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An Anglo-Norman Reader

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Jane Bliss

Religious Writings

Homiletic

Texte intégral

Maurice de Sully: Credo and Pater Noster

  • 1 Homily ii and Homily iii, from the Ashmole MS.
  • 2 Reeves, Religious Education, p. 81; see also Meyer, ‘Les manuscrits français de Cambridge (pt. ii)’ (...)
  • 3 It will be noted that the incipit she gives for number 587 is slightly different from what is repro (...)
  • 4 My footnotes below cite Maurice’s French Homilies, ed. Robson, where appropriate: pp. 70 & 75 for t (...)

1Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, composed a series of homilies between 1168 and 1175. The manuscript from which this text is taken is listed by Dean (number 587) as Anglo-Norman, and dated to the middle of the thirteenth century.1 I am grateful to Tony Hunt for allowing me to use his unpublished edition of these two pieces, and for his diligent rechecking of the MS as well as going over my drafts. Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Ashmole 1280 (first half of the thirteenth century) is one of the earliest copies so far to have come to light.2 Dean lists Insular manuscripts;3 the edition by Robson is of a Continental MS (the Sens Chapter MS, Paris, BN, fr. 13314).4 I have added line numbers to Hunt’s text.

  • 5 ed. Wirtjes, pp. 47–8 (for editorial procedure see p. xcii). I have consulted but not copied the ed (...)
  • 6 An example from a saint’s life is given above, appended to the Anglo-Norman medical receipts.
  • 7 See also the Bestiary in An Old English Miscellany, ed. Morris (p. 4, vv. 111–13, dated to midthirt (...)

2I conclude this section with a version of the same prayers in early Middle English, for comparison. These prayers are in the same hand as Scribe 1 of the Middle English Physiologus, and are printed as an appendix to it.5 The manuscript is dated around 1300. This is not to say that the text was written at this date; it might be a good deal earlier. The language is certainly earlier and more difficult to read than that of the saints’lives copied in the mid-fifteenth century.6 In the body of the Physiologus text, there is mention of ‘pater noster and crede’ (p. 5, v. 87, in the Significacio of the Eagle).7 The eagle’s bill is twisted so that, or because, he cannot yet say them!

Text

Credo

[f.19ra] Credo in Deum patrem omnipotentem, creatorem celi et terre, et in
Jesum Cristum filium eius unicum Dominum nostrum, qui conceptus
est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria virgine, passus sub Pontio Pilato,
crucifixus, mortuus et sepultus. Descendit ad inferna, tercia die resurrexit
a mortuis, ascendit ad celos, sedet [ad] dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis.
[5]
Inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos. Credo in Spiritum Sanctum,
sanctam ecclesiam catholicam, sanctorum communionem,
remissionem peccatorum, carnis resurrexionem et vitam eternam, Amen.

  • 8 sic, for vifs.
  • 9 MS quarder.

Nus creuns la Sainte Trinité, le Pere et le Fiz et le Saint Espirit. Nus creuns
que le Pere, le Fitz, et le Saint Espirit sunt uns Deus tutpuissant et pardurables. [10]
Nus creuns que le Pere et le Fiz et li Saint Espirit fist le cel et la terre et tutes
choses de nent. Nus cre[f.19rb] uns que le Fiz prist carn en la Virgine
Marie, ke il suffri passion el tens Pilate et ke il murist en la croiz pur hume
reindre de[s] peines d’enfer et que il fud mis en sepulture et ke il au
terz jorn resuscita de mort a vie et que il munta al cel et que il set a la destre [15]
sun Pere, et que il vendra al jor de juise pur juger les visf8 et les mort[z]
et rendra a checun ceo k’il avera deservi. Nus creuns que li Pere et le Fiz
et od le Saint Espirit est aurez et glorifiez. Nus creuns en Sainte Iglise et el
saint baptesme. Nus creuns la resurrectiun des cors al jur de juise, a la
pardurabele vie, Amen, ceo est verrement. Ceo est la creance par que[i] [20]
Sainte [Eglise] creit et cunuit Deu. Qui [ad] ceste creance ad bone creance
et si fet bone ovre pur quei il seit tels ke il vuille regarder vers sun [pecché,
le] benfait [f.19va] su(n)lun k’il avara fet serra rendu devont Deu et si
li fra estuié desque algrant bosoing si il nel forfet entre ci et la. Seingnurs,
ceste creance que Sainte Glise ad en Deu est fundiment et cumencement [25]
de tuz bens, kar sicume li apostre dit ‘Sant fei ne poet nul hume pleisir
[a Deu]’, ceste devét vus tenir et garder9 que vus ne maumetez
les bens que en vus sunt par nule mescreance ne par sorceries ne par
karettes ne par nule autre chose que seit contrarie a la creance de Sainte
Glise, kar ceo sachez certeinement que cil qui sunt crestiens et [30]
creient en Deu et funt sorceries ke il malmetent et destruirent del tut
en tut la sainte creance ki est en eus. Pur ceo dit li apostre a tele manere
[de] gent

Translation

Creed

3I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of Heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ his only son Our Lord, who was conceived of the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried. He descended into Hell, on the third day he rose again from the dead, ascended into Heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. Whence he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

  • 10 The writer has altered the Latin of the Creed quite substantially in his translation.

4We believe in the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. We believe that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are one almighty and everlasting God. We believe that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit made heaven and earth, and all things from nothing. We believe that the Son took flesh in the Virgin Mary, that he suffered in the days of Pilate, and that he died on the Cross to redeem mankind from the pains of Hell, that he was put into the sepulchre, and that on the third day he rose again from death to life and that he ascended into Heaven, and that he sits at the right hand of his Father. And that he will come at the Day of Doom to judge both the quick and the dead, and will render to each person what they have deserved. We believe that the Father and the Son, with the Holy Ghost, is worshipped and glorified. We believe in Holy Church, and in holy baptism. We believe in the resurrection of the body on the Day of Judgement, to life everlasting. Amen, that means truly.10

  • 11 Meaning ‘offered up’; S reads ‘receüs’ (received).
  • 12 Heb. 11: 6.

5This is the creed by which Holy Church believes in God and knows him. Whoever has this belief has good belief, and if he does good works in such a way as to pay attention to his sin, the good by which he has acted will be given up before God,11 and it will be stored up for him against his great need, if he does not forfeit it between now and then. Good people, this faith Holy Church has in God is the foundation and beginning of all good things, for as the Apostle says: ‘Without faith no man can please God’.12 You must hold and guard this, so as not to misuse the good that has been placed in you by any wrong belief, nor by sorceries or enchantments, nor any other thing that is against the creed of Holy Church, for you must understand fully that those who are Christians and believe in God, but who perform sorcery, they corrupt and destroy completely the holy faith that is in them. Therefore the Apostle says to such people:

  • 13 For guarder.

Dies, inquid, observatis et tempora et annos ad facienda opera
vestra.
Timeo ne frstra [f.19vb] laboraverim in vobis.Oez seignurs,
metez la sainte creance ki est fundement de tuz bens en vos currs, en tele [35]
manere que vus la pussez gaurder13 fermement et asurement et
establement et desur edefier les vertuz et les bones ovres et crescere in
habitaculum Dei in spiritu sancto.

Pater Noster

[f.19vb] Pater Noster qui es in celis sanctificetur nomen tuum
Nostre Pere, qui es el cel, sanctificé seit tun nun.
Adveniat regnum tuum
Avenge vostre regné.
Fiat voluntas tua sicut in celo et in terra [5]
Seit feit vostre volunté ; sicume ele [est] feit el cel, si seit ele feit en tere.
Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie
Nostre pain de chescun jur nos dunez.
Et dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris
Pardunez nos meffaez sicum nus pardunun a ceus qui mesfeit nus unt. [10]
Et [f.20ra] ne nos inducas in temptacionem
ceo est a dire, ne suffrez que nus seuns tempté ne par male temptation
al de(l)able ne per malveise char mené a mal.
Sed libera nos a malo, Amen,
ço est verrement, mes deliverét nus de mal. Amen.

  • 14 MS la m. si est.

En trestutes les paroles qui furint unches establies ne dites en tere, si est
la plus sainte et [la] plus aute et la meudre14 la Pater Noster, kar ceste
numément establit Deu meimes et comanda la a dire a sez apostres et
eus a dire a ceus qui creient en lui. Pur ço qu’ele est dit et plus deit estre
dit en Saint Glise que nule autre, pur ceo devez vos saver que ele es[t] haut et [20]
que ele amunte plus que nul autre oreisun, kar ço sachez certeinement
que tel poez vus estre, que plus demandét vos mal a vostre oes que ben
quant vos dites la Pater Noster et pur ço nus volens [f.20rb] que vus sachez que
vus dites et que vus demondez a Deu quant vus dites la Pater Noster. Si
vus dirruns et mustreruns ço que la letre ad en sei et ço que ele nus enseigne, [25]
en tele manere que vus la puissét entendre, kar quant nus diuns la Pater
Noster, si feisun set requestes, ceo sunt. vii. peticiuns, a Deu.
Ore dirruns la premere peticiun que nus requeruns a Deu quant nus diuns la
Pater Noster : ‘Nostre Pere, qui es el cel, sanctifié seit le tun nun.’ Tels apele
Deu ‘pere’ quant a dit la Pater Noster que il vaudreit melz que il ne la deist, [30]
kar il n’est pas(t) le Fiz Deu par nule bone ovre k’il face ne par nule bone
vie que il meint ne Deu nel reconuist a sun fiz pur le peché u Deable l’ad
mis,

  • 15 Gal. 4:10–11. I give the AV text, since the writer does not translate into French. For a similar pa (...)
  • 16 Eph. 2:19–22 For further references, see Robson p. 196 notes 1–6 (heading ii).

6You observe days, he says, and months, and times, and years [for doing your deeds]. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.15 Listen, good people, put into your hearts the holy faith that is the foundation of all good things, in such a way that you may hold it firmly and surely and steadfastly, and upon it build virtues and good works, and grow in the habitation of God through the Holy Spirit.16

Pater Noster

  • 17 The Latin uses ‘tu’ for God, the French uses the formal ‘vus’ (in modern French churches God is cal (...)

7Our Father, who is in Heaven, may your name be sanctified.17
May your reign come to pass.
May your will be done, as it is done in Heaven let it be done on earth.
Give us our daily bread.
Forgive us our misdeeds as we forgive those who have done wrong to us.
That is to say, do not allow us to be tempted by evil temptation of the Devil, norled into evil by the wicked flesh.
This means, truly, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

8Of all the words that were ever established or spoken on this earth, the holiest and the highest and the best is the Pater Noster, because it was established by no less than God himself; he commanded it to be said by his apostles, and to be told by them to all who believe in him. This is why it is is said, and must ever be said, in Holy Church more than any other. Therefore you must know that it is a high prayer and it rises up more quickly than any other. But you must understand that, whoever you are, you may be asking for evil as well as good when you say the Pater Noster. So we want you to understand what you are saying and what you are asking God when you say the Pater Noster. We are going to show you and demonstrate what the words mean in themselves and also what they teach us, in such a way that you will be able to understand. For when we say the Pater Noster we make seven requests, that is, seven petitions, to God.

9Now let us say the first petition we make to God when we say the Pater Noster: ‘Our Father, who is in Heaven, may your name be sanctified.’ Some people call God ‘father’ when they say the Pater Noster though it were better they didn’t say it, because they are no son to God through any good works they have done, nor by any good life they have led; nor does God recognize this person as his son because of the sin that the Devil has thrown him into.

  • 18 The Vulgate reading is patre, but it is often deformed to ‘parte’ in commentators.
  • 19 MS De vous que.
  • 20 MS est.
  • 21 MS verirs.

kar li maveis hume qui despit Deu et ses comandemenz e fet icels
choses que li Deable aime n’est [f.20va] pas fiz Deu, mes fiz al Deable, sicume
dist Nostre Sire as Gieus, qui de lui ne de ses paroles n’aveint cure : Vos, [35]
inquid, ex parte
18 diabolo estis [John 8 :44], ‘Vus estes de cel pere qui est
Deable.’Ore bosoigne dunches celui qui veolt que Deus li oie et sa preere qui
il face teles ovres que Deus par sa grace a sun fiz le conuisse, et lores pura il
dire a dreit Pater Noster et l’orra et il frad ceo qu’il li demandera s’il veit qu’il
seit a sun profit. Et se cil ke prie n’est fiz Deu et il nel reconuist a sun fiz par [40]
la sainte vie qu’il deit demener, sa preere ne serra pas oïe, kar sicume dit la
Scripture : Peccatores non exaudit Deus [John 9 :31], ‘Deus’, ço dit, ‘n’ ot pas
les pecheurs.’[Ceo est] ceus19 que de lui [n’]unt cure et plus volenters
funt les ovres al Deable que les comandement Deu. Cheun hume se deit amender
[et] par bone vie demener deit il fiz Deu [f.20vb] devenir et lores l’ orra Deus, [45]
lores purra il dire ‘Nostre Pere qui es [es] cels, saintifié soit le tun nun.’ N’est
le nun Deu saint et saintefiez tut jorz en sei meimes ne plus ne poet estre
saintifié en sei meimes qu’il est ? Mes vus devez saver que [quant] nus diuns
‘saintefié seit le tun nun’, nus ne preuns pas que li sons nuns seit
saintefié en lui meimes, kar il [est] parfitement saintefié, mes nus preuns [50]
qu’il seit saintifié en cels en qui il n’est pas encore saintefié, e en qui il est
saintefié seit encore plus saintefié, kar quant li hume meuz creit tant est li
nuns Deu en lui plus saintefié. Sanctificetur nomen tuum, ceo est a dire ‘ Sire
Deus, saintifiez seit le tun nun es coers as paens e as Geus, as mescreanz,
a tuz ceus que tu as purveu a sauveté, qui il creint veirs Deu et [55]
veirs Seignurs et que il plus fermement te anment.’

[f.21ra] Adveniat regnum tuum, ‘Advenge le tun regné.’ Damnedeus est
reis et guverne le sun regné totes ores quia ipse gubernat omnes creaturas
suas que sunt in celo et in terra, in mari et in omnibus abyssis.
Ja seit iceo [60]
que il seit reis et que sun regné seit tutes ures, nequedent si priuns que
avenge le suen regné pur ceo que meint hume ad en tere qui quide que
Deus [n] e20 regne mie, mes li Deable regne par peché et qua[n] t nus
disuns Adveniat regnum tuum, si dep[ri] ons nus Deu que il destrue en tele
manere le regné et la pousté al Deable et de sa gent et que il mette einces la [65]
bunté et la saintee que il ad mis en cels que lui aiment et en qui il regne par
sa grace et priuns nus uncore qua[n] t nus disuns Adv[eniat] re[gnum] t [ uum],
‘Que avenge la fin del secle’, que enemi vei[e] n [t] [f.21rb] et sachent que
est veirs21 Deus et tuz puissant et veirs reis et que tute Seinte Iglise qui est
le sun regné mei(i)nnement seit eshausé et glorifié en cel et en tere, en tuz ses [70]
fiz et en tutes ses files

10For the bad man who despises God and his commandments, and who does things the Devil loves, is no son of God but he is son of the Devil, as Our Lord said to the Jews who took no notice of him and his words: ‘You are from that father who is the Devil.’ Now it is necessary for anybody who wants God to listen to him, and to his prayer, to do such works that God in his grace will recognize him as his son. And then he can rightly say the Pater Noster and he will hear him, and will do what he asks of him if he sees it will be to his benefit. But if he who prays is no son of God, and is not recognized as his son by the holy life he ought to be leading, his prayer will not be heard. For it says in the Scriptures ‘God does not listen to sinners.’ Those who take no notice of him are more willing to do the Devil’s work than do God’s commandments. Such a person ought to mend his ways, and by living a good life become a son of God. Then God will listen to him; then he can say ‘Our Father, who is in Heaven, may your name be sanctified.’ Is not the name of God sacred, and sanctified every day, of itself, so it cannot be sanctified any more than it is already? But you need to know that when we say ‘may your name be sanctified’, we aren’t praying for his name to be sanctified in itself, because it is already perfectly sanctified. But we pray for it to be sanctified in people where it is not yet sanctified, and in those where it is already sanctified for it to be sanctified even more. For the more you believe then the better is the name of God sanctified in you. The petition means ‘Lord God, may your name be sanctified in the hearts of pagans and Jews, in unbelievers, in all those whom you have provided with salvation, that they may fear the True God and True Lord, and may love you more thoroughly.’

