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Modernism and the Spiritual in Russian Art

 | 
Louise Hardiman
, 
Nicola Kozicharow

Index

Texte intégral

Abramtsevo circle 19, 20, 21, 32, 38, 72, 73, 197, 201, 203, 206

abstraction, abstract art 13, 32, 34, 46, 65, 66, 67, 109, 113, 129, 136, 142, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164.
See also non-objective painting

Academic painting 17

Academy of Arts, Tiflis 236, 237

Adam (Bible) 103

Adyar 82, 83, 84, 88

African 27, 133, 144

Agni Yoga 24, 76

Ainalov, Dmitry 141, 214

Akhmatova, Anna 216, 224

AKhR (Association of Artists of the Revolution) 235, 236

AKhRR (The Association of Artists of

Revolutionary Russia) 235, 236

Aksakov family 72

Alchemy 82

Alexander III Museum 169
Department of Icon Painting (drevlekhranilishche) 169

Alexander II, Tsar 214

Alexis, Tsar 120

Altman, Nathan 12

ancient wisdom 84

Anisimov, Aleksandr 34, 166, 168, 169, 173, 174, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 200

Anrep, Boris 28, 199

antique niche (antichnaia nisha) 116

antiquity 50, 55, 74, 139, 214

apocalypse 33, 111, 134, 149, 248

Apollo (Apollon) 195, 214, 220

archaeology 49, 55, 76, 169, 174, 192, 214, 219

Archipenko, Aleksandr 67

architecture 13, 19, 20, 27, 55, 72, 73, 141, 196, 197, 201, 203, 204, 208, 209, 211, 212, 254

Arctic Circle 227

Arens, Anna 218

Art Deco 242

‘art for art’ s sake’129

‘artist as prophet’ 17, 31, 33

Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society 81

Arts and Crafts movement 20, 32, 70, 72, 73, 74, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88
in Russia 32, 82, 84

Asia 158, 234, 238, 241

Asiatic 28, 158, 159, 243, 262, 263

Association of Travelling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniki) 17, 49

astrology 84

avant-garde 10, 12, 21, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 62, 66, 70, 72, 87, 89, 110, 111, 115, 116, 117, 122, 123, 124, 125, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 152, 164, 195, 196, 198, 199, 208, 213, 218, 224, 228, 231, 235, 236, 237

azure tones in Symbolism 99, 244

Balkan Orthodox 120

Baratashvili, Nikoloz 243

Barr, Alfred 187, 188

Barshchevsky, Ivan 76

Bauhaus 150, 162, 163

Belfast 81

Bell, Clive 198

Bely, Andrei 23

Benois, Alexandre 54, 55, 62, 93, 125, 126, 141, 195, 198, 199

Berdiaev, Nikolai 23, 35

Beria, Lavrenty 236

Berlin 24, 150, 152, 155, 156, 159, 173, 176, 183

Bernard, Émile 102, 103, 112

Besant, Annie 83, 85

Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, Aleksandr 243

Bible 14, 16, 117, 137, 150

biblical scenes 17

Bildung 100

Bilibin, Ivan 31, 93, 197

black square, symbol 91, 111, 126, 128

blasphemy 146

Blavatsky, Madame Helena 23, 73, 76, 82, 83, 85
The Secret Doctrine 73, 76

Blok, Aleksandr 23, 62, 67

Blount, Godfrey 87

Blue Horns 36, 234, 237, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244

Blue Rider, The (Der Blaue Reiter) 34, 153, 154

Blue Rose 18, 21, 23, 94, 95, 96, 99, 100, 104, 105, 109, 111, 244

Bogaevsky, Konstantin 60

Bogolyubski, Andrew (Andrei Bogoliubskii) 186

Bolsheviks 30, 173, 195, 202, 203, 213, 235, 236, 237

book binding 81

Boris and Gleb icon 169, 191

Borisov-Musatov, Viktor 21, 23, 58, 93, 94, 100, 106

Borkhardt, Sebastian 31, 34, 35

Britain 69, 80, 81, 82, 83, 176, 198, 213

British 12, 14, 34, 50, 72, 76, 88, 165, 177, 187, 199, 244

British Vorticist 34

Briullov, Karl 20

brotherhood 74, 85, 88

Bruni, Fedor 16, 20, 227
The Brazen Serpent 16

Bulgakov, Sergei 23, 35, 67

Burger, Fritz 34, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160

Burliuk, David 67

Buslaev, Fedor 140, 169

Byzantine 13, 14, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 49, 50, 55, 92, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 120, 121, 138, 144, 145, 165, 166, 168, 170, 174, 177, 178, 183, 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 198, 199, 214, 216, 217, 220, 244, 246, 247, 259. See also Russo-Byzantine

