo plura, ne acta Dolabellae videar convellere, quae necesse est aliquando ad nostrum collegium deferantur.

59Study Questions:

  • What construction is confecto negotio?
  • Who was C. Laelius?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of diceres.
  • Identify and explain the case of impudentiam singularem.
  • Parse servasse.
  • What kind of ablative is tanto?
  • What noun does magna modify?
  • What kind of ablative is calamitate?
  • Explain the syntax of plura.
  • What kind of clause does ne introduce?

60Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the rhetorical design of quid videras, quid senseras, quid audieras?
  • What is the point of the hyperbaton magna… calamitate?
  • What stylistic device is Cicero playing with in augur auguri, consul consuli obnuntiasti?

61Discussion Points:

62• How sincere do you think Cicero was when he conjured the prospect of divine punishment because of Antony’s alleged abuse of the auspices? And is ‘sincerity’ a useful category for discussing rhetoric involving the divine sphere?

conficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to do, perform, accomplish; carry out
to bring to completion, finish off, conclude

impudentia, -ae, f.

shamelessness, effrontery, impudence

singularis, -is, -e

specific, peculiar, special, single; remarkable

sentio, -tire, -si, -sum

to feel, discern, recognize, have experience of

obvenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to come up, to fall to; to happen, occur, arise;
to present itself

vitium, -(i)i, n.

defect, fault, shortcoming
unfavourable augury; augural impediment

provideo, -idere, -idi, -isum

to see in advance, see beforehand; foresee

praedico, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to say beforehand; to give warning of, foretell

hodie (adv.)

today, at the present time, now; yet, still

hercule (interjection)

by Hercules!

calamitas, -atis, f.

disaster, misfortune, ruin, calamity

ementior, -iri, -itus

to falsify, mispresent, fabricate, invent

obstringo, -ngere, -nxi, -ctum

to constrict, constrain, confine
to place under an obligation; to bind
(w. abl.) to involve, implicate in

religio, -onis, f.

religious awe
(here) breach of religious protocol;
religious pollution

obnuntio, -are, -avi, -atum

to announce (unfavourable omens) to impede civic procedures

actum, -i, n.

act, deed, transaction; decrees;
written record of events

convello, -ellere, -elli, -ulsum

to tear up, dislodge; shake, batter; nullify

aliquando (adv.)

at some time or other; one day; ever

collegium, -(i)i, n.

a college or board of priests

defero, -rre, detuli, delatum

to carry, convey, bring
to refer for decision (to), put (before)

§ 84: On to the Lupercalia…

63Sed arrogantiam hominis insolentiamque cognoscite. quamdiu tu voles, vitiosus consul Dolabella; rursus, cum voles, salvis auspiciis creatus. si nihil est cum augur eis verbis nuntiat quibus tu nuntiasti, confitere te, cum ‘alio die’ dixeris, sobrium non fuisse; sin est aliqua vis in istis verbis, ea quae sit augur a collega requiro.

64sed ne forte ex multis rebus gestis M. Antoni rem unam pulcherrimam transiliat oratio, ad Lupercalia veniamus. non dissimulat, patres conscripti: apparet esse commotum; sudat, pallet. quidlibet, modo ne faciat quod in porticu Minucia fecit. quae potest esse turpitudinis tantae defensio? cupio audire, ut videam ubi campus Leontinus appareat.

65Study Questions:

  • Parse cognoscite.
  • Parse voles (quamdiu… voles; cum voles).
  • Explain the use of cum (cum voles).
  • Explain the syntax of ea.
  • How does augur fit into the syntax of its sentence?
  • What are the Lupercalia?
  • Parse veniamus.
  • What happened in the porticus Minucia?
  • What’s up with the campus Leontinus?

66Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Cicero here alternates between addressing the senate, engaging Antony, speaking in the first person plural, and adopting the point of view of a participant observer. What is the rhetorical effect of these variations in perspective?
  • What are the devices Cicero uses to create a vivid (and visceral) description of Antony’s reaction to his mentioning of the Lupercalia?

67Discussion Points:

68• How does Cicero bring the theme of augural manipulation to a close and segue into the following topic?

arrogantia, -ae, f.

haughtiness, insolence, pride, conceit

insolentia, -ae, f.

unfamiliarity; extravagance;
insolence, arrogance

quamdiu (interr. and rel. adv.)

(interr.) for how long?
(rel.) for what length of time, as long as

vitiosus, -a, -um

flawed, defective; faulty, unsound

rursus (adv.)

backwards, once again
on the other hand, contrariwise

creo, -are, -avi, -atum

to procreate; bring into being; produce
to appoint

salvus, -a, -um

safe, secure, unharmed, intact, unimpaired

nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum

to report, convey, deliver, announce

confiteor, -fiteri, -fessus sum

to admit (the truth / commission of); reveal

requiro, -rere, -sivi / -sii, -situm

to try to find, seek; ask/enquire about

vis, vis, f.

strength, power, force;
(of words) meaning, significance, general sense

forte (adv.)

by any chance

transilio, -ire, -ui

to leap or spring across; to pass over, skip

dissimulo, -are, -avi, -atum

to conceal, disguise; pretend not to notice

patres conscripti


appareo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be seen/visible; to appear; to be plain

commotus, -a, -um

excited, nervous; angry, annoyed

sudo, -are, -avi, -atum

to sweat, perspire

palleo, -ere, ( -ui)

to be pale/bloodless; to pale

quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet

whoever/whatever you please

modo ut (ne)

only provided that (… not)

porticus, -us, f.

portico, colonnade

turpitudo, -inis, f.

indecency, disgrace, shamefulness

§ 85: Vive le roi! Le roi est mort

69Sedebat in rostris collega tuus amictus toga purpurea, in sella aurea, coronatus. escendis, accedis ad sellam — ita eras Lupercus, ut te consulem esse meminisse deberes — diadema ostendis. gemitus toto foro. unde diadema? non enim abiectum sustuleras, sed attuleras domo, meditatum et cogitatum scelus. tu diadema imponebas cum plangore populi; ille cum plausu reiciebat. tu ergo unus, scelerate, inventus es qui, cum auctor regni esses eumque quem collegam habebas dominum habere velles, idem temptares quid populus Romanus ferre et pati posset.

70Study Questions:

  • Parse amictus.
  • What are the verbs in the sentences gemitus toto foro and unde diadema?
  • Explain the case of domo.
  • How does meditatum et cogitatum scelus fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What aspect(s) of the imperfect are in play in imponebas and reiciebat?
  • Parse scelerate.
  • How does dominum fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse idem. How does it fit into the sentence?
  • Why is temptares in the subjunctive?
  • Why is posset in the subjunctive?

71Stylistic Appreciation:

72• Discuss Cicero’s use of tenses (present, imperfect, pluperfect) in this paragraph.

73Discussion Points:

74• Do you find Cicero’s account of the incident entirely plausible? What do you think happened in the Roman forum on 15 February 44 BCE — and why?

rostrum, -i, n.
rostra (pl.)

snout, muzzle, beak; ship-beak
speaker’s platform

amicio, -cire, -cui/ -xi, -ctum

to cover, clothe, dress

purpureus, -a, -um


sella, -ae, f.

seat, stool, chair

coronatus, -a, -um

adorned with wreaths, garlanded

escendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to ascend, go up

accedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to draw near, approach, go to

Lupercus, -i, m.

a priest taking part in the Lupercalia

diadema, -atis, n.

ornamental headband, diadem, crown

ostendo, -dere, -di, -tum / -sum

to show, display; disclose; demonstrate

gemitus, -us, m.

groaning, moaning

unde (interr. adv.)

from what place? where… from? whence?

abicio, -cere, -eci, -ectum

to throw away; discard; throw down
(w. ad pedes) to throw oneself at the feet of

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, lift, hoist; raise
to get rid of, remove, eliminate

affero, -rre, attuli, allatum

to bring with one, deliver, fetch; serve
to confer, bestow (on), put forward

meditor, -ari, -atus

to think about constantly, contemplate
to intend, devise, plan, think out

cogito, -are, -avi, -atus

to think, ponder, consider;
to prepare for, plan, contemplate

scelus, -eris, n.

crime, villainy

impono, -onere, -osui, -ositum

to place/put/lay on; confer

plangor, -oris, m.

the action of beating; lamentation

plausus, -us, m.

clapping of hands in approval; applause

reicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw, drive back;
to refuse to accept, rebuff, reject

sceleratus, -a, -um

accursed; ill-starred; unfortunate
(of persons) accursed because of criminal acts

invenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to encounter, come upon, meet
to find, come across, discover

auctor, -oris, m.

agent, advocate, supporter;
originator, author, founder

tempto, -are, -avi, -atum

to test, try out, attempt, investigate

patior, -ti, -ssus

to be subjected to, experience, undergo, suffer

§ 86: Antony as Willing Slave and Would-Be King-Maker

75At etiam misericordiam captabas: supplex te ad pedes abiciebas. quid petens? ut servires? tibi uni peteres, qui ita a puero vixeras ut omnia paterere, ut facile servires; a nobis populoque Romano mandatum id certe non habebas. o praeclaram illam eloquentiam tuam cum es nudus contionatus! quid hoc turpius, quid foedius, quid suppliciis omnibus dignius? num exspectas dum te stimulis fodiamus? haec te, si ullam partem habes sensus, lacerat, haec cruentat oratio. vereor ne imminuam summorum virorum gloriam; dicam tamen dolore commotus: quid indignius quam vivere eum, qui imposuerit diadema, cum omnes fateantur iure interfectum esse qui abiecerit?

76Study Questions:

  • Explain Cicero’s use of the imperfects captabas and abiciebas.
  • What kind of ut-clause is ut servires?
  • What kind of subjunctive is peteres?
  • Parse paterere. What kind of ut-clauses are ut omnia paterere and ut facile servires?
  • Identify and explain the case of hoc (quid hoc turpius…?).
  • Identify and explain the case of sensus.
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun qui (qui abiecerit)?

77Stylistic Appreciation:

78• Analyze the rhetorical design of haec te… oratio.