  • 22 MS vein; S has ‘si anemi voient’.

11‘May your kingdom come’; the Lord God is king, and governs his kingdom always. For he himself governs all his creatures that are in heaven and earth, in the sea and in all the depths. Even though he is king, and his kingdom is for ever, yet we pray that his kingdom may come because there are many on earth who believe that God does not reign; but the Devil reigns through sin, so when we say ‘Thy Kingdom come’ we pray to God that he will destroy in this way the reign and the power of the Devil and all his creatures, and that he will put into them the goodness and holiness he has put into those who love him, and in whom he reigns in his grace. And also when we make this petition we pray: ‘May the end of the world come.’ And let the enemy see22 and know that he is true God, and all-powerful, and true king; and let all Holy Church that is his kingdom be especially exalted and glorified in heaven and in earth, in all his sons and all his daughters.

  • 23 S reads evacuaverit.
  • 24 Col. 1: 16.
  • 25 See Richard de Saint-Victor, Liber Exceptionum (ed. J. Chatillon, Paris, 1958), p. 450, lines 25ff. (...)
  • 26 Haplography: ‘ad mester de deus pains, de pain corporel et de’.
  • 27 MS paens en. See Robson p. 86 for a correct text.

Quia finito hoc seculo solus Deus regnabit quia ipse erit
omnia in omnibus. Cum evanuerit
23 omnem principatum et potestatem
et virtutem nec amplius angelus angelo vel homo homini vel demon demoni
dominabitur.

Fiat voluntas tua sicut [in celo] et in terra. ‘Seit feit ta volenté en terre sicume [75]
ele est feit el cel.’Seignurs, el cel est feit la volenté Deu parfitement Quia
angeli, archangeli, principatus, potestates, virtutes, troni, dominationes.24
Cherubin, Seraphin, patriarche, prophete, apostoli, martyres, confessores,
virgines et omnes electorum anime
25 que sunt el cel devant Deu,
obeissante [f.21va] a lui e funt parfitement sa volunté et sun [80]
comandement, mes en terre ad mut de seus qui funt teles choses que Deus
ne voldrat mie. Et pur ceo priuns nus et disuns Fiat voluntas t [ua] s [ icut]
in c [elo] et t [erra], ceo est autresi cume nus disuns ‘Sire Deus, sicume
ceus qui sunt el cel sulunc la grandesce del ben que tu lur dones funt ta
volenté parfitement, issi doinges tu que li hume mortel la facent en terre [85]
sulunc la grace que tu lur dones. Sire Deus, tu doinges que la face li apostoile
archiepiscopi, presbyteri et omnes ordinati ecclesie, reges, principes, comites,
milites, agricole, femine, pusilli cummaioribus.’

Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis h [odie] :nostre pain de chescun jorn
donez nus hui.
Hume qui est de deus natures, de nature corperel et de [90]
spiritel […]26 pain a l’alme. [f.21vb] Li pains a l’alme est sainte doctrine et la
predicatiun del comandament Deu par quei ele est ben enseigne sicume dit
li pains est la guareisun al cors.27 Ceo savez vus ben, ceo li quer[e ] z
volenters, l’un et l’autre demandét a Deu, si fereiz saveir et plus le pain a
l’alme que le pain al cors, kar si le cors ad ceo k’il veolt et alme murge [95]
de faim, ceo est a dire si ele n’est enseignee, et fait iceo que deit, si irra
l’alme et le cors en la glorie pardurable.

  • 28 These are some of the orders of angels (see Cher Alme, p. 14).

12For at the end of this world God shall reign alone, for he shall be all in all. So shall all Principalities and Powers and Virtues vanish;28no more shall angel be above angels, nor man above men, nor devil above demons.

  • 29 ‘apostoile’ means both Apostle and Pope.

13May your will be done on earth as it is in Heaven. Good people, in Heaven the will of God is done perfectly, for angels, archangels, principalities, powers, virtues, thrones, and dominions… cherubim and seraphim, patriarchs and prophets, apostles and martyrs, confessors and virgins, and all the chosen souls who are in Heaven before God are obedient to him. They do his will and commandment perfectly, but there are many on earth who do such things as God does not want at all. This is why we pray, saying ‘Thy will be done’, that is as if we say ‘Lord God, just as those who are in Heaven do your will perfectly by the great goodness you give them, so grant us that mortal men may do your will on earth according to the grace you give them. Lord God, grant that the Pope29 may do it, and archbishops and priests and all those ordained in the church, kings and princes, counts and knights, farmers and women, small as well as great.’

  • 30 Passages in square brackets translated from S.

14Give us this day our daily bread. Man who is of dual nature, body and spirit, [needs two kinds of bread: earthly bread for the body and spiritual] bread for the soul. Holy Doctrine, and the preaching of God’s commandments, are bread for the soul, by which it is well taught that bread is good for saving the life of the body. Know this, you must ask for it eagerly, ask God for both this kind and that, but I want you to ask more for the spiritual than for the corporeal. Because if the body has what it needs but the soul dies of hunger, meaning it is not taught, [then both body and soul will go to the fire of Hell. But if the soul is well taught,] and does what it ought to, [and knows what it ought to know,] then soul and body will go to everlasting glory.30

  • 31 Richard, Liber, p. 454, lines 11ff.

Dimitte nobis d [ebita] n [ostra] s [icut] n [os] d [imittimus] d [ebitoribus] n [ostris] :
et pardune nos meffaiz sicume nus pardununs a cels qui meffez nus unt. Ci
poet oir celui qui volt que Deus li pardune ses pechez, si cuvient que [100]
il parduinge a celui qui meffez li ad meimment se cil que meffet li ad, crie
merci et li offre dreit avenable. Si lores [f.22ra] ne li pardune, pur nent dit la
Pater Noster, kar il demande a sa dampnatiun la u il die Dimitte etc car si li
vaudreit meuz tesir(e) qui Deus preer desque il ne veolt autri parduner si cume
deverat, pardune dunches a autri meiment quant il vus crie merci e il [105]
vus offre dreit avenable, si vus volez que Deu vus pardoint vos pechez, kar
sicume Deus dit eadem mensura quam mensi fueritis remetietur vobis
[Luke 6 :38], ‘Sulunc la mesure que vus suffrez a autri, sulunc cele vus
remesura il.’

Et ne nos inducas in temptationem : et ne nus meinés en temptaciun. Ceo est [110]
a dire, ne suffrez que nus par temptement seuns mené a mal. Li D [e ] able
veit envirun et asaie la gent, saveir mun s’il purra ren prendre. Il tempte les
bons moines et les chanoines et les hermites et le[s] reclus, les humes et les
femmes, les [f.22rb] povres, les reches pur eus atraire al ma[l], kar il sunt
tost trebuché en peché, mes li produme et prodefemmes se defendent [115]
vertuosement et pur ceo accipient coronam vite quam repromisit
Deus diligentibus se
[Jac. 1 :12].31

Libera nos a malo :delivre nus de mal et de tuz maus del cors et de l’alme,
ceo est del mal de cest secle et de l’autre, ceo est del mal que vus apelez
peché et del mal qui est apelé peine. Amen ceo [est] veraiment. Ceo aferme [120]
tutes choses que nus demanduns a Deu en la Pater Noster, Amen vaut
autretant cume si nus deisons a Deu ‘Sire Deus, veraiment nus otriez ceo
que nus avuns demandé en la Pater Noster. Veraiment seit saintefié le tun
nun, avenge le tun regné, veraiment seit feit la tue volunté en terre sicume
ele est [f.22va] feit el cel, veraiment nus dune hui nostre pain de cheun jor, [125]
veraiment nus pardunez nos pechez sicume nus pardunum a ceus qui
meffeit nus unt, veraiment ne suffrez tu que Deable nus tempte a mal faire,
veraiment nus deliverés de mal.’Libera nos a malo. Pater, da nobis bonum
anime, bonum corporis in hoc seculo, bonum in futuro, bonum quod est
justicia, bonum quod est gloria.
[130]

  • 32 The reasoning here seems rather strange, but S says the same. It probably means that one ought virt (...)

15And forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who have sinned against us. Hear this, then: whoever wants God to pardon his sins, it behoves him to pardon the one who has sinned against him, even if that one who sinned against him has begged his pardon and offered him suitable compensation.32 If he will not forgive him then, he says the Pater Noster in vain, for when he says ‘forgive’ he is praying for his own damnation; he would do better to keep quiet than pray to God thus, since he will not forgive another as he ought. Therefore forgive others, especially if they beg your pardon and offer suitable compensation, if you want God to forgive your sins. For as God said, ‘According to the measure you allow to others, so will he measure unto you.’

  • 33 ‘ren’ or ‘rien’ can mean anything, or nothing, but is also used of people.
  • 34 I use the AV text (emphasized), copied here since the writer does not translate the Latin.

16And lead us not into temptation. This means, do not allow us to be led into evil by temptation. The Devil goes around trying people, to ascertain whether he can grab anybody.33 He tempts the good monks and canons and hermits and recluses, men and women, the poor and also the rich to draw them towards evil, for they are easily tumbled into sin. But good men, and good women, defend themselves virtuously; therefore they receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.34

  • 35 For further references, see Robson pp. 196–7, notes 1–18 (heading iii).

17Deliver us from evil, and from all ills of body and soul, that is ills of this world and the other. In other words, from the ill you call sin and from the ill that is called pain. Amen, this means truly. This affirms all the things we ask of God in the Pater Noster: Amen is as if we were saying to God ‘Lord God, grant us truly all we have asked for in the Pater Noster. May your name truly be sanctified, and your kingdom come. May your will truly be done in earth as it is in Heaven. Please really give us our daily bread today, and really forgive us our sins as we forgive those who have sinned against us. Please really do not allow the Devil to tempt us to do evil, and please really deliver us from evil.’ Deliver us from evil. Father, give us the good for souls and bodies, in this world and the next; give us the good that is justice and the good that is glory.35

  • 36 These two items have not been transcribed. The transcription reproduced above places Pater Noster b (...)
  • 37 See my introduction to this section, above.

18[Hunt continues: ‘This [the Pater Noster] is followed by Richard de Saint-Victor’s Commentary. At ff. 26va–29ra there is a commentary on the Credo.’36I append the following,37 transcribed from a scan sent me by the British Library, of BL MS Arundel 292.]

Text

creed

  • 38 Each prayer is headed by a title written to the right of the first line, thus: || Credo in deum; an (...)
  • 39 ‘and’ is written as a nota.
  • 40 This line is lacking in the edition.
  • 41 MS de. Several of these letter forms could be either d or eth.

[f.3r] Ileue in godd almicten
faðer,
38
Ðatt heuene &
39 erðe made to
gar,
& in ihesu crist his leue sun,
Vre onelic louerd ik him mune,
Ðatt of ðe holigost bikennedd
[5]
was,
Of marie ðe maiden boren he
was.
40
Pinedd under ponce pilate,
On rode nailedd for mannes sake.
Ðar ðolede he deadd wiðuten wold
I biriedd was in ðe
41 roche cold. [10]
Dun til helle licten he gan;
Ðe ðridde dai off deadd atkam;
Toheuene he steg in ure manliche;
Ðar sitteð he in hijs faðeres riche.
O domes dai sal he cumen agen
[15]
To demen dede & liues men.
I leue on ðe hali gast,
Al holi chirche stedefast,
Men off alle holi kinne,
& forgiuenesse of mannes sinne,
[20]
Vprisinge of alle men,
& echelif ileue. Amen.

the lord’s prayer

Fader ure ðatt art in heuene blisse,
Ðin hege name itt wurðe bliscedd;
Cumen itt mote ði kingdom ;[25]
Ðin hali wil it be al don
[f.3v] In heuene & in erðe all so,
So itt sal ben ful wel ic tro;
Gif us all one ðis dai
Vre bred of iche dai [30]
& forgiue us ure sinne,
Als we don ure wiðerwinnes;
Leet us noct in fondinge falle,
Ooc fro iuel ðu sild us alle. Amen.

Translation

Creed

  • 42 ‘mune’ usually means to think or to consider; it can also mean ‘grieve’, which is appropriate here.

19I believe in God the Father Almighty,
That caused heaven and earth to be made,
And in Jesus Christ his dear Son,
Our only Lord, I grieve for him,
42
That was begotten of the Holy Ghost;
Of Mary the maiden he was born.
He suffered under Pontius Pilate,
And was nailed on the Cross for Mankind’ s sake.
There he underwent death, out of this earth,
And he was buried in the cold stone.
Then he descended down to Hell;
The third day he came back again from death,
And he went up to Heaven in his Man’ s body,
Where he sits in his Father’ s kingdom.
On the Day of Doom he shall come again,
To judge both live and dead men.
I believe in the Holy Ghost,
The all-holy established Church,
All men of saintly life,
And forgiveness of Man’ s sin,
In the resurrection of all Mankind,
And I believe in eternal life, Amen.

Lord’s Prayer

20Our Father who art in the bliss of Heaven,
May thy high Name be blessed,
May thy kingdom come,
And may all thy holy will be done
In Heaven and in earth likewise,
So it shall be truly, I believe.
Give us all today
Our daily bread,
And forgive us our sin
As we do our enemies.
Let us not fall into temptation,
But shield thou us all from evil, Amen.

Sermon on Joshua43

  • 43 ed. Hunt (ANTS PTS 12, 13); Dean 595.
  • 44 The source is Origène, Homélies sur Josué, ed. A. Jaubert, Sources Chrétiennes 71 (Paris, 1960).
  • 45 My own paragraphs in the translation match the sense, if not the layout, as closely as possible.

21ANTS Plain Texts have no glossary, as previously mentioned, so a translation of some samples may prove useful. Here is Sermon 4 (in PTS 13, Sermons on Joshua, pp. 18–23): The Walls of Jericho. It is headed ‘Origen (Homilies 6–7)’;44 my text follows it very closely, although I have added line numbers to aid navigation and made very minor changes to punctuation. Because the lines in the edition are longer than is convenient for this book, I have taken the unusual step of presenting them in five-line groups as prose; this preserves the beginning of every fifth line. I have signalled breaks on the edited page by inserting dots, to separate the long paragraphs.45 Further to aid navigation, page numbers of the edition are signalled in my footnotes.

  • 46 See Sermon 1 (PTS 12, p. 9).
  • 47 Nave is the Greek form of the Hebrew proper name Nun; Joshua is an alternative form of the (Greek) (...)

22The Latin in the text is translated closely and immediately by our author into French; I translate the Latin only if it differs enough to give extra meaning. Jesus Navé, or ‘fils Navé’, is the name given to Joshua throughout the Sermons. Joshua son of Nun prefigures Jesus son of Mary.46 I am grateful to Matthew Albanese for providing me with the relevant passage from the Greek Septuagint (Jos. 1:1), which clearly shows the form which has been transliterated as ‘Naue’: Ἰησοῖ υἱῷ Ναυη.47

  • 48 Hunt points out that the writer is inspired by the source rather than translating directly from it, (...)

23The manuscript is Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 282 (mid-thirteenth century); variants in Hunt’s notes are from C (Cambridge, Trinity College, O. 2.14, mid-thirteenth century) and P (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fr. 19525, second half of the thirteenth century). Because the text is very dense on the page, making it difficult to read, I have taken the liberty of omitting the references to ‘Rufinus’ embedded in the edited text; these are explained in the Introduction (PTS 12, p. 1).48 Origen’s Homilies are extant only in the translation by Rufinus; however, the writer of this Sermon departs repeatedly from the source. The Bible references in Hunt’s text are to the Latin Vulgate, and have been copied here as they appear on the edited page (the writer uses the Rufinus version of the Latin Vulgate text). My translation provides corresponding Bible passages from AV (in italics) only when they match the writer’s French wording closely.

