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The Jewish Unions in America

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Bernard Weinstein

Index

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Abend-blat, dos (The Evening Page) 6, 93, 100–107, 115, 123, 128

actors 5, 6, 70, 71–76, 81, 128, 150, 200, 250, 276

Altgeld, John Peter 38, 107

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 106–107, 135, 152, 157, 158, 164, 173–178, 190, 227

American Federation of Labor (AFL) 4, 8, 36–38, 40–41, 96–99, 107, 108, 113, 123–128, 133, 139, 165, 170, 173–174, 186, 192, 196–197, 202–203, 206, 211, 237, 252, 258–259, 263–266, 271, 273–275, 277, 279, 285, 288, 292, 301, 303, 310–311

American Shoe Workers’ Union (ASWU) 293–294

Am olam (The Eternal People) 3, 48, 52, 55, 69, 138

Anarchists 8, 29, 47, 51, 59–66, 82, 89–91, 93, 100, 101, 108, 110–114, 161, 167, 170, 175, 184–185, 188, 194, 208, 265–266, 288

Arbeter fraynt, der (The Workers’ Friend) 58–59, 61–62, 93, 101

Arbeter ring (Workmen’s Circle) 7, 76, 110, 122, 129, 169, 193, 207, 214–215, 221, 240, 258, 259

Arbeter tsaytung, di (Workers’ Newspaper) 5–6, 53, 62–63, 83, 90–93, 100–106, 110, 151, 183, 188–190, 299

Arbeter velt, di (Workers’ World) 6, 108

aviation workers. See radio and aviation workers

bakers 6, 56, 80, 82, 87, 99, 108–109, 128, 170, 204–205, 244–253, 256, 272, 274, 277, 298, 304, 307

Bandes, Leon 53, 81, 138

barbers 76, 290–291, 303

Barondess, Joseph 63, 83–84, 95, 119, 182–191, 196

Barsky, Israel 69, 80, 82, 138–140, 196

bed spring makers. See mattress and bed spring makers

Beifeld & Co. (Chicago) 192

Beller & Co. (New York) 201

Benjamin and Caspari (New York) 187

Bisno, Abraham 114–115, 184, 191–192, 230

Blumenthal Brothers (New York) 187

bookbinders 82, 112, 151, 301–302

Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union (BSWU) 292

Brady 197

Brandeis, Louis D. 212–214, 216, 227, 229, 241

bricklayers, masons, plasterers 3, 37, 73, 309, 312, 313

Bund (General Jewish Workers’ Union of Lithuania, Poland, and Russia) 76, 174, 209, 216, 248, 260, 290

Burgin, Hertz 7

butchers 297–298

buttonhole makers. See waist, wrapper, kimono and buttonhole makers and embroidery workers

Cahan, Abraham 3–4, 48–53, 55, 59, 78, 83–84, 90–92, 102–105, 112, 115, 120, 137, 138, 180, 185–186, 193, 211, 266

cap, cloth hat, and millinery workers 61, 80, 82, 95, 113–125, 128–133, 145, 223, 240, 258

car and taxi drivers 313

carpenters, joiners, furniture and wood workers 18, 37, 82, 304, 306, 308–311, 313

Central Labor Federation of New York 187

Central Labor Union of New York 4, 39, 42

children’s jacket makers. See jacket makers

choristers 5–6, 55–56, 69–71, 73, 75, 81, 306, 308

cigar and cigarette makers 3, 18, 21, 28–29, 33, 39–46, 52, 66–67, 70–71, 98, 111, 185, 309–310. See also Cigar Makers’ International Union of America (CMIUA)

Cigar Makers’ International Union of America (CMIUA) 3, 40–41, 98

cleaners and dyers 95, 207, 279–281

clerks 284–286, 309

cloak makers 3, 46–47, 52, 56, 63, 80, 82–83, 86, 94–96, 98, 101, 106, 109–110, 113–115, 128, 152, 165, 168, 170–171, 174, 178–205, 209–219, 221–222, 225–233, 235–239, 241–243, 249, 255–258, 264, 272, 277–279, 304, 309, 311. See also General Strike of the Cleveland Cloak Makers of 1911; Great Cloak Makers’ Strike of 1910

cloth hat workers. See cap, cloth hat, and millinery workers

Cohen, Fania M. 223, 229

Communists 8, 193, 232, 236–243, 260–264, 270, 286, 293–295, 299, 306

“Comrade Wolf” 64–66

Day, Callaghan, and Company (Boston) 185

Debs, Eugene V. 6, 99, 107, 126

DeLeon, Daniel 92, 96–107, 122, 126–128, 151, 159, 171, 192, 197, 248

Dreier, Mary 206–207

dress makers 83, 86, 179, 185, 193, 221–222, 224, 231, 233–234, 236, 238, 243, 249, 264. See also General Strike of the Dress Makers in 1923

drivers. See furniture and laundry wagon drivers; car and taxi drivers

Dubinsky, David 216

Dyche, John 197, 202, 204, 207, 209, 211, 228

dyers. See cleaners and dyers

Eisner and Company (Brooklyn) 159

Emes, der (The Truth) 101–102

Federation of Organized Trade and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada (FOTLU) 4, 36–37, 39

