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Telling Tales

David Blamires

15. Clemens Brentano’s Fairytales

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1The fairytales of Clemens Brentano were among the last works of German Romanticism to come to the notice of English-speaking children. Readers were already long familiar with the fairytales of the Brothers Grimm and Wilhelm Hauff, with several of Fouqué’s stories, especially his perennially appealing Undine and, a little less, the heroic Sintram, also with Chamisso’s Peter Schlemihl and E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Nutcracker. In addition there were selections from Musäus and their namesake Albert Ludwig Grimm and from their competitor in the field of traditional tales, Ludwig Bechstein. But Brentano’s fairytales were a different kettle of fish – leisurely, self-indulgently whimsical and fantastic, written with such shifting focusses of attention that it is difficult to know just who he was writing for, apart from himself. Some of the tales circulated in manuscript during his lifetime, but he was ambivalent about them and could not resist later rewriting and amplifying them. It was only after his death that they were finally published, edited by Guido Görres, as Die Märchen des Clemens Brentano (Stuttgart and Tübingen: J. G. Cotta, 2 vols., 1846-47). The opening passage of the ’Rheinmärchen’ (Fairytale of the Rhine) and the whole of ’Myrtenfräulein’ (Myrtle Maiden) had been published twenty years earlier, without Brentano’s name, at the instigation of his friend Johann Friedrich Böhmer in the Frankfurt magazine Iris in 1826-27, and plans were then afoot to publish these and other tales properly, but Brentano’s desire to rework them resulted in the project running into the sand. Several years later a vastly amplified version of Gockel und Hinkel was published separately as Gockel Hinkel Gakeleia (Frankfurt: Schmerber, 1838), but succeeding generations have preferred the earlier, rather than the later, versions of Brentano’s fairytales.

2Clemens Brentano (1778-1842) was born in Ehrenbreitstein, one of the great fortresses on the Rhine, the son of an Italian father and a German mother. He was not cut out for joining the Frankfurt firm of his wealthy merchant father, but became instead one of the leading writers of German Romanticism, publishing poems, plays and prose fiction in profusion. With his friend Achim von Arnim he edited the immensely influential collection of German popular songs and ballads entitled Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Boy’s Magic Horn) (Heidelberg: Mohr und Zimmer, 1806-08). He is probably best known today as an outstanding lyric poet, the creator of the Loreley legend with his ballad ’Lore Lay’ and the author of one of the most popular Romantic novellas, the Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (1817). This latter was actually the first of Brentano’s prose works to be translated into English, some thirty years after it was first published in German, as Honor; or, the Story of Brave Casper and the Fair Annerl, translated by T. W. Appell (London: John Chapman, 1847).

  • 1 Rosemary Ashton, Little Germany. German Refugees in Victorian Britain (Oxford and New York: Oxford (...)

3It was going on for another forty years before selections from Brentano’s fairytales were published in English, so they were not taken up in the same way as the Brothers Grimm or Hauff. That they were translated at all is due to the efforts of the bilingual daughter of the German poet Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-76), who settled as an émigré in London in 1846 and remained there for twenty years before returning to Germany. Kate Freiligrath Kroeker (1845-1904), was married to a German businessman and played a small part in London’s literary life in the 1870s and 1880s, translating her father’s poetry and writing articles in the Athenaeum.1 Fairy Tales from Brentano, told in English by Kate Freiligrath Kroeker, appeared in 1884 (London: T. Fisher Unwin). This proved popular enough for a second volume to follow in 1887 – New Fairy Tales from Brentano – from the same publisher. Both volumes were illustrated by F. Carruthers Gould (1844-1925), who had only recently changed career from working on the stock exchange to being a cartoonist and caricaturist. They enjoyed a number of reprints: Fairy Tales in 1890, 1911 and 1925, New Fairy Tales in 1902. Kate Kroeker provided a biographical introduction to her first volume and declared herself ’proud to be the first to introduce them to English children’. The fairytales she translated are as follows:

4Fairy Tales:

’Das Märchen von den Märchen oder Liebseelchen’ = ’Dear-my-Soul’
’Hüpfenstich’ = ’The Story of Sir Skip-and-a-Jump’
’Dilldapp’ = ’The Story of Ninny Noddy’
’Die fünf Söhne des Schulmeisters Klopfstock’ = ’The Story of
Wackemhard and of his Five Sons’

5New Fairy Tales:

’Gockel und Hinkel’ (earlier version) = ’The Story of Gockel,
Hinkel, and Gackeleia’
’Witzenspitzel’ = ’The Story of Frisky Wisky’
’Myrtenfräulein’ = ’The Story of the Myrtle Maiden’
’Komanditchen’ = ’The Story of Brokerina’
’Märchen von dem Müller Radlof (Rheinmärchen)’ = ’The Story of
Old Father Rhine and the Miller’

6Brentano had been interested in writing fairytales on the basis of traditional plots from the time of his collaboration with Arnim on the Wunderhorn, and what he wanted to do then was to rework Italian fairytales for German children. He admired the two Low German tales that the painter Philipp Otto Runge had sent to Arnim and were incorporated in the Grimms’collection, i.e. ’The Juniper Tree’and ’The Fisherman and his Wife’. He also begged copies of tales that the Grimms themselves had collected, so that the oldest extant form of the original core of the Grimms’ tales is, in fact, the manuscript copy that they sent Brentano and that eventually turned up among his posthumous papers. But despite Brentano’s professed admiration for Runge’s two tales, he did not like the sober form in which the Grimms’ tales first appeared (the 1812-15 first edition). Likewise, the Grimms did not approve of what Brentano did in his fanciful reworkings of traditional material. They themselves were first and foremost scholars, while Brentano was a poet and creative writer.

  • 2 N. M. Penzer (ed.), The Pentamerone of Giambattista Basile, translated from the Italian of Benedet (...)
  • 3 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 222.
  • 4 Ibid., vol. 1, pp. lxvii-lxviii

7The Italian tales that Brentano wanted to retell came from the seventeenth-century collection of tales by the Neapolitan writer Giambattista Basile called the Pentameron (1634-36). Basile’s fifty tales were recounted within a framework narrative, on the pattern of Boccaccio’s Decameron. Basile kept close to the pattern of traditional tales as regards plot and length, but he used all the rhetorical devices of a master of Baroque prose and verse to make the tales appeal to the cultivated taste of his day, despite declaring them to be written for children. He composed the Pentameron in the Neapolitan dialect, and it circulated mainly in Neapolitan editions until the mid eighteenth century, when editions in Bolognese and Italian began to be produced.2 Outside Italy it seems that the first translation of any part of the Pentameron occurred in the volume of the Bibliothèque universelle des romans for September 1777, in which are given three tales (’Peruonto’ (I, 3), ’Sapia Liccarda’ (III, 4) and ’The Raven’ (IV, 9)).3 This provided the stimulus for Christoph Martin Wieland’s verse tale ’Peruonte oder die Wünsche’ (Peruonto or the Wishes) in 1778.4 We might also recall that Musäus’s ’Chronicles of the Three Sisters’ derives from Basile’s ’The Three Animal Kings’. The English-speaking world gained its first taste of the Pentameron through Thomas Keightley, who translated ’The Dragon’ (IV, 5), ’Gagliuso’ (II, 4) (an ancestor of ’Puss-in-Boots’) and ’The Goatface’ (I, 8) for the first edition of his influential book, The Fairy Mythology (1828). He followed this up with two further tales – ’The Serpent’ (II, 5) and ’Peruonto’ – in his Tales and Popular Fictions; their Resemblance and Transmission from Country to Country (1834). A fuller selection of thirty tales appeared in a new translation by John Edward Taylor in 1848.

  • 5 Max Preitz (ed.), Brentanos Werke (Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1914), vol. 3, (...)
  • 6 Penzer, vol. 2, pp. 225-26.

8Brentano was fortunate enough to possess two editions of the Pentameron with the Neapolitan text (Rome, 1679, and Naples, 1749). From Brentano’s personal copy it appears he intended to rework twenty-five of Basile’s tales, but in fact managed to complete only ten.5 The Grimms, meanwhile, had borrowed Brentano’s 1749 edition and had made abstracts of all Basile’s tales and included them in the 1822 volume of notes to the Kinder- und Hausmärchen. Jacob Grimm had also made a translation of ’The Serpent’ (II, 5), which was published in the Taschenbuch für Freunde altdeutscher Zeit und Kunst (Pocket-book for Friends of Ancient German Times and Art) (Cologne, 1816).6 Penzer, in his bibliographical study of the Pentameron, goes on to deal with the further complex history of German and English partial editions, revealing their cross-connexions, but he does not mention Brentano’s work at all.