Byzantine Renaissance 170, 177, 183, 220

Byzantine-Slav 117

Byzantium 13, 14, 20, 166, 169, 195, 196, 199, 216, 220

catechisms 13

Cathedral of Saint Vasily the Blessed, Saint Basil’s (Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, Moscow) 204

Cathedral of St Sophia, Kviv 44

Cathedral of St Vladimir, Kyiv 37, 49, 50, 55

Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow 150, 168

Catherine the Great 14

Catholic 38, 92, 100, 120

Catholicism 33, 38, 100

Central State Restoration Workshops, Moscow 184, 189

ceramics 19, 197

Cézanne, Paul 20, 46, 47, 48, 66, 92, 144, 218

Chagall, Marc 12, 125

Chavchavadze, Ilia 243

Chernyshevsky, Nikolai 16, 88

chiaroscuro 27, 42

Chicago 10, 33, 83, 88, 155, 176

Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition 81, 83

Chirikov, Grigory 168, 169, 174, 184, 188, 189

Chistiakov, Pavel 40

Christ 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 60, 62, 73, 76, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 112, 117, 120, 200, 202, 260
ascension 105
birth 216
burial 105
Crucifixion 52, 102
death 105
His glory in Heaven 105
His Second Coming 105
Passion 60, 62
resurrection 104, 105, 106, 107, 158

Christian 11, 18, 40, 49, 60, 62, 74, 76, 84, 85, 103, 117, 146, 191, 211, 214, 230, 239, 242, 247, 248, 260, 262, 263

Church 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 30, 37, 39, 43, 49, 50, 53, 54, 56, 66, 72, 75, 77, 78, 79, 94, 100, 107, 109, 112, 115, 121, 131, 132, 134, 139, 140, 173, 196, 197, 202, 203, 206, 208, 209, 211, 212, 224

Church of St Cyril 20, 37, 39, 43, 56, 66

Church of the Saviour Not Made by Human Hands, Abramtsevo 19

Church of the Spirit (Khram dukha), Flenovo 32, 76

Čiurlionis, Mikalojus 24, 93

Civil War (1917–22) 30, 35, 174, 175

clairvoyant 83

Classical 155

Classicism 125

cleaning of icons 169, 182, 183, 184, 186, 189, 217, 218. See also conservation, restoration

clergy 17, 104, 105, 111

Coates, Dr James 83

Committee for the Guardianship of Russian Icon Painting 166

Communist 228

conservation 27, 33, 34, 130, 141, 174, 183. See also cleaning of icons, restoration

Constantinople 14, 40, 174, 183, 186, 214, 216

Constructivism 161

counter-relief 161

Crane, Charles R. 85, 165, 166, 176, 246

Crane, John 176, 191

Crete 169

cross 35, 52, 72, 99, 104, 105, 110, 111, 149, 202, 203

cross-cultural exchange 35, 72

Cyrillic 99, 103

Darejan, Nestan 255, 257, 258, 259

decadence 178

decadent 104, 235

Decadent movement 240

decorative art 21, 73, 81

Decree on Religious Tolerance, 1905 139

‘Degenerate Art’ (Entartete Kunst) exhibition 150, 163

Degen, Iuri 235

Delovoi Dvor, Moscow 169

demon 32, 60, 62, 247, 248

Denis, Maurice 92, 93, 99, 100, 106, 107, 112
The Offertory at Calvary 107
The Story of Psyche 92

Diaghilev, Sergei 93, 94, 112, 137, 141, 200, 244
Liturgie 112, 200
Saisons Russes 137
‘World of Art’ (Mir iskusstva) group 24, 60, 93, 94, 112, 244

Didron, Adolphe 42

Dilthey, Wilhelm 122

divine knowledge 83

Dmitriev, Vsevolod 50, 55, 67

Dobychina Gallery 91

doctrine 49, 53

Dostoevsky, Fyodor 18, 24, 160, 164, 176, 218

drawing 27, 32, 38, 44, 50, 52, 58, 109, 144, 152, 180, 186, 198, 206, 211, 225, 253, 260