Feigenbaum, Benjamin 92–93, 102, 105–106, 112–113, 206

Fereynigte yidishe geverkshaftn (United Hebrew Trades, UHT) 5, 7–9, 29, 54, 63, 71–76, 78–79, 82–85, 89, 90–91, 95–98, 99–100, 108–114, 115, 119–123, 125, 127, 129, 134, 139–140, 143–146, 151–160, 161–164, 166–167, 169–170, 174, 182–185, 187–189, 190, 193–195, 197–199, 204–209, 214–215, 230, 245–248, 253, 255–256, 258–259, 268–272, 274–277, 279–290, 295–302, 304–311

Fleischmann’s Yeast Company 244

Forverts (The Forward) 6, 48, 54, 61, 76, 78, 93, 99, 102–108, 122–123, 125, 128–129, 137, 139, 142, 151, 158, 167, 169–170, 191, 198, 202, 205, 209, 211, 213–215, 227, 240, 249, 258, 266, 300

Fraye arbeter shtime, di (Free Voice of the Workers) 62, 90, 100, 108, 227

Freiheit (Freedom) 227

furniture and laundry wagon drivers 281, 303–304, 306–307

furniture workers. See carpenters, joiners, furniture and wood workers

furriers 110, 168, 170, 240, 243, 248, 253–260, 262, 264–265, 277, 294, 311

General Strike of 1926 238–243

General Strike of the Cleveland Cloak Makers of 1911 218–219

General Strike of the Dress Makers in 1923 233–234

George, Henry 5, 38, 56, 92, 138

Gerekhtikayt (Justice) 62, 217

Gold, Ben 260–262

Gompers, Samuel 3, 37, 40–42, 96, 123–124, 133, 174, 186, 202, 206, 211, 255

Göricke, M. 73, 81

Great Cloak Makers’ Strike of 1910 203, 210–215, 256

Great Garment Workers’ Strike of 1913 164–172

Greenspan and Wertheim (Philadelphia) 192

Gretsch, Mitia 55, 69, 71

Gretsch, Niuma 55

Ha-emet (The Truth) 64, 66, 101

Harkavy, Alexander 59, 299

Hart, Schaffner, and Marx (Chicago) 166, 174–176

Haymarket Square Riot 38, 60

Haywood, William D. 126, 128, 130

Hebrew-American Typographical Union (HATU) 78

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society 17, 21

Herzog Garment Company (Chicago) 229

Hillman, Sidney 173–174, 176, 227

Hillquit, Morris 5, 63, 80–82, 84, 91–92, 105, 112, 120, 138, 161, 216

Hirsch, N. 46, 56

Historic General Strike of the 18,000 Waist Makers 204–210

Hourwich, Yitzhak Isaac 107, 174

Hourwich Affair 225–229

Huber, A. 73, 81, 120

Hungarian Jewish Socialist

Association 56

Hymie “the American” 66–69

I. Miller and Company (Long Island) 294

Independent Order of Brith Abraham 56, 136

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 108, 126–130, 201, 228, 247–248, 291

International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) 115, 195, 196–198, 201–204, 207, 209, 215–219, 222–224, 226–232, 234–235, 237–238, 240, 243–244

International Sheet Metal Workers (ISMW) 295

iron workers. See metal workers and machinists

Jablonowski, Ludwig 42

jacket makers 94, 111, 114, 140, 152–154, 156–157, 168, 172, 194

jacket pressers. See pressers

Jamaica Incident 187–188

James M. Brady & Co. (New York) 197

jewelry workers 296–297

John Bonwit Company (New York) 198–201

joiners. See carpenters, joiners, furniture and wood workers

Jonas, Alexander 50, 54, 92, 102, 138, 180, 185

Kanner, Gabriel 46, 56

kimono makers. See waist, wrapper, kimono and buttonhole makers and embroidery workers

Kinney Brothers (New York) 43–46

knee-pants makers 30, 63, 76, 82–83, 86, 95, 108, 111, 114, 119–120, 140, 147–152, 164, 180, 182, 309. See also pants makers

