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Science as Social Existence

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Jeff Kochan

Index

Texte intégral

a priori 163, 194–196, 199–200, 203, 242, 260
in science 65, 101, 182, 224, 227–228, 230, 245–246, 260, 298, 300, 336, 339. See also basic blueprint; Galilean First Thing; social imagery; world picture
sociology of 203–204, 216, 227, 263

absolute knowledge/truth 26–27, 47–48, 50, 102, 112, 114, 118, 120, 129–131, 134, 156, 159, 172–175, 178, 191, 209, 227, 264, 266–267, 288, 330

affectivity 11, 16, 134, 143–146, 148, 181–182, 184, 186–187, 194, 203, 213, 217–218, 262, 305, 375–376, 378. See also emotion, cognitive
and minimal realism 158, 357
and understanding 356–357, 371, 375–376, 378
as co-affectivity 358, 375–376, 378, 380. See also being-with-others
as fundamental aspect of subjectivity 142, 356–357

American Psychiatric Association 146

Amsterdamska, Olga 121

anxiety 11, 143–148, 357, 378. See also understanding, breakdown in

Apollo 15 moonwalk 298

Aristotle 7, 38, 60, 197, 267, 303, 349 and logic 12, 161–162, 164–170, 174, 176, 180, 182, 187, 191, 195, 199, 205, 223, 264, 305 doctrine of causes of 265, 270–275, 277–278, 288, 301, 325, 369

articulating, or articulation 13, 66–67, 90, 97, 112, 123, 162, 171, 179, 188, 190–191, 203, 231, 241, 252, 259, 266, 276, 304, 318, 333, 339.See also thematising, or thematisation and experimental science 355 and Newton’s First Law 293, 296, 300 of cognitive emotion 376

art-nature distinction 14, 269, 273, 276–277, 280–281, 300–301, 309, 345

assignedness 24, 201–202, 216, 275. See also Bewandtnis; cause, efficient; end-directedness; in-order-to relation; involvement

atheism 131

autonomy 42, 97–98, 171, 352, 367. See also freedom of the subject; freedom of the thing
of the subject 16, 32, 40, 80, 177, 185–187, 305, 350, 353, 367, 372
of the thing 14, 116, 118, 122, 134, 141, 294, 297–298, 300–301, 311, 318, 327–328, 367, 369–370, 377

Avagadro’s hypothesis 215

Averill, James 148

Azande of Central Africa 210–211, 213, 215, 217

Bambach, Charles 261

Barnes, Barry 16, 20, 24, 26, 33–34, 60, 94–95, 98–99, 114, 208–210, 216, 372– 373
on cognitive emotion 16, 375, 380
on intentionality 220
on realism 19, 27–30, 32, 35, 48, 70, 77–78
on teleological explanation 330

Bartels, Christoph 308–309

basic blueprint, or metaphysical ground plan 13–15, 243, 245–246, 257, 270, 282, 283, 293, 295, 298, 300–301, 310, 327–328, 330, 334, 336, 338, 340–342, 344–345, 360, 366, 369. See also Galilean First Thing; social imagery; world picture

basic independence thesis. See minimal realism, basic independence thesis of

Baudelaire, Charles 379

Befindlichkeit 142, 158. See also affectivity

being-in-the-world 23, 40, 43, 47–48, 50, 57, 59–60, 71, 78, 80, 84, 131, 134, 143, 145, 155, 351, 371
as fundamental aspect of subjectivity 9, 39, 42, 45–46, 49, 100, 142, 152, 206, 219, 356

being, meaning/question of 54–55, 73, 99, 167, 355–356

being-with-others 187, 305, 351, 357, 371–372, 375, 378
as fundamental aspect of subjectivity 12, 93, 142, 204, 206, 356, 371

Bewandtnis 24, 201, 237. See also assignedness; cause, efficient; end-directedness; in-order-to relation; involvement

Bijker, Wiebe E. 362

Blattner, William 302

blind entitlement 26, 32, 34

Bloor, David 15, 20–21, 27, 29, 33–35, 48, 60, 79–82, 94–95, 99, 105, 114, 126, 140, 208, 213, 245, 289, 328–329, 331–333, 335–337, 339. See also social imagery
in dispute with Latour 10, 111, 113, 115, 120–128, 135–140, 149, 353
on intentionality 218–221, 275
on logic/rules 209–218, 227, 357, 371
on scepticism 24–26, 31–32, 49
on teleological explanation 329–330

Boghossian, Paul 26

Boyle, Robert 14, 285–289, 311, 314–315, 318–319, 321–324, 326–327, 335–341, 344, 367, 377
as mathematical philosopher 286, 288, 327, 339
spring hypothesis of 316–321, 323–327, 337, 342, 344

Bracken, Patrick 146, 148

Bricmont, Jean 18, 22

Brown, James Robert 20

Burnyeat, Miles F. 370

Burtt, Edwin Arthur 330

Buskell, Andrew 123

calculating, or calculation 87, 233, 244, 264, 376

capitalism 306, 333–334

Cartwright, Nancy 303

Casaubon, Méric 338

Cassirer, Ernst 330

cause, efficient 265–266, 270–271, 273, 275, 277, 279, 312, 318–321, 325. See also in-order-to relation relation to final cause of 281, 292

cause, final 269, 275, 283, 296, 305, 329. See also for-the-sake-of-which relation and the art-nature distinction 269, 272, 277
as regulating a practice/process 239–240, 244–245, 268, 270–271, 275–276, 278, 280–281, 283, 292, 295–296, 300, 312, 325, 327, 360, 367, 369–370, 378
in early-modern (experimental) science 13–14, 231, 269, 282, 288, 292, 300, 312, 318, 320, 326–327, 345, 360
relation to formal cause of 271–272, 276, 279, 292

cause, formal 252, 265–266, 270, 275, 279. See also what-being, or whatness relation to final cause of 271–273, 276, 279

cause, material 75, 81, 89, 160, 165, 171, 177, 273, 279–280, 300, 307, 321

change-over. See understanding, change-over in

Charleton, Walter 343

Christianity 38–39, 74–75, 115, 164, 171, 176–177, 337, 349. See also God (Christian) doctrine of salvation of 172, 177, 191, 209