9The tales of Brentano’s translated by Kroeker have their sources in the Pentameron as follows. All the plots correspond to standard tale-types in the Index of Folk-tale Types by Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson and are identified by AT and the appropriate number:

’Dear-My-Soul’ = frame-story

’Sir Skip-and-a-Jump’ = ’The Flea’, I, 5 (AT 425B)

’Ninny Noddy’ = ’The Story of the Ogre’, I, 1 (AT 563)

’Wackemhard and his Five Sons’ = ’The Five Sons’, V, 7 (AT 653)

’Gockel, Hinkel, and Gackeleia’ = ’The Cock’s Stone’, IV, 1 (AT 560)

’Frisky Wisky’ = ’Corvetto’, III, 7 (AT 1525)

’The Myrtle Maiden’ = ’The Myrtle’, I, 2 (cf. AT 652)

’Brokerina’ = ’Pinto Smalto’, V, 3 (AT 425)

  • 7 For the concepts of ’single address’, ’double address’ and ’dual address’ in the target readership (...)

10The fact that all these tales correspond to standard tale-types means that they are not in essence invented stories of the kind written, in the main, by Andersen or Oscar Wilde, but Brentano treats his sources in such a fanciful and elaborate way that much in his writing may elude the comprehension of younger readers. He writes, in fact, with two different readerships in mind – children for the basic story in terms of its plot, adults for his contemporary references, use of names, ironic asides and amplificatory details.7

11Some idea of Brentano’s procedures may be gained by comparing ’Liebseelchen’ (’Dear-my-Soul’) with the frame-story of the Pentameron. A king has a serious daughter whom he attempts to make laugh by organizing a variety of amusements. In the last of these an old woman’s discomfiture causes the princess to laugh, whereupon she is cursed by the old woman not to marry until she finds a certain prince. The princess sets out on the quest and gains three nuts from three fairies (old women) which are to be broken open only in situations of great need. She finds the prince in a marble tomb and has to weep sufficient tears to fill a vessel in order to restore him to life. Exhausted by her efforts to do this, she falls asleep and is thwarted by a black female slave, who fills the vessel and marries the resurrected prince. When the slave becomes pregnant she grows very hostile to the princess, who has remained in the city and attracted the prince’s attention. The slave threatens her husband with damaging the baby in her womb, if he does not turn away from the princess. The latter breaks open each of her three nuts in turn, and the magic devices that they contain are instantly coveted and acquired by the slave. The last of these devices is a golden doll, which sparks in her the desire to hear fairytales, for which the prince has to call together ten women, each of whom tells a story on five successive days. At this point the fifty stories of the Pentameron make their appearance, and the frame-story is only concluded when the princess herself tells her own story and the prince, despite the slave’s pregnancy, has her buried alive and marries the princess.

24. Fairy Tales from Brentano. Illustration by F. Carruthers Gould (1884).

12Basile uses a variety of names in his tales, but they tend to be common names for persons and simple descriptive names for places. Thus, we have here ’a king of Vallepelosa’ (wooded valley), which Brentano converts into ’Schattentalien’, a combination of ’shady valley’ and ’Italy’, which Kroeker leaves out altogether. Felix Liebrecht, who translated Basile into German in 1846, translated it as ’Buschtal’ (bushy valley). Basile calls the king’s laughless daughter Zoza (a diminutive of Lucrezia), while Brentano gives her the descriptive name ’Liebseelchen’, adroitly turned by Kroeker into the English ’Dear-my-Soul’. The old woman is nameless in Basile, but Brentano takes a pot shot at the French with his extended caricature of ’Mademoiselle Zéphise la marquise de Pimpernelle’ and the two dancing masters who accompany her, and it is the absurdity of French manners that causes the princess to laugh. Mademoiselle Zéphise has a list of clichés with which she operates – amour, plaisir, le cœur, souvenir, bonheur, douceur. Brentano’s hostility to the French, which can be seen at several other points in his tales, almost certainly dates from the French occupation of Alsace and the left bank of the Rhine by revolutionary forces in 1793, when he was a boy of sixteen. Brentano calls Basile’s nameless slave ’eine häßliche, böse, schwarze Mohrin’ (an ugly, wicked, black Moor) and gives her the name ’Russika’ with the dual associations of Ruß (soot) and Russian. Kroeker understandably calls her ’Sootica’. The prince who rises from the tomb is called Taddeo by Basile and Röhropp, a dialect form meaning ’stir up’, by Brentano, but Kroeker doesn’t give him a name.