79Discussion Points:

80• At the end of the paragraph, Cicero argues that Antony deserves to be dead — indeed, ought to have been killed for his attempt to crown Caesar king. In what scenarios (if any) do you endorse capital punishment as a justified response to politically motivated actions?

misericordia, -ae, f.

pity, compassion, pathos

capto, -are, -avi, -atum

to try to get hold of, grasp at; seek, aim at
to go in for, aspire after, try to win over

supplex, -icis


abicio, -cere, -eci, -ectum

to throw away; discard; throw down(w. ad pedes) to throw oneself at the feet of

servio, -ire, -ivi / -ii, -itum

to serve as slave, wait on, labour for
to be politically subject, act in subservience

patior, -ti, -ssus

to be subjected to, experience, undergo, suffer

mandatum, -i, n.

order, instruction, commission

contionor, -ari, -atus

to deliver a public speech

turpis, -is, -e

offensive, foul, loathsome;
shameful, degrading, disgraceful

foedus, -a, -um

offensive, foul, loathsome;
hideous, unclean, repugnant, monstrous shameful, disgraceful, vile

supplicium, -(i)i, n.

reparation; punishment; penalty

exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to wait for, await; look forward to, hope for

dum (conj.)

as long as, while; until, until such time as

stimulus, -i, n.

goad, prick, spur

fodio, -dere, fodi, fossum

to pierce, prick, prod, jab; dig

sensus, -us, m.

sense; understanding, self-awareness

lacero, -are, -avi, -atum

to tear, rend, mangle; shatter, batter, torture
to cause mental anguish, vex, harass

cruento, -are, -avi, -atum

to stain with blood, to cause to bleed, wound

imminuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to diminish

indignus, -a, -um

unworthy, unmerited; unseemly, shameful
scandalous, shocking

§ 87: Historical Precedent Demands Antony’s Execution

81At etiam ascribi iussit in fastis ad Lupercalia C. Caesari dictatori perpetuo M. Antonium consulem populi iussu regnum detulisse, Caesarem uti noluisse. iam iam minime miror te otium perturbare; non modo urbem odisse sed etiam lucem; cum perditissimis latronibus non solum de die sed etiam in diem bibere. ubi enim tu in pace consistes? qui locus tibi in legibus et in iudiciis esse potest, quae tu, quantum in te fuit, dominatu regio sustulisti? ideone L. Tarquinius exactus, Sp. Cassius, Sp. Maelius, M. Manlius necati ut multis post saeculis a M. Antonio, quod fas non est, rex Romae constitueretur?

82Study Questions:

  • Parse ascribi.
  • What are the fasti?
  • Who is the subject of the first sentence (At etiam… noluisse)?
  • How does uti fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Explain the syntax of odisse and bibere.
  • Parse consistes.
  • Explain the grammar of qui (locus…).
  • What is the antecedent of quae?
  • What case is Romae?

83Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the style of the proposed inscription C. Caesari… uti noluisse.
  • What is the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s m-ing in iam iam minime miror?

84Discussion Points:

85• What we seem to capture here is Antony’s (and Caesar’s) version in retrospect of what happened at the Lupercalia. How does it differ from Cicero’s?

ascribo, -bere, -psi, -ptum

to add in writing, insert; enrol, enlist, assign

fasti, -orum, m. pl.

list of festivals; calendar; list of consuls

perpetuo (adv.)

without limit in time, permanently

iussus, -us, n.

bidding, command

defero, -rre, detuli, delatum

to carry, convey, bring; transfer, hand over
to entrust; confer, award, grant

utor, uti, usus

to use, avail oneself of, exercise, employ

iam (adv.)

now, by now

minime (superlative adv.)

least; least of all, to a minimal degree
(= a negative) by no means, not at all

otium, -(i)i, n.

freedom from business, leisure time
domestic peace

perturbo, -are, -avi, -atum

to throw into confusion, upset, disrupt
to agitate, perturb, stir up

odi, -isse, osum

to hate, dislike, have an aversion to

perditus, -a, -um

debilitated, broken; ruined, desperate;
morally depraved

latro, -onis, m.

mercenary; brigand, robber, bandit

consisto, -sistere, -stiti

to stop, halt, stand still
to find a home, settle; reside, live

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, lift, hoist; raise
to get rid of, remove, eliminate

dominatus, -us, m.

absolute rule, lordship, dominion

regius, -a, -um

royal, regal; despotical

ideo (adv.)

for that reason, therefore

exigo, -igere, -egi, -actum

to drive out, force out, eject
to achieve, complete; spend time, complete
to demand, require

neco, -are, -avi, -atum

to put to death, kill

fas (indecl.), n.

what is right/permissible by divine law

constituo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to set up, place, establish; decree, decide

§ 88: Antony on the Ides of March

86Sed ad auspicia redeamus; de quibus Idibus Martiis fuit in senatu Caesar acturus. quaero: tum tu quid egisses? audiebam equidem te paratum venisse, quod me de ementitis auspiciis, quibus tamen parere necesse erat, putares esse dicturum. sustulit illum diem Fortuna rei publicae. num etiam tuum de auspiciis iudicium interitus Caesaris sustulit? sed incidi in id tempus quod eis rebus in quas ingressa erat oratio praevertendum est. quae tua fuga, quae formido praeclaro illo die, quae propter conscientiam scelerum desperatio vitae, cum ex illa fuga beneficio eorum qui te, si sanus esses, salvum esse voluerunt, clam te domum recepisti!

87Study Questions:

  • Parse redeamus.
  • What kind of ablative is Idibus Martiis?
  • Parse fuit… acturus.
  • Identify and explain the tense and the mood of egisses.
  • Explain the syntax of te and me.
  • Parse incidi.
  • What case is eis rebus?
  • Parse formido.

88Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss Cicero’s use of the future (perfect) and the subjunctive in this paragraph.
  • What are the stylistic features that Cicero uses to capture Antony’s flight from the senate house after Caesar’s murder (quae tua fuga… recepisti!)?

89Discussion Points:

90• Reconstruct the events — and the likely motivations and psychology of the main actors — in the wake of Caesar’s assassination. Why did the conspirators only kill Caesar and not also his main supporters?

ago, agere, egi, actum
agere de

to drive, bring, move
to deal with, to make a matter of business

equidem (particle)

(w. first pers. sg.) I for my part;
indeed, in truth

pareo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to submit to, obey

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, lift, hoist; raise
to get rid of, remove, eliminate

interitus, -us, m.

violent death, extinction

incido, -ere, -i, incasum

to fall or drop into, to impinge on;
to enter inadvertently into, come upon
to present itself, arise, occur

ingredior, -di, -ssus

to go into, enter upon, commence, embark on

praeverto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to urge on firstly; to attend to firstly
(w. dat.) to give precedence to (over)

fuga, -ae, f.

flight, fleeing, rout; exile, banishment

formido, -inis, f.

fear, terror, alarm; religious dread, awe

conscientia, -ae, f.

complicity, awareness of, (guilty) conscience

desperatio, -onis, f.

abandonment of hope, despair

cum (conj.) + indicative


beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness; favour

clam (adv.)

secretly, under cover

recipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to admit to shelter, welcome, receive
(refl.) to turn back, withdraw, retire

§ 89: No Compromise with a Public Enemy!

91O mea frustra semper verissima auguria rerum futurarum! dicebam illis in Capitolio liberatoribus nostris, cum me ad te ire vellent ut ad defendendam rem publicam te adhortarer, quoad metueres, omnia te promissurum; simul ac timere desisses, similem te futurum tui. itaque cum ceteri consulares irent redirent, in sententia mansi: neque te illo die neque postero vidi neque ullam societatem optimis civibus cum importunissimo hoste foedere ullo confirmari posse credidi. post diem tertium veni in aedem Telluris et quidem invitus, cum omnis aditus armati obsiderent.

92Study Questions:

  • What case is auguria?
  • Why might dicebam be in the imperfect?
  • Explain the syntax of me (cum me ad te ire vellent).
  • What kind of clause is ut… adhortarer?
  • Parse desisses.
  • How is tui to be construed?
  • Parse mansi.
  • What days does Cicero refer to with illo die, postero [die] and post diem tertium?
  • Where was the temple of Tellus?

93Stylistic Appreciation:

94• Analyze the rhetorical design and the ideological punch of neque… credidi.

95Discussion Points:

96• Was Cicero correct in thinking that any compromise with Antony was bound to fail?

frustra (adv.)

to no purpose, in vain, without avail

verus, -a, -um

real, true; grounded in truth, well-founded

liberator, -oris, m.


quoad (interr. and rel. adv.)

to the degree that, as far as; while
up to the time that, until

metuo, -ere, -i, metutum

to regard with fear, be afraid of, fear

simul atque/ac

as soon as, the moment that

desino, -inere, -(i)i, -itum

to leave off, desist, finish, stop, cease from

similis, -is, -e

similar, like (w. gen. or dat.)
(sui / sibi) constant, unchanged

consularis, -is, -e

of or proper to a consul
(as noun) former consul

maneo, -ere, -si, -sum

to remain, persist, continue, abide by
to remain fixed

societas, -atis, f.

partnership, fellowship, society
close relationship

importunus, -a, -um

unfavourable, troublesome, oppressive

foedus, -eris, n.

formal agreement, treaty, bond, tie

aedes, -is, f.

room, apartment;
(pl.) house, abode; temple, sanctuary

aditus, -us, m.

approach, entry; access

armatus, -i, m.

an armed man, soldier

obsideo, -idere, -edi, -essum

to occupy; besiege, blockade, lay siege to
to beset, assail, press

§ 90: Antony’s Finest Hour

97Qui tibi dies ille, M. Antoni, fuit! quamquam mihi inimicus subito exstitisti, tamen me tui miseret quod tibi invideris. qui tu vir, di immortales, et quantus fuisses, si illius diei mentem servare potuisses! pacem haberemus, quae erat facta per obsidem puerum nobilem, M. Bambalionis nepotem. quamquam bonum te timor faciebat, non diuturnus magister offici; improbum fecit ea quae, dum timor abest, a te non discedit, audacia. etsi tum, cum optimum te multi putabant me quidem dissentiente, funeri tyranni, si illud funus fuit, sceleratissime praefuisti.

98Study Questions:

  • Explain the syntax of qui.
  • Parse miseret.
  • Parse invideris.
  • What kind of conditional sequence does Cicero use with fuisses–potuisses?
  • What noun does ea modify?
  • What construction is me quidem dissentiente? What is the force of quidem?
  • Parse funeri.

99Stylistic Appreciation:

100• How does design reinforce sense in the sentence quamquam bonum… audacia?