Knights of Labor 4, 8, 35–36, 40, 42, 47, 82, 96–98, 113, 119, 125, 135–139, 159, 178, 179–181, 192, 215, 265, 301

kosher slaughterers 151, 307–308

Krantz, Philip 58, 90–93, 100–101, 103, 105–106, 189, 299

ladies’ tailors. See tailors

Ladies’ Waist Makers’ Union (LWMU) 170, 194–195, 203–204, 206, 209, 223, 249, 256

laundry workers 55, 95, 162, 302–305

Lazerson & Co. (New York) 205

leather, pocketbook, purse, suitcase and trunk makers 83, 240, 267–274

Legien, Karl 6

Lemlich, Clara 206–207

Levine, Lewis 193, 218

Lichtenstein & Co. (New York) 121

London, Meyer 64, 89, 107, 171, 200, 206, 213, 226

lumber mill workers 4

machine shop workers 3, 29, 157

machinists. See metal workers and machinists

masons. See bricklayers, masons, plasterers

mattress and bed spring makers 31, 282

Max Davis Company (New York) 124

Messing Baking Company (New York) 250–251, 307

metal workers and machinists 4, 35, 128, 305–306. See also International Sheet Metal Workers (ISMW)

Meyer Jonasson & Co. (New York) 179, 183

Miller, Louis 53, 60, 63, 82–84, 91, 100, 102–104, 112, 161, 189

milliners. See cap, cloth hat, and millinery workers

miners 3, 126–127, 240, 242

Mintz, Michael 55, 71

Mirovich, A. 50–51

M. Koven & Co. (New York) 277

Morgenshtern, der (The Morning Star) 89

Morgn Zhurnal, der (The Jewish Morning Journal) 300

moving picture operators 308, 312

musicians 71, 76, 82, 128, 200

Naye tsayt, di (The New Times) 5, 59, 299

neckwear makers 240, 274–279

newspaper writers 299–301

New York Cap Manufacturers’ Association 123–124

New Yorker Volkszeitung (New York People’s Newspaper) 6, 46, 59, 81, 98, 138

Niu-yorker yidishe folkstsaytung (New York Yiddish People’s Newspaper) 6, 59, 78, 89, 106–107, 138, 140, 299

Ovend-tsaytung, di (Evening Newspaper) 62, 108

painters 98–99, 109–110, 265–267, 295, 310

Palmer & Co. (Chicago) 219

Panic of 1893 93, 140, 153, 190

pants makers 82–83, 113–114, 134–136, 140, 147, 157–158, 164, 172, 180. See also knee-pants makers

paper box makers 128, 288–290

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 29–30

Pechter Baking Company (New York) 250–251, 307

People, The 92, 97–98, 105–106

Pine, Max 104, 108, 147, 151, 166, 168, 175, 204, 206, 273, 276, 283, 299

Pionir der frayhayt (Pioneers of Liberty) 60–62, 64–66, 89

plasterers. See bricklayers, masons, plasterers

plumbers 312

pocketbook makers. See leather, pocketbook, purse, suitcase and trunk makers

Popkin and Marks (New York) 187–188

Powderly, Terence 36

Poylishe yidl, dos (The Polish Jew) 78, 101

pressers 30, 32, 52, 74, 86, 133, 136–139, 142, 149, 153–159, 161, 170, 181, 187, 192, 196–197, 201, 207–208, 210, 217–218, 228, 230, 232, 275, 279, 281, 304–305

Propaganda Verein (Propaganda Association) 51–52

Pullman Palace Car Company 107

purse makers. See leather, pocketbook, purse, suitcase and trunk makers

radio and aviation workers 313

Raevsky, Charles 55, 59, 137

railroad workers 4, 20, 85, 107

raincoat makers 212, 235–236

reefer makers 194, 195, 198, 202–204, 216, 258. See also jacket makers

repairers. See shoemakers and repairers

Robbins, Mrs Raymond 229

Rosenberg, Abraham 181, 190, 199, 202–204, 207, 209, 211, 218, 228

Rosenberg, W 81–82

Rosen Brothers (New York) 205

Rosenfeld, Morris 140, 257

Rothenberg, Charles 262

R. Sadowsky & Co. (New York) 201

Rusish-yidish arbeter ferayn (Russian-Jewish Workers’ Association) 5–6

Scheuer Brothers (New York) 267

Schevitsch, Sergei 46, 49–50

Schlesinger, Benjamin 115, 125, 192, 197–199, 201–202, 204–205, 213–214, 228–229, 232