Durand, Paul 42

dvoeverie belief system 84

dyeing 80

Eastern 28, 74, 104, 112, 145, 160, 188, 197, 202, 211, 234, 237

Eastern Christianity 107, 113

Eastern Church 111, 113

Eastern Orthodoxy 92, 100, 111, 112, 146

east, the 11, 27, 28, 74, 152, 156, 159, 160, 161, 216

Ecclesiastic Orthodoxy 32

Edinburgh 12, 69, 82, 103

Ekster, Aleksandra 67

embroideries 27, 80, 81, 82, 198, 206

emigration 31, 35, 81, 177, 192, 196, 198, 201, 202, 203, 206

émigré 28, 31, 70, 165, 186, 188, 189, 191, 200

empathy (einfühlung) 121, 122

Empress Elizabeth 14

enamels 146

England 16, 82, 244

English 10, 23, 42, 70, 85, 86, 87, 89, 141, 150, 155, 160, 165, 166, 175, 176, 177, 180, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 200, 222, 237, 244, 246

en plein air 16

ependysis (adornment) 116

Epimanikia 111

eschatological 104, 126, 150

esotericism 24, 32, 36, 69, 83

ethnography 140, 144, 263

Eucharist 105

eurocentric 133, 146

Europe 14, 16, 21, 23, 27, 35, 44, 48, 58, 73, 74, 76, 81, 82, 120, 123, 131, 133, 139, 144, 147, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 176, 178, 180, 186, 188, 189, 192, 198, 199, 217, 218, 220, 229, 234, 235, 237, 240, 241, 246, 255

European Symbolism 21, 99, 240, 241, 246, 255

Evangelists 28, 146, 147, 206

Eve (Bible) 103

Exhibition of Old Russian Art (1913) 26, 130, 141, 206, 216, 218

exhibitions 10, 11, 12, 18, 23, 26, 28, 33, 48, 58, 60, 70, 76, 81, 82, 85, 86, 89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 99, 104, 105, 109, 111, 124, 126, 128, 130, 136, 139, 141, 147, 150, 152, 163, 169, 170, 189, 198, 199, 206, 216, 236, 237

Expressionism 153, 154, 155, 156, 159, 161 in France 159

Fabergé 82

Far East 74

Fechter, Paul 34, 153, 154, 155, 156

feminine 87, 94, 99, 106, 109, 243, 248, 254, 255, 258

Ferapontov Monastery 169, 170, 197, 203, 209

Filonov, Pavel 38

fin de siècle 23, 27, 32, 72, 81

First Five-Year Plan 188, 235

First World War 154, 202

Florensky, Pavel 23, 30, 122, 123, 124, 125, 225
The Iconostasis 123

Florida 81, 102

folk art 14, 19, 73, 84, 88, 146

formalist modernism 9

form will (Formwille) 155

fortune telling 84

fourth dimension 24, 87, 89

Fra Angelico 17

frame 12, 49, 99, 116, 123, 126, 128, 250
‘framing’ effect 128

France 35, 112, 155, 160, 176, 199, 213, 240

French 48, 92, 93, 103, 124, 142, 144, 159, 175, 176, 180, 190, 206
French painting 92

frescoes 12, 20, 21, 26, 31, 32, 35, 37, 40, 42, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 62, 66, 76, 80, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 134, 136, 141, 146, 169, 170, 173, 183, 189, 204, 220, 222, 225, 236, 246, 259

Friedrich, Caspar David 11, 16, 18

Fry, Roger 198, 199

Futurism 128, 130, 147, 154, 213, 227, 235, 238
in Russia 130, 227, 269

Futurist 33, 126, 134, 137, 138, 144, 145, 213, 222, 240

Gabo, Naum 47

Garden of Eden 104

Gauguin, Paul 102, 103, 112, 133
Christ in the Garden of Olives 102, 103
Jug in the Form of a Head. Self-Portrait 102
Self-Portrait with ‘The Yellow Christ’102
Vision After the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling the Angel) 103

Ge, Nikolai 17, 18, 49, 60
Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane 60
What is Truth? 18, 49

Georgia 23, 36, 40, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 248, 250, 251, 254, 255, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264
Georgian culture 234, 235, 242, 258, 259, 262, 263

Georgievsky, Vladimir 168, 170, 183, 184

German 17, 34, 35, 66, 100, 122, 129, 141, 147, 149, 150, 152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 175
German art 123, 150, 153, 155, 156, 158
German Empire 155
‘Germanness’154
German soul 152, 160

Germany 16, 34, 150, 152, 154, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 213, 240

Giotto di Bondone 17, 214

Gippius, Zinaida 67

Golden Fleece, The (Zolotoe runo) 92, 96

Goncharova, Natalia 10, 13, 18, 28, 30, 33, 38, 67, 89, 91, 112, 124, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 199, 200, 216, 217, 218
Evangelists 28, 146, 147, 206
Madonna with Child 146

Gorodetsky, Sergei 235

Gothic 34, 154, 155, 156
Gothic soul 34, 154, 155

Grabar, Igor 170, 173, 174, 176, 177, 180, 183, 186, 187, 189, 217

Great Moscow Council of the Church 120

Great Terror 241

Greek 42, 82, 113, 116, 118, 139, 178, 183, 188, 214, 240, 241, 254

Greenberg, Clement 9, 10

Grishchenko, Aleksei 28, 124, 199

Gudiashvili, Lado 36, 231, 232, 234, 237, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 247, 262
Buffalo Tandem 246
Dreamers of Ortachala 244
Green Nymphs 246
Green Woman (Spring) 242
In the Waves of Tskhenistsqali 242, 246
Sleeping Shepherd 244, 245
Virgin in the Mountains 242