13The English translator of Brentano’s fairytales has several problems. With the proper names she tries to find English equivalents for Brentano’s jokes and on the whole does this well. She also often looks for English equivalents for descriptions of specifically German characteristics and habits, especially those to do with eating, drinking and clothes. Occasionally things will be omitted where, for example, something taken for granted in Germany might give offence in England. Thus, where Brentano has a verse in which Mademoiselle Zéphise ’Fuhr in die Hölle’, Kroeker’s rendering avoids the reference to hell. As ’Pimpernelle’ and ’hell’ are rhymes crying out for each other in English, the avoidance of the word must be deliberate.

14Brentano’s stories are full of passages in which he suddenly goes into rhyme. Sometimes this is a song, but often it is simply part of the narrative, and as Brentano was a skilful versifier it reads fluently and with considerable charm. These passages, generally in rhyming couplets, present awkward problems for the translator, and while she conveys their surface meaning well enough, her versions often appear banal or clumsy where Brentano has a light and easy touch.

15The second story in Kroeker’s first volume from Brentano is ’Sir Skip-and-a-Jump, which opens with the death of a queen at the unexpected birth of a daughter. When the king wants to remove his baby daughter from the old woman who is feeding her, he has to promise to pardon the first criminal to offend him and to nourish him as best he can. This turns out to be a flea, which feeds on the king’s blood and grows to the size of a calf. In the German original the old woman has the baby ’an der Brust’ (at her breast), but Kroeker changes this to ’feeding her from a bottle’. Presumably the idea of breast-feeding was considered indelicate, at least in a children’s book, at the period that Kroeker was making her translation.

16When it comes to guessing the identity of the extraordinary creature that has been fed with the king’s blood – it is stated to be the size of an ox in the German, which Kroeker tones down to a calf – several suggestions are put forward, ending as follows: ’Endlich trat ein Professor auf und behauptete, es sei die Haut eines afrikanischen Buschmanns; der Seelenverkäufer aber behauptete, sie sei von einem Amsterdamer Juden’. The first part of this clearly caused no second thoughts at the time, since Kroeker translates: ’Finally a professor made a very learned speech, in which he proved it to be the skin of an African bushman’. She silently omits Brentano’s anti-Semitic jibe: ’the recruiting sergeant, however, asserted it was that of an Amsterdam Jew’. There is a passage in ’Gockel, Hinkel, and Gackeleia’ where Kroeker softens another example of Brentano’s anti-Semitism. When Gockel has transported the two white mice across a river, he meets three old men who want to buy his old cock in exchange for an old billy-goat, knowing that the cock has in its crop a jewel from the magic ring of King Solomon. Brentano disparagingly refers to them as ’some old Jews who were great natural philosophers; they were taking an old billy-goat and an old, skinny nanny-goat on a rope to the Frankfurt fair’. Kroeker tactfully calls them ’three old Oriental philosophers’ and omits the reference to Frankfurt. There was a strong, wealthy Jewish community in Frankfurt, where Brentano’s father worked. Its most famous member was Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1743-1812), the founder of the great banking house, who financed the war against Napoleon. One wonders whether Brentano’s unpleasant jibes derive from envy at the Rothschilds’ success. The Amsterdam Jew shares a suggestive first syllable with Amschel Rothschild.

17In the introduction to her first volume of translations Kroeker had declared that, even in ’its simple and original form’, ’Gockel, Hinkel, and Gackeleia’ was too full of puns and quips to translate, but she had second thoughts and included a version in her second volume. Despite her title she was actually translating Brentano’s early ’Gockel und Hinkel’, not the hugely expanded form published separately as Gockel Hinkel Gakeleia, which was almost four times as long. We have to keep in mind that she was attempting to make Brentano accessible to English children, not to provide an accurate translation faithful in all details. Children would have been baffled by many of the German names that Brentano uses and that would have been noted more by his adult readers. What Kroeker does is to change Brentano’s ’double address’ as much as possible to a ’single address’, since she is more concerned with providing enjoyment for her child readers.