Code, Lorraine 381

Collins, Harry M. 17, 20, 24, 26, 98–99, 136, 139, 208, 362
and methodological idealism 34–35, 48, 50, 97

community, and communality 84–86, 114, 163, 187, 202, 207, 311–312, 328, 337, 357, 361, 374, 377, 379

complacency, epistemological 25–26, 31–34, 36, 49

conceptual scheme. See logical conception of science

conservative thought 331, 333–335

constancy of the thing 301, 303, 305–306. See also uniformity, of the thing

constructivity 115, 122, 133–134, 137, 139–141, 143, 150, 159, 181–182, 189–191, 202, 227, 234, 352–353, 357, 380. See also understanding and finitude 143–144, 148–149, 182–183, 354
and receptivity 133, 136, 138, 142, 158, 160, 181, 183, 196, 258, 356
as intentionality 159

contingency, and dependency 2, 7, 16, 26, 36, 40, 55, 67, 69–70, 78, 85, 91, 94, 98, 114, 123, 141, 144, 152, 156, 159, 173, 178, 181, 188, 190–191, 193, 205, 208, 218, 227, 245, 256, 263, 278, 286, 296, 298, 300, 312, 326, 330, 342, 345, 361, 375–376

craft analogy. See demiurge; productionist metaphysics

craftsman thesis of Edgar Zilsel 290, 306

Crease, Robert P. 89

crisis of European science (Weimar period) 154, 223

Crombie, Alistair C. 248

cultural studies of scientific knowledge 103

cybernetics, or systems theory 15, 364–367, 374

Dalton, John 214

Dasein 39–40, 43, 60, 69–70, 75–76, 80, 84, 128, 131, 142, 158, 202–204, 257, 305, 330, 356–357. See also subjectivity of the subject

das Man (the ‘they’) 206–207, 213. See also being-with-others; groups, including status groups

Daston, Lorraine 42

Dear, Peter 13, 264–267, 270–271, 277–280, 282, 285, 290

de Bruyckere, Anna 84

deconstruction 6–7, 78, 97, 127, 156, 350–351, 363, 374

deductive inference 3, 190–191, 227, 264, 288

defining, or making definite 146 of knowledge/thinking/understanding 38, 104, 114, 222, 242, 249, 268, 304, 311, 337, 345, 349, 375
of nature/things 66, 73, 168, 198, 207, 228, 232, 259, 265, 270, 272, 295, 299, 311, 316, 334, 369

deliberative behaviour/thinking 151, 220, 224, 231, 236, 239, 241, 273, 275

demiurge, Plato’s image of 74, 163, 166, 169, 171, 180, 187, 194–196, 202, 204, 242, 261–262, 297, 303, 305. See also productionist metaphysics

demystification 101, 195, 374

Denkstil 248

Descartes, René 7, 12, 128, 161–162, 171–179, 184, 186–187, 191, 196–197, 209, 222–223, 263, 304–305, 318, 348–349

describing, or description 35, 81, 83, 87, 97, 105, 121, 135–136, 138, 148, 157, 170, 218, 242, 310, 334, 341, 376
and explanation 3, 194, 263, 335

determining, or making determinate 40, 47, 243, 250. See also underdetermination thesis of knowledge/thinking/understanding 13, 104, 114, 118, 137, 164, 168, 170, 173–175, 183–184, 190, 200, 202, 205, 208, 223, 239, 241–242, 244, 246, 252–254, 259, 276, 284–285, 310, 312, 328, 339–340, 365, 371, 375
of nature/things 39, 61, 65–67, 72–73, 89–90, 92–93, 143, 150, 158, 162, 166, 168–171, 174–175, 178–179, 189, 192, 220, 225, 232–233, 236, 256, 264, 266, 277, 287, 295, 298–299, 302, 306, 348, 370

Dijksterhuis, Eduard Jan 330

directedness of the subject 12, 39, 89, 105, 153, 159–160, 181, 186–187, 219, 276, 330, 354, 357, 369.See also intentionality

disambiguating 182, 310–312, 316

disciplining 229, 246, 251–252, 255, 301, 310–311, 342, 355

disclosing. See revealing, or disclosing

dogmatism 27, 200, 226, 228–230

Douglas, Mary 212–213

Dreyfus, Hubert L. 142

Durkheim, Émile 114, 121–122, 127

Edinburgh School in SSK 1, 18–19, 21

emotion, cognitive 184–185, 377, 380–381, 383–384. See also affectivity phenomenology of 145, 147–148, 184–186, 194, 196, 262, 305, 357, 362, 371
sociology of 16, 148, 206, 375–377, 379–380

empiricism 2, 13, 21, 57, 65–66, 82, 116–117, 163, 182, 226–229, 231, 235, 246, 261, 264, 268, 300, 325–326, 363– 364
in Renaissance natural philosophy 230, 255, 266–267

end-directedness 24, 201, 237–244, 246, 268, 270–275, 281, 283–284, 301, 328, 344, 369, 378. See also assignedness; Bewandtnis; cause, efficient; in-order-to relation; involvement

enframing 15, 359–364, 366, 368, 373, 377, 379
and cognitive emotion 378

Enlightenment 331–335, 338

equipment, and tool-use 61–62, 71, 199, 293. See also readiness-to-hand, and ready-to-hand and equipmental breakdowns. See understanding, breakdown in in experimental science 67, 292 phenomenological structure of 200–201, 244, 274. See also for-the-sake-of-which relation; in-order-to relation
versus objects, and observation 75, 202, 219

essence-existence distinction 10, 39, 54–55, 58, 72, 74, 84, 86, 89, 93, 99, 102, 115, 130, 137, 139, 158, 160, 355

essence of a thing 10–11, 14, 55, 70, 72–74, 82, 86, 91, 115, 132, 143, 158, 238, 258, 272, 294, 298–299, 369. See also what-being, or whatness

Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evan 210–213, 217

evidence, and self-evidence 18–19, 21, 31, 33, 145, 169, 188, 226, 254, 259, 298, 337
deconstruction of 37–38, 44, 73, 162, 190, 232
sociology of 19, 21–22, 124, 210, 324

exactitude, and making exact 82, 228, 310. See also specifying, or making specific

existence of a thing 10–11, 47, 49, 55, 60, 63, 70, 72–74, 82, 85, 89, 93, 115, 117, 130, 134, 137, 144, 158. See also minimal realism, basic independence thesis of; that-being, or thatness

existential conception of science 1, 7–8, 56, 59–61, 64, 66, 68, 70, 84, 98, 100–101, 153, 192, 196, 231, 235, 245, 255–256, 350, 354, 379

experience 3, 8, 27, 70, 164, 168, 173, 205, 233, 251–252, 255, 261, 264, 282, 333, 335, 364, 366. See also work-world, and work experiences
and emotion 73, 144–146, 148, 184, 203, 263, 362, 371, 376
and metaphysics 13–14, 89–90, 175, 189, 268, 284–285, 287
in modern (experimental) science 256, 295–297, 301–302, 304, 309, 318, 345, 355–356, 360
of time 197–200, 203, 260
phenomenology of 11, 15, 23, 32–33, 37, 40, 43, 48, 60–63, 66, 75, 80, 82, 141, 144, 161, 180, 182, 197, 202, 220, 240–241, 243, 253, 258, 262, 272, 274, 334, 355–356, 369, 371, 373
sociology of 82, 141, 204–205, 259, 263, 306, 355, 374, 378

experimental practice 19, 67, 87, 92, 232–233, 245, 255, 277, 281, 288, 301–303, 306, 308, 311, 348, 351, 356, 361. See also practice
and final causes 269
and material things 84–85, 89, 235, 306, 308, 310, 355
and mathematical/metaphysical projection 65, 89, 235, 287, 298–299, 303, 310, 352
relation to theory of 33, 86, 124, 221, 246, 268, 286, 310, 352
sociology of 21, 124, 127, 221, 356, 363
two-fold aim of 301, 310