Gulag 36, 227

Gurianov, Vasily 26

Halle, Fannina 176, 177

Hamburg 152

hand-made books 33, 134, 136, 137, 138

Hausenstein, Wilhelm 152, 153, 154, 160

hectograph books 33, 134, 138

Hellenic culture 170

Hinton, Charles Howard 24

history painting 14, 16

Holy Land 16

Holy Russia, Great Spatial Icon 120

Holy Spirit 26, 44, 75, 77, 78, 79, 93

Holy Synod 17, 18, 49, 139, 146

Home Arts and Industries 89

Hulme, T. E. 198

Hunt, William Holman 16

hymns 13, 104, 105

Hypakoje of the Byzantine Resurrection Matins 107

hypostasy 111

Iakunchikova, Maria Vasilevna 21

Iaremich, Stepan 37, 39, 40, 44, 47, 58

Iashvili, Paolo 235, 240, 241

icons
Icon Association 31,189
iconoclasm 30, 33, 165, 202
iconostasis 20, 54, 73, 195, 202, 208, 211
icon painting 10, 14, 20, 26, 28, 31, 35, 36, 42, 120, 121, 124, 125, 130, 140, 145, 147, 150, 164, 165, 166, 169, 178, 180, 186, 192, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 211, 218, 220, 222
icon patterns (podlinniki) 28, 124, 136
ikonniki 26

Ilia Ostroukhov Museum 124

Imperial Academy of Arts 14, 19, 40, 42, 49, 50, 56, 70, 110, 133, 148, 188, 196, 214, 224, 225, 236, 237
Museum of Early Russian Art 40

Imperial Russia 16, 26, 70, 120, 165, 166, 168, 197, 227, 234

Imperial Society of Lovers of Ancient Letters 168

Impressionism 48, 94, 95, 96, 112, 199

India 24

Ireland 81

Islam 242

Islamic 242, 243

Italo-Cretan 168, 170, 177, 186

Italy 44, 122, 168, 169, 170, 174, 178, 183, 187, 188, 219, 240, 242

Ivanov, Aleksandr 13, 15, 16, 17
The Appearance of Christ to the People 15, 16, 17

Ivanov, Viacheslav 100, 238

Japanese 27, 216

Japaridze, Uche 36, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263
Friends of Youth 260
Game 250
Girl from Khevsureti 262, 263
In the Field 253, 254
Margarita Sleeping 251, 252, 262
Mother – Native Regions 258, 259, 260
Mother’s Contemplation 258, 259, 260
Nestan in Black 255
Nestan in White 255, 257, 258
Nikortsminda 250
Single Combat 250
Small Aurochs 251, 254
Still-life With a Bird and a Dish 250
Thirst 254, 262, 263
Visiting the Tea Grower 262
Waiting 250
Woman with a Jug 258, 259

Jerusalem 42, 107, 150

Jinarājadasā, C. 89

Joint State Political Directorate (OGPU) 224

Judaism 12

Judge, William 82

Kabbalism 82

Kakabadze, David 260, 261
Imereti – My Mother 260, 261

Kali, goddess 76

Kaluga 82, 86

Kamensky, Vasily 235

Kandinsky, Vasily 1, 3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 24, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38, 67, 80, 83, 89, 124, 129, 134, 141, 145, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 177, 268, 269, 276, 277, 278, 280, 284, 286, 287, 288
Composition VII 24, 27
Klänge (Sounds) 158
Last Judgment 150
On the Spiritual in Art (Über das Geistige in der Kunst) 1, 10, 11, 34, 149, 150, 162

Karsavin, Lev 227

KGB 224, 225

Khlebnikov, Velimir 130, 134, 138, 144

Kholui 166

Khrushchev, Nikita 230

Kimerioni café 241, 242, 243

Kingdom of God 105, 107

Kirillov 197

Komarovsky, Vladimir 202

Kondakov, Nikodim 26, 34, 35, 40, 55, 140, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 200, 214
The Russian Icon 26, 34, 38, 124, 130, 165, 166, 167, 170, 177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 192, 200