Text

[f.47v] [Cum] autem esset Jesus in agro urbis Jericho, respexit oculis et vidit hominem
contra se et evaginatus gladius erat in manu eius et cetera
[Jos. 5 :13]. Ço cunte l’estorie
de la lei : [Q] uant Jesus Navé fud el champ de la cité Jericho, il regarda des oilz e
vit un hume ester encuntre lui ki tint une espee nue sanz waine en sa

main. E Jesus aprimat a lui si li dist : Noster es an adversariorum ? [Jos. 5 :13], ‘Es-tu [5]
de noz u de noz adversaries ?’ E cil li dist : [E] go sum princeps milicie Domini. Nunc
adveni
[Jos. 5 :14], ço est ‘Jo sui prince de la chevalerie Deus. Ore vinc.’ Quant Jesu
ço oid, aurat le e dist : ‘Sire, quei cumandes tu a tun serf ?’ [Jos. 5 :14]. E cil li dist
‘Deslie tun chalcement de tes piez, le liu u tu estas

pur veir est terre sainte’ [Jos. 5 :15]. E dist li sire a Jesu : ‘Jo t’ai duné en ta main [10]
Jericho’[Jos. 6 :2]. Dunc pristrent. vii. prestres. vii. busines sicum Deu lur aveit
cumandé e alerent devant l’arche Deus avirunant la vile Jhericho e sunant les busines
sis jurz prés a prés. Al setime jur liv[er] ent par matin e avirunerent la cité set feiz.
Al setime jur sune une busine lunge e clere. Dunkes dist Jesus al pueple Israel,
dunt une partie alat devant

l’arche, une partie aprés : ‘Criez. Deus vus ad duné ceste cité. Seit la cité maldite e [15]
tutes les choses ki la dedenz sunt fors sule Raab, ele vive e saluee seit [f.48r] od tutes
ses choses ki en sa maisun sunt’ [Jos. 6 :16–17]. E dit Jesus : ‘Guardez des choses
maudites, ke vus ne facez la maisun Israel maldite, parunt vus seez destruite e tute
Synagoge’ [Jos. 6 :18]. Li pueples dunkes cria e les busines sunerent e li mur de
Jericho

chairent e li fiz Israel munterent en la cité, chascun par cel liu ki encuntre lui ert, [20]
e issi fud tute Jericho reversé fors sule cele putain Raab ki od tute sa maisnee fud
salué. [E] t adicta est in Israel usque in odiernum diem [Jos. 6 :25], ‘E Raab’, ço dit
l’estorie, ‘est ajustee a Israel desque al jur de ui.’


Tute ceste aventure avint par figure e fud mis en escrit pur assenser nus ki sumes
en la

vespree del siecle. E pur ço ke nus ne suffisuns neent a esclairer la raisun de cest [25]
escrit par nus, requeruns ententivement le Seint Esperit k’il nus duinst sa grace en
aie ke dignement puissuns remuer la cuverture de la lettre, ke li tresors ki desuz
tapist al pru de noz almes en la lumiere del Seint Esperit seit esclairé.

Translation

  • 49 ‘la lei’ means ‘the law’; The Old Law and the New Law are the Old and New Testaments respectively. (...)

24The history is recounted thus in the Old Testament:49

25When Joshua was in the field at the city Jericho, he looked around and saw a man coming towards him holding a naked sword, unsheathed, in his hand.

26And Joshua went to him and said ‘Are you one of ours, or are you one of our enemies?’ And he said to him ‘I am the Prince of the Chivalry of God. Come now!’ When Joshua heard this, he worshipped him and said ‘Lord, what do you command of your servant?’

27And he said to him ‘Undo the fastening of the shoes offthy feet, for truly the place where thou standest is holy ground.’ And the Lord said to Joshua I have given into thine hand Jericho.

28Then seven priests took seven trumpets, as God had commanded, and went before the Ark of God around the town of Jericho, sounding the trumpets, for six days once every day. On the seventh day they arose in the morning and went around the city seven times. On the seventh day a trumpet sounded loud and long.

  • 50 Rahab helped the Israelites by hiding their spies (Jos. chapter 2). She appears in lists of good wo (...)

29Then spoke Joshua to the people of Israel, part of which went before the Ark and part after it, ‘Shout! God has given you this city. May the city be accursed, and everything that is within it, excepting only Rahab;50 let her be saved alive, and everything with her that is in her house.’And Joshua said ‘Beware the accursed things, or you will make the house of Israel accursed; by which you and all the Synagogue will be destroyed.’

30So the people shouted, and the trumpets sounded, and the walls of Jericho fell down. And the sons of Israel went up into the city, each going in the way nearest to him.

31Thus was the whole of Jericho brought low, except for the harlot Rahab who was saved with all her household. ‘And Rahab’, says the story, ‘was united with Israel, from that day to this.’

32All this adventure happened figuratively, and was put in writing as instruction for us who are in the evening of the world.

33And because we are incapable of explaining the sense of this writing by ourselves, let us pray devoutly to the Holy Spirit to send us his help of grace, so we can fittingly remove the veil of the text.

34Thus the treasure hidden underneath may be illumined for the good of our souls by the light of the Holy Spirit.

Dunt jo, pecheres(se) plus ke autre hume ki neent ne (ne) sui digne de enquere la parfundesce de si grant segrei

Damnedeu, devant tuz autres rende graces a Deu de sa demustrance, ke puisse [30]
veraiement dire od le Prophete : [E] cce veritatem dilexisti incerta et occulta s [apientie]
t [ue] m [anifestasti] mihi
[Ps. 50 :8], ço est a entendre ‘Estevus veirement verité
amastes, les choses dutuses e celees demustré m’ avez en apert.’Ço dit en l’estorie
ke li fiz Navé vit el champ de Jericho un hume encuntre lui ki tint une espee

  • 51 End of p. 18.

nue. Cest champ signefiat les quors de cels ki creirent ke [f.48v] Jesu ert a venir [35]
pur le51 mund salver. Quors de hume veirement sunt ensement cume champ dunt
Deus, ki cultivur est celeste, esrace carduns de vices e de mescreance e seme greins
de vertuz e de veire creance. En cest champ devant ço k’il prist humanité fud Jesu
Crist par desir de ses esliz es desirus quors de cels sulunc la purveance sun pere en
une manere ja

furmé hume. Le vit le fiz Navé al regard de ses oilz esperitels par creance e par [40]
entendement. Il le vit, ceo dit, ester encuntre sei, kar ço fud avis al pueple Israel e
a lur princes ke Jesu Crist estut contre eals quant il quiderent ke il volsist lur lei
abatre. Mais il ne l’abati nent, einz le parempli. E pur ço est escrit en l’estorie li fiz
Navé aprima a lui. Cument ? Esmerveilant, enquerant, prophetizant. E dist : ‘Es-tu nostre u de

noz adversaries ?’e il respundi : ‘Jo sui prince de la chivalerie Deu. Or vinc.’ Par [45]
ço devuns entendre ke tuzdis se presente Deus a cels ki pur lui e pur sun dreit
cumbatent e travailent. Le fiz Navé regarda des oilz e vit un hume. Dun n’out il
anceis gardé e veu humes asez ? Oil. Mais a cest regard vit il un hume de autre
vertu ke ainz n’out veu. Cest regard ert des oilz del quor ki sunt apelé raisun e entendement. De ces oilz vit il

ke il n’ert neent sulement hume cume autre, einz ert plein de vertuz. Mais uncore [50]
ne sout il neent lequel ces vertuz furent de Deu u de diable. E pur ço enquist
ententivement e demanda humblement ki il ert. E quant [f.49r] il fud acerté de li
mames, dunc se laissa chaer a ses piez e devotement le aura e dist : ‘Sire, ke cumandes
tu a tun serf ?’

  • 52 The editor has corrected the MS ‘pecheresse’; it is remotely possible the text was intended for a w (...)
  • 53 LV Psalm numbers differ slightly from AV; this is Ps. 51: 6.

35And I,52 a greater sinner than any man who is wholly unworthy to enquire into the depths of so great a secret of the Lord God, above all others I render thanks to God for his manifestation to us, to be able truly to say with the Prophet ‘Behold, truly you love truth; you have openly shown to me the things that are cloudy and hidden.’ 53

36It says in the history that the son of Navé saw a man approaching him in the field of Jericho who held a naked sword. This field signified the hearts of those who believe that Jesus was coming to save the world.

37Human hearts are truly just like a field where God, the heavenly husbandman, roots out the thistles of vice and wrong belief, and sows seeds of virtue and right belief. Jesus Christ was in this field, before he became a man, through the desire of his chosen ones, in their desiring hearts, according to the will of his Father in a manner he was already made man.

38The son of Navé had sight of him by his spiritual eyes, through faith and understanding. It is said that he saw him coming against him, for it was the belief of the people of Israel and their princes that Jesus Christ stood against them when they thought he wanted to tear down their law.

39But he did not tear it down, he fulfilled it! Therefore it is written in the history that the son of Navé approached him. How, then? By marvelling, questioning, and prophesying. And said ‘Are you ours, or of our enemies?’ and he said ‘I am the Prince of God’ s Chivalry. Come!’By this we must understand that this is how God always shows himself to those who fight and work for him and his justice.

40The son of Navé lifted up his eyes and saw a man. Had he not seen and looked at enough men already? Yes, of course. But with this look he saw a man with more power than any he had ever seen. This look was with the eyes of the heart, which are called Reason and Understanding. With these eyes, he saw that this was not just a man like any other, but one who was full of power. But he did not know yet which of these powers were from God or from the Devil. This is why he enquired cautiously, and asked humbly who he was.

41And when he was certain within himself, then he fell down at his feet and devoutly worshipped him and said ‘Lord, what do you command your servant?’

Estevus desque il cunut k’il fud veirs Deus, e neent einz, ert il prest de

  • 54 paremplireit, P.

faire sun cumandement. Ensement avint de Jesu nostre Salveur e de plusurs Gius [55]
e de autres poestis humes del siecle. Il furent lunges en dute del Salvur, mais
desque il le cunurent en la lumiere de ses granz miracles e k’il paremplirent54 la lei
esperitelment, dunc aprimes se convertirent il a lui e reçurent ses cumandemenz.


Par ceste ententive enqueste sumus nus apris ke nus ne devuns neent estre trop
hastifs

de creire ne ço ke l’uem a l’oil veit ne ço ke l’um des oreiles ot, kar oil pot estre deceu [60]
par adubement u par fantasme, oreille par mençunge. De creance dist li Apostre :
[N] olite credere omni spiritui, sed probate spiritus si ex Deo sunt [I Joh. 4 :1], ço fait a
entendre ‘Ne creez nent ço ke chascun vus dit. Pruvez primes si ço ke l’em vus dit
vienge de bon esperit.’Le fiz Navé aurat cel hume neent pur ço ke il ert

de part Deu, mais pur ço k’il fud maime Deu. Autrement ne l’eust il nent auré se [65]
il nel cunust e cert fust ke il ert Deus. Veirement est Jesu Crist, ki est veirs Deus e
veirs hom, prin[ce] de la chevalerie Deu, kar tute la chevalerie celestiene, angeles,
arcangeles, vertuz e dominatiuns, poestez e principatés sunt tuzdis en la chevalerie
Jesu Crist, kar il est Prince des princes e Poestif sur poestifs, e il dune les poestez

sicum il dit par example en l’Ewangelie : [E] sto et tu potestatem habens supra .x. [70]
civitates [Luke 19 :17], ço est ‘E tu aies poesté sur dis [f.49v] citez.’ L’espee ke nostre
Prince tient traite e nue en sa main est la parole Deu. La waine de ceste espee fud
la lettre de la lei. Ceste espee fud deswainee e desnuee des icele ure, ke en la lumere
de vertuz e de miracles furent aparisantes tutes les choses ke furent de

  • 55 MS felum.

Jesu Crist prophetizees en figure e en umbre. Ço ki les enemis Deu furent uncore [75]
en Jericho e nepurquant dist Deu al fiz Navé ‘Le liu u tu estas est terre seinte’ nus
dune a entendre ke en quel liu ke Deus se presente, la sue presence sein[te] fiet le
liu. La presence Deu est confusiun de deable e de felun.55 Ço ke Deus dist devant
al fiz Navé ‘Deslie tun chalcement’ [Jos. 5 :15] fud dit pur nus assenser ki sumus

  • 56 End of p. 19
  • 57 MS menbre; encombrez, P.

menbres Jesu Crist. Chaucement est fait de la pel de morte beste e signefie mortel56 [80]
pecché dunt le curs a l’alme ki se haste vers le celestien pais est encumbré.57 Si
nus dunkes avuns en purpos de aprimer al Prince de la chevalerie Deu, ceo est a
Jesu Crist, il nus dira : ‘Desliez vostre chalcement’, ço est deliez e ostez les mortels
pecchiez ki encumbrent les pez de voz almes. Deske ces serrunt desliez e arere dos
jetez,

42Behold, as soon as he knew he was the true God and none other, he was ready to do his command. Thus it came about with Jesus our Saviour, and some of the Jews and some of the other powerful men of the world. They were long in doubt about the Saviour, but once they knew him in the light of his great miracles, and that he fulfilled the law spiritually, then straight away they converted to him and received his commandments.

43By this careful enquiry we are taught that we must never be too hasty in believing either what the eye sees or what the ears hear, because eyes can be deceived by adornments or by phantoms, ears deceived by lies.

  • 58 I Joh. 4:1, cited opposite, is not the Gospel but the First Epistle of John. AV says believe not ev (...)

44On the subject of faith, the Apostle says ‘Do not believe what any person says to you.58 First try them, to find out whether what they say comes from a good spirit.’ The son of Navé worshipped this man not because he was of God, but because he was God himself. Otherwise he would never have worshipped him, unless he recognized him and knew for certain he was God.

45Truly Jesus Christ, who is true God and true man, is Prince of God’s chivalry, for all the celestial chivalry — angels, archangels, virtues and dominions, powers and principalities — are always of the chivalry of Christ, for he is Prince of princes, Power above powers, and he gives power as it is said (for example) in the Gospel: have thou authority over ten cities.

46The sword that our Prince holds, drawn and naked in his hand, is the word of God. The scabbard of this sword was the letter of the law. The sword was unsheathed and bared from this moment, so that by the light of power and miracles all those things that were prophesied figuratively and shadowed forth of Jesus Christ should be made apparent. The enemies of God were still in Jericho, and nevertheless God said to the son of Navé ‘The place where you stand is holy ground’; this tells us that wherever God shows himself his presence sanctifies the place.

  • 59 The command, above, was in the singular ‘tun chalcement’; the writer wishes to differentiate betwee (...)

47God’s presence is confusion to the Devil and to the wicked. What God said before to the son of Navé, Loose thy shoe, was spoken in order to show us that we are members of Jesus Christ. Shoes are made from the hide of dead animals, and signify the mortal sins with which the body, whose soul is hastening towards celestial peace, is encumbered. Therefore if we wish to approach the Prince of God’s chivalry, that is Jesus Christ, he will tell us ‘Loose your shoe’;59 that is, undo and take offthe mortal sins that encumber the feet of your soul. As soon as they are unfastened and thrown away behind us,

erraument avrum Crist en aie pur descunfire malignes esperiz e vices ki sunt noz [85]
enemis mortels. La raisun suentre nus aprent cument nus devuns descunfire noz
esperitels enemis e reverser lur forcelés. Ço dit ke set princes pristrent set busines e
alerent devant l’arche Deu envirun Jericho sunant les buisines. Al setme jur leverent
par matin e les murs de Jericho dechairent en la manere ke il ad devant dit en
l’estorie.

Jericho signefie cest mund sicume vus avez [oi] en [f.50Ar] l’Evanglie la u il dit ‘Uns [90]
huem descendi de Jerusalem in Jericho e sei embati entre larruns’ [Ex. 3 :5]. Cel
hum ert Adam ki descendi de Parais en cest peccherus mund e se embati entre
pecchez e vices ki a larun suppernnent hume. Devant ço k’il se dune garde pur
reverser les bailz e les murs de ceste cité ne fud unkes espee traite ne dart lancé

ne de picois feru. [S] ulement par les suneiz des buisines as pruveres furent li mur [95]
reversé.