101Discussion Points:

102• Do you agree with Cicero that the republican commonwealth and peace could have been restored had Antony continued to collaborate with the senate?

subito (adv.)

suddenly, unexpectedly

exsto, -are, exstiti

to stand out, exist, be found

misereo, -ere, -ui me miseret + gen.

to feel / show compassion, have pity
I am moved to pity / feel sorry for

invideo, -idere, -idi, -isum

to look at askance, regard with ill will or envy

obses, -idis, m. /f.

hostage; surety, pledge, guarantee

nepos, -otis, m. / (f.)

a grandson, descendant

diuturnus, -a, -um

lasting for a long time, permanent, long-lived

officium, -(i)i, n.

duty, obligation

improbus, -a, -um

morally unsound, unprincipled, rascally
shameless, insolent, rude

audacia, -ae, f.

boldness, daring; impudence, effrontery

etsi (conj.)

even if, although
(introducing a main clause) and yet

dissentio, -tire, -si, -sum

to differ in opinion, disagree, dissent

funus, -eris, n.

funeral rites or ceremonies; funeral
dead body, corpse; death

scelerate (adv.)

with heinous wickedness, atrociously

praesum, -esse, -fui

to be in charge (of), be in control (of)

§ 91: Antony as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

103Tua illa pulchra laudatio, tua miseratio, tua cohortatio; tu, tu, inquam, illas faces incendisti, et eas quibus semustilatus ille est et eas quibus incensa L. Bellieni domus deflagravit. tu illos impetus perditorum et ex maxima parte servorum quos nos vi manuque reppulimus in nostras domos immisisti. idem tamen quasi fuligine abstersa reliquis diebus in Capitolio praeclara senatus consulta fecisti, ne qua post Idus Martias immunitatis tabula neve cuius benefici figeretur. meministi ipse de exsulibus, scis de immunitate quid dixeris. optimum vero quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti: quo quidem facto tantum te cepisse odium regni videbatur ut eius omnem propter proximum dictatorem metum tolleres.

104Study Questions:

  • What is the verb of the opening sentence (Tua… cohortatio)?
  • How does et eas… et eas fit into the sentence?
  • What does the et after perditorum link?
  • What kind of construction is quasi fuligine abstersa?
  • What kind of ablative is reliquis diebus?
  • Parse senatus.
  • What noun does qua modify? What case is it in?
  • Parse Idus.
  • neve: what does the enclitic conjunction -ve link?
  • Why is dixeris in the subjunctive?
  • What is the main clause in the sentence optimum vero… sustulisti?
  • What noun does the genitive dictaturae depend on? What kind of genitive is it?
  • Explain the syntax of quo (quo quidem facto).
  • What kind of genitive is regni?
  • What kind of clause does ut (ut eius omnem…) introduce?
  • What does eius refer back to?

105Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the design of the opening sentence (Tua… cohortatio).
  • What is the rhetorical effect of the anaphoric tu, tu, inquam?

106Discussion Points:

107• Why was the funeral of Caesar such a charged moment?

laudatio, -onis, f.

panegyric; (funerary) eulogy; funeral oration

miseratio, -onis, f.

compassion, pity; expression of grief

cohortatio, -onis, f.

exhortation, encouragement

fax, -cis, f.

torch, firebrand

incendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to set on fire, kindle;
incite, stir up, inflame, provoke

sem(i) ustilo, -are

to half-burn, scorch

deflagro, -are, -avi, -atum

to destroy by fire, burn down

impetus, -us, m.

onset, thrust, attack, violence
violent mental impulse, urge

repello, -ere, reppuli, repulsum

to drive back, repel, fend off, deter

immitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to cause to go, send (against), direct


as it were

fuligo, -inis, f.


abstergeo, -gere, -si, -sum

to wipe clean, remove, wipe off

senatûs consulta

decrees of the senate

immunitas, -atis, f.

exemption, immunity

tabula, -ae, f.

a flat piece of wood, board, plank
a writing tablet, record; bronze plate

-ve (enclitic)


beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness; favour

figo, -gere, -xi, -xum

to drive in, fix in, insert (nails etc.)
to fasten up; post up for public information,
to promulgate

exsul, -lis, m.

a banished person, exile

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, lift, hoist; raise
to get rid of, remove, eliminate

proximus, -a, -um

nearest, adjacent, close
immediately preceding, last, most recent
immediately following, next

§ 92: Selling the Empire

108Constituta res publica videbatur aliis, mihi vero nullo modo, qui omnia te gubernante naufragia metuebam. num igitur me fefellit, aut num diutius sui potuit esse dissimilis? inspectantibus vobis toto Capitolio tabulae figebantur, neque solum singulis venibant immunitates sed etiam populis universis: civitas non iam singillatim, sed provinciis totis dabatur. itaque si haec manent, quae stante re publica manere non possunt, provincias universas, patres conscripti, perdidistis, neque vectigalia solum sed etiam imperium populi Romani huius domesticis nundinis deminutum est.

109Study Questions:

  • What noun does omnia modify?
  • What construction is te gubernante?
  • Parse sui.
  • What construction is inspectantibus vobis?
  • Parse venibant.
  • What construction is stante re publica?

110Stylistic Appreciation:

111• Analyze the dramatic trajectory of the first sentence (constituta… metuebam).

112Discussion Points:

  • Explore the political and financial relationships between Rome and its (conquered) provinces in late-republican times. To what extent does the paragraph here foreshadow the realities of the principate?
  • Cicero accuses Antony of something akin to treason. Was he a ‘traitor of the people’? Who is a traitor of the people?

constituo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to set up, establish, decree, decide, arrange

guberno, -are, -avi, -atum

to guide the course of, steer; direct, govern

naufragium, -(i)i, n.

shipwreck; disaster, calamity, ruin; wreckage

fallo, -lere, fefelli, -sum

to deceive, trick, mislead; disguise

diutius (compar. adv.)


inspecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to look at, watch; (intr.) to look on

singuli, -ae, -a (pl.)

each one of, every single; individual, single
(masculine pl. form used as noun) individuals

universus, -a, -um

whole, entire

veneo, -ire, -ii, ( -itum)

to be sold

civitas, -atis, f.

community; the rights of a citizen, citizenship

singillatim (adv.)

one by one, singly, separately

vectigal, -alis, n.

revenue; income

nundinae, -arum, f. pl.

a market-day; a market or fair

deminuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to lessen, diminish; curtail, impair

§ 100: Further Forgeries and a Veteran Foundation

113Sed ad chirographa redeamus. quae tua fuit cognitio? acta enim Caesaris pacis causa confirmata sunt a senatu; quae quidem Caesar egisset, non ea quae egisse Caesarem dixisset Antonius. unde ista erumpunt, quo auctore proferuntur? si sunt falsa, cur probantur? si vera, cur veneunt? at sic placuerat ut ex Kalendis Iuniis de Caesaris actis cum consilio cognosceretis. quod fuit consilium, quem umquam advocasti, quas Kalendas Iunias expectasti? an eas ad quas te peragratis veteranorum coloniis stipatum armis rettulisti?

114o praeclaram illam percursationem tuam mense Aprili atque Maio, tum cum etiam Capuam coloniam deducere conatus es! quem ad modum illinc abieris vel potius paene non abieris scimus.

115Study Questions:

  • Identify and explain the mood of redeamus.
  • How does quae… Antonius fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Identify and explain the mood of egisset and dixisset.
  • What kind of construction is quo auctore?
  • Parse veneunt.
  • Identify and explain the case of percursationem.
  • What kind of ablative is mense Aprili atque Maio?
  • Identify and explain the case of Capuam.
  • Parse abieris.

116Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss the design and rhetorical force of the question quae tua fuit cognitio?
  • How does design reinforce theme in the sentence acta enim Caesaris… dixisset Antonius?

117Discussion Points:

  • Why does Cicero use a string of rhetorical questions to attack Antony’s handling of Caesar’s state papers?
  • How does Cicero manage the transition from one topic (Caesar’s acta) to the next (Antony’s journey and doings in Southern Italy)?

chirographum,-i, n.

one’s handwriting; document, manuscript

cognitio,-onis, f.

the act of getting to know, comprehension
study, investigation, inquiry

actum,-i, n.

act, deed, transaction


to burst forth, spring out / up


to bring forth; to put on show, display
to give voice to, utter, express
to produce (documents) in evidence; publish

veneo,-ire,-ii, (-itum)

to be sold

placeo,-ere,-ui or-itus

to be pleasing / acceptable to; seem good
to be resolved or agreed on (by)

consilium,-(i)i, n.

debate, discussion, deliberation
advice, counsel
deliberative or advisory body; council
decision; intention; deliberate action


to call upon, summon, call together, convoke


to wait for, expect


to travel through, traverse


(as noun) veteran

colonia,-ae, f.

settlement, colony


to compress, press tight
(w. abl.) to surround with, fill, cram, stuff

percursatio,-onis, f.

a rapid journey


to lead away from, remove, bring back
to establish, settle

illinc (adv.)

from that place, thence


to go away, depart; pass away

potius (adv.)

rather, more exactly, on the contrary

paene (adv.)

almost, all but, practically

§ 101: Revels and Remunerations

118Cui tu urbi minitaris. utinam conere, ut aliquando illud ‘paene’ tollatur! at quam nobilis est tua illa peregrinatio! quid prandiorum apparatus, quid furiosam vinulentiam tuam proferam? tua ista detrimenta sunt, illa nostra: agrum Campanum, qui cum de vectigalibus eximebatur ut militibus daretur, tamen infligi magnum rei publicae vulnus putabamus, hunc tu compransoribus tuis et collusoribus dividebas. mimos dico et mimas, patres conscripti, in agro Campano collocatos. quid iam querar de agro Leontino? quoniam quidem hae quondam arationes Campana et Leontina in populi Romani patrimonio grandiferae et fructuosae ferebantur. medico tria milia iugerum: quid si te sanasset? rhetori duo: quid si te disertum facere potuisset? sed ad iter Italiamque redeamus.

119Study Questions:

  • How does Cui fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse minitaris.
  • What kind of clause does utinam introduce?
  • What does ‘paene’ refer (back) to?
  • Parse conere and explain the mood.
  • Parse apparatus.
  • How do you reconcile the relative pronoun qui (nominative masculine singular, referring back to agrum Campanum) with a first person plural verb (putabamus)?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of querar.
  • Parse the adjectives Campana and Leontina. What noun do they modify?
  • Parse sanasset and explain the tense and mood.
  • Parse rhetori.
  • What noun needs to be supplied after duo?

120Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What might the homoioteleuton in quid furiosam vinulentiam tuam proferam emphasize?
  • Discuss the positioning of deictic and pronominal adjectives in tua ista detrimenta sunt, illa nostra.