Korovin, Konstantin 201

Kramskoi, Ivan 17, 49, 60
Christ in the Wilderness 49, 60

Kremlin 113, 203, 224

Kruchenykh, Aleksei 126, 129, 130, 134, 138, 144, 235

Küchler, Kurt 152, 153, 164
The Storm (Der Sturm) 152

Kulbin, Nikolai 141

kustar industries 70, 73, 82, 190, 206

Kustodiev, Boris 71, 196, 197, 201

Kutaisi 240, 243

Kuzmin, Mikhail 67

Kuznetsov, Pavel 21, 94, 100, 104

Kyiv (Kiev) 14, 18, 20, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 51, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 66, 92, 93, 110, 111, 177, 204

lace 87

lamentation 52, 106

landscape 18, 21, 60, 99, 244, 260

Larionov, Mikhail 13, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 66, 124, 130, 134, 136, 137, 138, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146

Last Futurist Exhibition of Painting 0.10
(‘Zero-Ten’) 33, 109, 127, 128

Lazarev, Viktor 26, 139, 187

Lazarus, raising of 105, 106

Leadbetter, Charles William 83, 89

Lebedev, Andrei 230, 237, 250

Le Dantu, Mikhail Vasilevich 146

Leningrad 38, 40, 42, 60, 110, 224, 225, 227

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 182, 239

Lenten feast 96, 104

Lermontov, Mikhail 18, 60, 243, 248
The Demon 46, 58, 248

Leskov, Nikolai 139, 140
The Sealed Angel 139, 140

Levitan, Isaak 18
Above Eternal Peace 18
Evening Bells 18

Likhachev, Dmitry 134, 141, 169, 170, 172, 176, 178, 180, 181, 182, 184, 187, 188, 214, 219

Lipps, Theodor 122

liturgies 13, 104, 109

Logos (Word of God) 55, 105

London 76, 81
Bond Street 82, 89

Losenko, Anton 14
The Miraculous Catch 14

Louis XIV, King 93

lubok, lubki 28, 33, 124, 125, 130, 134, 136, 137, 138, 146, 206
‘First Lubok Exhibition’136

Lubyanka, the 225

Lunacharsky, Anatoly 213, 222

magic 84, 242, 258, 263

Maiakovsky, Vladimir 136

Makovsky, Sergei 96, 100, 198, 199

Malevich, Kazimir 10, 13, 14, 24, 31, 32, 33, 38, 49, 67, 70, 73, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 136, 145, 146, 161, 218, 227
Black Square (Quadrilateral) 33, 91, 119, 125, 126, 128, 227
Collecting Flowers 106, 107
Landscape with Yellow House 95
Maternity 109
Motherhood/ Abundance 109
Peasant Women in Church 104, 105
Prayer orMelancholia 107
Self-Portrait 102, 104, 110
Self-Portrait Against a Background of Red Bathers 103
The Triumph of the Heavens 99
Untitled 99
‘Yellow Series’ 96

Maliutin, Sergei 76, 77, 80, 201, 204, 206

Mamontova, Elizaveta 72

Mamontov, Savva 19, 72

manuscripts 27, 33, 40, 130, 137, 138, 165, 168, 174, 175, 177, 180, 182, 184, 186, 197, 203, 206, 213

Marc, Franz 12, 17, 154, 159, 203

Mary and Joseph 106

Mary and Martha 106

Mary Magdalene 105, 106, 107

Masaryk, Alicia 176, 191

Matisse, Henri 28, 92, 124, 129, 141, 142, 144, 159, 160, 198, 208, 212
The Dessert: Harmony in Red 208

Matiushin, Mikhail 13, 14, 126, 136, 148

Matvejs, Voldemars 217, 218

medieval aesthetics 115

mental illness 38, 56, 163

Merezhkovsky, Dmitry 67, 176

metaphysics 117, 122, 126

Michelangelo 46, 54, 260

Middle Ages 49, 120, 156, 158, 159, 199

Middle East 44

Militant Atheism 35, 192

Millet, Gabriel 166, 170

Minns, Ellis 34, 35, 165, 166, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192

Mirskontsa (World Backwards) 144

mission 85, 87, 95, 100, 110, 117

modelling 20, 27, 42, 48, 63, 208

Modigliani, Amadeo 242

Monastery of St Mikhail 44

Mongolia 24, 42, 242

monk, monastic 42, 100, 111, 220

monumental art 92, 146

Morgunov, Aleksei 146

Morozov, Ivan 48, 92, 142

Morris, William 81, 83, 85, 186

mosaics 19, 20, 31, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 52, 56, 63, 76, 183, 204, 214, 258

Moscow 37, 38, 39, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76, 80, 85, 93, 94, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104, 110, 111, 124, 126, 128, 130, 134, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 150, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 180, 182, 183, 184, 186, 189, 190, 199, 201, 204, 206, 208, 211, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 227, 230, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241, 242, 248, 258
Moscow Archaeological Society 74
Moscow Imperial Archaeological Institute 130
Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture 94, 136