Ore veuns quels furent les bails e les forcelés dunt li munz ert ensement cume
des murs purceint devant l’advenement Jesu Crist. Li cultivement des ydles, la
decevance des divinurs, la sorcerie des enchanturs, de tuz icés ensement cume murs
ert avirunez li

munz. Fermé enteimes cume chastel de ses maistres turs ert li mund dé diverses [100]
sciences dé philosophes e de lur desputisuns de aperte pruvance. A la parfin vint
Jesu Crist nostre Salvere, ki venu signefiad Jesu le fiz Navé, e enveiat prestres, ço
furent apostres e evangelistes, ki porteren[t] la predicatiun de la celestiene doctrine
ensement cume busines bien sunantes. Matheu li Evangelistes suna premer sa buisine en

preschant. Marcus ensement. Lucas e Johan a haute voiz preecherent ensement [105]
cume li prestre ki des buisines entunerent. E Peres e Jacob les buisines de lur
epistres sunerent. Al derain, de plus grosse e clere buisine, cil ki dist : [P] lus omnibus
laboravi
[I Cor. 15 :10], ço est a dire ‘Jo ai travaillé plus ke tut li autre.’ Ço ert li
bers sein Pol, kar par la doctrine de ses quatorce [f.50Av] epistres ensement cum par
fuildrant sun de

  • 60 MS les.

haut e lunge buisine chai le60 cultivement des ydeles e falsee fud la decevable [110]
doctrine des philosophes. [E] notez ke les murs de Jericho dechairent nent sulement
par le sun

48so soon shall we have the help of Christ to discomfit the wicked spirits and vices that are our mortal enemies. Reason will then tell us how we can baffle our spiritual enemies and destroy their trickery.

  • 61 ‘princes’, not ‘prestres’ as above.

49It is said that seven princes61 took up seven trumpets and went before the Ark of the Lord around Jericho, sounding the trumpets. On the seventh day they arose in the morning, and the walls of Jericho came tumbling down as it was told earlier, in the history.

  • 62 This is not Ex. 3:5 but a close rendering of Luke 10:30. There may be a special connection, which I (...)
  • 63 Abstract nouns of this kind hover on the verge of personification.

50Jericho signifies this world of ours, as you have heard in the Gospel where it says ‘A man came down from Jerusalem into Jericho, and fell among thieves’.62 This man was Adam, who came down from Paradise into this sinful world and fell among the Sins and Vices that attack men like thieves.63

51Because of this, let him take care to throw down the fortifications and the walls of this city, without any sword drawn nor dart hurled, nor piercing by any lance. Only by the sound of the priests’trumpets were the walls thrown down.

52Now let us see what were the fortifications and the snares that the world had around it, as those walls were surrounded, before the coming of Jesus Christ. The cult of idols, the deceptions of soothsayers, the sorcery of enchanters, all these things together are like walls around the world.

  • 64 The writer seems to mean that these pseudo-sciences are easily seen to be worthless (see below, for (...)

53Above all, the world was closed in, like a castle by its strong towers, by numerous philosophical sciences and their disputations about open proof.64

54At last came Jesus Christ our Saviour, whose coming was signified by Joshua son of Navé; and he sent priests — that is, apostles and evangelists — who would carry forth the preaching of celestial doctrine just as if it was the sound of well-blown trumpets.

55Matthew the Evangelist sounded his trumpet first, by preaching; then Mark; Luke and John both preached with a loud voice, like priests playing trumpets. Peter and James sounded the trumpets of their Epistles.

56Last of all, the loudest and clearest of trumpets, he who said I laboured more abundantly than they all. This was the noble Saint Paul, for by the doctrine of his fourteen epistles together, like the thundering sound of loud long trumpeting, the cult of idols fell and the deceitful doctrine of philosophers was proved false.

57You must observe that the walls of Jericho did not fall only by the sound

des buisines, einz firent par concordable cri del pueple ensemble od les buisines.
Ço nus signefie ke si nus voluns acraventer les forcelesces e les enginz al diable, il
cuvent ke nostre vie e noz volentez en unité se cuncordent a la seinte doctrine des
apostres e

des ewangelistes. A chascun Cristien ki volt les forcelesces al diable abatre cuvent [115]
ke ait Jesu Crist a duiur e si il est letré, k’il face buisine des Seintes Escriptures.
En cels sei ause de tutuler, en celes chante ; tutule es salmes, chante es ymnes e
esperitels chançuns [cf. I Pet. 2 :9]. Se il n’est lettré, chante sa Crede, chante sa
Pater Nostre, loe Deu en seinte devotiun, porte u suive cels ki porterent l’arche del

  • 65 MS & C vienge.

testament, ço est a dire les cumandemenz Moyse ensemblement od seinte Ewan– [120]
gelie tienge65 e face esperitelment, e od iço gard ke la multitudine de ses pensers e
de ses sens, ki el quor creis[s] ent tutdis cume pueple, od une volenté nent od duble,
od estable nent od flotante, parmaigne e concordable seit a Seinte Escripture. Sun
quor e sun semblant aient en sei veraie unité e concordance, ne feigne neent fine
chere e ait

  • 66 End of p. 20

falsine al quor, neent a la fie die veirs e a la fie pur losenge de hume poestif se suille [125]
de66 mençunge, ne seit nent orgui[f.50Br] lus e de surfait vers les basses persones e
umbles, e vers les haultes persones e orguiluses cuard e lasche.


En la signefiance de tele concordance se concorda le cri del pueple as busines des
pruveires en la ruine de Jericho. [E] n la venue Jesu fud Jericho reversee e par la
venu

Jesu Crist fud li mund vencuz sicome il mames de sa buche dist quant il enortat [130]
ses chevalers a esperitel bataille par cestes paroles : [C] onfidite, ego vici mundum
[John 16 :33], ‘Aiez fiance, jo ai vencu le mund.’ [P] uis ke Jesu Navé out escumegé
e entredit Jericho e or e argent e quantque dedenz ert, dunc dist il as fiz Israel :
‘Gardez vus de choses maldites, ke vus ne facez les herberges de tuz les fiz

Israel entredites par unt vus seez destruit e tute Synagoge’[Jos. 6 :18]. Ceste parole [135]
afiert especialment a ceals ki se convertissent del siecle a religiun ensement cume
ki deist a eals ‘Vus ki avez le siecle guerpi e pris vus estes a religiun, gardez ke n’ aez
en vus secularité’, ço est a dire ke vus ne hantez en religiun les wisches del secle
sicum nus truuns escrit : [N] olite conformari huic secolo [Rom. 12 :2], ço est

  • 67 MS confortez; confirmez, C.

‘Ne [vus] conformez67 el secle.’Entredit vus seit cuntenement del secle e vus, [140]
persones e prestres ki devez la maisun e la maigné Deu garder e guverne
esperitelment, ne entremellez neent seculers afaires od esperiteles.

58of trumpets, it was achieved by the massed shouting of the people and the trumpets together. This means that if we want to crush the wiles and trickery of the Devil, it is necessary for our life and our will to be united in accord with the holy teaching of the apostles and the evangelists.

  • 68 Col. 3:16 seems closer, here, than the Epistle of Peter.

59Each Christian who wants to smash the Devil’s trickery must have Jesus Christ as his guide, and if he is educated let him make his trumpet of Holy Scriptures. For some of these, let him practise blowing; in others, sing. Tootle the Psalms! Sing the hymns and spiritual songs!68 If he is not educated, let him sing his Creed and Lord’s Prayer, praise God in holy devotion, carry — or follow those who carry — t he Ark of the Testament, that is, the commandments of Moses and the holy Gospels. He must hold and perform this spiritually; he must take care that his myriad thoughts and senses, which multiply in his heart as populations multiply, should be of one single purpose and not duplicated, be stable and not floating, must persevere and be in accordance with Holy Scripture. His heart and his outward looks should be in true unity and concordance; never feigning a sweet expression with treachery in the heart. He must not speak truth at the same time as soiling himself by speaking lies to powerful men to flatter them. He must not be arrogant and presumptuous towards lowly and humble people, nor cowardly and cringing towards the high and proud.

60In the meaning of such concordance, the crying of the people and the trumpets of the priests combined to be the destruction of Jericho. With Joshua’s coming Jericho was thrown down; with Jesus Christ’s coming the world was conquered, as he said with his own lips when he exhorted his knights to spiritual battle with these words: ‘Have faith, for I have conquered the world!’

  • 69 ‘The Anglo-Norman “Hugo de Lincolnia”’, ed. Dahood, says ‘escomenge’ can mean simply ‘accursed’, ra (...)

61When Jesus Navé had placed an interdict and excommunicated Jericho,69 and gold and silver and everything that was therein, then he said to the children of Israel ‘Keep yourselves from the accursed things, so that you shall not make the dwellings of all the children of Israel forbidden, by which you and the Synagogue will all be destroyed.’

62This saying is specially apt for those who convert from the world to religion, just as him who says to them: ‘You have abandoned the world and betaken yourself to religion, take care there is no worldliness left in you.’ That is to say, you do not practise in your religious life the vices of the world, as we find written: And be not conformed to this world. Let the world’s way of life be forbidden; and you, the parsons and the priests whose task it is to take care of God’s house and household, and to govern them spiritually, never mix secular affairs with spiritual ones.

  • 70 Ne demenez m., P.

[V] us ki devez par ureisun a Deu plaisir, n’enplaidez neent [vostre] prosme, e ki
devez a Deu merci crier pur le pueple e messes chanter ne devez nent70 marchandises
[faire] sulunc le dit seint Jeronime : ‘Cil

  • 71 MS auteles.

ki ço funt, il atraient en la maisun Deu [f.50Bv] l’entredit de Jericho’. Vienge vus en [145]
memorie le fait Jesu Crist meimes. Il mist hors del temple les marchanz e espandi
le metal as changeurs. Par ço nus duna a entendre ke cil ki sunt atitelés71 de aver
lur sustienement en Seinte Eglise ne deivent nent estre changeur, ço est afermer
verité a mençunge, ne mençunge a verité, ne acunter ben a mal, ne mal a bien, kar cel

change n’est pas reisnable. Ne ceals ki marchandise demeinent ne deivent corperel [150]
benefice par personage ne par pruverage en Seinte Eglise aveir. A peine puent
marchanz vivre sanz peril de lur alme de lur purchaz seculer.


Seint Jeronime nus mustre enteimes cument li fol prestre suillent sei en Seinte Eglise de l’entredit de Jericho, quant li prestre, ço dit, ki deivent le pueple pur lur pecché

chastier se funt trop debonaire vers cels ki mesfunt, u pur dute de male lange u [155]
pur crieme de poesté u par guain, e mettent arere dos pruveral severité e ore ne
volent ore n’osent faire ço ke ceste Escripture cumande : [P] eccantem coram omnibus
corripere ut ceteri metum habeant
[I Tim. 5 :20], ço est a dire ‘Chastiez celui ki pecche
a veue de tuz, ke li autre en aient pour’ e derechief : [A] uferte malum de vobis

[I Cor. 5 :13], ço est ‘Ostez le mal de vus.’ Li prestre dussent prendre garde e [160]
esample de l’Apostre ki dit : [T] radidit huiusmodi hominem Sathane in interitu carnis
ut spiritus salvus fiat
[I Cor. 5 :5], ço est en rumanz ‘Jo ai livré hume de tele manière
a Sathanas en mortefiement de la char par [f.51r] tele devise ke sun esperit seit sauf.’
En la devandite manere volent esquanz prestres fere sei trop

  • 72 Isidore, PL 83,714C; cf. PL 102,640A; 105,870C; 134,83A.
  • 73 End of p. 21.

benignes vers lur peccheurs parossiens. Jo crei k’il n’entendent nent ço ke est escrit : [165]
[S] acerdotes populorum iniquitate dampnantur si eos aut ignorantes non erudiant aut
peccantes non arguant,
72 ço est en rumanz ‘Li prestre pur la felunie del pueple
sunt dampné se il n’ enseignent les nunsavanz e chastient les pecchans.’De ço dist
Deus al Prophete : [S] peculatorem dedi te domui Israel […] Si non fueris locutus ut se custodiat73

impius a via sua, ille vero in iniquitate sua moriatur, sanguinem eius de manu tua [170]
requiram [Ezek. 3 :17–18], ço est en rumanz ‘Guardien te fis de la maisun de Israel,
se tu ne diz ke felun se guard de sa felunesse veie, pur quei il more en sa felunie, jo
requerrai sun sanc de ta main.’ En ceste manere fud Hely le prestre dampné pur la

63You who must please God by your prayers, do not persecute your neighbours; and you who must cry to God for mercy on the people, and must sing the Mass, you must never do as the merchants do, according to the word of Saint Jerome:

64‘Who does this will bring down the Interdict of Jericho upon the house of God.’

  • 74 Matt. 21:12–13 & Mark 11:15–17; cf. Jer. 7: 11.

65May the memory of what Jesus Christ did come to your minds. He threw the merchants out of the temple, and scattered the metal [coins] of the money-changers.74

66By this, he gives us to understand that those who are supposed to have their sustenance in Holy Church must never be changers. That is, to affirm truth for lies, or lies for truth; nor to account good for evil or evil for good. For this changing is against the right. Nor may those who practise commerce receive any worldly benefits from being a parson or being a priest in Holy Church. Merchants can barely live without danger to their souls, from their worldly earnings.

67Saint Jerome even shows us how the wicked priests within Holy Church soil themselves by infringing the Interdict of Jericho. He says the priests, who ought to be reproving the people for their sins, are too gentle with those who do evil, because nervous about their reputation, or afraid of powerful men, or hopeful of gain; they throw their priestly severity behind them and either will not or dare not do what this Scripture commands:
Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear; and above all ‘Root out evil from among you.’

68Priests should pay attention to the example the Apostle gives, in French:
‘I have given up this kind of man to Satan, for mortification of his flesh so that in this way his spirit may be saved.’

69In this way, as I’ve said before, some priests try to make themselves too kindly towards their erring parishioners.

70I don’t think they have understood what is written, in French:
‘Priests shall be damned for the wickedness of their people if they do not teach the ignorant and punish the sinful.’

71God speaks of this to the Prophet, in French:
‘I have made you guardian of the house of Israel; if you do not warn the evildoer to leave offhis wicked ways, because he will die on account of his wickedness, I shall require his blood of your hand.’

72In this way Eli the priest was damned for the

felunie de ses fiz. Est ço dunkes deboneireté? Est ço misericorde, ke l’em esparnie a

  • 75 MS est.

un e par ço prennent plusurs achaisun de peccher? Mais puet cel estre alcuns [175]
pensera : ‘Quei afiert ço a mei se cist75 mesfait u cil mesaut, puis jo tuz reprendre ?
Puis jeo tuz chastier ?’Ço n’est el a dire ke si le chef deist : ‘Ke apartient a mei si la
main se dolt ?’ u se oil deist : ‘Ke puis jo si le pié mesvait ?, ‘Si vus estes blescé, dei jo
dunkes de vostre blesceure estre trublé ?’, ‘Ai jo dunkes ke faire de vostre servise?’
Gart prelat e prestre

ke ço ne die, ke ço ne pense, mais tutdis ait devant ses oilz ke pur une berbiz malade [180]
est tute la faudee entuschee. Ensement ço dit seint Jeronime : ‘par un luxu[f.51v] rius
u par un vicius est tute une maisnee suillee.’ Dun ne savez vus ke nus tuz feeilz
sumes menbres de un cors desuz Jesu Crist, ki est nostre chief ? [J] esu Crist ki est
uns meimes Deus en unité de verraie creance nus contient e ensemble juint. De
cest cors est oil

  • 76 par unt, C.
  • 77 waier, C; vair, P.

chascuns ki est mis a garder Seinte Eglise. Si tu dunkes a ço es mis, veille, esgarde [185]
par tut, purvei76 les perilz ki poent avenir. Tu es pastur e veiz les oeilles tun seignur
es gules des leuns [de] vurables e nes vulez rescure. Tu les veiz waer77 el mareis e la
mer munte e tu ne te volz mettre en lur cuntre ne pur els hucher ne els par cri de
chastiement rapeler. Quant tu es si negligent, ben pert ke tu ne prenz nent esample
del

suverain pastur ki guerpi nonante noef oeilles es celestienes muntaines e descend[i] [190]
a terre pur une sule ki forsveiat. E quant il la truvat, sur ses espaulles al ciel la porta.
Par esample de cest suverain pastur deiz tu estre amonesté de duner grant entente
a cels ke tu as a garder. E si alcuns de ta garde amonesté e chastié une fie e altre e
terce, neent ne s(a)’amende, fai dunkes ço ke fait sage mire. Uigne l’emflure de sa
duresce de oile

de misericorde, ço est requere[z] Deu pur lui e mettez a sun mal emplastre de [195]
chastiement apert. Si l’emflure dunkes ne amolie ne asiet, n’i [a] autre medecine
fors sul le malveis membre par rasoir de escuminicatiun del cors de Seinte Eglise
del tut trencher sicum nostre Sire cumande : [S] i manus tua scandalizat te, abscide
[f.52r] eam et proice abs te [Matt. 18 :8], ço est ‘Si ta main te verguine,

retrenche la e gete de tei.’ Mais gart ke ço ne facez pur leger pecché, kar nuls hum [200]
en cest siecle ne vit senz pecché.