experiment, early-modern 14, 161, 175, 264, 268, 278–280, 289, 292, 298, 313, 338, 356
and artisanal culture 289–290, 306– 309
and final causes 14, 231, 277, 282, 288, 300, 320, 325–327, 345
and mathematical/metaphysical projection (Galilean First Thing) 14, 256, 261, 269, 287, 294, 297–298, 309, 327, 336–338, 344, 360, 367, 377
and mathematics 282, 285–287, 345
and the art-nature distinction 269, 277, 281, 300–301, 309, 345
and the Boyle-Line dispute 314–327, 336–338, 342–344, 377
sociology of 311–312, 316, 337, 377

expertise. See skill

explaining, or explanation 4–5, 19, 29, 33, 95, 99, 101–102, 121, 136, 149, 160, 247, 258, 271, 280–281, 291, 293, 302, 352, 369. See also operational explanation; sociological explanation; teleological explanation and description 3, 194, 263, 335 in science 93, 120, 265, 270, 293, 298–299
in the Boyle-Line dispute 318–320, 322–324, 327–328, 337, 344

facts, and facticity 1, 47, 65, 71, 89, 131, 149, 233, 245–246, 281–282, 294, 311–312, 318, 331, 376. See also matters of fact in early-modern experimental practice

Falcon, Andrea 272

Feenberg, Andrew 362, 366

Fell, Joseph 72, 143

female Earth, ancient notion of 341

feminist science studies 103–104, 341–342
compatibility with SSK of 104
on cognitive emotion 185, 381

feudalism 306, 333–335, 337

finitism 114–115, 217

finitude 11, 38, 62, 113–115, 117, 122, 130–131, 133–134, 151, 155, 157–158, 178, 181, 183–184, 204, 208, 223, 256, 258, 338, 353
and anxiety 149
and constructivity 133, 140–141, 146, 149–150, 184, 254, 259, 354
and humility 117, 126, 129, 133, 140, 144, 150, 178, 380
and minimal realism 113, 140, 149–150, 158, 354
and the need for method 251, 257–260
and the thing-in-itself 112, 114, 117, 129, 131, 133–134, 144, 150, 354

Fleck, Ludwik 185, 248, 382

Forlì, Jacopo da 248–249, 251, 265

formalising, or formalisation 7, 128, 157, 166, 170, 212, 216, 220, 223, 241, 245, 275, 370. See also articulating, or articulation and Newton’s First Law of Motion 14, 293, 296, 299–300, 367
of informal knowledge/understanding 12–13, 123, 127, 156, 159, 176, 187, 190–191, 205, 231, 253, 304, 355
of informal rules 196, 198, 209–210, 241

Forman, Paul 154

for-the-sake-of-which relation 201–202, 239–240, 262, 268, 271–275, 281, 283, 296, 305, 309, 369, 376. See also cause, final
in the Boyle-Line dispute 318, 320. See also Galilean First Thing sociology of 203, 216–217, 244–245

Foucault, Michel 234

fourfold. See things, fourfold structure of

freedom of the subject 62, 130, 161, 177–178, 182–185, 188, 190–192, 216, 252, 260, 352, 354, 367, 373, 380

freedom of the thing 65, 113, 119, 146, 148–149, 294, 303, 308, 317–318, 327

Freud, Sigmund 145

Friedman, Michael 181, 263, 330

funiculus. See Line, Francis, thread hypothesis of

Galen of Pergamon 13, 225–226, 228–230, 246, 252, 261

Galilean First Thing 14, 297–298, 300–301, 303, 305, 309, 313, 322, 327–329, 333, 336, 338, 340–341, 343–344, 352, 356–357, 360, 366, 369, 373–374, 376–378. See also basic blueprint; social imagery; world picture

Galileo 14, 175, 223, 263–264, 288, 291, 297, 347
free-fall experiment of 293–294, 298
principle of inertia of 294, 300, 306

Galison, Peter 42

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis 214–215, 221

German Idealism 134

German Observatory in Hamburg 198

Ginev, Dimitri 55–56, 58, 101–102, 105, 302

glass-bulb model of subjectivity 37, 44, 49, 78, 152, 222. See also subject-object distinction as fuel for scepticism 32, 43–44, 48, 82, 100, 112, 130
SSK’s residual adherence to 35–36, 48, 50, 77–78, 83, 100

Glazebrook, Trish 55–57, 107, 296, 301

God (Christian) 39, 171–172, 177, 254, 258
and productionist metaphysics 74, 115, 134, 171, 173, 338
and the subjectivity of the subject 38, 112–114, 117, 120, 129–131, 133–134, 156–157, 171, 173, 178, 254, 258– 259
sociology of 114–115

gods 369–370
and cognitive emotion 371
and science 370
sociology of 370–371

Goffman, Erving 376

good, idea of the 12, 27, 163, 166, 180, 194–195, 202, 216, 242, 262, 271, 375–377, 379–380

governing, or governedness 147, 369 of knowledge/thinking/understanding 12–13, 15, 35, 42, 44, 91, 153, 167, 175, 179–180, 182–184, 187–190, 194, 196, 199, 204, 208–209, 217, 241–242, 304, 328, 374
of nature/society 16, 252, 258, 276, 280–281, 296–297, 301, 305, 328, 364, 371– 372
of scientific practice 13, 233, 242, 260, 281, 301–302

ground plan. See basic blueprint

groups, including status groups 1, 16, 79, 105, 207, 218–219, 332, 340, 372, 375–377, 379, 381

guiding, or guidedness 184, 186, 191, 195, 218, 242, 329, 357, 370
of knowledge/thinking/understanding 12–14, 26, 160, 162–163, 165, 170–171, 174, 177, 184, 189, 193–194, 196, 205, 217, 262, 283, 313, 329, 332, 360, 371
of nature/things 165, 170–171, 177, 292, 296, 306, 325, 360, 373
of scientific practice 170, 229, 242, 247, 252, 254, 268, 285–286, 297, 300, 326, 328, 330, 336, 339, 344, 355, 363

Hacking, Ian 28, 152

Heelan, Patrick 155

Heidegger and First World War combat veterans 147

Heidegger on sociology 179, 206–208

Heidegger’s hammer 238–240, 293

Heisenberg, Werner 15, 347, 349, 351, 355

Henry, John 27, 29, 31, 33–35, 48, 60, 94

hermeneutic circle 189, 192, 242

hermeneutics 57–59, 83–84, 86, 90, 93, 99, 101, 137. See also interpreting, and interpretation

historicity of the subject 204

historiography of science 13, 153, 205, 223, 231, 245, 260, 268–269, 276, 281–282, 285, 289, 309, 329–330, 376

Howson, Colin 227

human being, meaning/question of 2, 6, 38, 75, 82, 130, 155, 177–178, 188, 206, 217, 332, 349, 353, 365

humility 120, 122, 134, 140, 143, 181 and minimal realism 113,140
in response to finitude 11, 113, 117, 126, 129, 133, 140, 144, 149–150, 178, 380

