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What Works in Conservation 2018

 | 
William J. Sutherland
, 
Lynn V. Dicks
, 
Nancy Ockendon
, 
et al.

7. Primate conservation

7.13. Livelihood; economic and other incentives

Texte intégral

7.13.1 Provide benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife

Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)

● Provide monetary benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife (e.g. REDD, employment)

1One before-and-after study in Belize found that howler monkey numbers increased after the provision of monetary benefits to local communities alongside other interventions. However, one before-and-after study in Rwanda, Uganda and the Congo found that gorilla numbers decreased despite the implementation of development projects in nearby communities, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in Congo found that most chimpanzees reintroduced to an area where local communities received monetary benefits, alongside other interventions, survived over five years. Assessment: unknown effectiveness — limited evidence (effectiveness 50%; certainty 25%; harms 0%).

2https://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1509

● Provide non-monetary benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife (e.g. better education, infrastructure development)

3One before-and-after study India found that numbers of gibbons increased in areas were local communities were provided alternative income, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in Congo found that most chimpanzees reintroduced survived over seven years in areas where local communities were provided non-monetary benefits, alongside other interventions. Assessment: unknown effectiveness — limited evidence (effectiveness 40%; certainty 10%; harms 0%).

4https://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1510

7.13.2 Long-term presence of research/tourism project

Likely to be beneficial

● Run research project and ensure permanent human presence at site

5Three before-and-after studies, in Rwanda, Uganda, Congo and Belize found that numbers of gorillas and howler monkeys increased while populations were continuously monitored by researchers, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in Kenya found that troops of translocated baboons survived over 16 years post-translocation while being continuously monitored by researchers, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in the Congo found that most reintroduced chimpanzees survived over 3.5 years while being continuously monitored by researchers, alongside other interventions. However, one before-and-after study in Brazil found that most reintroduced tamarins did not survive over 7 years, despite being continuously monitored by researchers, alongside other interventions; but tamarins reproduced successfully. One review on gorillas in Uganda found that no individuals were killed while gorillas were continuously being monitored by researchers, alongside other interventions. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 61%; certainty 40%; harms 0%).

6https://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1511

Trade-off between benefit and harms

● Run tourism project and ensure permanent human presence at site

7Six studies, including four before-and-after studies, in Rwanda, Uganda, Congo and Belize found that numbers of gorillas and howler monkeys increased after local tourism projects were initiated, alongside other interventions. However, two before-and-after studies in Kenya and Madagascar found that numbers of colobus and mangabeys and two of three lemur species decreased after implementing tourism projects, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in China found that exposing macaques to intense tourism practices, especially through range restrictions to increase visibility for tourists, had increased stress levels and increased infant mortality, peaking at 100% in some years. Assessment: trade-off between benefit and harms (effectiveness 40%; certainty 40%; harms 40%).

8https://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1512

Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)

● Permanent presence of staff/managers

9Two before-and-after studies in the Congo and Gabon found that most reintroduced chimpanzees and gorillas survived over a period of between nine months to five years while having permanent presence of reserve staff. One before-and-after study in Belize found that numbers of howler monkeys increased after permanent presence of reserve staff, alongside other interventions. However, one before-and-after study in Kenya found that numbers of colobus and mangabeys decreased despite permanent presence of reserve staff, alongside other interventions. Assessment: unknown effectiveness — limited evidence (effectiveness 40%; certainty 30%; harms 0%).

10https://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1517

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