  • 78 I Sam. 2:27–36.

73wickedness of his sons.78

  • 79 I have been unable to locate this reference. If the writer does not give the Latin, a concordance i (...)

74Is this kindness? Is this merciful, to let one offso that others will take the opportunity to sin? Suppose somebody like this will think ‘What is it to me if this person does wrong or that one goes astray? How can I reprove them all? Have I got to punish everybody?’ It’s as if the head were to say ‘It’ s not my problem if the hand hurts’, or if the eye said ‘What can I do if the foot goes wrong?’ or ‘If you are injured, must I be troubled with your wounds?’ or ‘Haven’ t I got better things to do than be at your service?’No prelate or priest must ever say that, or think it. They must always keep in mind that one sick sheep may infect the whole flock. Just so, Saint Jerome says ‘One lustful, or one vicious, can pollute a whole household.’79

  • 80 This refers to Ps. 23, and to the story of the lost sheep in Matt. 18:12–13; see also the Prodigal (...)

75Don’t you know that all we faithful are members of one body, under Jesus Christ who is our Head? Jesus Christ, who is one God in unity with true faith, contains us and joins us together. Of this body, the eye is the man who is stationed as guardian of Holy Church. If you are the one so stationed, keep watch and look around everywhere, prepare yourself against the dangerous things that could happen. You are the shepherd, and you see your lord’s sheep in the jaws of the ravening lion, and you don’t want to rescue them! You see them wallowing in the marsh — the tide is coming up, and you don’t want to go towards them, neither shouting at them nor recalling them with cries of reproach. You are so careless, it really seems you won’t follow the example of the greatest Shepherd of all, who left his ninety-nine sheep in the celestial mountains and went down to earth for just one that was straying. And when he found it, he carried it on his shoulders back to heaven.80

76The example of this sovereign Shepherd ought to teach you to take good care of those who are yours to guard. And if one of those who is taught and chastised once, twice, three times but does not mend his ways, then you must do what the wise doctor does.

77Anoint the hard swelling of his puffed-up obduracy with the oil of mercy; that is, pray to God for him, and apply a poultice consisting of manifest chastisement. If the swelling does not soften and ease, there is no other medicine except only to cut the diseased member offcompletely from the body of Holy Church by the razor of excommunication, as Our Lord commands: ‘If your hand shames you, cut it offand throw it from you.’ But of course you must not do this for small sins, for no man on this earth lives without any sin.

[N] e quidez nent ke ço seit cumandé de la main corporele, einz est sicume seint
Jeronime dit :
[S] i ego videor esse ecclesie quasi manus dextra et presbiter nominor et
verbum Dei ad refectionem ecclesie debeo seminare, si ego, inquam, contra ecclesiasticam
regulam et evangelicam gessero

disciplinam ita ut contempnens corrigi scienter scandalum ecclesie faciam, unanimi [205]
consensu et conspiratione universa ecclesia digne et juste me putativam dexteram suam
abscidere et proicere ab se. Expedit enim ecclesie absque scandalizante manu introire in
regnum celorum quam cum illa mitti in gehennam.
Cest lunc cunte fait seint Jeronime
entendre en rumanz ‘Si jo par semblant sui ensement 205

cum la destre main de Seinte Eglise e prestre sui numé e la parole Deu a la refectiun [210]
de Seinte Eglise dei semer, si jo dunkes cuntre l’ordenement de Seinte Eglise e la
doctrine de l’Evangelie oevre en scient dunt Seinte Eglise seit par mei vergundee e
jo ai sur ço chastiement en despit, tute Seinte Eglise od uns asens e od cunseil par
vive raisun deit en veie trencher mei sa fause destre e jeter de sei. [M] elz vient a
Seinte

  • 81 End of p. 22.

Eglise sanz sa huntuse main entrer el regné del ciel ke de estre jetez od li e par li el81 [215]
sulphurin feu d’enfern.’Mult besuigne ke chascun se gart, se est oil u poin u pié de
Seinte Eglise, ke il chose ne face par quei [f.52v] il seit par reignable excommunicatiun
en veie colpé, kar tant cume la main u l’autre menbre sei tent cument ke seit a sun
cors, tut sei[t] li menbres malades, tut le cors purtraite sa cure e 215

nel puisse il del tut guarir, il le uint, il met emplastre, il a sun poeir le coist. Mais [220]
desque il est del cors trenché n’est k’il coisse ne enprenge bone cure, lores est livré
as chiens u as oisels u a purreture. Ensement est de pecchur. Ja pur tant cum il
gist en pecché, pur ki il est en reignable excomunicatiun desevré de la comune de
Seinte Eglise devant ce k’il seit repentant e pensif de sei reconcilier, n’est establi en Seinte

Eglise ki de li prenge cure ne par almones ne par ureisuns faire ne il en tantes biens [225]
de Seinte Eglise partire ne puet. De l’autre part si aucun menbre ki a sun cors se
tient senz esperance de garir ne fine de purrir, li saives le fait retrencher. Autrement
purreit tut le cors par la pureture de l’un menbre tost enmortir. Ensement avint en
la ruine de Jericho. Pur ço ke li fiz Israel se cumunierent a un pecchur ki amender
ne se volt, tut

ensemble furent entredit de Deu e perdirent sa grace e par ço furent puis vencuz [230]
de lur enemis. En ceste reversiun de Jericho sule la pute Raab od sa maisnee est
salvee e par Jesu Navé vivifié e a tuzdis mais ajustee a la maisun Israel. Oez, vieus
gent maleuree, cument ceste pute femme Raab est ajuinte a la maignee Israel.

78Nor must you think that the commandment applies to the bodily hand; it is as Saint Jerome says.

  • 82 The French follows the Latin, so I have not translated the meaning twice.
  • 83 ‘la refectiun’: the Church’s holy meal.

79This long passage means,82 in French:
‘It is as if I were like the right hand of Holy Church, elected priest, and it was for me to sow the Word of God at Mass;
83 if, then, I knowingly do against the commands of Holy Church and the doctrine of the Gospel, so that Holy Church is put to shame through me, and I deserve chastisement and contempt for that; then Holy Church with one accord and advisedly for the best of reasons must in judgement cut me off, as its false right hand, and throw me out. It is better for Holy Church to enter the Kingdom of Heaven without its shameful right hand than to be thrown, with it and because of it, into the sulphurous fires of Hell.’

80It is essential for every one of us to take care, whether they are eye or hand or foot of Holy Church, not to do anything for which they can be reasonably judged guilty and excommunicated; for as long as the hand or other member holds on in whatever way to its body, even if the member is sick the whole body performs its cure. And if it cannot heal everything, it anoints it and plasters it up, cauterizing as best it can. But as soon as it is cut off from the body, it cannot be cauterized or given good healing; consequently it is thrown out to the dogs or the carrion-birds, or to rot.

81So it is with a sinner. As long as he wallows in sin, and is therefore rightly excommunicated and cut off from the community of Holy Church; until he becomes repentant and thinks of making peace with it, Holy Church does not allow care to be taken of him: not by alms, or prayers for him, and he may not take part in the good things of Holy Church. At the same time, if any member holds onto his place in the body without hope of healing, nor stops putrefying, the wise ones will have him cut off. Otherwise the whole body will quickly putrefy into dead flesh, because of one putrid member.

82So it was with the ruin of Jericho. Because the sons of Israel had converse with one sinner who would not mend his ways, they were all excommunicated by God and lost his grace, and so they were overcome by their enemies. In this destruction of Jericho, only the harlot Rahab was saved with all her household; she was given life by Joshua Navé and added to the House of Israel for ever.

83O ancient and accursed people, hear how this harlot woman Rahab was joined with the company of Israel!

Esgardez cument [f.53r] l’om recolpe les secches branches del bon oliver e en cel
meimes estoc cument l’uem

  • 84 id est barhaine.

ente les branches de l’oliver parhaine84 e celes branches par la force del natural [235]

estoc portent bon fruit. Par ço poez vus entendre ke nus ki sumes estrait de fole
gent de avoiltrine creance, ki parhaine furent, senz fruit de bones vertuz, quant il
cuiltiverent fust e peres e ydeles ensement cum Deu, sumes ore par la destre al
celestien cultivur, ço est par Jesu Crist, enté en la verraie creance Abraham, Ysaac
e Jacob u nus faimes

fruit de uveraines ki a Deu plaisent. Dunc vus maleurez Jueus estes recolpez [240]
ensement cume de humurs de bones vertuz desechiz. Sicum dit avuns, ert Raab
sule salvee en Jericho par Jesu. [D] eu, ço dit l’estorie, fut od Jesu e sun nun fud
denuncié e depueplee en tutes terres e li disciple Jesu Crist alerent par universe
munde preechant sun seint nun e sa creance. E Deus en els uvra e lur predicatiun
par signes conferma. Dunt en

cest nun Jesu li celestien nostre Salvur supplient e terriens e enfernals a lui sunt [245]
aclin cume cil ki genuil plient. Ore, bone gent, ostuns les encumbremenz des piez
a l’alme, desliuns les enlacemenz de pecchiez, ke nus puissuns a delivre aprocer al
prince de la celestiene chevalerie. Destreinum nus par le cumandement Jesu Crist de
chascun vice Jericontin, ke nus puissuns sauvement siure l’arche Deu par esperitele
garde des

cumandemenz de la lei e de l’Evangelie e par son concordable cri de ureisuns [250]
[f.53v] e Deu loer e od voiz de une bone volenté fames trebucher la malice de cest
mund e metuns peine de garder nus de chascun entredit de cest siecle, ke nus
en l’embracement Raab, ki est notre laür, ço est Seinte Eglise, seruns ajusté a la
maignee Israel, ço est a esperitels humes ki de quor veient Deu, parunt od els seruns

refait de la visable veue Deu el ciel pardurablement en sa glorie. Ço duinst nostre [255]
Seignur Jesu Crist ki ad honur e cumandement de secle en secle senz fin, AMEN.

84See how the dry branches of a good olive-tree are cut away, and how onto this same trunk are grafted branches of a barren tree, and these branches bear good fruit thanks to the strength of the natural stock. By this, you may understand that we who are descended from foolish people of adulterous faith, who were barren and without the fruit of good virtue, when they pursued wood and stone and idols all as if they were God; now by the right hand of the celestial Cultivator, that is Jesus Christ, we are grafted into the true faith of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, where we produce the fruit of good works that are pleasing to God. So you wretched Jews are cut off, just as the sap is from withered good virtues.

85As we have told you, Rahab alone was saved out of Jericho by Joshua. The story says that God was with Joshua, and that his name [Jesus] was announced and made known in all the lands; and the disciples of Jesus went through the whole wide world preaching about his holy name and his faith. And God worked through them, and confirmed their preaching by signs. So Our Saviour’s celestials pray to this name of Jesus, and those on earth and in hell bow down to him as on bended knees.

  • 85 Hunt remarks that this is the only direct address to the audience in this sermon (PTS 12, p. 4).

86Now, good people!85 Let us shrug the encumbrances offthe feet of the Soul, and undo the bindings of Sin, so we can quickly come close to the Prince of Celestial Chivalry. Restrain ourselves, by Jesus Christ’s commandment, from all Jericho’s vices, so that we may safely follow the Ark of God in the spiritual guard of Old Testament commandments and of the Gospel.

87In a massed shout of prayer, praising God with a voice of good will, let us topple down the wickedness of this world! And let us take pains to keep ourselves from all the interdicts of the age.

88And so in the embrace of Rahab — our model, which is Holy Church — we may be added to the house of Israel, that is, to spiritual men who see God with their hearts, through which we shall be refashioned in the visible sight of God and forever in Heaven, in his glory. May Our Lord Jesus Christ grant this, who has honour and dominion for ever and ever, world without end, AMEN.

Rossignos86

  • 86 Dean 626; see Legge, pp. 232–5.
  • 87 Rossignos, John of Howden, ed. Hesketh (ANTS 63), p. 10.
  • 88 Editor’s note to v. 3969.
  • 89 Translated in Edouard, p. 17.

89This verse homily on the life of Christ was written for Eleanor of Provence, mother of Edward I, by John of Howden, probably before 1282.87 There is only one manuscript (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 471), dated to the second half of the fourteenth century. The prose Prologue explains the title; I present it together with the first section of the text (vv. 1–144). This long poem later includes among other things a list of heroes that seems to anticipate the canon of Nine Worthies.88 The extended roll of honour includes figures both historical and legendary. It has already been noted that Tristan was not originally attached to the Arthur legend; he does not appear in the list, although Lancelot does (another figure who ‘arrived’ after the earliest stories had become current in Britain). Historical figures include William the Conqueror, who is listed as ‘li Bastard plain de value’ (the worthy Bastard, v. 3993). It is unusual to see William called both Bastard and ‘worthy’, as has been noted in the twelfth-century Nun’s life of Edward the Confessor.89

90The text is copied from the edition; I adjust only a few items, such as quotation marks, to conform to the overall format in this book. Initials in bold indicate a coloured initial in the manuscript (space was left for one at the first C below but it was not executed). I have not reproduced all the editor’s notes, many of which discuss fine detail of the MS readings.

Text

[1r] CI comence la pensee Johan de Houedene, clerc la roine
d’Engleterre mere le roi Edward, de la neissance e de la mort e
du relievement e de l’ascencion Jhesu Crist e de l’assumpcion nostre
Dame. Et a non ceste pensee ‘Rossignos’, pur ce ke, sicome li
rossignos feit de diverses notes une melodie, auci feit cest livres de
diverses matires une acordaunce. Et pur ce enkores a il non
‘Rossignos’ que il estoit fez e trové en un beau verger flori ou
rossignol adés chauntoient. Et pur ce fu il faiz que li quor celi qui le
lira soit esprys en l’amour nostre Seignour. Benoit soit qui le lira !
Ceste oevre comence. Ci comence li ‘ Rossignol’.


Alme, lesse lit de peresse
E ta langor e ta tristesse ;
Apreng d’amour la parfondesse
E a penser d’amour t’adresse ! [4]
Oste de toi delivrement
De vaine amour le marrement,
Apreng d’ amer entierement
Et parlier d’ amor docement ! [8]
Jhesu, des saintz la drüerie,
Leur quor, leur amor e leur vie,
Fai a moun povre engin aïe
Que ta parole enpreigne e die ! [12]
Li seint feu de t’amour m’espreigne [1v]
Si ke de toi penser m’enseigne
Fai de ma langue riche enseigne
Que ta louange ben enpreigne ! [16]
Li seint angle vint a Marie
E disoit que le Rei de Vie
Enfanteroit. Ele le prie
Que la manere enseigne e die ; [20]
Cil li respont sanz demoree :
‘Ne soiez pas espöentee,
Enfant avras, Virge sacree,
Du Seint Espir[i] tz aombree.’ [24]
Lors s’asenti la pucelete,

Translation

  • 90 ‘pensee’, thought. I translate ‘dream’ because of the romantic setting in a garden. In such a garde (...)
  • 91 For the latter, see an annotated and translated version in Cher Alme.
  • 92 ‘trové’, found or ‘invented’ (that is, made up). Latin invenio, inventio, means either or both. Her (...)
  • 93 Properly this should be in the singular (‘he who reads’), but clearly both male and female are inte (...)

91Here begins the dream of John of Hoveden,90 clerk to the Queen of England who is mother of King Edward, about the birth and death, about the resurrection and ascension, of Jesus Christ, and about the Assumption of Our Lady.91 This dream is called Nightingale because, just as the nightingale makes one melody out of many notes, so this book makes a concordance out of diverse materials. It is called Nightingale also because it was made and invented in a beautiful flowery orchard where nightingales endlessly sing.92 Further, it was made so that the heart of whoever reads it will be overcome with love for Our Lord. Blessed be all who read it!93 The work begins. Here begins the Nightingale.