Husserl, Edmund 154–155

Huygens, Christiaan 323

idealism 29, 36, 43, 48, 50, 126, 139, 149, 354
attributed to SSK 4, 9, 76
Heidegger’s critique of 10, 43, 45–46, 51, 68–69, 134
SSK’s rejection of 28, 30, 35–36

imagination 6, 254, 276, 290, 350, 353, 363
phenomenology of 161–162, 180–181, 183–184, 196
sociology of 204, 209

incomprehensibility. See meaninglessness/unintelligibility/incomprehensibility

indefinite/indeterminate knowledge/nature 75, 77, 81, 133, 137, 141, 143, 146, 149–150, 236, 239, 241, 244, 246, 252, 268, 283–285, 378

individuals, and individualism 4, 8, 20, 32, 79, 113, 122–123, 127, 149, 168, 172, 174, 176–178, 180–181, 184, 186–187, 201, 203–204, 206, 209, 217–220, 229, 232, 239, 254, 284, 304–305, 311, 317, 327, 329, 331, 335, 341, 365, 367, 372, 374, 376

informal knowledge/understanding 12–13, 58, 153, 157, 169, 209–210, 212, 216–218, 220, 230–231, 241, 245, 354

in-order-to relation 201, 216, 244–245, 274. See also assignedness; Bewandtnis; cause, efficient; end-directedness; involvement

instituting, or institutionalisation 1, 148, 211, 215–217, 219, 341–342

intellectus agens 254, 258–259

intelligibility 12, 167, 169, 195, 201, 262, 360, 371, 376, 378. See also making sense
in science 240, 246, 268–269, 277, 285, 294, 296, 300, 310, 312, 318, 360
of nature/things 55, 64–65, 67, 71–72, 89, 159, 169, 180, 189, 205, 209, 259, 275, 281, 306, 359, 373 sociology of 209, 244, 294

intentionality 153, 159–160, 187, 222 and SSK 218, 220–221, 275
as relating thinking to things 153, 159–160, 162, 187, 219– 220
naturalised account of 13, 123, 157, 219, 222, 275, 330

interactionist social theory 16, 372–375

interpreting, or interpretation 41, 66, 75, 83–85, 90–91, 93, 139, 165, 181, 189, 191, 241, 257–258
and minimal realism 28, 36, 44, 46–47, 49, 70, 79
in science 67, 82, 124–125, 138, 171, 260, 294, 321, 325–326

of nature/things 61, 85, 137, 141, 166
of subjectivity 32, 38, 174, 366. See also glass-bulb model of subjectivity
of thinking/understanding 162, 166, 190, 193, 209, 223, 264
sociology of 127, 135

intraworldliness. See presence-at-hand, and present-at-hand, within-the-world

involvement 24, 40, 42–43, 45, 47–48, 57, 61–62, 64–65, 80, 88, 100, 137, 143, 152, 192, 200–201, 220, 237. See also assignedness; Bewandtnis; cause, efficient; end-directedness; in-order-to relation

Jagger, Alison 185

Jardine, Nicholas 254

Jünger, Ernst 147

Kahn, Charles 74

Kant, Immanuel 7, 111, 120, 142, 158, 160, 181, 184, 258–259, 348
and cognitive emotion 185–186, 305, 357
doctrine of the thing-in-itself of 11, 112–120, 126–129, 131–134, 137, 149–150, 353
on logic/thinking 12, 161–162, 175–176, 178–181, 183–188, 193–194, 196, 203–204, 209, 217, 253, 305
subject-object distinction of 120–123, 128, 130, 135, 353

Kitcher, Philip 18

Klein, Ursula 307, 309

Knorr-Cetina, Karin D. 302

Kockelmans, Joseph J. 155

Kohler, Robert 302

Koyré, Alexandre 13, 261–263, 267, 290, 330

Kuhn, Thomas 81, 96, 285–287, 331–332, 335, 345

Kusch, Martin 126, 222

laboratory science. See experiment, early-modern; experimental practice

Langton, Rae 11, 112–114, 116–119, 124, 126, 129, 131–133, 135, 137, 141, 150

Latour, Bruno 11, 111, 121, 123, 126–127, 136–140, 150, 353, 363
criticism of Heidegger 53
criticism of SSK 113, 115, 120–122, 125–126, 128, 135–136, 149, 353
pragmatic idealism of 139, 149, 354

laws of nature. See rules/laws of nature

letting things be 165, 209, 237, 240, 244, 283, 360, 369–370, 378
in experimental science 14, 246, 298, 345, 355, 360. See also releasing
sociology of 259, 306

Lewens, Tim 126

liberal criticism of SSK 350–354

light, illumination, and sun 89, 163, 195, 202, 205, 242, 254, 264, 359–360

Line, Francis (Franciscus Linus) 14, 288, 311, 316, 318, 321, 323, 335, 337, 339, 343–344, 377
and the horror vacui 321–322, 324, 342
as mathematician 345
as mechanician 343
thread hypothesis of 319–325, 327–328, 337, 342–344
logic 154, 156, 162.See also rules of reason
as grounded in metaphysics 156, 179, 188, 190, 192–195, 241, 261
as science of the rules of reason 11, 159, 166, 179, 190, 192–193, 198, 208, 241–242
in Renaissance natural philosophy 230, 251
phenomenological history of 12, 153, 159, 161, 166, 169, 179, 181, 183, 188, 191, 195, 216, 223
sociology of 3, 12, 204–205, 209, 211–212, 214–215, 217, 221, 356

logical conception of science 66, 104, 153, 196, 340
existential foundation of 59, 65–66, 68, 102, 192

logic of discovery 230, 251, 256, 259

logos 165–170, 175, 180, 187, 191, 195, 205, 264

looking, and the look of a thing 41, 44, 61, 64–65, 162, 220. See also light, illumination, and sun

lore 204, 209–210, 218

making sense 33, 44, 82, 115, 132–133, 141, 143–144, 148, 181, 189, 203, 257, 263, 294, 354–355, 373. See also intelligibility
in experimental science 310
or failing to do so 148, 378. See also understanding, breakdown in sociology of 209, 259

manipulating, or manipulation 6, 14, 67, 87, 152, 200, 202, 234, 266, 284–285, 291, 307, 309, 372. See also cause, efficient
and final causes 281, 300, 309, 360
in early-modern (experimental) science 235, 269, 279–280, 286, 289–290, 300–301, 309, 360