121Discussion Points:

122• Can you think of more recent instances in history where individuals benefitted financially from close association with powerful politicians? (Put differently, to what extent is kleptocracy a universal?)

minitor, -ari, -atus

(intr. w. dat.) to use threats (against)


if only

conor, -ari, -atus

to attempt, endeavour



nobilis, -is, -e

renowned, famous, celebrated

peregrinatio, -onis, f.

travel abroad, foreign travel

prandium, -(i)i, n.

midday meal

apparatus, -us, m.

preparation; display, pomp, sumptuousness
instruments, equipment

furiosus, -a, -um

frenzied, raving mad; wild, uncontrolled

vinulentia, -ae, f.

fondness for wine
excessive wine consumption, intoxication

profero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum

to bring forth; show, display; produce
to make known, public, disclose

detrimentum, -i, n.

material reduction; harm, damage, loss

ager, agri, m.

piece of land, country, region; soil, terrain

vectigalis, -is, -e

(of land etc.) yielding taxes; subject to taxes

eximo, -imere, -emi, -emptus

to take out, extract; get rid of, banish
to remove (from); set free, exempt

infligo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to knock or dash (against), to inflict

compransor, -oris, m.


collusor, -oris, m.

playmate, fellow gambler

divido, -idere, -isi, -isum

to separate, divide (up), split, share out

mimus, -i, m.

an actor in mimes; a mime

mima, -ae, f.

an actress performing in mimes

colloco, -are, -avi, -atum

to put or set in a particular place;
to put up, place, settle

queror, -ri, -stus (de)

to regret, complain, grumble, protest

quoniam (conj.)

seeing that… now, since, because

quondam (adv.)

formerly; in the future, some day

aratio, -onis, f.

the action of ploughing;
estate of arable land

patrimonium, -(i)i, n.

property, possession, estate

grandifer, -era, -erum

yielding large crops

fructuosus, -a, -um

fruitful, productive; rewarding, lucrative

fero, -re, tuli, latum

(here) to have on or in it, contain

medicus, -i, m.

doctor, physician

mille (indecl. n. and adj.)

a thousand

milia, -ium (pl.)


iugerum, -i/ -is, n.

pl. acres, an expanse of farmland

sano, -are, -avi, -atum

to cure, heal, restore to health

rhetori, -oris, m.

teacher of rhetoric, rhetorician

disertus, -a, -um

eloquent; skillfully expressed

§ 102: Antony Colonized a Colony!

123Deduxisti coloniam Casilinum, quo Caesar ante deduxerat. consuluisti me per litteras de Capua tu quidem, sed idem de Casilino respondissem: possesne, ubi colonia esset, eo coloniam novam iure deducere. negavi in eam coloniam quae esset auspicato deducta, dum esset incolumis, coloniam novam iure deduci: colonos novos ascribi posse rescripsi. tu autem insolentia elatus omni auspiciorum iure turbato Casilinum coloniam deduxisti, quo erat paucis annis ante deducta, ut vexillum tolleres, ut aratrum circumduceres; cuius quidem vomere portam Capuae paene perstrinxisti, ut florentis coloniae territorium minueretur.

124Study Questions:

  • Parse Casilinum and explain its case. Where is Casilinum located?
  • Identify and explain the mood of respondissem.
  • Why is posses in the imperfect subjunctive?
  • Explain the syntax of auspicato.
  • Parse rescripsi.
  • What construction is omni auspiciorum iure turbato?
  • What kind of ablative is paucis annis.
  • Explain the syntax of cuius. What noun does it refer back to?
  • What kind of clause are ut… tolleres and ut… circumduceres?

125Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss the design of the opening sentence (Deduxisti… deduxerat).
  • After consuluisti,tu quidem’ is technically speaking unnecessary — why does Cicero add it nevertheless?

126Discussion Points:

127• Do you find it plausible that Antony consulted Cicero on a religious technicality to do with his settlement policy?

deduco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead away from, remove, bring back
to establish, settle

consulo, -ere, -ui, -tum

to consult, take counsel

auspicato (adv.)

after taking the auspices; auspiciously

incolumis, -is, -e

undamaged, unimpaired, intact

ascribo, -bere, -psi, -ptum

to add in writing, insert; enroll, enlist, assign

rescribo, -bere, -psi, -ptum

to write in response

insolentia, -ae, f.

unfamiliarity; lack of moderation
insolence, arrogance

elatus (ppp. of effero)

raised above; exalted; sublime

vexillum, -i, n.

military standard

aratrum, -i, n.

a plough

circumduco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead round, go round

vomer, -eris, m.


perstringo, -ngere, -nxi, -ctum

to brush, graze, skirt

florens, -ntis

flowering, flourishing, prosperous; powerful

minuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to reduce in size or extent, make smaller
to weaken, detract

§ 103: Antony’s Enrichment Activities

128Ab hac perturbatione religionum advolas in M. Varronis, sanctissimi atque integerrimi viri, fundum Casinatem. quo iure, quo ore? ‘Eodem’, inquies, ‘quo in heredum L. Rubri, quo in heredum L. Turseli praedia, quo in reliquas innumerabiles possessiones’. et si ab hasta, valeat hasta, valeant tabulae modo Caesaris, non tuae, quibus debuisti, non quibus tu te liberavisti. Varronis quidem Casinatem fundum quis venisse dicit, quis hastam istius venditionis vidit, quis vocem praeconis audivit? misisse te dicis Alexandriam qui emeret a Caesare; ipsum enim expectare magnum fuit.

129Study Questions:

  • On what noun does the genitive M. Varronis depend?
  • Parse inquies.
  • On what noun do the genitives heredum (2x) depend?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of valeat and valeant.
  • What are the antecedents of quibus (2x)?
  • Parse venisse.
  • Identify and explain the case of Alexandriam.
  • Identify and explain the mood of emeret.

130Stylistic Appreciation:

131• Analyze the design of the sentence Varronis quidem… audivit?

132Discussion Points:

133• How does Cicero play off Caesar against Antony in this paragraph?

perturbatio, -onis, f.

disturbance, upheaval; confusion, disorder

advolo, -are, -avi, -atum

to fly towards; hasten towards
to swoop on, snatch eagerly at

sanctus, -a, -um

(religious) sacrosanct, inviolate, sacred
(moral), scrupulous, upright, blameless virtuous

integer, -gra, -grum

fresh, undecided; whole, complete, untouched morally unblemished, upright

fundus, -i, m.

bottom, base; basis, foundation
a country estate, farm; homestead

Casinas, -atis (adj.)

of Casinum

os, oris, n.

face, countenance, expression

heres, -edis, m. (f.)

heir, successor

praedium, -(i)i, n.

a landed property, estate, land

hasta, -ae, f.

spear, javelin
spear stuck in the ground at a public auction

reliquus, -qua, -quum

the rest of, remaining

innumerabilis, -is, -e


possessio, -onis, f.

occupancy, possession; seizure, control
(pl.) a holding, estate

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be powerful, be well, have force
to have legal authority, be valid, apply

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be under an obligation to pay, owe to
to be indebted for
(I) ought, should

libero, -are, -avi, -atum

to free, release from, discharge, fulfil, cover

veneo, -ire, -ii, ( -itum)

to be sold

venditio, -onis, f.

the action/process of selling, sale

praeco, -onis, m.

announcer; auctioneer

emo, -emere, emi, emptum

to buy, purchase; win over; procure

§ 104: Animal House

134Quis vero audivit umquam — nullius autem salus curae pluribus fuit — de fortunis Varronis rem ullam esse detractam? quid? si etiam scripsit ad te Caesar ut redderes, quid satis potest dici de tanta impudentia? remove gladios parumper illos quos videmus: iam intelleges aliam causam esse hastae Caesaris, aliam confidentiae et temeritatis tuae. non enim te dominus modo illis sedibus sed quivis amicus, vicinus, hospes, procurator arcebit. at quam multos dies in ea villa turpissime es perbacchatus! ab hora tertia bibebatur, ludebatur, vomebatur. o tecta ipsa misera, ‘quam dispari domino’ — quamquam quo modo iste dominus? — sed tamen quam ab dispari tenebantur! studiorum enim suorum receptaculum M. Varro voluit illud, non libidinum deversorium.

135Study Questions:

  • Parse nullius.
  • Identify and explain the case of curae and pluribus.
  • What kind of clause is ut redderet?
  • How does satis fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse remove.
  • Parse intelleges.
  • Identify and explain the case of illis sedibus.
  • What kind of accusative is multos dies?

136Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What are the stylistic devices Cicero uses to underscore the disgraceful conduct of Antony and his mates at Varro’s villa?
  • What work is the tragic quote doing here?

137Discussion Points:

138• What would you do as a lodger in Varro’s villa?

umquam (adv.)

at any time, ever

salus, -utis, f.

personal safety, immunity from harm,
well-being, security

curae, -ae, f.

anxiety, worry, care, distress; concern

fortuna, -ae, f.

(pl.) wealth, property

detraho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to detach, strip off, remove, take away

satis (indecl. noun/adv.)

enough, sufficient; sufficiently, adequately

removeo, -overe, -ovi, -otum

to move back/away, remove, set aside

gladius, -(i)i, m.


parumper (adv.)

for a short while, for a moment

confidentia, -ae, f.

assurance, self-confidence;
audacity, temerity

temeritas, -atis, f.

recklessness, thoughtlessness, boldness

sedes, -is, f.

a place to sit, seat; dwelling, house

quivis, quaevis, quodvis

any that you please

vicinus, -a, -um

situated close at hand
(as noun) neighbour

hospes, -itis, m.

guest, visitor; host

procurator, -oris, m.

occupant, manager, keeper

arceo, -ere, -ui

to prevent from approaching, keep away,
repulse; hinder, stop

turpis, -is, -e

offensive, loathsome, foul, repulsive;
morally repugnant, disgraceful

perbacchor, -ari, -atus

to carouse or revel through

vomo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be sick, vomit; discharge

tectum, -i, n.

roof, ceiling; house, dwelling

dispar, -aris

unequal, dissimilar (in character)

receptaculum, -i, n.


deversorium, -(i)i, n.


§ 105: Animal House: The Sequel

139Quae in illa villa antea dicebantur, quae cogitabantur, quae litteris mandabantur! iura populi Romani, monumenta maiorum, omnis sapientiae ratio omnisque doctrinae. at vero te inquilino — non enim domino — personabant omnia vocibus ebriorum, natabant pavimenta vino, madebant parietes, ingenui pueri cum meritoriis, scorta inter matres familias versabantur. Casino salutatum veniebant, Aquino, Interamna: admissus est nemo. iure id quidem; in homine enim turpissimo obsolefiebant dignitatis insignia.

140Study Questions:

  • What does the-que after omnis link?
  • What construction is te inquilino?
  • Parse salutatum.
  • Identify and explain the case of Casino, Aquino, and Interamna.

141Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss the stylistic devices Cicero uses to hail Varro’s learning.
  • Discuss the stylistic devices Cicero uses to lambast Antony’s depravity.