  • 94 A sinful and self-indulgent tristitia was a branch of Accidie (see note in Sloth, in Deadly Sins be (...)
  • 95 ‘drüerie’ is a word used of earthly lovers; it strengthens the intensity of heavenly love described (...)
  • 96 Much of the second-person speech is singular, ‘tu’ or ‘thou’; this sounds cumbersome to a modern re (...)

92O Soul, leave your bed of idleness, and your languor and sadness!94 Learn about the depths of love, and set yourself to thoughts of love! Quickly strip offthe sadness of vain love; learn to love wholly and talk of love sweetly! Jesus, beloved of saints,95 their heart and love, their life, help my limited intelligence so that I may learn and speak thy Word! May the holy fire of thy love inflame me, if thou teach me to think of thee; make of my language a powerful battle-cry, so that I undertake thy praise!96

  • 97 For the Annunciation, see Luke chapter 1.

93The holy angel came to Mary, and said she would bring forth the King of Life.97 She begged him to tell and teach her how this could be, and he answered her without delay: ‘Do not be afraid. You shall have a child, Holy Maiden, from the shadow of the Holy Spirit.’

94Then the young maiden assented.

E meintenaunt en la chambrete
De sa poitrine chaste e nete
Entras, com en pré vïolete, [28]
E tu sa purté tote entiere
Gardas par ta grace plenere,
Que raison vout ke la lumere
Ne blesce ja verine clere. [32]
Reis ke le ciel ne poet
comprendre,
Par noef mois i vousis atendre ;
Lors des angles te fesoit mendre
Amor ki ose tot emprendre. [36]
Quant fuites né de la Pucele [2r]
Qui tote joie renovele,
Des angles cumpanie bele
Chantoit de pes chanzon novele. [40]
Tu qui donez les fines joies,
De quel amor suspris estoiez
Quant a bender t’abandonoies
E en la creche demoroies ? [44]
Ta creche de petite afaire
Nos est livréz pur exemplaire,
Et nous aprent le quor retraire
De tot orgoil, Rei debonaire. [48]
Tantost te mez a la bataille
Contre orgoil, e la vains sanz faille,
Et veus ke ta creche nos baille
Le large ciel sanz definaille. [52]
Et tu, Pucele benuree,
Ta mamele seinte et sacree
As a ton fitz abandone [e].
Hei ! Dieu, quel joie as assenee ! [56]
Li pains de pardurable vie
Dount la court d’angles est servie,
Li pains qe le ciel resazie
De toi se pest, virge Marie. [60]
De douzor la fonteine vive, [2v]
La qui douzor toz tens desrive,
Qui les quors amortis ravive,
De ton seint piz porprent la rive. [64]
De totes douzors la plus fine
Suche douzor de ta poitrine ;
Trestote la court celestine
Esmervailler de ce ne fine. [68]
Seule as a droit joie trovee,
Ele est en toi seule comblee
Quant cil de tei prent sa livree
De qui tote joie est livree. [72]
Ce qui li done ta peitrine,
Quant il la tent en sa seisine,
A li est nur [e] ture fine
E a nous droite medecine. [76]
Countre la pome envenime [e]
Qui si mort humene lignee
Est ta mamele tresacree
Trïacle, c’est chose provee. [80]

  • 98 This is a common explanation for how the Virgin was able to conceive without losing her virginity: (...)

95Now you entered into the little space of her chaste and pure breast, as if into a meadow of violets; and by your abundant grace you preserved her purity absolutely. For reason shows us that light can never hurt clear glass.98

96O King, whom Heaven could not contain, you were content to wait nine months there. You made yourself less than the angels, O Love that dares all! When you were born of the Virgin, who is the renewal of every joy, a glorious company of angels sang a new song of peace.

  • 99 See Luke chapter 2 for the birth of Christ.
  • 100 John 6:32–51.
  • 101 For the unusual meaning of ‘rive’ (here lip, brim) see editor’s note.
  • 102 ‘livree’ also means ‘livery’ (as in Piers Plowman: dress, uniform, sc. man’s flesh).
  • 103 Treacle (and v. 80), see OED: the meaning was originally that of an antidote against wild beast ven (...)
  • 104 Editor’s note: ‘mord’ appears above the line as an alternative, meaning to bite. But the word ‘mort (...)
  • 105 ‘tresacree’ means ‘very holy’, but my pun is allowable given the quantity of untranslatable word-pl (...)

97You, Giver of exquisite joys, what was the love that ravished you when you abandoned yourself to swaddling clothes and rested in a manger?99 This manger, such a lowly thing, is given to us as a lesson: it teaches us to withdraw our hearts from all pride, O gentle King. Soon you take up the battle against Pride, and unquestionably you win it; you want your manger to give into our possession the infinite width of Heaven. And you, blessed Virgin, you made your holy sacred breast fully available to your son. Ah, God! What joy you have achieved! The Bread of everlasting life that is provided for the court of angels, the Bread that satisfies the heavens, feeds from you, Virgin Mary.100 The living Fount of sweetness whence sweetness ever overflows, that revives dead and dying hearts, has its brim at your holy breast.101 The Sweetest, above all sweet things, sucks sweetness from your breast. The whole celestial company never ceases to marvel at this! Only you have found joy rightfully; it is entirely fulfilled only in you, when he who furnishes all joy took from you his daily food.102 What your breast gave him, when he held it in his grasp, is exquisite nourishment for him and sovereign medicine for us.103 Against the poisoned apple, that condemned the human race to death,104 your thrice-holy breast is proved to be the remedy.105

Quant vie suche [a] ta peitrine,
De nostre mort moert la racine ;
Li dampnéz recovrent seisine
De fine joie qui ne fine. [84]
Hautesce estoit lors avalee [3r]
Et tote longor abreggee,
Tote puissance humilïee
Et tote laour estrescee. [88]
Quant plorer ton douz fitz vëoiez,
Trebien apeser le savoiez ;
Lors par ton douz let l’adouzoiez
Qui seule sa douzor estoiez. [92]
Dame qui donez joie entiere
A celi qui en est rivere,
Puis ke tu en es botellere,
Ne soiez pas a moi avere. [96]
Celer de vin est ta peitrine
En qi boit la vigne devine ;
La boit la sapïence fine
Trefine douzor qui ne fine. [100]
E puis, quant fuis entalente [e],
Endormi l’as, Virge sacree,
De ta chanson savoree
Ke rossignous n’i out duree. [104]
De ton douz chant la melodie
Fist endormir le chant de vie.
Hareu ! Com fu doce e serie
Puis ke tant plout a plesancie ! [108]
Ceste pucele est si aprise [ 3v ]
A chaunter en si douce guise
Ke cil s’endort qui touz justise
Les chanz du ciel e les devise. [112]
Quant en chanter metoit sa cure,
Vers sa chanzon, tant estoit pure,
Cithole n’out envoiseüre,
Viele n’est fors k’arroüre ; [116]
Harpe vers li n’ad melodie,
Daunce de gige est amortie,
Li chalemeaus ne chante mie,
Et le flejol descorde e crie. [120]
Des doz chanz d’angles que diroie
Ki adés chantent de la joie
Ke Dieu de Gloire leur envoie
Quant son visage leur desploie ? [124]
Ben sei que leur chanzon est bele
Ke touz jours est freche e novele,
Mes meauz me pleroit oïr cele
Chaunter qe mere est e pucele, [128]
Kar si douce est la vïelure
De la gorge a la Mere pure
Ke d’estre endormi bien endure
Li Rois de tote envoiseüre. [132]
Cil qui li ciel ne poet comprendre
[4r]
De gré se venoit prison rendre
A ceste pucelete tendre,
Tant le pout sa chanzon sospendre. [136]
Jeo croi ke la court celestine,
Quant en chantant plus fort
s’affine,
A ceste chanzon si trefine
Volunters e de gré s’encline. [140]
Ne sui pas dignes qe descrive
Cest chaunt dont la dozor est vive
Et tant soronde e si desrive
Ke je n’i troez ne fonz ne rive. [144]

  • 106 Lit. ‘damned’, but no damned soul can ever be released; unless the writer is thinking of the Harrow (...)
  • 107 All these nouns, metaphors for God, resemble personifications.

98When Life sucks at your breast, he kills the root of our death. The lost ones will recover possession of the fine joy that is infinite.106 Pride is then brought low and length is made short; all power is humbled, and all breadth is narrowed. When you saw your son crying, you knew how to comfort him: now you sweetened him with the sweet milk that was all the sweetness he knew. Ah, lady who gives abundant joy to him who is the River of joy, since you are joy’s Butler, do not be ungenerous with me! Your breast is a wine cellar where drinks the Vine of heaven. This is where fine Wisdom drinks fine sweetness that is without end.107

  • 108 See editor’s notes for these instruments; their exact equivalents are uncertain (some glossaries gi (...)
  • 109 The author’s modesty, rather than the idea of inexpressibility, causes his (or her) pretended silen (...)

99And then, Holy Virgin, when it pleased you, you sent him to sleep with your delicious song that even the nightingale cannot resist. The melody of your gentle song sent the Song of Life to sleep. Ah, Heaven! How sweet and delightful it was, so to please Pleasure himself! The maiden was so skilful at singing so softly: she could send him to sleep, who rules and creates all the songs of Heaven. When she set herself to her singing, her song was so pure that the citole no longer held any delight. The vielle sounded only harsh, the harp no longer had melody; the dancing fiddle fell dying, the bagpipe chanted no more, and the flageolet screamed discord.108 What can I say about the sweet songs of the angels, who sing ceaselessly of the joy vouchsafed to them when the God of Glory reveals his countenance to them? I know their song is beautiful, and is ever fresh and new. But it would please me more to hear her sing, who is both mother and maiden. For the throat of that pure Mother is such a sweet instrument, that the King of all Delight allows himself to be lulled to sleep by it. He whom the Heaven cannot contain, willingly came to render himself prisoner to this tender little maiden, so strongly can her song captivate him. I believe that the court of Heaven, when it excels itself in singing at full voice, willingly and with pleasure bows down to this finest of songs. I am not worthy to describe this song,109 whose living sweetness so flows and overflows that I can find no ground, and no shore, to it.

Eight Deadly Sins, attributed to Robert Grosseteste

  • 110 Mitchison, The Bull Calves (p. 40). Such questions are universal, in eighteenth-century Scotland as (...)

… nought but the names of the sins but never how folk could come to be sinning them.110

  • 111 La Manere de sey Confesser, Dean 662 (she states there are nine, without listing them).
  • 112 A proud look, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood; wicked imagination, swiftness to misc (...)
  • 113 See, for example, Rigg, Anglo-Latin Literature, pp. 125–7, on Courtesy Books and a manuscript of Ur (...)
  • 114 See also McEvoy, Robert Grosseteste, and a brief account in Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln 1 (...)
  • 115 For the eighth Capital Sin as a branch of Sloth, see Cher Alme, pp. 17–18; Newhauser and Ridyard, e (...)
  • 116 ed. Whittaker, pp. 22–3.

100Dean’s entry for this piece is marked as forthcoming by Tony Hunt; I am most grateful to him for providing me with his transcription, and for his corrections (as for the Prayers, above).111 The Seven Deadly Sins in Cher Alme may be consulted for comparison (pp. 277–85). The sins are there listed as follows: Pride, Envy, Anger, Sloth, Avarice, Gluttony, Lechery. The order may differ slightly from one text to another, but Pride conventionally heads medieval lists; also in the Bible. The Old Testament book of Proverbs tells of six things the Lord hates; yea, seven are an abomination unto him (Prov. 6:16–19).112 A commentary on this chapter is found in Sanson de Nantuil’s Proverbes (chapter six; I give his chapter seven, above). Grosseteste was Bishop of Lincoln; a number of works were ascribed to him without any definite attribution.113 After his death he was regarded as a saint, though never canonized.114 The present text describes eight sins, adding Homicide (rather a catch-all) at the end of the list.115 For homicide, The Mirror of Justices includes reasoning about the different times of Christ’s death reported in the Gospels: he was killed in three different ways.116 The act of confession could be difficult for both priest and penitent: the former had to know what questions to ask and how best to ask them; the latter had to understand the meaning of each sin.

101The text below is not strictly a manual of confession, being a list of sins to bear in mind when preparing to confess but not telling the penitent what to say. It goes ‘If you have done this, or this…’ with the final instruction, ‘You must confess it’, understood. The manuscript, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson C. 485, is dated by Hunt as thirteenth century and by Dean as early fourteenth. As with the Prayers (above), I have added line numbers to Hunt’s edited text.

Text

  • 117 MS De ire cūm dist’, but the text is about envy. Envy is traditionally placed before Anger, but thi (...)

[f.79r] Ici comence la manere de sey confesser des mortels pecchez e de lur
especies solum mestre Robert eveske de Nichole.
Orgoyl: Si vous eiez Dieu corucee en parlaunt que est grant orgoyl. Le
primer orgoyl est de partyr de Dieu e la dreynere humilytee est a Dieu
repeyrir; si vous quidez aver de vos mesmes les biens qe vous avez u [5]
si voz creez qe Dieu les vus ad donee pur vostre deserte; si vus
eiez avauntee d’aver ço ke vous n’avez nient; si vus eiez despyt les
autres e voliez estre veu ceo qe vus n’esteyez nent; si vus eiez folement
jugee les altres pur vostre fole presumpcioun; si vus eiez esté coveyrus de
veyneg[l] orie; si vous eiez pecché par ypocresye; si vous eiez eu delyt en [10]
vesture q’est une manere de lecherye; si vous eiez esté inobedient a Seinte
Eglyse e a ses prelaz e ensement a vos seygnurs e a lurs baillifs e ensement
femme espousé a sun barun.
De Ire: Si vous eiez esté enmeu ver vostre proume par trop de ire; si vous
eiez blescee akun par tençouns u leidengee u par blame; si vous eiez hay vostre [15]
prume; si vous eiez provoké nul hom a coruce; si vous ayez desiree autri mort u
damage; si vous eiez provoké nul hom a coruce en overaunt u conseilaunt u
engrutaunt u en altre acune manere semblable; si vus ayez esté tretre u ayez oÿ
les tretours; si vus ayez maudit e voylét la execucion de vostre malesçoun;
si vus ayez eschinee u degabee; si vus ayez blastangee. [20]
[Envie]:117 Si vous ayez en deol par akune manere d’envye de la propretee
de vostre prome; si vous eye[z] envye a vostre peer qe il vus est semblable en
acune chose; si vus ayez amenusee u estudiee d’amenuseer [f.79v] la
prosperitee de vostre prume par akune manere d’envye u par conseil u
par overe u par aide; si vus eiez esté seynur de descord. [25]

Translation

  • 118 The main sins are frequently divided up into many sub-sins, sometimes known as their ‘children’. In(...)
  • 119 As noted earlier, the spelling of Lincoln as Nichole is typical of Anglo-Norman.

102Here begins the form of confession, of the deadly sins and their branches,118 according to Master Robert Bishop of Lincoln.119

  • 120 Each item could be rephrased as a question; I vary the formula passim.

103Pride: If you have angered God in speech, this is great pride. The first pride is to part from God, and the ultimate act of humility is to come back to him. If you believe the good in you is from yourself, or if you believe God has given it to you because you deserve it [that is Pride].120 If you have boasted of having something that you have not; if you despise others, wanting to be seen as something that you are not; if you have foolishly judged others through your own foolish presumption. Have you been desirous of vain glory, or have you sinned through hypocrisy? If you have had delight in fine clothing, that is a kind of lechery. If you have been disobedient to Holy Church or its priests, or also to your overlords and their servants; or if a married woman, to her husband.

104Anger: Have you been moved to excessive anger against your neighbour? If you have wounded anybody in a quarrel, or harmed or blamed them; if you have hated your neighbour, or have provoked anybody to fury. If you have wished for somebody’s death or injury; if you have provoked anybody to fury, either by deeds or by words, or by grumbling, or anything at all like that. If you have been a traitor, or if you have listened to traitors; if you have ill-wished anybody and wanted that evil thing to happen to them; if you have mocked or laughed at somebody; if you have blasphemed [you must confess to these branches of Anger].

105Envy: Have you been miserable in any way, through envy of your neighbour’s belongings? If you have felt envy of your equal, because he is like you in some way; if you have taken away — or tried to take away — from your neighbour’s prosperity through any kind of envy: by words, by deeds, by aiding or abetting? Have you been a sower of discord?