Mannheim, Karl 331–335

manufacturing 14, 307, 309, 369

material, or matter. See cause, material

mathematical essentialism/existentialism 101

mathematical projection of nature 57–58, 65–66, 88–90, 231, 233, 289, 294. See also basic blueprint; metaphysical projection of the thingness of things; projecting, or projection
and co-affectivity 378
and Newton’s First Law of Motion 295–296, 299, 306
as existential ground for both theory and practice 57–58, 89, 101, 284, 352, 357. See also theory-practice distinction
in early-modern (experimental) science 256, 268, 285, 297, 300, 302, 309–310

mathematicising, or mathematicisation 174, 255, 260–261, 295, 327, 339. See also mathematical projection of nature; mathēsis
of knowledge/thinking/understanding 13, 162, 171–172, 175–176, 209, 223, 231, 262, 264, 297, 301, 304
of nature/things 65, 176, 282, 284, 288, 298, 300, 310, 345, 370

mathematics 14, 57, 65, 67, 102, 154, 161, 172–173, 175, 177, 191, 255, 261–263, 267, 277, 282, 286–287, 303, 308, 313, 316, 345
and experimental practice 285–287, 297–298, 300–301, 328, 339, 345
Aristotelian, or mixed 263–265, 267, 269, 277, 279–280, 285

mathēsis 231, 233–237, 239, 241–242, 244, 246, 248, 257, 262, 269, 281–282, 284, 287, 291, 347, 357
and basic blueprint, or final cause 243, 245–246, 283–284, 288, 295, 360
and Boyle’s experimental practice 286–288. See also Boyle, Robert, as mathematical philosopher and normativity/co-affectivity 234, 378

and regressus 247, 255–256, 258, 269, 280, 295, 300
as reciprocal relation between metaphysics and experience 234–235, 270, 289, 291
sociology of 245

matters of fact in early-modern experimental practice 89, 309, 321 sociology of 311–312, 316, 326, 337

Mayr, Otto 366–367

McGuire, James 204

McManus, Denis 86

meaning 54, 75, 99, 114, 146, 167, 170, 180, 189, 216, 287, 314, 371, 374
and existence 85, 90–91, 99, 352
of practices/processes 195, 197, 200, 268, 273–275, 280–282, 292, 300, 325
of things 55, 63–64, 66–67, 141, 143–144, 180, 217, 245, 275, 298, 306, 318, 355, 360, 369

meaninglessness/unintelligibility/incomprehensibility 71, 73, 86, 89, 141, 144, 146, 148, 185, 254, 275, 296, 322, 324, 326, 351, 378

measure (noun) 243–246, 253, 260, 268, 282–286, 295, 313, 341–342, 344, 360, 370, 377–378

measuring, and measurement 34, 65, 67, 89, 197, 214, 233, 245, 264, 281–282, 308, 310–311

mechanical philosophy 277, 315, 318, 340, 342–343
versus organic philosophy 342

Merchant, Carolyn 341

metallurgy, influence on experimental science 14, 308–309

metaphysical projection of the thingness of things 178–179, 189, 224, 232, 257, 259, 310, 370. See also projecting, or projection

in science 170, 175, 234, 240, 247, 257, 268, 270, 282, 284, 286, 291, 293–295, 298–300, 306, 336, 344, 357, 360. See also mathematical projection of nature
reciprocal relation to work experiences of 13, 234, 268, 289, 291. See also work-world, and work experiences

metaphysics 134, 170, 262–263. See also metaphysical projection of the thingness of things; productionist metaphysics
and experience 13, 175, 189, 235, 268, 287. See also work-world, and work experiences
as grounded in finitude 133–134, 257, 260, 263
as grounding logic 179, 188, 192, 194– 195
in early-modern experimental science 287, 325–326

method 1, 21, 56, 67, 226, 230, 246, 289, 306–307, 334, 348–351, 361
as mathēsis 256, 258–259, 262, 310
in Renaissance natural philosophy 247, 249–256, 258–261, 263, 267, 299

metrology 287

Millikan-Ehrenhaft dispute (oil-drop experiment) 34, 124–125, 135, 138–139

mind-body distinction 23, 31, 152, 174, 352

minimal realism 10, 51, 53, 58, 72, 93, 104–105, 111, 113, 158, 259, 354, 357
and finitude 140, 149, 354
and SSK 28–29, 50, 76–78, 82–83, 100, 117, 124, 128, 149
as compatible with Heidegger’s critique of realism 47, 51, 53, 56, 69, 72, 76, 93, 100, 102, 113. See also realism, Heidegger’s critique of basic independence thesis of 56, 58, 70, 72, 76–79, 81–83, 85, 90–91, 100, 113, 128, 140, 149, 151, 158, 355
relation to scientific realism of 28–29, 56, 69, 77

modernity 5–6, 361

mortality, and mortals 3, 133, 157, 178, 261, 368. See also finitude

motion 167, 197, 266, 293–295, 297–298, 306, 311, 318, 326. See also cause, efficient; Newton, Issac, First Law of Motion
and final causes 271, 274, 276–278, 280, 288, 292, 295–296, 318, 325, 327
and formal causes 270–271, 276, 292
and the art-nature distinction 272–273, 277

Mumford, Lewis 366

natural attitude 33–36, 138

naturalism 2–4, 12, 20–22, 95, 113–115, 122–123, 149, 157, 262, 275

Newton, Isaac 175, 223, 285, 288, 347, 370
First Law of Motion 14, 292, 294, 296, 299–300, 306, 367

Nieli, Russell 145

Nifo, Agostino 249, 251, 266–267, 299

non-contradiction, principle of 175, 182, 209, 304, 370. See also rules of reason
and the subjectivity of the subject 175, 178–179, 181
sociology of 210–215, 217, 221

non-deliberative/non-propositional understanding/behaviour 3, 12, 32, 66, 151, 153, 156–157, 192–193, 198, 204, 219–220, 236, 273, 275, 330, 336, 343, 356, 380
normativity 195, 364
and affectivity/co-affectivity/cognitive emotion 3, 194, 357, 371, 376, 378, 380
and the subjectivity of the subject 366
in science 234, 242, 253–254, 260, 376
of rules 3, 196, 217
sociology of 3, 79, 95, 217–218, 244, 371–374

Norris, Christopher 18

Norton, John D. 18

objecthood of the object 46–47, 68, 132, 137, 144

objectifying. See thematising

objectivity 3, 5, 42, 79, 180–181, 227–229, 246, 262, 301, 309, 330, 348–349, 364

O’Brien, Tim 146

observing, or observation 41, 69, 72, 78, 81–82, 163, 202, 227, 233, 235, 247, 256–257, 259, 264, 290, 298–300, 315, 348, 355
and cognitive emotion 185
in science 65, 67, 226, 229–230, 246, 249, 251, 254–255, 258, 297–298, 300

ontological difference 55

ontology as phenomenology 45, 179, 181, 205, 294

operational explanation 265, 267, 270, 279, 281, 284, 290, 307–308, 312, 319–321, 324. See also cause, efficient

ordering, and order 146, 177, 195, 202, 234, 292, 300, 360, 362
of experience/understanding 148, 177, 180–181, 203, 281, 306, 371–372, 378
of nature/society 146, 148, 265, 276, 286, 292, 295, 301, 309–310, 312, 324, 326–327, 333, 337, 341, 359, 361, 367, 372, 376, 379

organising, or organisation 167–169 of art/nature/society 272–275, 300, 306, 332, 340–341, 365, 367, 374–375, 377
of experience/understanding 1, 12, 16, 42, 66, 163, 174, 206, 222, 287, 300, 306, 313, 331, 376

paradox of the heap (sorites) 225–230, 370

patterns in behaviour/thinking 96, 145, 148, 150, 156, 206, 215, 217–218, 222, 225–227, 306, 316, 325