142Discussion Points:

143• Compare and contrast Cicero’s depiction of Antony’s conduct in Varro’s villa in §§ 104–05 with contemporary frat-boy comedies such as Animal House: what is (or isn’t) funny — and why?

mando, -are, -avi, -atum

to hand over, deliver, consign to commit
to (writing/memory), entrust

doctrina, -ae, f.

instruction; learning

inquilinus, -i, m.

tenant, lodger

persono, -are, -ui/ -avi, -atum

to make a loud/pervasive noise,
to make resound

ebrius, -a, -um

intoxicated, drunk

nato, -are, -avi, -atum

to swim; (w. abl.) to be drenched/inundated

pavimentum, -i, n.

floor, surface, pavement

madeo, -ere

to be wet/sodden

paries, -etis, m.


ingenuus, -a, -um

native; free-born; honourable

meritorius, -a, -um

let out for a price, hired

scortum, -i, n.


obsolefacio, -facere, -feci, -factum

to make common, degrade

insigne, -is, n.

mark of rank, status, identity, honour distinction

§ 106: Antony Cocooned

144Cum inde Romam proficiscens ad Aquinum accederet, obviam ei processit, ut est frequens municipium, magna sane multitudo. at iste operta lectica latus per oppidum est ut mortuus. stulte Aquinates: sed tamen in via habitabant. quid Anagnini? qui cum essent devii, descenderunt ut istum, tamquam si esset consul, salutarent. incredibile dictu + sed cum vinus + inter omnis constabat neminem esse resalutatum, praesertim cum duos secum Anagninos haberet, Mustelam et Laconem, quorum alter gladiorum est princeps, alter poculorum.

145Study Questions:

  • Parse ei: whom does the pronoun refer to?
  • Who is the subject of processit?
  • What is a municipium?
  • What is the meaning of ut in ut mortuus?
  • Explain the syntax of qui (qui cum essent devii).
  • What is the significance of Cicero’s use of the imperfect subjunctive in tamquam si esset consul?
  • NB: We don’t know why the text here has become garbled beyond restoration (to date). It doesn’t happen often in Cicero’s classic speeches.
  • Parse and explain the syntax of esse resalutatum.
  • On what noun does the genitive poculorum depend?

146Stylistic Appreciation:

147• What stylistic devices does Cicero use in his portrayal of Antony’s alleged mistreatment of locals on his journey back to Rome?

148Discussion Points:

149• Discuss the implications of Cicero challenging Antony’s status as consul (cf. tamquam si esset consul).

accedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to draw near, approach, reach

obviam (adv.)

in the way / path of, so as to meet

procedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to go / move forward, come forth, advance

frequens, -ntis

densely packed, crowded, populous

municipium, -(i)i, n.

municipality, community

sane (adv.)

certainly, truly
(qualifying adjs. or advs.) very, decidedly, quite
(w. concessive force) admittedly, certainly, to be sure

multitudo, -inis, f.

large number, large quantity, multitude
population, the common people, the masses

operio, -ire, -ui, -tum

to shut, close, cover (from sight), conceal

habito, -are, -avi, -atum

to live in, inhabit, dwell

devius, -a, -um

out-of-the-way, remote; turning aside

tamquam (conj.)

in the same way as, just as(w. conditional clause) just as (if)

saluto, -are, -avi, -atum

to greet, hail, salute; to call on to pay respects

consto, -are, -iti

to stand together, take up a position


a decision is taken
it is apparent / plain
it is an established fact, it is known

resaluto, -are, -avi, -atum

to return the greeting of

praesertim (adv.)

above all, first and foremost, especially

praesertim cum

(causal) especially since, seeing that
(adversative) although
in spite of the fact that

alter… alter

the one… the other…

princeps, -ipis, m.

master, expert, chief man; person in charge

poculum, -i, n.

drinking-vessel, cup, bowl

§ 107: Symbolic Strutting after Caesar

150Quid ego illas istius minas contumeliasque commemorem quibus invectus est in Sidicinos, vexavit Puteolanos, quod C. Cassium et Brutos patronos adoptassent? magno quidem studio, iudicio, benevolentia, caritate, non, ut te et Basilum, vi et armis, et alios vestri similis quos clientis nemo habere velit, non modo illorum cliens esse. interea dum tu abes, qui dies ille collegae tuo fuit, cum illud quod venerari solebas bustum in foro evertit! qua re tibi nuntiata, ut constabat inter eos qui una fuerunt, concidisti. quid evenerit postea nescio — metum credo valuisse et arma; collegam quidem de caelo detraxisti effecistique non tu quidem etiam nunc ut similis tui, sed certe ut dissimilis esset sui.

151Study Questions:

  • Identify and explain the mood of commemorem.
  • Locate the Sidicini and the town of Puteoli on a map.
  • Who were C. Cassius and the (two) Bruti?
  • Who was Basilus?
  • Parse adoptassent and explain the mood.
  • What construction is qua re tibi nuntiata?
  • Explain the syntax of qua.
  • Parse evenerit and explain the mood.

152Stylistic Appreciation:

153• What stylistic features help to underscore Cicero’s spitting contempt in illas istius minas contumeliasque commemorem?

154Discussion Points:

  • Why would the Sidicini and the inhabitants of Puteoli side with the liberators?
  • What does patronage of local communities by leading Roman aristocrats entail?
  • What episode does Cicero refer to when he talks about the destruction of the ‘tomb’ by Antony’s colleague Dolabella?

minae, -arum, f.

threats, menaces

contumelia, -ae, f.

insult, indignity, affront

commemoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to recall, mention, relate

inveho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to carry / bring in; import; to ride into attack
(pass.) to attack with words, inveigh (against)

vexo, -are, -avi, -atum

to agitate, buffet; damage; attack constantly;
to harass, trouble

patronus, -i, m.

patron; advocate

adopto, -are, -avi, -atum

to select, secure; adopt

studium, -(i)i, n.

earnest application, zeal, ardour;
enthusiasm, eagerness
devotion, goodwill, support

iudicium, -(i)i, n.

exercise of judgement; decision favourable opinion, esteem

benevolentia, -ae, f.

goodwill, benevolence, friendliness

caritas, -atis, f.

dearness, high price; love, affection, esteem

veneror, -ari, -atus

to worship, adore; pay homage to

bustum, -i, n.

funeral pyre; grave-mound, tomb

everto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to turn upside down; overturn; ruin

unâ (adv.) unâ esse

in one body, together; at the same time to be present

concido, -ere, -i

to collapse, fall; to die or be killed

evenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to come out, emerge; to happen, come about

metus, -us, m.


valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be powerful, have strength
to be well

detraho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to remove; to pull or force down to pull down, demolish

§ 108: Swords Galore, or: Antony’s Return to Rome

155Qui vero inde reditus Romam, quae perturbatio totius urbis! memineramus Cinnam nimis potentem, Sullam postea dominantem, modo Caesarem regnantem videramus. erant fortasse gladii, sed absconditi nec ita multi; ista vero quae et quanta barbaria est! agmine quadrato cum gladiis sequuntur, scutorum lecticas portari videmus. atque his quidem iam inveteratis, patres conscripti, consuetudine obduruimus. Kalendis Iuniis cum in senatum, ut erat constitutum, venire vellemus, metu perterriti repente diffugimus.

156Study Questions:

  • What kind of accusative is Romam?
  • Parse totius.
  • Explain the grammar and sense of agmine quadrato.
  • How do you account for the genitive in the phrase scutorum lecticas?
  • What construction is his… inveteratis?
  • Identify and explain the case of Kalendis Iuniis.

157Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the design of the sentence memineramus… videramus.
  • Identify the stylistic devices that Cicero employs to contrast a bad past with a worse present in this paragraph.

158Discussion Points:

159• How do you think Antony would have advertised his return to Rome?

inde (adv.)

from that place, thence, from there
from that time, from then on; next, then

reditus, -us, m.


perturbatio, -onis, f.

physical disturbance, agitation, upheaval
disorder, disruption

nimis (adv.)

to an excessive degree, too much, unduly

potens, -ntis

having or exercising power over, powerful

dominor, -ari, -atus

to exercise sovereignty, act as despot, rule

modo (adv.)

just, only (now); recently

fortasse (adv.)

it may be, possibly, perhaps

absconditus, -a, -um

hidden, concealed; covert, disguised

barbaria, -ae, f.

the foreign world, uncivilized people
barbarousness, brutality

agmen, -inis, n.

stream, current; mass, multitude, throng
an army on the march, column

quadro, -are, -avi, -atum

to square up, to form a rectangular shape

agmen quadratum

an army marching in a rectangle, the baggage in the midst (= ready for any enemy attack from any direction);
‘hollow square formation’

scutum, -i, n.


lectica, -ae, f.

a litter

porto, -are, -avi, -atum

to transport, convey; to carry, bear

invetero, -are, -avi, -atum

to become old or established;
to make/become customary

consuetudo, -inis, f.

habit, custom

obduresco, -escere, -ui

to become hard, harden;
to become hardened/callous

metus, -us, m.


perterreo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to frighten greatly, terrify

repente (adv.)

without warning, suddenly; in an instant,
all at once

diffugio, -ugere, -ugi

to run away, flee; scatter, disperse

§ 109: Playing Fast and Loose with Caesar’s Legislation

160At iste, qui senatu non egeret, neque desideravit quemquam et potius discessu nostro laetatus est statimque illa mirabilia facinora effecit. qui chirographa Caesaris defendisset lucri sui causa, is leges Caesaris easque praeclaras, ut rem publicam concutere posset, evertit. numerum annorum provinciis prorogavit; idemque, cum actorum Caesaris defensor esse deberet, et in publicis et in privatis rebus acta Caesaris rescidit. in publicis nihil est lege gravius; in privatis firmissimum est testamentum. leges alias sine promulgatione sustulit, alias ut tolleret promulgavit. testamentum irritum fecit, quod etiam infimis civibus semper obtentum est. signa, tabulas, quas populo Caesar una cum hortis legavit, eas hic partim in hortos Pompei deportavit, partim in villam Scipionis.

161Study Questions:

  • Identify and explain the case of senatu.
  • Why is egeret in the (imperfect) subjunctive?
  • What is the antecedent of qui?
  • Identify and explain the case of lucri sui.
  • What kind of clause is ut rem publicam concutere possit?
  • What kind of ablative is lege?
  • What is the antecedent of quod?
  • Identify and explain the case of infimis civibus.

162Stylistic Appreciation:

163• In this paragraph, we get a cascade of main clauses, with the verbs in the perfect tense: desideravit – laetatus est – effecit – evertit – prorogavit – rescidit – sustulit – promulgavit – fecit – deportavit. What is the rhetorical effect? And what does the principle, stated in the present tense halfway through the paragraph (in publicis nihil est lege gravius; in privatis firmissimum est testamentum), add to the overall design and rhetorical impact?