18Both in the original and in the translations Brentano’s tales exceed the compass of the traditional fairytale. They are comparable in length to those of Musäus or Hauff, but while Hauff studiously avoided any love interest in his fairytales, the majority of Brentano’s have to do with the search for a spouse. Again, while Hauff, the Grimms and Bechstein employ a straightforward, sober style of narration, Brentano’s tales are full of winks and nudges, verbal tricks and ironic allusions to contemporary life and events. For example, when he tells how Gockel’s ancestral palace was formerly one of the most splendid in Germany, he cannot resist blaming its destruction on the French, ’who are accustomed to doing things like this’. Brentano had lived through a period from 1792 to 1814 when the French had wrought havoc in Germany, while Kroeker, at the end of the nineteenth century, simply says: ’but the enemy had totally wrecked and destroyed it’, leaving out any reference to the French. For the most part Kroeker removes the names of petty German states and cities, replacing them with English counterparts. The fact that the ’Rauhgraf von Hanau’ becomes the ’Marquis of Dorking’ shows how much Kroeker worked at finding an appropriate English association, here, of course, with Dorking hens. Hinkel’s ancestors come, punningly, from Hennegau (Hainault), which Kroeker converts into ’the industrious race of the Langshans’. The king who is obsessed with eggs (king of the real town of Gelnhausen in the German) inhabits Eggville and is called Egg-Gorgius in Kroeker (the German is Eifrassius). She can’t everywhere follow Brentano, but in one place at least she inserts an invention of her own. In Brentano’s expansive description of the mouse city built of cheese, melons, pumpkins and the like he has half a sentence devoted to the cemetery. Kroeker adds: ’It was built by their famous king, Mousolus I., and hence was called the Mousoleum’. The German language would have allowed Brentano the same pun, but he did not make it. Perhaps he expected his readers to make it for themselves since it is so obvious.

19Brentano’s ’Dilldapp’ (Kroeker’s ’Ninny Noddy’) is a version of the tale that many will know better from the Grimms’ ’The Table, the Donkey and the Stick’. Basile and Brentano, too, have a donkey that provides gold and jewels, but Kroeker changes this to a goose that lays golden eggs. Brentano’s tale has a neutral expression to describe the donkey’s production of gold, in place of Basile’s reference to the donkey’s rear, so there was no need for the translator to avoid an impropriety. However, a little later in the story Brentano does have the substitute donkey soil Dilldapp’s mother’s bed-linen in a nasty way. At the end of the German original Brentano’s hostility to all things French is expressed once more. Not only do Dilldapp’s sisters all change their allegorical French names to German individual names, but the cudgel also beats everything French out of town. Kroeker omits these matters entirely.

20Kroeker deals in a quite similar way with Brentano’s ’Klopfstock’ (her ’Wackemhard’), but the many allusions and associations in the German text are rather different from those posing problems in ’Dilldapp’. Again, the plot is better known in the Grimms’ ’The Four Skilful Brothers’. Kroeker does well with English equivalents for the names of characters, and she even finds a suitable hymn and song to do service for Paul Gerhardt’s ’Nun ruhen alle Wälder’ (the ’Old Hundredth’) and Grimmelshausen’s ’Komm Trost der Nacht, o Nachtigall’ (’Under the Greenwood Tree’) respectively. However, the German text is replete with other allusions, such as that to the hermit episode in Grimmelshausen’s great novel of the Thirty Years War, Simplicissimus, which would be apparent to the educated adult German reader, though hardly to children. Naturally enough, Kroeker leaves such things out. But even with her omissions of some verse passages and other details the story remains a very long one.

21Both ’Frisky Wisky’ and ’The Myrtle Maiden’ in Kroeker’s second volume are shorter tales, more the usual length of a traditional fairytale. These were tales that Brentano composed early and did not rework and embellish. Nonetheless, they both contain humorous and symbolic names of a kind that give Brentano’s fairytales an archness or self-regard that some readers find irritating. However, Frisky Wisky is rather too much a nursery tale name in English (cf. Henny Penny, Cocky Locky) and loses the connotations of clever cunning that the German Witzenspitzel conjures up. Brentano’s tale ’Witzenspitzel’ is a variant of the widespread tale-type ’The Master Thief’, of which the Grimms also present an example. This is a comic tale involving a series of incredible tricks, at the end of which the hero wins a bride. Kroeker translated this as ’Frisky Wisky’ in New Fairy Tales from Brentano, and her version is lively and idiomatic. However, the story is one of the very few by Brentano of which another translation was made. This is to be found in The Diamond Fairy Book, with illustrations by H. R. Millar (London: Hutchinson & Co., [1897]), a collection of both traditional and invented fairytales from many countries. This was one of a series, made on the model of Andrew Lang’s ’colour’ fairy books. Brentano’s story is here called ’Wittysplinter’, and the translation is anonymous. The German original gives symbolic names to the human and animal figures in the story. The following list gives the German name, followed by Kroeker’s and that of the anonymous version: König Rundherum (King Roundabout for both), the giant Labelang (Stretch-Yourself, Sleepyhead), his wife Dickedull (Burst-your-Seams, Thickasmud), the lion Hahnenbang (Shy-Cock, Hendread), the bear Honigbart (Honey-Tooth, Honeybeard), the wolf Lämmerfrass (Lamb’s Worry, Lambsnapper), the dog Hasenschreck (Hare’s Fright, Harescare), the horse Flügelbein (Wing-legs, Flyinglegs), the neighbouring Queen, Frau Flugs (Queen Nimble, Madam Flosk), her daughter, Princess Flink (Flink for both). The anonymous translation on the whole is a little more formal than Kroeker’s, but both convey the original well.