Paul of Venice 249

perceiving, or perception 41, 45, 64, 117, 132, 171, 211, 219, 235, 331

phenomenology 3, 22, 33, 58, 75, 78, 83, 154–156, 200, 370, 377
and minimal realism 58, 78, 82, 93
and SSK 8, 24, 33–34, 48, 58, 78, 80, 82–83, 100, 113, 138, 157, 205, 208, 212, 222, 351, 357, 371, 373
of subjectivity 8–9, 15, 23, 36–37, 39–40, 45, 48, 50, 60, 62, 100, 147, 157, 187, 205–206, 354, 356, 364, 371, 373. See also subjectivity of the subject

Pickering, Andrew 366

Pinch, Trevor 362–363

placing things 178, 359–360. See also letting things be
Aristotelian placement 265, 270, 276, 292–293, 360
in modern (experimental) science 278, 293, 295–297, 302–303, 309, 327, 345, 360
placement as enframing/ poiēsis 359–360, 366

Plato 7, 12, 156, 161–164, 195–196, 202–203, 205, 216, 262, 376. See also demiurge, Plato’s image of

poetry 182, 205, 260, 359, 370. See also poiēsis

poiēsis 359–362, 364, 366

Popkin, Richard H. 25

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). See anxiety

Potter, Elizabeth 342

practice 8, 11, 83, 87, 92, 99, 103, 151, 197, 203, 290, 307, 309, 330, 369, 373. See also experimental practice
and mathematical/metaphysical projection 65, 101, 243, 258, 268–269, 282, 284, 289, 345, 360
and minimal realism 28, 36, 70, 76, 79, 86, 90, 92–93, 139, 149
and normativity 242–244, 260, 378
as constitutive of essence/meaning 86, 91–92, 143
as grounded in existence 57, 67–68, 89, 105, 352, 356
phenomenology of 201–202, 205, 212, 219–220, 235, 237, 242, 244, 247, 258, 275–276, 356
relation to theory of 56, 67–68, 86, 88–89, 96, 101, 152, 183, 211, 213, 285, 290–292, 335
sociology of 5, 94–96, 98, 104–105, 204, 208, 210–212, 216, 218, 244–245, 260, 268, 312, 329–332, 335, 340, 353–354, 361, 370, 379

practice-based accounts of science 6, 10, 57–58, 94, 291, 340, 379

precision, and making precise 264, 288, 310
of knowledge/thinking/understanding 164, 168–169, 178, 183, 195, 230–231, 244, 250, 276, 299, 310, 348–349, 351
of nature/things 67, 165–166, 198, 228, 266, 308, 310–312

presence-at-hand, and present-at-hand 39, 60–61, 63, 68, 71, 87–88, 198, 207
different meanings of 72, 143
within-the-world 64, 68, 71, 73, 75, 80–81, 86, 89–90, 93, 134, 158–159, 192, 200, 240, 293
without-the-world 71, 73, 75–76, 89–90
world misconstrued in terms of 40, 45–46, 49

priming, sociological 216, 245

productionist metaphysics 75, 81, 160, 163, 165, 171, 180, 194–195, 275, 291, 306, 359. See also demiurge, Plato’s image of
in early-modern science 242, 306, 309

productive comportment 73, 75, 159–160, 197, 224, 339

projecting, or projection 64, 69, 72, 77, 80, 131–133, 137, 141–142, 144, 155, 158–159, 188, 190, 202, 242, 257–258, 275, 284, 339, 355, 357, 359, 372–373, 378

propositional knowledge/thinking 41–42, 44, 61, 64, 66, 73, 79, 104, 151, 182, 219–220, 222, 276, 355
as grounded in non-propositional understanding 43–44, 46, 68, 192, 218, 356
deconstruction of 12, 153, 156–157, 161, 166, 174, 191, 223, 311
relation to thing as property-bearing substance of 153, 157, 159–160, 162, 193, 234

Psillos, Stathis 28

quantifying, or quantification 65, 67, 89, 101, 197, 243, 264, 284

Randall, John Herman, Jr 247–248, 251–252, 255, 261, 263, 267, 291

rationalising, or rationalisation 30, 230, 308–309, 333, 335, 370

rationalism 13, 153, 227, 231, 235, 246, 261, 263–264, 266–268, 300, 333–338

rationality of science 2, 21–22, 103, 120, 185, 365

readiness-to-hand, and ready-to-hand 61, 63–64, 69–71, 75, 86, 158–159, 200, 237–238, 274, 283
and non-deliberative/non-propositional understanding 66, 192–193, 199
in science 88–89, 240, 244, 293

realism 10, 28–29, 31, 50, 55–56, 58–59, 70, 77, 83, 85, 90, 93, 115, 136–137, 139–140, 149. See also minimal realism
Heidegger’s critique of 10, 43, 45–46, 51, 68–69, 72
SSK’s minimalist endorsement of 23, 28–32, 34–35, 47, 51, 70, 76–77, 80, 97, 102, 128, 149, 356. See also minimal realism, and SSK
weakness of SSK’s realism 29–31, 33–34, 36, 43, 48–50, 76–78, 81, 83, 114, 140

reality 4, 17–18, 27, 35–36, 45–46, 48, 77–78, 80, 82, 98, 177, 341, 363, 374
and appearance 29–31, 43
as less fundamental than the real 44, 46, 69–73. See also real things, or the real name for world projected as object 44, 46, 69–70, 80, 374

real things, or the real 59, 68, 76, 112, 163, 195. See also presence-at-hand without-the-world
as more fundamental than reality 44, 46, 69–73

receptivity 116–117, 124, 131–132, 134–135, 137–138, 142–143, 158, 181–182, 186–187, 196, 262, 298, 355, 357, 371–372. See also affectivity
and constructivity 132, 136, 138, 142, 158, 160, 182–184, 196, 258, 356

reflexivity, SSK tenet of 156, 208

regressus 248–250, 253–255, 257, 259, 261, 265–267
and mathēsis 255–256, 258, 269, 280, 295, 300

regulating, and regularity 89, 217–218, 243, 273, 278, 299, 364, 368, 374
and final causes 243–244, 246, 271, 275–276, 292, 295–296, 325, 327, 360, 370
in experimental practice 300, 306, 310, 312, 327

reifying, or reification 96–98, 104, 372

relativism 25, 28–30, 47, 85. See also contingency, and dependency

releasing things 303, 308
in experimental science 14, 302, 308, 317, 326, 345

reliability of knowledge/method 3, 195, 208, 229–230, 242, 246–247, 260, 292, 299, 306–307, 311, 336, 345

revealing, or disclosing 7, 12, 65, 71, 87, 190, 260, 334, 359–360, 373
and cybernetics 363, 366
and experimental science 301, 310, 361–362