De accide: Si vous ayez par necligence tressaylli hors la creaunce en la pater
Nostre; si vus ayez esté necligent d’orer; si vous ayez esté necligent d’aller
a mustier en tens due; si vous donastes poy de oyr les paroles Dieu;
si vous ayez esté ennuyé de bien; si vus ayez amee mult udiuesce;
si vous ayez fet necligentement le uvere Dieu; si vus ne ayez pas honuree [30]
vos parenz; si vous ayez fet vow qe n’est pas avowable e tele vow eiez pursuy;
si vous eiez fet vou q’est a vower e ne l’avez pursuy; si vous eiez en trop de
tristesce; si vous ayez esté en desperaunce e eyés pou prisé l’ame e la vye;
si vous ayez esté necligent governour de Seinte Eglise en seynant, en amendant,
en eydant, en servant. [35]
De Avaryce: Si vous ayez estee coveytous en purchaçaunt e chinches
en retenaunt; si vous aiez esté foularge en donaunt; si vous ayez nule chose
emblé u ravy; si vus ayez consentu as laruns e as robbours; si vous eiez celé u
retenu chose qe vous ad estee baillé a garde; si vus eiez retenu a vostre serjaunt
sun luer; si vous aiez celee chose trovee u prop[r] es us turnee; si vus ayez [40]
prestee an usure; si vus ayez en akune manere fet symonye; si vus aiez deceu
vostre proume par akun contract; si vous aez donee faus jugement; si vous
ayez la fey blescee; si vous ayez faus juree; si pur fausine eiez mentu; si
vous eyez porté faus temoyne; si vos eiez esté losengeer; si vous eiez estee
tretre; si vus n’eyez pas pleinement [f.80r] rendu vos dymes e vos [45]
offrendes; si vous n’eiez pas donee dymes de totes les choses que se
renovelent par an; si vus eiez fet trescherie en dymaunt en celaunt u en
changaunt les meillors; si vus aiez estee en acune ayde u servise par
covoytyse.

  • 121 For sadness (tristitia) as a sin, cf. Rossignos, above; GL (Supp) p. 108; and Cher Alme, esp. p. 18
  • 122 ‘en seynant’ could be a mistake for ‘en [en] seignant’; ‘teaching’ would be appropriate in this lis (...)

106Sloth: If you have wavered through negligence, from belief in the Lord’s Prayer; or if you have been lazy about praying, or about going to church at the right time; or if you have not given ear to the Word of God. Have you been bored of goodness, or loved idleness too much? Or you have done the works of God negligently? Have you honoured your parents? If you have made a vow that is not proper to be made, and have pursued that vow; or if you have made a proper vow and have not pursued it. If you have been in too much sadness;121 if you have been in despair, prizing too little the soul and its life; if you have been neglecting the rules of Holy Church, in making the sign of the Cross,122 in improving, in helping, in serving.

  • 123 Virtuous moderation stipulates that excessive largesse ought not to be considered as generosity.

107Avarice: If you have been covetous in your buying, and mean about holding onto money; if you have been foolish in giving.123 Have you taken or snatched anything? Or connived at theft and robbery? Have you hidden or held back anything that was entrusted to you to look after? If you have withheld from your servant his hire; or if you hid something you found, and diverted it from its proper use. Have you lent money usuriously, or done any kind of simony? If you have deceived your neighbour in any contract, or given false judgement, or broken faith or sworn falsely; if you have lied about an untrue thing, or borne false witness. Have you been a detractor, or a traitor; have you failed to pay your tithes and offerings? If you have not given tithes for everything that is due annually, if you have cheated in your tithes by hiding, or substituting the worse for the better; if you have done anything in the way of help or service because of covetousness.

  • 124 Read ‘teus’, tels (such).

De Glotonye: Si vus eiez mangee avaunt hore u eiez en custume sovent [50]
manger u boyvre; si vous ayez en custume aver delyt en trop diversitee de
mangers e de boyvre; si vous ayez estee trop custoumer ferventement manger
u boyvre; si vus ayez passee mesure; si vus ayez encustoume de quere
deliciouses mangers e chieres; si pur glotonye eiez vomy; si vus eiez
provoké les autres a exces par malice u par veyneglorie; si vus aiez fet larcyn
[55]
de manger u de boyvre pur glotonye.
De leccher[ie]: Si vus aiez fet fornicacion; si vus aiez estee avouteres; si vus
eiez eu afeere a vostre parente charnelment u ové deus procheines parentes
u oveske acune altre k’en en acune manere a vous ateneit; si vus vus eiez
suyly en puteyne; si vus eiez pucele depucelee; si vus eiez [e] u afere de
[60]
femme malade; si vus eiez en acune manere donee entente de conseiller u
aider u consentyr a fornicacioun; si vus [eiez] esté de destable corage u de
cors; si vus eiez eu delyt de suyre les caroles u acune de tens
124 maneres veins
jues.
De Homicide: Si vus eiez consentu al homicide par conseil u par uvere; si [65]
vus vousistes unkes estrangler u occire; si enfaunt eiez tuee u conseil u
aide a tel occisioun donee; si vus eiez estee present la u enfaunt ad pery
sanz bapteme; si vus ne savetz la furme de baptesme; si vus eiez fet
sacrilege u sorcerye eiez procuree u a tele chose eiez affiaunce donee;
si vus eiez levee acun dé funz avant qe vus seustes la creaunce; si vus
[70]
eiez estee necligent d’enseyner [f.80v] a vos filz esperitels
la Creaunce e la Pater Nostre; si vus eiez esté necligent de quere
confirmacioun; si vous eiez poy prisé d’estre confés aprés trespas; si vus
eiez feintement venu a confessioun; [s] i vous eiez lessé vos pecchez
dehors e eiez retenu les circunstances dedenz; si vous n’eiez pas fet la
[75]
penaunce qe vous fust ajoynt; si vus eiez pris le cors Nostre Signur en
mortel pecchee u prestre en mortel pecchee aydee a chaunter u si vous
estes prestre e eiez en mortel pecché chauntee; si vous estes clerk e eiez
fet nul contrakt; si vous eiez mys mayn en clerk en malice.

108Gluttony: If you have eaten before it’s time, or if you are in the habit of eating and drinking often; if you make a habit of enjoying too much variety in things to eat and drink, or if you too often eat or drink voraciously. Have you over-eaten? Do you often seek out the most delicious and expensive food? If you have made yourself sick with your greed; if you have incited others to excess either maliciously or out of vanity; if you have ever stolen food or drink because of gluttony.

  • 125 Sex with relations, to some considerable degree of remoteness, counted as incest.
  • 126 This could be a reference to the sin of making love even with your wife while she has her periods.
  • 127 As with the sin of vanity in clothing, such wickedness as dancing was considered to lead to lascivi (...)

109Lechery: Have you fornicated? Are you an adulterer? If you have had carnal relations with your female kin, or with your near relations, or with any other [woman] who is in any way connected to you;125 have you dirtied yourself with a prostitute, or taken a virgin’s maidenhead? Have you had relations with a sick woman?126 If you have in any way intended to counsel or to help or to consent to fornication; if you are inconstant in your heart or your body. If you love following the round-dance, or any such kind of vain games.127

  • 128 ‘levee acun dé funz’; this refers to baptism.

110Murder: Have you connived at murder, by word or deed? If you ever felt like strangling or killing somebody; if you have killed a child, or helped in any way in such killing by counsel or assistance; if you have been there when a child died without being baptized; if you don’t know the proper form of baptism. Have you ever done sacrilege, or arranged for sorcery to be done, or put faith in any such thing? If you have ever stood godparent to somebody before knowing the Creed;128 if you have been lazy about teaching your godchildren the Creed and the Lord’s Prayer; if you have been negligent about seeking [their] confirmation. Do you delay going to confession after sin, are you reluctant to come to confession? You may have left your sins outside but kept the occasion of sin within you, if you have not done the penance that was enjoined upon you. If you have taken the Body of the Lord in mortal sin, or helped a priest who is in mortal sin to sing the office; or if you are a priest have you sung the office while in mortal sin? If you are a clerk, have you fulfilled your office? And have you wickedly laid hands on a clerk?

Nicole Bozon, from Contes Moralisés, 128: Bad Company129

  • 129 Dean 695. [Bozon] ed. Smith and Meyer; and [Bozon] Metaphors of Brother Bozon, tr. R [ose]. The for (...)
  • 130 Le Roman de Renart, ed. and tr. Dufournet and Méline. The Middle English version (The History of Re (...)
  • 131 As usual, the reader is referred to the introduction and notes of the edition, for further discussi (...)
  • 132 ed. Oesterley, pp. 248–9, entitled ‘Of the Snares of the Devil’. The named dogs there number eight, (...)

111This little homily contains a story well known from Branch IV of the Roman de Renart, although it differs in certain details.130 Many of Bozon’s moralized tales are taken from natural history and illustrated by fables, exempla, and biblical references. These appeal to a public with a deep knowledge of the Bible through hearing it in church, and whose life involved a good deal more natural history than ours does. There are two manuscripts listed in Dean, both fourteenth century. Both the edition used here, and Rose’s translation, are based on London, Gray’s Inn, 12 (768).131 It is a trilingual text, containing Latin, French, and English. These tales are among the sources for Gesta Romanorum, and the exemplum of the dogs that are vices appears in Gesta’s Tale CXLII.132

  • 133 Cf. the reference to Aristotle, and my footnote below.
  • 134 I thank Justin Stover for pointing this out (division into chapters was made in the late twelfth or (...)

112The Bible citation in the text below is of interest, giving as it does the name of the book and the chapter (although incorrectly, in this case).133 Many medieval writers cite the Bible in a much more general way, referring simply to the presumed writer. The Apostle is Paul; The Prophet is Isaiah, or another; The Evangelist refers to one of the four Gospel books; Solomon can be any of the ‘Wisdom’ books; The Psalmist, or King David, means the writer of the Psalms. Further, the division of Bible chapters into verses is a comparatively modern phenomenon, dating from approximately the fourteenth century; Wyclif writing his Trialogus towards the end of that century is still citing books and chapters without verses.134

  • 135 Cited as epigraph to my chapter of legal texts.

113My aim throughout this book has been to point up connections and reflections, as topics and themes recur in the variety of texts I have chosen. The Conte is placed here at the end of the book so that this animal story forms a link through to the Appendix below, where a werewolf is invoked. Another of Bozon’s Contes (number 22) is about how the Devil hunts souls with his accursed hounds, seven in all: the fourth hound is called Baudewyn, and it is loosed at all manner of lawyer-figures, who are hunted to Hell by the boldness (‘baudur’) of their mind and speech.135

114It is sheer coincidence that the evil creature in the Alderney story below is called ‘tchen bodu’. The creature, which never in fact appears on the night in question, has been traced to the building it was said to haunt, the Villa Baudu in Guernsey. This was once a slaughterhouse, on the site of an ancient monastery. It is entirely probable that locals, coming home late from the pub and seeing a beast with blood-stained jaws, should take a hungry thieving dog for a werewolf. The building at or near the monastery may have been named for some church notable (monk, bishop, abbot) called Baldwin, but I have been unable to establish this for certain. Or it could simply have been named after its builder, perhaps a local landowner by the name of Bodu or similar.

  • 136 A reference in Jersey Folklore is unsatisfactory. Having declared Bodu means The Abyss, this author (...)

115The name Baldwin means Bold (in a good sense, of course, unlike Bozon’s hound), no more and no less than Stephen means Crowned. My main point is illustrated in this example: a house and a name belonging to the Baskerville family would have held no terrors for anybody until a famous and terrifying dog-story was written about it. The word ‘bodu’ cannot be traced as meaning anything to do with darkness or death or shape-changing in any of the languages historically current in the Channel Islands, although some folklorists are convinced such a meaning must exist because of the animal’s baleful reputation. But the word Baskerville does not mean ‘deadly’!136

116As usual, I copy the edited text closely. I have added line numbers and simplified editorial marks (I note the latter if they are of special interest); anything in square brackets was supplied from the other MS.

Text

[f.43]
128 De mala societate fugienda.
Aristotil dit en son livere qe si poleyne [en ju –
vente] seit del let de asne norri, qe cely quant vendra
en age guerpira sa nature demeigne, e par la noris –
saunce del let le asne qe en juvente ad receü, se joyndra [5]
al asne. Auxint meynt homme par fol compaignie en
juvente est hony en age, si com avent a Roboam.
Pur ceo dit le seint Espirit: ‘Si vous recevez en com –
paignye [homme] de estraunge nation, il bestor –
nera vostre manere e vous amenera hors de la dreit [10]
veie.’Si admittas alienigenam, subvertet te et alie –
nabit te a viis propriis.
PROVER.XI.

Translation

117Fleeing from bad society.

  • 137 We are not told which book is meant, and there is no way of tracing whether the saying is even Aris (...)
  • 138 In the Arthurian stories, an explanation for Kay’s boorish behaviour is that Arthur was given his f (...)
  • 139 A Concordance gives several references for Rehoboam; the most apposite is I Kings 12:8, about the f (...)
  • 140 The passage is not in the Book of Proverbs. See Ecclus. 11:34 in AV (11:36 in LV). The words are no (...)

118Aristotle says in his book137 that if a foal in its babyhood is fed with the milk of an ass, when it comes of age it will abandon its true nature. And because of the food of asses’milk it received in its youth it will become like an ass.138 In this way, many a man who frequents mad company in youth will be shamed by it in his maturity, as happened to Rehoboam.139 Therefore the Holy Spirit says ‘If you receive into your company a man from a strange land, he will pervert your nature to wickedness and lead you out of the right way.’ 140

Fabula ad idem.
Le gopil dit al moton: ‘Amez poynt de fur –
mage?’‘Nanil,’ dit l’autre, il ne me vient [15]
poynt de nature.’ ‘Non?’ dit le gopil, ‘venez od
moy, e jeo vous aprendra de [amer] chose qe unqes
ne amastez.’‘Et loez issint?’ dit le moton.
‘Oyl,’ fet l’autre, ‘en bon fey.’ ‘Ou le trouve –
rons? ’dit le moton. ‘Jeo vy un homme porter [20]
furmage,’ [dit le gopil,] ‘pres de un fontaigne, e
le homme cesta, e un furmage lui eschapa e chey en
le fontaigne.’‘Et coment le averons?’ dit le mo –
toun. ‘Jeo descendray’ dit le gopil ‘en un dez bo –
ketez.’Quant le gopil fust descenduz jesqes al fond, [25]
le moton demanda ‘Pur quoy demorrez tant?’
‘Le furmage’ fet l’autre ‘est si graund q’ i moy co –
vient de aver eyde. Saillez’dit il al moton ‘en
l’autre boket; si averoms [fet de] meyntenant.’
‘Veiez moy ci’, dit le moton en descendant en la bo– [30]
ket. Et le gopil vynt sus en l’autre boket mountant,
e saut a terre e dit al moton en riaunt ‘Est le fur –
mage bon e savoree?’‘Veire!’ fet l’autre, ‘hony
seiez vous de Dampne Dieu!
“Was it nevere my kind [35]
Chese in wellez grond to fynde”’
Pur ceo dit SALOMON, Prov.
I: ‘Si lui mauveis
homme te prie de aver ta compaignie, veietz qe
vous ne assentez mye.’Si te lactaverint peccato –
res, ne adquiescas illis; si dixerint: Veni nobiscum,
[40]
etc.15

119Fable for the same.

120The fox said to the sheep ‘Don’t you like cheese?’‘Of course not,’ said the other, ‘it’s not in my nature to do so.’‘No?’ says the fox. ‘Come with me, and I’ll teach you to like something you have never liked before!’‘Do you recommend it?’ asked the sheep. ‘Oh yes,’ says the other, ‘by my faith!’ ‘Where shall we find it?’ says the sheep. ‘I saw a man carrying cheese,’ says the fox, ‘near a well, and the man stumbled, and a cheese escaped his grasp and fell into the well!’ ‘But how shall we get it?’ says the sheep. ‘I’ll go down,’says the fox, ‘in one of the buckets.’

121When the fox had got down to the bottom, the sheep asked ‘What’s keeping you so long?’ ‘This cheese,’ says the other, ‘is so huge I’ m going to need help. Jump’, says he, ‘into the other bucket and we’ll soon have hold of it.’ ‘Here I come!’ says the sheep, going down in the bucket.

  • 141 This couplet is in English.