164Discussion Points:

165• Is Cicero here making mountains out of molehills?


to need, want, require; to lack, be devoid of


to long for, desire; to stand in need of, require
to feel/notice the absence of, miss

potius (adv.)

rather, on the contrary; by preference

discessus,-us, m.

absence (from), departure, going away


to rejoice, be glad, be delighted (in)

statim (adv.)

immediately, at once, without delay


causing wonder, remarkable, extraordinary

facinus,-oris, n.

deed, act, event; misdeed, crime, outrage

chirographum,-i, n.

one’s handwriting; document, manuscript

lucrum,-i, n.

material gain, profit


to shake, agitate; distress, upset


to turn upside down; overturn; ruin


to extend (a term of office)
be added, prolong, keep going


to remove by hewing, split, break open
to cancel, revoke, rescind, annul


heavy, ponderous; stern, harsh
grave, serious, earnest, weighty
oppressive, troublesome

testamentum,-i, n.

will, testament

promulgatio,-onis, f.

official proclamation (of a proposed law)


to make known (the terms of a proposed law)
to make widely known, publish


not ratified or valid, null and void; ineffectual


lowest in position
most undistinguished, humblest, lowest


to maintain, keep up, persist in
to govern, hold, retain control of
to cover, extend over
to secure, gain, obtain, sustain one’s claim to

signum,-i, n.

mark; sign, emblem; statue

tabulae,-ae, f.

(here) painting

una cum + abl.

together with

hortus,-i, m.



to send as an envoy
to dispose of by legacy, bequeath

partim… partim… (adv.)

in part… in part…


to bring, convey, transport

§ 110: Caesar: Dead Duck or Deified Dictator?

166Et tu in Caesaris memoria diligens, tu illum amas mortuum? quem is honorem maiorem consecutus erat quam ut haberet pulvinar, simulacrum, fastigium, flaminem? est ergo flamen, ut Iovi, ut Marti, ut Quirino, sic divo Iulio M. Antonius. quid igitur cessas? cur non inauguraris? sume diem, vide qui te inauguret: collegae sumus; nemo negabit. o detestabilem hominem, sive quod tyranni sacerdos es sive quod mortui! quaero deinceps num hodiernus dies qui sit ignores. nescis heri quartum in circo diem ludorum Romanorum fuisse, te autem ipsum ad populum tulisse ut quintus praeterea dies Caesari tribueretur? cur non sumus praetextati? cur honorem Caesaris tua lege datum deseri patimur? an supplicationes addendo diem contaminari passus es, pulvinaria contaminari noluisti? aut undique religionem tolle aut usque quaque conserva.

167Study Questions:

  • In the phrase in Caesaris memoria, what kind of genitive is Caesaris?
  • Explain the grammar of quem (quem is honorem…).
  • Parse inauguraris.
  • Parse sume.
  • Identify and explain the case of destestabilem hominem.
  • How is mortui to be construed?
  • Explain the syntax of the sentence quaero… ignores.

168Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What is the tone of the initial question (Et tu… mortuum)?
  • Discuss the rhetorical force and arrangement of pulvinar, simulacrum, fastigium, flaminem. (Make sure you know what each of these items refers to.)
  • Analyze the design of est ergo flamen, ut Iovi, ut Marti, ut Quirino, sic divo Iulio M. Antonius.
  • Cicero shows a notable preference for asyndeton in this paragraph. Why?
  • What figure of thought does Cicero use in sive quod tyranni sacerdos es sive quod mortui and aut undique religionem tolle aut usque quaque conserva? Why is it effective?

169Discussion Points:

170• Cicero here blasts Antony for inconsistency in his attitude towards Caesar. What might account for such ‘qualified devotion’ to the dead dictator on Antony’s part?

diligens, -ntis

careful, attentive, diligent, scrupulous

consequor, -qui, -cutus

to go or come after, follow;
to bring about, achieve, reach;
(intr.) to succeed

pulvinar, -aris, n.

a cushioned couch for the statue of a god

simulacrum, -i, n.

likeness, image, statue

fastigium, -i, n.

tip, apex; top, summit
a rigged or pointed roof, pediment, gable

flamen, -inis, m.

a flamen (a specially appointed priest)

cesso, -are, -avi, -atum

to hold back from, desist; be inactive

inauguro, -are, -avi, -atum

to consecrate by augury for a priesthood

sumo, -mere, -mpsi, -mptum

to take (up), to adopt

detestabilis, -is, -e

detestable, execrable, abominable

deinceps (adv.)

in succession, in turn; after that, next

num (interrogative particle)

introducing a question implying a negative answer
(introducing indirect questions) whether by any chance

hodiernus, -a, -um hodiernus dies

of or belonging to this day
this day

ignoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to be ignorant or unaware of, fail to recognize

nescio, -ire, -ivi/ -ii, -itum

not to know, to be unaware of

heri (adv.)


fero, -rre, tuli, latum

(here) to propose to (ad)

praeterea (adv.)

in addition to that, as well, besides

tribuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to grant, bestow, award; allocate, devote

praetextatus, -a, -um

wearing the toga praetexta

desero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to forsake, leave, abandon; part company

patior, -ti, -ssus

to be subjected to, undergo, experience to suffer, put up with, tolerate, allow

supplicatio, -onis, f.

the offering of propitiation to a deity;

contamino, -are, -avi, -atum

to defile, pollute, befoul; corrupt to render ritually unclean, profane, desecrate

undique (adv.)

from all sides or directions

usque quaque (adv.)

everywhere, in every possible respect, wholly

§ 111: A Final Look at Antony’s Illoquence

171Quaeris placeatne mihi pulvinar esse, fastigium, flaminem. mihi vero nihil istorum placet: sed tu, qui acta Caesaris defendis, quid potes dicere cur alia defendas, alia non cures? nisi forte vis fateri te omnia quaestu tuo, non illius dignitate metiri. quid ad haec tandem? exspecto enim eloquentiam. disertissimum cognovi avum tuum, at te etiam apertiorem in dicendo. ille numquam nudus est contionatus: tuum hominis simplicis pectus vidimus. respondebisne ad haec, aut omnino hiscere audebis? ecquid reperies ex tam longa oratione mea cui te respondere posse confidas?

172Study Questions:

  • Parse vis.
  • What kind of ablative are quaestu and dignitate?
  • What is the verb in the sentence quid ad haec tandem?
  • How does the genitive phrase hominis simplicis fit into the sentence?
  • What is the antecedent of cui?

173Stylistic Appreciation:

174• Cicero here blasts Antony for his lack of eloquence. What ensures that he does so eloquently?

175Discussion Points:

176• Explore the role of ancestors in Roman culture—and political oratory. Who was Antony’s avus?

pulvinar,-aris, n.

a cushioned couch for the statue of a god

fastigium, -i, n.

tip, apex; top, summit
a rigged or pointed roof, pediment, gable

flamen, -inis, m.

a flamen (a priest specially appointed for a specific divinity)

cur (adv.)

(interr.) for what reason/purpose, why
(relative) on account of which

curo, -are, -avi, -atum

to watch over, look after, care for, attend to

forte (adv.)

by chance, perhaps

fateor, -eri, fassus

to concede, admit, acknowledge, confess

quaestus, -us, m.

gainful occupation, profit, income, gain

metior, -iri, mensus (metitus)

to measure, mark off, estimate, gauge

tandem (adverb)

after all; at last

disertus, -a, -um

dexterous or skilled in speaking, eloquent

cognosco, -oscere, -ovi, -itum

to get to know, find out; to find to be

avus, -i, m.

grandfather; ancestor

etiam (particle)

still, yet, even now; even, actually

apertus, -a, -um

open; uncovered, unveiled, bare, naked
open-hearted, frank

numquam (adv.)

at no time, never; not in any circumstances

nudus, -a, -um


contionor, -ari, -atus

to deliver a public speech, address a meeting

simplex, -icis

simple, basic, plain, artless, simple-minded

pectus, -oris, n.

breast, chest; soul, mind, personality

omnino (adv.)

in every respect, absolutely, altogether;
at all, in any degree, in any circumstances

hisco, -ere

to open, gape, open the mouth to speak

audeo, -dere, -sus

to have a mind, be prepared, intend
to dare, venture

ecquis, ecquid

is there anyone who? is there anything that?

reperio, -ire, repperi, -tum

to find, discover, light upon; make up, devise

§ 112: The Senate Under Armour

177Sed praeterita omittamus: hunc unum diem, unum, inquam, hodiernum diem, hoc punctum temporis, quo loquor, defende, si potes. cur armatorum corona senatus saeptus est, cur me tui satellites cum gladiis audiunt, cur valvae Concordiae non patent, cur homines omnium gentium maxime barbaros, Ituraeos, cum sagittis deducis in forum? praesidi sui causa se facere dicit. non igitur miliens perire est melius quam in sua civitate sine armatorum praesidio non posse vivere? sed nullum est istud, mihi crede, praesidium: caritate te et benevolentia civium saeptum oportet esse, non armis.

178Study Questions:

  • Parse praeterita.
  • Identify and explain the mood of omittamus.
  • Parse inquam.
  • Parse Concordiae. What does it refer to?
  • Who are the Ituraeans?
  • Explain the syntax of perire.
  • What kind of ablatives are caritate and benevolentia?

179Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the design and the rhetorical force of the accusative objects of defende.
  • Discuss the rhetorical power of the sequence of rhetorical questions introduced by cur (4x).

180Discussion Points:

181• Do you agree with Cicero that the best ‘bodyguard’ a statesman can have is the devotion and benevolence he inspires among his fellow-citizens?

praeteritus, -a, -um

past, bygone, former

omitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to let go off, release; discontinue
to leave out of account, disregard
to ignore, omit mention of, pass over

punctum, -i, n.
punctum temporis

a small hole, prick, sting
a moment, instant

armatus, -i, m.

an armed man, soldier

corona, -ae, f.

wreath, garland, crown
a circle (of bystanders), spectators
a ring (of soldiers)

saepio, -ire, -si, -tum

to surround with a hedge, fence round,
enclose, encircle

satelles, -itis, m.

one of a bodyguard, henchman, attendant
partisan, supporter, accomplice

valvae, -arum, f. pl.

a double door, a folding door

pateo, -ere, -ui

to be open; to be visible; to extend

sagitta, -ae, f.


praesidium, -(i)i, n.

means of security, defence, protection;
bodyguard, escort

miliens (adv.)

a thousand times

pereo, -ire, -ii ( -ivi), -itum

to vanish, disappear; to perish, die

caritas, -atis, f.

love, affection, esteem

benevolentia, -ae, f.

goodwill, benevolence, friendliness

§ 113: The Res Publica Has Watchers!