22The hero of ’The Myrtle Maiden’ is Prince Wetschwuth in German (Wedgwood in English) with a capital Porzellania (Porcelania). The punning or semi-allegorical names are even more obvious in the much longer story of ’Komanditchen’ (’Brokerina’), the major part of which is an extended skit on the world of commerce as Brentano had uncongenially experienced it in his youth in his father’s business as a wealthy Frankfurt merchant. Only at the end of the tale does Brentano take up his source in the Pentameron and describe how Komanditchen, dissatisfied with all those who sue for her hand in marriage, makes and bakes herself an artificial prince out of all kinds of sweet and delicious ingredients. The German tale breaks off before the actual conclusion, but Kroeker provides the ending inherent in the premisses of the plot.

23In addition to these Italian tales Brentano also wrote a cycle based on German legends of the Rhine. Kroeker translated part of this as ’The Story of Old Father Rhine and the Miller’. It is a rather rambling narrative based on the popular legend of Bishop Hatto of Mainz, whose cruelty towards his own people in time of famine was punished by his being eaten alive by mice which pursued him to a tower on an island in the middle of the Rhine, where he thought he could escape them. The legend was versified in English by Robert Southey, and it was retold in prose by Mary C. Rowsell in Hatto’s Tower: and Other Stories (London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dublin: Blackie & Son, 1887), but it was included in virtually every collection of Rhine legends. Brentano substituted a King of Mainz for the Bishop and incorporated the story into a feud between the King of Mainz and the Queen of Trier and a love-story involving a miller and Ameleya, the daughter of the King of Mainz. As we have already noted, Brentano had himself been instrumental in creating the image of the ’Romantic’ Rhine with his ballad of the ’Lore Lay’, so his ’Story of Old Father Rhine and the Miller’ can be understood as part of the same process.

24Kroeker’s two volumes of translations provide strong evidence of the surge of interest in German literature during the 1880s and 1890s. To them we can add another item – The Wondrous Tale of Cocky, Clucky, and Cackle, freely translated from the German of Brentano by C. W. Heckethorn (London: J. Hogg, [1889]), a separate rendering of the long Tale of Gockel, Hinkel und Gakeleia. But despite Brentano’s fame in Germany, he does not seem to have made a great impact in English. Kroeker’s translations were not reprinted after 1925. It is not entirely surprising that, even though both she and Heckethorn had made translations of Gockel, Hinkel und Gakeleia, the American writer Doris Orgel was so totally unaware of them that she claimed her Tale of Gockel, Hinkel & Gackeliah, illustrated by Maurice Sendak (New York: Random House, 1961) to be translated for the first time into English.


1 Rosemary Ashton, Little Germany. German Refugees in Victorian Britain (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 95 and 247.

2 N. M. Penzer (ed.), The Pentamerone of Giambattista Basile, translated from the Italian of Benedetto Croce (London: John Lane the Bodley Head Ltd; New York: E. P. Dutton & Company, 1932), vol. 2, p. 171.

3 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 222.

4 Ibid., vol. 1, pp. lxvii-lxviii

5 Max Preitz (ed.), Brentanos Werke (Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1914), vol. 3, p. 8.

6 Penzer, vol. 2, pp. 225-26.

7 For the concepts of ’single address’, ’double address’ and ’dual address’ in the target readerships of children’s books see Peter Hunt, An Introduction to Children’s Literature (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 12-15.

Table des illustrations

Légende 24. Fairy Tales from Brentano. Illustration by F. Carruthers Gould (1884).
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