Schneiderman, Rose 206

Schoen, Jacob 46, 56, 136, 180

S. Davis Company (New York) 98

seltzer workers 43, 76, 83, 99, 283

shirt makers 46, 53, 60–63, 80, 82–83, 95, 113–114, 120, 161–164, 194

shoemakers and repairers 34, 96, 292–295, 308. See also American Shoe Workers’ Union (ASWU); Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union (BSWU)

Simonson Cap Company (New York) 122

skirt makers 195–201, 210, 212, 216, 221, 228, 230, 232, 258

Smith, Alfred E. 238

Smith, Louis 46, 56, 136, 180

Social Democracy of America 6, 8, 61

Social-Democrats 6, 54, 59–61, 63, 82, 89–90, 93, 99, 101, 104, 107, 110–114, 185, 188, 191, 249, 265

Socialist International Congress (1st Congress of the Second International, Paris, 1889) 83, 91

Socialist International Congress (2nd Congress of the Second International, Brussels, 1891) 83

Socialist Labor Party (SLP) 3–6, 8, 40–41, 46, 50, 54, 55–56, 60–61, 63–64, 80–82, 83–84, 89–90, 92, 95–102, 105–108, 112–115, 119, 121, 123, 126, 128, 139, 150–151, 159–160, 171, 174, 182, 184–185, 188, 197, 265, 268, 279, 290, 301

Socialist Party 6, 8, 52, 61, 64, 100, 127, 139, 158, 169, 175, 183, 193, 197, 207–208, 210, 213, 216, 236, 258, 265–266, 290, 296

Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (STLA) 96–99, 101, 103, 122–123, 126–127, 192–193, 195

Stachelberg Cigar Company (New York) 18, 48

steel workers. See metal workers and machinists

Stevens, Uriah 35

Strasser, Adolph 40–42

Strawbridge and Clothier (Philadelphia) 114, 192

suit and vest makers 46, 134, 140–142, 158–161, 164–166, 172

suitcase makers. See leather, pocketbook, purse, suitcase and trunk makers

tailors 18, 30, 35, 44, 46–47, 52, 55, 69, 74, 80, 82, 87, 95–96, 98, 101, 106, 109–111, 113–115, 120, 128, 134–147, 152, 159, 165–166, 168, 179, 181–182, 187, 190, 194, 197–198, 201, 212, 216–218, 223, 235, 242, 248, 253, 277, 300, 304, 308, 311

tin workers 21, 22, 295–296, 313

Tog, der (The Day) 300

Triangle Shirtwaist Company (New York) 205–207

Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire 5, 8, 220–221, 255

trunk makers. See leather, pocketbook, purse, suitcase and trunk makers

Tsayt-gayst (Spirit of the Times) 6, 102

Tsukunft, di (The Future) 64, 100, 104, 227

typesetters and typographers 5, 34, 52, 56, 58, 76–79, 77–79, 81, 83, 91, 95, 99, 134. See also Hebrew-American Typographical Union (HATU)

Ulman & Co. (Baltimore) 179

United Cigar Stores (New York) 40

United Garment Workers of America (UGWA) 96, 113, 139–141, 146, 154, 156, 158, 159, 164–167, 170–171, 173, 190, 191, 203

United Hebrew Trades (UHT). See Fereynigte yidishe geverkshaftn (United Hebrew Trades, UHT)

United Leather Workers’ International Union (ULWIU) 271, 273

Varhayt (Thruth) 54, 62, 65, 89, 300

Veker, der (Alarm) 6

Vereinigte Deutsche 4–6, 73, 81–82

vest makers. See suit and vest makers Vladek, Borekh 209

waist, wrapper, kimono and buttonhole makers and embroidery workers 27, 95, 108–110, 128, 162, 165, 168, 170, 193–196, 203–207, 209–210, 218–224, 229–231, 248–249, 255–256, 272, 284

waiters 286–288

Weinstein Brothers (New York) 198

Winchevsky, Morris 58, 78, 101–102, 104–105, 301

Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) 165, 206, 223, 229

wood workers. See carpenters, joiners, furniture and wood workers

wrapper makers. See waist, wrapper, kimono and buttonhole makers and embroidery workers

writers. See newspaper writers

Yidishe gazetn, di (The Yiddish Gazette) 57, 77, 246

Yidisher arbeter ferayn (Jewish Workers’ Association) 5, 46–47, 55–57, 59, 69, 71, 76–77, 80, 89, 136, 180

Yidisher tageblat, dos (Daily Page) 246, 299

Yidishe velt, di (The Jewish World) 62, 300

Zametkin, Mikhail 60–62, 82, 84, 102, 104, 110–112, 120, 161, 185

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