122And the fox comes up in the other bucket which is ascending, and jumps out onto dry land; laughing, he says to the sheep ‘Is that cheese good and tasty?’ ‘Oh really!’ says the other, ‘May the Lord God damn you! “It was never my nature to find cheese in the bottom of a well!”’141

  • 142 Prov. 1:10–11. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. If they say, Come with us, let us (...)

123This is why Solomon says ‘If the wicked man begs to have your company, take care never to consent.’142

Notes

1 Homily ii and Homily iii, from the Ashmole MS.

2 Reeves, Religious Education, p. 81; see also Meyer, ‘Les manuscrits français de Cambridge (pt. ii)’, 342.

3 It will be noted that the incipit she gives for number 587 is slightly different from what is reproduced here, because it is from a different MS.

4 My footnotes below cite Maurice’s French Homilies, ed. Robson, where appropriate: pp. 70 & 75 for the MS, pp. 83–7 for the text.

5 ed. Wirtjes, pp. 47–8 (for editorial procedure see p. xcii). I have consulted but not copied the edition; the text is transcribed directly from the MS.

6 An example from a saint’s life is given above, appended to the Anglo-Norman medical receipts.

7 See also the Bestiary in An Old English Miscellany, ed. Morris (p. 4, vv. 111–13, dated to midthirteenth century), at the same point, though the remark is not in the appended Latin version. The prayers may have been copied here as a reminder to readers. Master Richard’s eagle has a beak that is twisted because of pride (Bestiary of Love, tr. Beer, pp. 31–2).

8 sic, for vifs.

9 MS quarder.

10 The writer has altered the Latin of the Creed quite substantially in his translation.

11 Meaning ‘offered up’; S reads ‘receüs’ (received).

12 Heb. 11: 6.

13 For guarder.

14 MS la m. si est.

15 Gal. 4:10–11. I give the AV text, since the writer does not translate into French. For a similar passage, but in the context of Covetousness, see Cher Alme, pp. 332–3.

16 Eph. 2:19–22 For further references, see Robson p. 196 notes 1–6 (heading ii).

17 The Latin uses ‘tu’ for God, the French uses the formal ‘vus’ (in modern French churches God is called ‘tu’).

18 The Vulgate reading is patre, but it is often deformed to ‘parte’ in commentators.

19 MS De vous que.

20 MS est.

21 MS verirs.

22 MS vein; S has ‘si anemi voient’.

23 S reads evacuaverit.

24 Col. 1: 16.

25 See Richard de Saint-Victor, Liber Exceptionum (ed. J. Chatillon, Paris, 1958), p. 450, lines 25ff. For Richard, see Cher Alme, pp. 72 & 294.

26 Haplography: ‘ad mester de deus pains, de pain corporel et de’.

27 MS paens en. See Robson p. 86 for a correct text.

28 These are some of the orders of angels (see Cher Alme, p. 14).

29 ‘apostoile’ means both Apostle and Pope.

30 Passages in square brackets translated from S.

31 Richard, Liber, p. 454, lines 11ff.

32 The reasoning here seems rather strange, but S says the same. It probably means that one ought virtuously to refuse compensation.

33 ‘ren’ or ‘rien’ can mean anything, or nothing, but is also used of people.

34 I use the AV text (emphasized), copied here since the writer does not translate the Latin.

35 For further references, see Robson pp. 196–7, notes 1–18 (heading iii).

36 These two items have not been transcribed. The transcription reproduced above places Pater Noster before Credo, but I have restored them to the order in which they appear in the manuscript.

37 See my introduction to this section, above.

38 Each prayer is headed by a title written to the right of the first line, thus: || Credo in deum; and || Pater noster. Letters in italic denote the expansion of abbreviated forms.

39 ‘and’ is written as a nota.

40 This line is lacking in the edition.

41 MS de. Several of these letter forms could be either d or eth.

42 ‘mune’ usually means to think or to consider; it can also mean ‘grieve’, which is appropriate here.

43 ed. Hunt (ANTS PTS 12, 13); Dean 595.

44 The source is Origène, Homélies sur Josué, ed. A. Jaubert, Sources Chrétiennes 71 (Paris, 1960).

45 My own paragraphs in the translation match the sense, if not the layout, as closely as possible.

46 See Sermon 1 (PTS 12, p. 9).

47 Nave is the Greek form of the Hebrew proper name Nun; Joshua is an alternative form of the (Greek) name Jesus.

48 Hunt points out that the writer is inspired by the source rather than translating directly from it, following the choice of episodes and scriptural quotations but not the commentary itself. Exegetical vocabulary is discussed briefly on p. 4.

49 ‘la lei’ means ‘the law’; The Old Law and the New Law are the Old and New Testaments respectively. See, in this context, Jos. 1:8, This book of the law.

50 Rahab helped the Israelites by hiding their spies (Jos. chapter 2). She appears in lists of good women in texts such as the Knight’s book (ed. Offord, and ed. Wright, chapters 87 & 88 respectively).

51 End of p. 18.

52 The editor has corrected the MS ‘pecheresse’; it is remotely possible the text was intended for a woman but subsequently rewritten, although there are no further clues. If so, it is more likely that the writer used a female persona (to show the text is for female use) than that the writer was in fact female; but cf. ‘A Woman’ s Prayer’in Cher Alme. Women used religious literature abundantly; some may have been able to read books such as this to their illiterate families.

53 LV Psalm numbers differ slightly from AV; this is Ps. 51: 6.

54 paremplireit, P.

55 MS felum.

56 End of p. 19

57 MS menbre; encombrez, P.

58 I Joh. 4:1, cited opposite, is not the Gospel but the First Epistle of John. AV says believe not every spirit; the writer translates omni spiriti as ‘chascun’ (anybody, or everybody).

59 The command, above, was in the singular ‘tun chalcement’; the writer wishes to differentiate between Joshua and the rest of us.

60 MS les.

61 ‘princes’, not ‘prestres’ as above.

62 This is not Ex. 3:5 but a close rendering of Luke 10:30. There may be a special connection, which I have so far been unable to identify, to explain the unlikely reference.

63 Abstract nouns of this kind hover on the verge of personification.

64 The writer seems to mean that these pseudo-sciences are easily seen to be worthless (see below, for the ‘proof’).

65 MS & C vienge.

66 End of p. 20

67 MS confortez; confirmez, C.

68 Col. 3:16 seems closer, here, than the Epistle of Peter.

69 ‘The Anglo-Norman “Hugo de Lincolnia”’, ed. Dahood, says ‘escomenge’ can mean simply ‘accursed’, rather than ‘excommunicated’; recorded as mid-fourteenth century, it could be as early as late thirteenth. Our text here is from a mid-thirteenth century MS (see PTS 12, p. 2), so ‘escumegé’ predates the above. Boulton (Piety and Persecution, p. 135, note 3) remarks on the use of ‘escomengé’ for non-Christians: ‘ecclesiastical judgments do not apply to those outside the Church… a Christian-centric attitude.’

70 Ne demenez m., P.

71 MS auteles.

72 Isidore, PL 83,714C; cf. PL 102,640A; 105,870C; 134,83A.

73 End of p. 21.

74 Matt. 21:12–13 & Mark 11:15–17; cf. Jer. 7: 11.

75 MS est.

76 par unt, C.

77 waier, C; vair, P.

78 I Sam. 2:27–36.

79 I have been unable to locate this reference. If the writer does not give the Latin, a concordance is no help; the French may be worded very differently from the original.

80 This refers to Ps. 23, and to the story of the lost sheep in Matt. 18:12–13; see also the Prodigal Son in Luke 15.

81 End of p. 22.

82 The French follows the Latin, so I have not translated the meaning twice.

83 ‘la refectiun’: the Church’s holy meal.

84 id est barhaine.

85 Hunt remarks that this is the only direct address to the audience in this sermon (PTS 12, p. 4).

86 Dean 626; see Legge, pp. 232–5.

87 Rossignos, John of Howden, ed. Hesketh (ANTS 63), p. 10.

88 Editor’s note to v. 3969.

89 Translated in Edouard, p. 17.

90 ‘pensee’, thought. I translate ‘dream’ because of the romantic setting in a garden. In such a garden, with beautiful flowers and birds, the narrator of many a dream-vision falls asleep before encountering the wonders that the following story will contain. There are no line numbers to this prose section in the edition; I have retained the length of each line exactly without adding numbers.

91 For the latter, see an annotated and translated version in Cher Alme.

92 ‘trové’, found or ‘invented’ (that is, made up). Latin invenio, inventio, means either or both. Here is another ‘doublet’ or pair of words meaning the same thing (cf. Wace’s first passage, above). It is clear that the repetition adds nuance and emphasis, so I do not conflate into a single word.

93 Properly this should be in the singular (‘he who reads’), but clearly both male and female are intended — including (but not exclusively) Queen Eleanor.

94 A sinful and self-indulgent tristitia was a branch of Accidie (see note in Sloth, in Deadly Sins below).

95 ‘drüerie’ is a word used of earthly lovers; it strengthens the intensity of heavenly love described here (cf. ‘fin’ amur’).

96 Much of the second-person speech is singular, ‘tu’ or ‘thou’; this sounds cumbersome to a modern reader (especially when the writer switches from this to ‘vous’ without apparent reason), so I use it sparingly.

97 For the Annunciation, see Luke chapter 1.

98 This is a common explanation for how the Virgin was able to conceive without losing her virginity: the Holy Spirit entered her as light shines through glass without breaking it. Compare Katherine’s discussion of the mysteries of Godhead (above); she does not dwell on this particular point.

99 See Luke chapter 2 for the birth of Christ.

100 John 6:32–51.

101 For the unusual meaning of ‘rive’ (here lip, brim) see editor’s note.

102 ‘livree’ also means ‘livery’ (as in Piers Plowman: dress, uniform, sc. man’s flesh).

103 Treacle (and v. 80), see OED: the meaning was originally that of an antidote against wild beast venom; it came to mean simply medicine, and was frequently used of godly remedies against sin.

104 Editor’s note: ‘mord’ appears above the line as an alternative, meaning to bite. But the word ‘mort’ (to kill) is equally possible. In the Genesis story of the Fall, the fruit is not said to be poisoned; nor is poison mentioned in the Creation piece, above.

105 ‘tresacree’ means ‘very holy’, but my pun is allowable given the quantity of untranslatable word-play in this text.

106 Lit. ‘damned’, but no damned soul can ever be released; unless the writer is thinking of the Harrowing of Hell.

107 All these nouns, metaphors for God, resemble personifications.

108 See editor’s notes for these instruments; their exact equivalents are uncertain (some glossaries give ‘fiddle’ for ‘viele’, others give ‘viol’ or even a kind of hurdy-gurdy).

109 The author’s modesty, rather than the idea of inexpressibility, causes his (or her) pretended silence on the subject.

110 Mitchison, The Bull Calves (p. 40). Such questions are universal, in eighteenth-century Scotland as in medieval Europe.

111 La Manere de sey Confesser, Dean 662 (she states there are nine, without listing them).

112 A proud look, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood; wicked imagination, swiftness to mischief; false witness, and sowing of discord.

113 See, for example, Rigg, Anglo-Latin Literature, pp. 125–7, on Courtesy Books and a manuscript of Urbanus Magnus ascribed to ‘magister Robertus Grosteste’ (sic); cf. Apprise, above, for Urbanus. See also Rigg’s index, references in Cher Alme, and Thomson, The Writings of Robert Grosseteste; and Southern, Robert Grosseteste, esp. p. 28.

114 See also McEvoy, Robert Grosseteste, and a brief account in Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln 1235–1253, Srawley.

115 For the eighth Capital Sin as a branch of Sloth, see Cher Alme, pp. 17–18; Newhauser and Ridyard, eds, Sin in Medieval Culture.

116 ed. Whittaker, pp. 22–3.

117 MS De ire cūm dist’, but the text is about envy. Envy is traditionally placed before Anger, but this list reverses them.

118 The main sins are frequently divided up into many sub-sins, sometimes known as their ‘children’. In GL (Supp) they are called ‘spices’ (a form of the word ‘espece’, or kind; ‘What the Church Betokeneth’, p. 108).

119 As noted earlier, the spelling of Lincoln as Nichole is typical of Anglo-Norman.

120 Each item could be rephrased as a question; I vary the formula passim.

121 For sadness (tristitia) as a sin, cf. Rossignos, above; GL (Supp) p. 108; and Cher Alme, esp. p. 18.

122 ‘en seynant’ could be a mistake for ‘en [en] seignant’; ‘teaching’ would be appropriate in this list of neglected actions.

123 Virtuous moderation stipulates that excessive largesse ought not to be considered as generosity.

124 Read ‘teus’, tels (such).

125 Sex with relations, to some considerable degree of remoteness, counted as incest.

126 This could be a reference to the sin of making love even with your wife while she has her periods.

127 As with the sin of vanity in clothing, such wickedness as dancing was considered to lead to lasciviousness.

128 ‘levee acun dé funz’; this refers to baptism.

129 Dean 695. [Bozon] ed. Smith and Meyer; and [Bozon] Metaphors of Brother Bozon, tr. R [ose]. The former may be viewed online in its entirety; my extract is so short readers may wish to read more. The latter is also available online. Legge gives c. 1320 as a probable earliest date for his Contes (her p. 232).

130 Le Roman de Renart, ed. and tr. Dufournet and Méline. The Middle English version (The History of Reynard the Fox, ed. Blake) relates a similar story as a ‘flashback’ in Number 33 (see note 91/11ff. on pp. 136–7). Cf. also The Fox and the Wolf, number V in Early Middle English Verse and Prose, ed. Bennett and Smithers. Douglas Gray discusses beast fables (inter al.) in his Simple Forms, esp. ch. 8. In Uncle Remus, story number XVI (Old Mr Rabbit he’s a Good Fisherman), Brer Rabbit fools Brer Fox.

131 As usual, the reader is referred to the introduction and notes of the edition, for further discussion. See also Legge, pp. 229–32; and her Cloisters, pp. 86–7.

132 ed. Oesterley, pp. 248–9, entitled ‘Of the Snares of the Devil’. The named dogs there number eight, as do (no doubt coincidentally) the Deadly Sins in this book. See also Gesta Romanorum, ed. Herrtage, pp. xii & 524.

133 Cf. the reference to Aristotle, and my footnote below.

134 I thank Justin Stover for pointing this out (division into chapters was made in the late twelfth or early thirteenth century, by Stephen Langton).

135 Cited as epigraph to my chapter of legal texts.

136 A reference in Jersey Folklore is unsatisfactory. Having declared Bodu means The Abyss, this author remarks that the animal haunted the Ville Bodu. It is therefore clear the dog was named for this house ‘of the Abyss’ and was not itself from Hell (in Bois, ch. 1, pp. 39–40; the ‘meaning’ is not referenced).

137 We are not told which book is meant, and there is no way of tracing whether the saying is even Aristotle’s. The editors’note offers ‘Arist. VI, xxix?’ Sometimes such things can be located, but usually by sheer luck; any attempt to search a database is likely to fail because the keywords may not be ‘correct’. An idea of the frequency and inexactitude of citations from auctores in medieval writings may be gleaned from Cher Alme, in which they are numerous.

138 In the Arthurian stories, an explanation for Kay’s boorish behaviour is that Arthur was given his foster-mother’s milk when he was taken away from his real mother; consequently, his foster-brother Kay was suckled by a peasant woman who was naturally deemed to be without chivalric virtues. He is at his worst in the romance of Yder (above).

139 A Concordance gives several references for Rehoboam; the most apposite is I Kings 12:8, about the foolish young men with whom he grew up. When consulting these books of the Bible, it is useful to remember that LV has Reg. I, II, II, IV for AV’s I & II Sam. and I & II Kings; I & II Chron. are there known as I & II Paralipomenon.

140 The passage is not in the Book of Proverbs. See Ecclus. 11:34 in AV (11:36 in LV). The words are not exactly the same, but close: Receive a stranger into thine house, and he will disturb thee, and turn thee out of thine own. ‘Holy Spirit’ clearly means ‘Holy Scripture’.

141 This couplet is in English.

142 Prov. 1:10–11. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause… the passage continues with more about the terrible things planned. In this story, the fox gets nothing but a good laugh because of course there is no cheese. The Middle English couplet may be a trace remaining from a lost English version of the story (editors’notes, p. 282).

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