182Eripiet et extorquebit tibi ista populus Romanus, utinam salvis nobis! sed quoquo modo nobiscum egeris, dum istis consiliis uteris, non potes, mihi crede, esse diuturnus. etenim ista tua minime avara coniunx, quam ego sine contumelia describo, nimium diu debet populo Romano tertiam pensionem. habet populus Romanus ad quos gubernacula rei publicae deferat: qui ubicumque terrarum sunt, ibi omne est rei publicae praesidium vel potius ipsa res publica, quae se adhuc tantum modo ulta est, nondum reciperavit. habet quidem certe res publica adulescentis nobilissimos paratos defensores. quam volent illi cedant otio consulentes; tamen a re publica revocabuntur. et nomen pacis dulce est et ipsa res salutaris; sed inter pacem et servitutem plurimum interest. pax est tranquilla libertas, servitus postremum malorum omnium non modo bello sed morte etiam repellendum.

183Study Questions:

  • Explain the construction utinam salvis nobis.
  • Parse egeris.
  • Why does Cicero call Antony’s wife Fulvia minime avara?
  • Parse volent.
  • Identify and explain the mood of cedant.
  • What kind of genitive is pacis?
  • What kind of genitive is malorum omnium?
  • What kind of ablatives are bello and morte?

184Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What makes the first two sentences (Eripiet… diuturnus) ‘a brilliant opening to a passage of high rhetoric’? (Lacey 1986: 240).
  • With the phrase gubernacula rei publicae Cicero brings the well-known metaphor of the ‘ship of state’ into play (with gubernacula as metonym for the ship): what does the metaphor contribute to his rhetorical agenda?

185Discussion Points:

  • Who are the political agents in this paragraph? Can you bring them into systematic correlation?
  • Do you agree with Cicero that slavery is worse than death?
  • What do you think freedom consists in?

eripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to seize, pull, tear from; snatch (away)

extorqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to remove with a twist, wrench away
to obtain by force; dislocate

salvus, -a, -um

safe, secure, unharmed; intact, undamaged
still alive, existing, surviving, extant

ago, agere, egi, actum + cum

(here) to transact business (with), treat

consilium, -(i)i, n.

debate, discussion, deliberation, advice
deliberative or advisory body; council
decision; intention; deliberate action

utor, -i, usus

to use, employ, engage in

diuturnus, -a, -um

lasting for a long time, durable, lasting

avarus, -a, -um

greedy, avaricious, rapacious; miserly, mean

coniunx, -ugis, m. /f.

partner in marriage, spouse, husband/wife

contumelia, -ae, f.

insulting language or behaviour; affront

describo, -bere, -psi, -ptum

to represent, draw, describe

pensio, -onis, f.

a payment (of money), instalment

gubernaculum, -i, n.

steering-oar; the helm of the ship of state

defero, -rre, detuli, delatum deferre ad

to carry, convey, bring; transfer
to entrust (something) to, put into the hands of

ubicumque (adv.)

in whatever place, wherever; in any place whatever

adhuc (adv.)

up to the present time, as yet, so far

tantum modo

only, merely, only just

ulciscor, -cisci, -tus

to inflict retribution / take revenge on
o take vengeance on behalf of, avenge

nondum (adv.)

not yet

recipero, -are, -avi, -atum

to recover, regain, get back; restore, revive

adulescens, -ntis, m. /f.

a youthful person, young man or woman

paratus, -a, -um [ppl. of paro]

ready to hand, available; prepared, ready

cedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to withdraw, go away, retire, depart
to give in, yield, submit

otium, -(i)i, n.

leisure, relaxation; idleness;
a state of public tranquility or peace

consulo, -ere, -ui, -tum

to consult, take counsel about, decide upon
(intr. w. dat.) to consult the interests of, take thought for, look after

revoco, -are, -avi, -atum

to call upon to return, summon back, recall

salutaris, -is, -e

salutary, wholesome, promoting life/health

servitus, -utis, f.

servitude, bondage, slavery

intersum, -esse, -fui

to lie between, intervene
to constitute a difference, be different, differ
to make a difference, be significant

postremus, -a, -um

last, final; most recent
(of an evil) extreme, worst

malum, -i, n.

trouble, distress, pain, hardship;
evil, wickedness; harm, damage

repello, -ere, reppuli, repulsum

to push or thrust away, drive back, repel
to fend off, deter, spurn, reject

§ 114: Caesar’s Assassination: A Deed of Unprecedented Exemplarity

186Quod si se ipsos illi nostri liberatores e conspectu nostro abstulerunt, at exemplum facti reliquerunt. illi quod nemo fecerat fecerunt. Tarquinium Brutus bello est persecutus, qui tum rex fuit cum esse Romae licebat; Sp. Cassius, Sp. Maelius, M. Manlius propter suspicionem regni appetendi sunt necati: hi primum cum gladiis non in regnum appetentem, sed in regnantem impetum fecerunt. quod cum ipsum factum per se praeclarum est atque divinum, tum expositum ad imitandum est, praesertim cum illi eam gloriam consecuti sint quae vix caelo capi posse videatur. etsi enim satis in ipsa conscientia pulcherrimi facti fructus erat, tamen mortali immortalitatem non arbitror esse contemnendam.

187Study Questions:

  • Who was Tarquinius?
  • What case is Romae?
  • Who were Sp. Cassius, Sp. Maelius, and M. Manlius?
  • Explain the construction regni appetendi.
  • In the phrase in regnum appetentem does the preposition in govern the noun regnum or the participle appetentem?
  • What noun does the genitive phrase pulcherrimi facti depend on?
  • What word does the partitive genitive fructus depend on?

188Stylistic Appreciation:

  • How does Cicero differentiate the recent from the distant past?
  • Consider Cicero’s use of the verb facere in this paragraph: exemplum facti fecerat fecerunt — (impetum) fecerunt ipsum factum — (in ipsa conscientia) pulcherrimi facti. Why does he insist so much on ‘deed’ and ‘done’?
  • Why is mortali immortalitatem ‘an effective use of adnominatio’ (Ramsey)?

189Discussion Points:

  • In what ways is the murder of Caesar particularly glorious?
  • What does immortality consist of for Cicero in this paragraph?
  • How would you justify tyrannicide?

conspectus, -us, m.

sight, view; appearance, look

aufero, -rre, abstuli, ablatum

to carry or fetch away, remove, take away

persequor, -qui, -cutus

to follow persistently, pursue, press hard
to seek requital or restitution for, seek out

licet, -cere, -uit/ -itum est

it is permitted, one may
(w. subjunctive) although

propter (prep. + acc.)

because of, for the purpose of, on account of

suspicio, -onis, f.

suspicion, mistrustful feeling;
a faint indication, suggestion

regnum, -i, n.

kingship, tyranny; kingdom

appeto, -ere, -ivi/ -ii, -itum

to try to reach, stretch out for; desire, seek

neco, -are, -avi, -atum

to put to death, kill

impetus, -us, m.

onset, thrust, attack; violent impulse, urge

cum… tum…

(here) not only, as well as

praeclarus, -a, -um

radiant, brilliant, magnificent, glorious

divinus, -a, -um

divine, godlike

expono, -onere, -osui, -ositum exponere ad

to expose; to put on show, display to expose to

§ 115: Looking for the Taste of (Genuine) Glory…

190Recordare igitur illum, M. Antoni, diem quo dictaturam sustulisti; pone ante oculos laetitiam senatus populique Romani, confer cum hac nundinatione tua tuorumque: tum intelleges, quantum inter lucrum et laudem intersit. sed nimirum, ut quidam morbo aliquo et sensus stupore suavitatem cibi non sentiunt, sic libidinosi, avari, facinerosi verae laudis gustatum non habent. sed si te laus adlicere ad recte faciendum non potest, ne metus quidem a foedissimis factis potest avocare? iudicia non metuis? si propter innocentiam, laudo; sin propter vim, non intellegis, qui isto modo iudicia non timeat, ei quid timendum sit?

191Study Questions:

  • Parse recordare.
  • Parse senatus.
  • What noun governs the genitive tuorum?
  • Parse intelleges.
  • Why is intersit in the subjunctive?
  • Parse quidam.
  • What kind of dative is ei?

192Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Analyze the rhetorical craftsmanship of sed nimirum… non habent.
  • What is the effect of the asyndetic paratactic opening sequence (three imperatives — recordare, pone, confer — followed by tum intelleges)?

193Discussion Points:

  • What does vera laus consist in for Cicero?
  • What is a stronger motivation for ethical conduct: desire for praise or fear of punishment?

recordor, -ari, -atus

to call to mind, recollect

laetitia, -ae, f.

joy, gladness, pleasure; delight

confero, -rre, contuli, collatum

to bring, take, carry, convey
to bring together; to compare

nundinatio, -onis, f.

the action of trading or trafficking

quantum (adv.)

how much; to what extent

lucrum, -i, n.

material gain, profit

laus, -dis, f.

praise, commendation; renown;
raiseworthiness, excellence

nimirum (particle)

without doubt, evidently, presumably

quidam, quaedam, quoddam

a particular, a certain

morbus, -i, m.

disease, illness, sickness, infirmity

sensus, -us, m.

capacity to perceive by the senses; sensation feeling

stupor, -oris, m.

numbness, stupefaction, dullness

suavitas, -atis, f.

pleasantness, charm

cibus, -i, m.

food, nutriment

libidinosus, -a, -um

arbitrary, capricious; lustful, licentious

avarus, -a, -um

greedy, avaricious

facinerosus, -a, -um

criminal, wicked

gustatus, -us, m.

the act of tasting; the sense of taste

adlicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to entice, attract, lure; to attract to, win over

foedus, -a, -um

offensive, foul, loathsome;
hideous, unclean, repugnant, monstrous
shameful, disgraceful, vile

avoco, -are, -avi, -atum

to call/summon away, turn aside, avert
to dissuade

innocentia, -ae, f.

freedom from guilt, innocence
uprightness, blamelessness, integrity

§ 116: Caesar You Are Not!

194Quod si non metuis viros fortis egregiosque civis, quod a corpore tuo prohibentur armis, tui te, mihi crede, diutius non ferent. quae est autem vita dies et noctes timere a suis? nisi vero aut maioribus habes beneficiis obligatos quam ille quosdam habuit ex eis a quibus est interfectus, aut tu es ulla re cum eo comparandus. fuit in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, litterae, cura, cogitatio, diligentia; res bello gesserat, quamvis rei publicae calamitosas, at tamen magnas. multos annos regnare meditatus, magno labore, magnis periculis quod cogitarat effecerat; muneribus, monumentis, congiariis, epulis multitudinem imperitam delenierat; suos praemiis, adversarios clementiae specie devinxerat. quid multa? attulerat iam liberae civitati partim metu, partim patientia consuetudinem serviendi.