Mother Georgia (kartlis deda) 258

motherhood, birth 21, 109, 258, 260

motherland 259, 260, 261

Mother of God icons 21, 30, 168, 181
Bogoliubov Mother of God icon 173, 184
Kazan Mother of God icon 21
Maksimov Mother of God icon 173
Vladimir Mother of God icon 30, 168, 173, 183, 184, 185, 186, 189, 191, 200

Mother of the Homeland (rodina-mat’) 258

Mother of the World 76

Mount Athos 40, 42

Mstera 36, 166, 221, 222

multi-dimensional universe 117

Munich 70, 149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 158, 162, 163, 176

mural painting 27, 55, 92, 95, 110, 112, 244, 246

Murashko School 42

Muratov, Pavel 34, 47, 62, 122, 130, 133, 169, 170, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 182, 183, 188, 189, 190, 217, 219

Muscovite Russia 117, 120

museum 11, 26, 30, 40, 170, 182, 213, 217, 230, 281

Muslim 120, 243

mystical, mysticism 13, 23, 24, 34, 36, 38, 70, 95, 99, 112, 117, 126, 153, 160, 177, 221, 229, 239, 242, 243, 248, 258, 263

myth, mythological 14, 32, 56, 73, 84, 229, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 248, 254, 255, 258, 263

Nabis 93

Narkompros (The People’s Commissariat of Education) 36, 174, 222

national
national identity 34, 90, 133, 145,244
national revival 21
‘national school’ 18

National Art Museum of Ukraine 18

Nazarenes 17

Nazism 35, 162, 163, 164

neo-Kantian 117, 121, 122
‘theory of empathy’ 121

neo-national movement 32, 70, 72, 73, 80

Neoprimitivism 28, 33, 91, 96, 104, 109, 112, 113, 124, 134, 136, 137, 143, 144, 145, 146, 199

neo-Russian style 197, 198, 201, 203, 204, 208, 209, 211, 212

Nesterov, Mikhail 21, 22, 48, 49, 51, 54, 146, 259, 260
Virgin Mary with Christ Child 49
Vision of the Youth Bartholomew, The 21, 22

Newmarch, Rosa 50

New York 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18, 23, 33, 47, 50, 60, 66, 70, 81, 84, 86, 112, 123, 129, 142, 155, 187, 197, 199, 203, 230, 237, 259

Nicholas II, Tsar 130, 139, 168

Nicholas I, Tsar 20, 26

Nietzsche, Friedrich 53, 62
Nietzschean 53

Nikon, Patriarch 120, 121, 131, 147

nonconformism 13, 132

non-objective painting 13, 24, 91, 94. See also abstraction, abstract art

Nordic 158

‘northern’ or ‘Germanic’ culture 34, 155

Novgorod 20, 27, 72, 141, 146, 169, 170, 177, 178, 183, 189, 190, 196, 208, 214

Novgorod icon 178

occultism 23, 84

October Manifesto, 1905 139

Odessa 38, 40, 174, 214

oklad 26, 143, 144, 222. See also riza, rizy

Olcott, Henry 82

Old Belief 31, 33, 121, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148

Old Russian (drevnerusskii) 26, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 139, 141, 142, 144, 146, 176, 189, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 206, 208, 212, 214, 217, 218, 219

Old Testament 65, 116

Olsufev, Iuri 30, 202

oneiric themes 100, 109

optics 115, 116

Orbeliani, Grigol 243

Oreshnikov, Aleksei 180

Oriental 10, 24, 83, 156, 158, 159, 161, 243

Orient, the 156, 158, 159

ornament 51, 74, 85, 116, 146, 204, 206, 208

Orthodox 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 48, 49, 52, 54, 72, 80, 84, 91, 92, 93, 99, 100, 104, 105, 107, 111, 112, 120, 121, 133, 173, 182, 192, 195, 196, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 208, 209, 211, 212, 219, 220, 230, 244, 246, 259

Orthodox Church 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 30, 49, 112, 121, 133, 173, 196, 203, 208, 211, 212

Orthodoxy 10, 14, 18, 20, 23, 28, 32, 33, 38, 70, 72, 91, 92, 100, 103, 111, 112, 133, 168, 173, 180, 191, 195, 225

‘Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality’ (‘Pravoslavie, Samoderzhavie, Narodnost′’), state policy of 20, 133

Osorgin, Mikhail 200, 201

Ostroukhov, Ilia 26, 139, 141, 170, 188, 202, 217, 220

Ouspensky, Petr 24, 83, 84, 89, 189
The Fourth Dimension 24, 87
The Symbolism of the Tarot: The Philosophy of the Occult in Pictures and Numbers 83, 84

pagan 32, 70, 74, 83, 84, 85, 87, 242, 243, 255, 259, 262, 263

Palekh 166, 177

Palestine 16

Panofsky, Erwin 123
‘Perspective as a Symbolical Form’ 123

Panselinos, Manuel 40

pantheistic 84

Pantocrator or Christ the Priest, iconographic type 103

paradise 105, 107

Paris 21, 31, 35, 42, 58, 60, 76, 80, 93, 99, 102, 125, 137, 141, 142, 170, 173, 176, 186, 189, 195, 196, 197, 201, 238, 242, 262