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg 153, 339

Romanticism 331–335, 338

Rorty, Richard 94, 101

Rouse, Joseph 11, 58, 76, 83–84, 92–93, 101–103, 351, 353
conflation of existence with essence/meaning 10, 55, 72, 85, 89–91, 137, 139
criticism of Heidegger 10, 56–57, 86–89, 93, 101–102, 352
criticism of SSK 10, 57, 94–99, 101, 104, 352–353, 373

rules/laws of nature 278–279, 293, 312, 364, 367– 368
and experimental science 297, 299, 301, 306, 311, 327, 360
and the principle of inertia (First Law of Motion) 294, 297, 300, 303, 306
as final cause 246, 271, 276, 280–281, 292, 295, 325
as projected 294, 296, 298–299, 301, 306. See also mathematical projection of nature

rules of reason 26, 172, 216, 242, 262, 264, 304, 364
and affectivity/co-affectivity/cognitive emotion 184, 186, 203, 218, 262, 305, 357
in Renaissance natural philosophy 13, 249, 252–253
logic as science of 193, 216, 241
phenomenology of 12, 153, 179, 181, 183–184, 186, 188–189, 193–194, 196–200, 203–204, 209, 275
sociology of 203–204, 209–210, 215, 217–218, 244, 305–306, 312, 316, 371, 373–374

scepticism about induction 227

scepticism and SSK 22, 24. See also scepticism, external-world
SK’s rejection of radical scepticism 25–27, 47, 50
SSK’s use of mitigated scepticism 23–27, 47, 50
SSK’s vulnerability to sceptical attack 9, 23, 30, 33–34, 36, 49–50, 78, 81–82, 113, 351–352

scepticism, external-world 17, 19–20, 22, 31, 37, 43, 100, 112, 146, 178, 184. See also scepticism and SSK
as attributed to SSK 18, 22, 351
Heidegger’s response to 9–10, 23, 37, 42–46, 48–49, 62, 78, 130, 152, 222, 351
SSK’s response to 9–10, 19, 21, 23, 26–27, 29–34, 36, 47–50, 78, 82, 356

Schaffer, Simon 14, 311–313, 315–316, 324, 326–327, 337

Scheff, Thomas 376

Schmitt, Charles 254

science wars 9, 18

scientific philosophy 154–155, 196, 208, 377

Scientific Revolution 231, 235, 245, 247, 261, 271, 281–282, 289, 291–292, 303, 333, 340, 342

Scott, David 298

self-referring practice 187, 215–218, 245

self-regulating system. See cybernetics

Serjeantson, Richard 338

Shapin, Steven 24, 26–27, 29, 31, 34, 281, 286–287, 311–313, 377
on final causes 271, 277, 282
on Robert Boyle 14, 286, 315–316, 324, 326–327, 337

simplifying, or simplification 123, 141, 276, 311, 329, 336–337, 372

skill 151, 274, 290, 307–309, 343

Skinner, Quentin 337

Smith, Pamela H. 289, 291, 306–307, 309

social constructivism 53, 76, 83, 93, 95, 97, 100, 102, 125, 140, 148–149, 363

social imagery 15, 245, 289, 328–330, 332, 336, 340. See also basic blueprint; Galilean First Thing; world picture

society 4–6, 15, 98, 114–115, 121, 127, 185, 206–207, 328, 331–332, 336–337, 339, 341, 361–363, 365, 379. See also society-nature distinction

society-nature distinction 4–7, 121, 127, 352–353

sociological explanation 9, 20, 22, 25, 79, 95, 97–99, 113, 120, 123–124, 126–127, 156, 209, 218–221, 306, 316, 326, 329–330, 340, 353–354, 367, 372–373, 379
as necessary but not sufficient 19–21, 95, 102, 290, 312, 355

Sokal, Alan 18, 22

sorites. See paradox of the heap

Spary, Emma C. 307, 309

speaking, and speech 165–166, 169, 191. See also logos

specifying, or making specific 58, 286 of knowledge/thinking/understanding 66, 80, 101–102, 116, 152–153, 160, 163, 166, 168–169, 177, 186, 193, 203, 213, 217–218, 230, 232–233, 239, 241–242, 244, 249, 257, 264–265, 284–285, 312, 318, 326, 332
of nature/things 65, 82, 135, 141, 170, 228, 236, 246, 248–249, 265, 270, 273, 284, 286, 299–300, 310, 312, 316, 321, 336, 365

Spiller, Michael 338

spontaneity. See constructivity

SSK (sociology of scientific knowledge) and phenomenology 8, 24, 33–34, 48, 58, 78, 80, 82–83, 100, 113, 138, 157, 205, 208, 212, 222, 351, 357, 371, 373

stabilising, and stability 5, 66, 92, 212, 299–301, 306–307, 325, 352, 364, 372

standardising, or standardisation 243
of cognitive emotion 148, 185
of method/materials 227–229, 242, 246–247, 287, 299, 307–308, 361
of thinking/understanding 160, 162–163, 169, 175, 194, 196, 253, 287, 304, 334, 361
sociology of 114, 186, 210

Steiner, Carol J. 98, 366, 374

strong programme in sociology of knowledge 1, 127, 329
subjectivity of the subject 8, 10, 15, 35, 37, 46, 50, 55, 76, 84, 128, 284, 332, 356–357, 364, 370–372, 375
and substance ontology 9, 12, 23, 32, 38, 40, 42, 67–68, 78, 82, 100, 128–131, 153, 171–173, 176, 178–179, 184, 187, 193, 196, 203, 207, 218–219, 222, 349–350, 352
construed as existence 10, 33, 37, 39, 43, 45, 48, 50, 60, 66, 69–70, 75, 93, 100, 132, 142–143, 145, 147, 152, 155, 158, 184, 187, 196, 204, 207, 222, 239, 306, 351. See also being-in-the-world; Dasein

subject-object distinction 7, 15, 23, 31, 41, 78, 120–121, 174, 350, 352–354. See also glass-bulb model
as fuel for scepticism 23, 50, 79, 81
deconstruction of 7–8, 12, 40, 42, 46, 78, 80, 128, 130, 150, 348, 350–351
SSK’s criticism of 122–123, 135
SSK’s residual adherence to 8–9, 11, 23, 34, 76, 79–83, 125, 352–353

subject-world relation 23–24, 40–41, 45, 49–50, 60, 62, 75, 80, 129, 142–143, 145, 158, 222, 356–357, 373. See also being-in-the-world

suction 314, 322–323

symmetry principle of SSK 95, 120–121, 136, 353

systems theory. See cybernetics

tacit knowledge/understanding 9, 14, 32–33, 36–37, 48–50, 78, 83, 100, 112, 214, 236, 275, 279, 287–288, 312, 326–330, 336, 340, 356, 377, 379. See also non-deliberative/non-propositional understanding/behaviour

techniques, and technology 1, 3, 15, 67, 175, 178, 230, 233, 266, 280, 284, 286–287, 289, 300, 306–310, 312, 341, 355, 358–359, 361–364, 366, 368–369

teleological explanation 268–269, 272, 275, 279, 281, 291, 312, 329, 360. See also cause, final and telos as end, not goal or purpose 274, 288, 296, 330, 369

that-being, or thatness 10, 55, 73–74, 84, 86, 91, 102, 117, 130, 133, 137, 146, 165, 259, 355–356. See also cause, material
and affectivity 11, 143, 148, 357, 378
and experimental science 93, 250