195Study Questions:

  • Parse ferent.
  • Identify and explain the case of dies et noctes.
  • What kind of ablative is ulla re?
  • What kind of accusative is multos annos?
  • Parse cogitarat.

196Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What is the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s penchant for asyndetic enumerations in this paragraph? (See esp. ingenium, ratio, memoria, litterae, cura, cogitatio, diligentia and muneribus, monumentis, congiariis, epulis, but also magno labore, magnis periculis and suos praemiis, adversarios clementiae specie.)
  • What are your thoughts on Cicero’s repeated use of the attribute magnus? (res… at tamen magnas, magno labore, magnis periculis)?
  • After concluding two sentences with the verb (effecerat; delenierat), why does Cicero depart from standard word order in the last sentence and lead with the verb (attulerat)?

197Discussion Points:

  • Does Cicero get his assessment of Caesar right?
  • What accounts for the rise of autocratic demagogues? Are they born or made?

metuo, -ere, -i, metutum

to regard with fear, be afraid of, to fear

egregius, -ia, -ium

outstanding, excellent, pre-eminent

prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to keep off, hold at bay; prevent, preclude

timeo, -ere, -ui

(intr.) to experience fear, be afraid
(w. dat.) to be afraid (on behalf of)
(w. ab, unde) to fear harm (from)

beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness; favour

obligo, -are, -avi, -atum

to tie up, secure, place under obligation

interficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum

to do away with, put to death, kill; destroy

ingenium, -(i)i, n.

natural disposition, temperament;
inherent quality or character
mental powers, natural abilities, talent

ratio, -onis, f.

the act of reckoning, calculation; reason

littera, -ae, f.

letter (of the alphabet)

litterae (pl.)

letter, missive, dispatch
literary works, writings; literary activities
scholarship, erudition, culture

cura, -ae, f.

anxiety, worry, care; serious attention, zeal
the administration, charge, command (of)

cogitatio, -onis, f.

reflection, thought

diligentia, -ae, f.

carefulness, attentiveness, assiduity

quamvis (adverb)

to any degree you like; no matter how
(w. subjunctive) however
(w. indicative) although

calamitosus, -a, -um

wretched, unfortunate, ill-starred
causing disaster, disastrous, calamitous

meditor, -ari, -atus

to think about constantly, contemplate

munus, -eris, n.

function, task; duty; gift, tribute, token

monumentum, -i, n.

statue, trophy, building; monument

congiarium, -(i)i, n.

a quantity (of wine, oil, money) distributed as a gift
gratuity, largesse, donation

epulum, -i, n.

a public feast, banquet

imperitus, -a, -um

lacking experience, ignorant, untutored

delenio, -ire, -ii, -itum

to soothe down, mollify, cajole; bewitch

clementia, -ae, f.

clemency, leniency

species, -ei, f.

spectacle, sight; appearance, look, display
assumed appearance, veneer
(specie + gen.) under the specious cover/on the pretext of

devincio, -cire, -xi, -ctum

to tie fast, bind; subjugate; oblige

affero, -rre, attuli, allatum

to bring with one, deliver, fetch; add, confer
(+ acc. and dat.) to bring (a condition) about (for/upon)

partim… partim… (adv.)

partly… partly…

patientia, -ae, f.

endurance, hardiness; forbearance, tolerance
apathy, passivity

consuetudo, -inis, f.

usage, custom, habit, convention

servio, -ire, -ivi / ii, -itum

to serve, wait on, be the servant of
to be subservient, be subject to servitude

§ 117: Once Burnt Lesson Learnt!

198Cum illo ego te dominandi cupiditate conferre possum, ceteris vero rebus nullo modo comparandus es. sed ex plurimis malis quae ab illo rei publicae sunt inusta hoc tamen boni est quod didicit iam populus Romanus quantum cuique crederet, quibus se committeret, a quibus caveret. haec non cogitas, neque intellegis satis esse viris fortibus didicisse quam sit re pulchrum, beneficio gratum, fama gloriosum tyrannum occidere? an, cum illum homines non tulerint, te ferent?

199Study Questions:

  • What kind of ablatives are cupiditate and ceteris… rebus?
  • What are the subject and the verb of the sentence starting sed ex plurimis malis…?
  • What kind of ablative is ab illo?
  • Parse inusta.
  • What does the genitive boni depend on?
  • Explain the syntax of satis.
  • What kind of ablatives are re, beneficio, and fama?
  • Parse ferent.

200Stylistic Appreciation:

201• What do the stylistic devices on display here, such as alliteration or asyndetic tricola, contribute to the tone of the passage?

202Discussion Points:

  • Do you share Cicero’s view of tyrannicide?
  • ‘We don’ t get fooled again’. This passage is often thought to be the nub of the whole speech. Does it read that way?

dominor, -ari, -atus

to exercise sovereignty, act as a despot, rule

inuro, -rere, -ssi, -stum

to burn, scorch; to make / imprint by burning
to impress indelibly, brand on

disco, -ere, didici

to acquire knowledge of, learn, get to know

credo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to commit, entrust; trust, rely on
to give credence to, believe

committo, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to bring together, join, connect; entrust to

caveo, -ere, cavi, -tum

to take precautions, be aware, take care
(w. acc. or ab + abl.) to guard against, beware of

pulcher, -chra, -chrum

pleasing, beautiful; excellent, fine
morally beautiful, honourable, noble

beneficium, -(i)i, n.

service, kindness; favour

gratus, -a, -um

grateful, thankful; welcome, popular

gloriosus, -a, -um

boastful, vainglorious; glorious, illustrious

occîdo, -dere, -di, -sum

to cause the death of, kill, slaughter

§ 118: Here I Stand. I Can Do Naught Else

203Certatim posthac, mihi crede, ad hoc opus curretur neque occasionis tarditas exspectabitur. respice, quaeso, aliquando rem publicam, M. Antoni; quibus ortus sis, non quibuscum vivas, considera. mecum, ut voles: redi cum re publica in gratiam. sed de te tu videris; ego de me ipse profitebor. defendi rem publicam adulescens, non deseram senex: contempsi Catilinae gladios, non pertimescam tuos. quin etiam corpus libenter obtulerim, si repraesentari morte mea libertas civitatis potest, ut aliquando dolor populi Romani pariat quod iam diu parturit!

204Study Questions:

  • What tense is curretur?
  • Why are ortus sis and vivas in the subjunctive?
  • Parse considera.
  • How are we to construe mecum?
  • Parse voles.
  • Parse redi.
  • Parse videris.
  • Parse defendi.
  • Parse obtulerim and explain the mood.

205Stylistic Appreciation:

  • What is the rhetorical effect of the impersonal passive curretur?
  • How does Cicero pile pressure on Antony?

206Discussion Points:

  • What do you think of Cicero’s self-promotion, i.e. that he has led a life devoted to selfless service to the state?
  • Would you sacrifice your life for the welfare of the state?
  • What do you make of Cicero’s birth imagery?

certatim (adv.)

with rivalry, in competition, emulously

posthac (adv.)

from this time, from now on, hereafter

occasio, -onis, f.

convenient or favourable circumstances;
the right or appropriate moment

tarditas, -atis, f.

slowness, delay

exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to wait for, await, expect

respicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to look round, look back;
to turn one’s thoughts or attention
to to take notice of, heed

quaeso, -ere

to ask for, pray for, request

aliquando (adv.)

at some time or other; sometimes
(in commands) now at last

orior, -iri, -tus

to rise, emerge, arise;
to come into existence, be born
(of persons) to be born (of), be descended (from)

gratia, -ae, f. in gratiam redire

favour, goodwill, kindness, friendship
to become reconciled

profiteor, -iteri, -essus

to state openly, declare, avow
to promise, guarantee, lay claim to

defendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to ward off, fend off; defend, protect

desero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to forsake, leave, abandon; part company

contemno, -nere, -psi, -ptum

to regard with contempt, despise

pertimesco, -escere, -ui

to become very scared of

quin etiam (adv.)

yes, and…; and furthermore

libenter (adv.)

with pleasure, willingly, gladly

offero, -rre, obtuli, oblatum

to put in the path of, expose to;
to present, provide, supply; offer

repraesento, -are, -avi, -atum

to give immediate effect to; to present to view, manifest to bring back into the present, revive

pario, -ere, peperi, partum

to give birth to, bear, produce, bring forth

parturio, -ire, -ivi

to be on the point of giving birth; be in labour
to be pregnant with

§ 119: Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!

207Etenim si abhinc annos prope viginti hoc ipso in templo negavi posse mortem immaturam esse consulari, quanto verius nunc negabo seni! mihi vero, patres conscripti, iam etiam optanda mors est, perfuncto rebus eis quas adeptus sum quasque gessi. duo modo haec opto, unum ut moriens populum Romanum liberum relinquam—hoc mihi maius ab dis immortalibus dari nihil potest—alterum ut ita cuique eveniat ut de re publica quisque mereatur.

208Study Questions:

  • What kind of accusative is annos… viginti?
  • Parse consulari and seni and explain how they fit into the syntax of the sentence.
  • What kind of ablative is quanto?
  • What kind of dative is mihi?
  • Parse perfuncto and explain how it fits into the sentence.
  • Identify and explain the case of hoc (mihi maius).

209Stylistic Appreciation:

  • Discuss the effect of the numerous reiterations of the same word (negavi/negabo; mortem immaturam/mors; optanda… est/opto; cuique/quisque) in the final paragraph.
  • Explore Cicero’s pregnant use of the letter ‘m’in this paragraph (mortem immaturam; mihi [… optanda] mors [est]; moriens; mihi maius [ab dis] immortalibus). How does sound reinforce sense?

210Discussion Points:

  • Did Cicero reap what he sowed?
  • Should Antony have got the message?

abhinc (adv.)

back from the present, ago

prope (adv.)

near, nearby; close; almost

viginti (indeclinable)



to say (that… not); deny


unripe, immature; premature, untimely


of or proper to a consul
(as noun) former consul, a man of consular rank

vere (adv.)

really, truly; correctly, truthfully

senex,-is, m.

an old man


to desire, pray for


to carry through/discharge one’s part (in perfect + abl.) to have finished one’s part, be done (with)


to overtake, catch up with, arrive at, attain
to obtain, acquire, achieve, win, secure


to bear, carry; perform; conduct

modo (adv.)

not more than, only, just


to come out, emerge
(w. dative) to fall by lot, be allotted (to); happen to

mereo,-ere,-ui,-itum mereri bene/male (de) (deponent) mereri (de)

to earn, procure, gain; deserve to deserve
well/ill of,
to behave (towards)

quisque, quaeque, quidque



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