Paschal season, Easter 17, 96, 100, 104, 105, 106, 107, 112, 158

Paschal Stichera 107

Peasant Arts Society 87

Pechstein, Max 154

Pembroke College 165, 174

Pentecost 42, 44, 93

Perov, Vasily 17
The Village Religious Procession at Easter 17

Pertsov, N. P. 204

Peter the Great 14, 26, 93, 133, 144, 147, 176, 182, 196

Petrograd 36, 91, 126, 141, 165, 180, 217, 220, 221, 222

Petrov-Vodkin, Kuzma 21, 246, 247
Bathing of a Red Horse 246

photography 40, 44, 80, 82, 83, 143, 183, 184, 185, 187, 189, 191, 203, 206, 262

Picasso, Pablo 48, 133, 142, 144, 198, 200, 218

Pietà 109
Michelangelo’s Pietà 260

Pogosskaia, Aleksandra 32, 70, 72, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
Fellowship in Work 81, 86, 88

Pogosskaia, Anna 80

Pogosskaia, Helena 82

Pogosskaia, Logan 82

poker work (‘pyrography’) 81

Polenov, Vasily 19, 20, 49

Polish 38, 51, 92, 103

Polynesian 133

Polytechnic Museum 134

Pontius Pilate 18

Popova, Liubov 66

positivism 94

Post-Impressionism 94, 198, 199, 208

post-War 231, 234, 236, 261, 263

Prague 74, 165, 166, 167, 173, 176, 177, 180, 183, 186, 189, 190, 191, 192, 200, 203

Prakhov, Adrian 40, 44, 49, 51, 55, 66

prayer 99, 104, 105, 139, 211

pre-Petrine era 130, 134, 140, 144, 145, 198, 201

Pre-Raphaelite 16, 244, 246, 254, 260

primitive 27, 28, 48, 123, 124, 133, 138, 142, 146, 187, 192, 199

Primitivist 123

Protestantism 130

pseudo-pointillist technique 95

Pskov 20, 25, 178

Punin, Irina 213, 220, 224, 227

Punin, Nikolai 30, 35, 36, 37, 122, 130, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 224, 225, 227, 228

Pushkin, Aleksandr 48, 190, 218, 243

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre 93, 112

quest 17, 70, 82, 96, 111, 117, 126, 133, 142

Raphael 14, 16, 54, 222

Rayism 24

Rayonism 66

realism 13, 16, 17, 18, 21, 36, 47, 49, 50, 125, 187, 224, 225, 227, 229, 230, 231, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 244, 250, 251, 262, 263

realistic 16, 20, 73, 124, 142

Réau, Louis 176, 177, 180

rebirth 109, 113

Renaissance art 27, 115, 116, 117, 120, 122, 125, 147, 174, 187, 214, 218, 224

Repin, Ilia 20, 71, 73

Rerberg School 95, 110

restoration 26, 30, 37, 40, 42, 44, 48, 56, 87, 92, 93, 121, 133, 145, 185, 188, 200, 217. See also cleaning of icons, conservation

revelation 28, 35, 92, 100, 105, 125, 126, 164, 183, 191, 206, 218

reverse perspective, theory of 123

revivalism 19, 201

Revolution 30, 35, 112, 177, 178, 202, 203, 221

Revolution of 1905 111, 112

Revolution of 1917 30, 35, 111, 221

Riabushinsky, Stepan 26, 142, 178, 189, 204, 220

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai 136
The Golden Cockerel 136

rituals 13, 24, 30, 36, 85, 94, 96, 100, 104, 109, 113, 115, 120, 121, 230, 251, 259, 262
ritual cloths 85

riza, rizy 180, 182. See also oklad

Robakidze, Grigol 235, 240

Rodchenko, Aleksandr 66

Roerich, Nicholas 21, 24, 25, 30, 32, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 83, 90, 199, 201, 204, 208, 209, 211
The Call of the Bells 25
‘The Queen of Heaven at the River of Life’ (‘Tsaritsa nebesnaia na beregu reki Zhizni’) 76, 77