thematising, or thematisation 12–13, 41, 61, 64, 66, 69, 73, 78, 80, 82, 90, 133, 190, 193, 199, 210, 219–220, 231, 242, 350, 370, 380
and experimental science 67, 89
and propositional knowledge/thinking 47, 89, 159, 187
of cognitive emotion, taboos against 376, 380

theorising, and theory 10, 19, 77, 86, 94, 96, 100, 203, 282, 290, 351, 358, 361, 366. See also underdetermination thesis
and mathematical/metaphysical projection 65, 88–90, 352
and minimal realism 70, 76–79, 81, 86, 149
as grounded in existence 57–58, 61, 65–66, 68, 87, 89, 101–102, 105, 352, 356
phenomenology of 36, 58, 61, 64, 66–67, 183, 192, 219–220, 293, 357
relation to practice of 56–58, 67–68, 86, 88–89, 152, 183, 211, 213, 255, 261, 268, 290–292, 310, 329, 335
sociology of 1, 21, 27, 33–34, 81, 96, 98, 105, 124, 204, 214–215, 218, 221, 329, 351

theory-practice distinction 57–58, 67, 84, 86, 88–89, 91, 152, 183, 291, 310, 352, 357

The Things They Carried 146

thing (verb) 368

thing as property-bearing substance 70, 93, 158, 171, 219, 355
deconstruction of 169, 171, 174, 176, 232
relation to propositional knowledge/thinking of 12, 153, 157, 159–160, 184, 193, 234

thing-in-itself 11, 112, 116, 118–121, 125, 139, 144, 176
and affectivity 11, 123, 133, 378
and finitude 11, 112–114, 126, 129, 133–134, 140, 144, 150, 353
and SSK 113–115, 122, 124, 126, 128, 135, 137, 149
deconstruction of 128–129, 131, 357

thingness of things. See metaphysical projection of the thingness of things

things, fourfold structure of 368, 370

things in relation to thinking 12, 152–153, 157–164, 166, 169–171, 174, 176–177, 180, 184, 186–187, 191, 194, 204, 209, 217, 306

thinking 6, 13, 15, 26, 83, 128, 151, 188–189, 205, 210
phenomenological history of 11, 150, 153, 156, 161, 164–167, 170–171, 173–179, 182–184, 186–188, 191, 194–196, 202, 205, 209, 223, 244, 294, 304. See also logic, phenomenological history of phenomenology of 42–44, 61, 63, 73, 87, 131, 141, 152, 155, 157–159, 163, 167, 170, 180–181, 187, 189, 191–194, 197, 199–200, 203, 205–206, 208, 216, 220, 224, 237, 301, 311, 354, 357
relation to things of 12, 129, 152–153, 157–164, 166, 168–171, 174, 176–177, 180, 184, 186–187, 191, 194, 204, 209, 217, 306
sociology of 12, 80, 105, 114, 157, 204–205, 208–209, 215, 217–218, 220

time 54, 196, 199–200, 204, 223, 343 as ground for thinking/understanding 196–197, 200
construed mathematically 65, 89, 199, 293, 295–296, 301
existential conception of 197, 200, 203, 216, 244

Todtnauberg 347

tool-use. See equipment, and tool-use

topic-resource distinction 5, 34, 54, 62, 90, 98–99, 121, 126, 138, 230, 353–355, 373, 377, 379

Torricellian experiment/effect 313–319, 322–324, 326–327, 337, 344

Tosh, Nick 126

tradition 12, 114, 156, 160, 204–205, 207–209, 217–218, 221, 223–224, 227, 244, 259–260, 262, 281, 305, 330, 370–371

transcendence 26, 38, 62, 130, 144
and scientific knowledge 2–5, 20, 259–260
deconstruction of 11, 130, 132–133, 156, 170
sociology of 115, 120, 122–123, 126–127, 149, 263

transcendental phenomenology 154

trauma. See anxiety

truth 10, 19, 26, 33–34, 59, 66, 77, 95, 120, 136, 159, 163, 172, 192, 226–227. See also absolute knowledge/truth

Tuchanska, Barbara 204

Tugendhat, Ernst 237

underdetermination thesis 125–127, 136, 138–139, 227

understanding 12, 45, 48–50, 70–72, 74, 79, 89, 105, 132, 137, 163, 169–170, 183, 189, 193, 198, 200, 202, 219, 232, 242, 257, 259, 275, 338, 355, 360, 364, 374, 376
and affectivity 142, 356–358, 362–363, 371, 375, 378

and finitude 119, 129, 131, 133, 140, 142, 149, 205, 353
as co-understanding 358, 361–362, 373–375, 378, 380. See also being-with-others
as fundamental aspect of subjectivity 142, 356
breakdown in 63, 73, 88, 143, 148, 158, 378. See also anxiety
change-over in 42, 44, 47–48, 61–62, 64–66, 68–69, 80, 86–87, 89, 158, 192, 220, 293
in science 13, 65, 67–68, 232, 242, 276, 284, 286, 289, 292–293, 297–298, 302, 305, 310, 316, 339, 360, 363, 375

uniformity 288, 293, 295, 297, 301, 332, 342, 360–361
in experience/understanding 15, 206, 228, 282, 285–287, 313, 341
of things 14, 264, 282, 284, 292, 294–296, 298, 300, 306–307, 342, 344–345, 360, 367, 370

unintelligibility. See meaninglessness/unintelligibility/incomprehensibility

Urban the Averroist 248

vagueness 229, 257, 260, 310. See also indefinite/indeterminate knowledge/nature

Van Dyck, Maarten 84

von Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich 15, 347–349, 355–356, 358, 363–366, 372, 374–375, 377

von Weizsäcker, Viktor 347, 349

weak programme in sociology of science 1

Weber, Max 375

what-being, or whatness 10–11, 13, 55, 73–74, 82, 84, 86, 91–92, 102, 117, 130, 132–133, 137, 143, 150, 165, 168, 170, 172, 174–176, 189, 201–202, 205, 219, 224, 232, 236, 239–240, 242, 244, 251, 253, 257–259, 265, 270–272, 275, 283–284, 298, 302, 355–356, 360, 369, 373. See also cause, formal
and affectivity 378
and experimental science 250, 301, 303, 309, 311, 345

Winner, Langdon 366

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 26

work-world, and work experiences 61–64, 71, 90, 192, 200–201, 216, 283. See also equipment, and tool-use; readiness-to-hand, and ready-to-hand
and a priori knowledge 224
and non-deliberative/non-propositional understanding 219, 273
in science 13, 170, 175, 224, 234, 240, 242, 244–247, 268, 270, 289, 291, 293–294, 309
reciprocal relation to metaphysical projection of 13, 234, 268, 291. See also metaphysical projection of the thingness of things

world picture 15, 334, 338–339, 342, 344, 364, 366–367, 374. See also basic blueprint; Galilean First Thing; social imagery

Yearley, Steven 97–98, 136, 139

Zabarella, Jacopo 250–261, 263, 266–267, 300

Zilsel, Edgar 290, 306, 333

Zimmerman, Michael 147

Acheter

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