Rogovin, Nikolai 134, 146

Roman Catholic 92, 111, 117

Romanov dynasty, 300th anniversary of 130, 216

Romantic 11, 17, 100, 121, 122, 239, 243, 254, 255, 262, 263

Romanticism 18, 125, 126, 235

Rome 73, 168, 170, 173, 189

Rosicrucianism 82

Rostov 197

Rovinsky, Dmitry 140

Rozanova, Olga 130, 134, 138

Rubens, Peter Paul 14

Rublev, Andrei 26, 29, 139, 183, 184, 187, 211, 216, 217, 220, 221, 224, 227
Trinity 26, 29, 30, 139, 183, 184, 187, 216, 221, 224, 227

run-of-the-mill (remeslennyi) icons 169

Ruskinian 82

Ruskin, John 86, 244

Russia
Russian Cottage Industries, New York81
Russian Empire 133, 234
Russian Formalism 123
Russian Icon (Russkaia ikona) 219
Russian modernism 9, 10, 12, 21, 24, 31, 32, 35, 92, 110, 133
‘Russianness’177
Russian north 30, 140, 146
Russian Orthodox Church 14, 19, 120, 121, 195, 224
Russian Orthodoxy 10, 38, 72, 173, 225
Russian Peasant Industries 81, 82, 88
Russian Renaissance 216
Russian ‘soul’ 13, 152, 153, 178
Russia’s Morning (Utro Rossii) 142
Russo-Byzantine 38, 47, 49, 50, 55, 56, 66, 67, 92, 113, 183. See also Byzantine

Rustaveli, Shota 240, 255, 258
Knight in the Panther’s Skin 255

sacrifice 60, 62, 251, 262

Saint-Serge Theological Institute, Paris 35, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 208, 209, 211, 212

Saint Sophia Cathedral 204

Samarkand 224, 225

Saratov 21, 94

SARMA (Georgian Association of Revolutionary Artists) 235, 236

Satan 46, 60

Savitsky, Ivan 190

Schopenhauer, intuition 121, 122

Scotland 82, 103

Scriabin, Aleksandr 23

sculpture 13, 19, 47, 73

Scythian 144, 174
stone sculptures 144

Second Congress of Russian Artists 141

Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition 198, 199, 208

Second World War 80, 222, 224, 230, 259

Seminarium Kondakovianum 166, 167, 177, 180, 187, 189, 192, 200

seraph, seraphim 49, 76, 211

Serov, Valentin 246

Sérusier, Paul 93, 112

Sevastianov, Petr 40

Shakhovskaia, Princess Maria N. 81

Shamanism 12

Shchekotov, Nikolai 122, 217

Shchukin, Sergei 48, 92, 142, 208

Shchusev, Aleksei 201, 202, 204

Shekhtel, Fedor 204

Shevchenko, Aleksandr 27, 28, 130, 137, 199

Shishkin, Ivan 18
In the Wilds of the North (after Lermontov) 18

Shiva, god 76

Silver Age 10, 17, 23, 24, 69, 82, 89

Sistine Chapel 46

Slavic 26, 72, 85, 113, 160, 161, 166, 176, 203

Slavophile 72, 165, 216, 218

Smolensk 73, 74, 75, 197

socialism 13, 36, 83, 85, 87, 88, 224, 225, 229, 230, 231, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 250, 251, 262, 263

socialist realism 13, 36, 224, 225, 229, 230, 231, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 250, 251, 262, 263

Society for the Encouragement of the Arts 17

Society in Aid of Manual Labour 87

Solovev, Vladimir 23, 238, 244
Spiritual Foundations of Life (Dukhovnye osnovy zhizni) 23

Solovki labour camp 225

Somov, Konstantin 93

Sophiology 23

sorcery 84

‘southern’ or ‘Romanic’ culture 155

Soviet Union 13, 30, 31, 69, 182, 187, 188, 195, 229, 230, 236, 237, 239, 263
Soviet 13, 26, 28, 30, 31, 34, 36, 69, 70, 73, 82, 88, 165, 166, 173, 182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 222, 224, 225, 229, 230, 231, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 250, 251, 255, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263
Soviet Georgia 23, 36, 229, 231, 236, 237, 239, 259, 263

‘spinning Virgin’ iconographic type 40

spiritualism 83

Stalin, Josef 227, 229, 230, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 259, 263
Stalinist 36, 110, 237, 238, 251

Stasov, Vladimir 18, 85

State Hermitage Museum 40, 48, 208

State Russian Museum 11, 14, 16, 18, 23, 28, 48, 63, 64, 65, 66, 94, 95, 99, 102, 107, 126, 146, 211

State University in St Petersburg 214

St Cyril monastery 93

Steele, Robert 186

Steiner, Rudolph 85

Stelletsky, Dmitry 31, 35, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212

St Genevieve cycle 93

St Isaacs Cathedral 20

St Nino 254, 255, 258

St Petersburg 11, 13, 14, 18, 20, 23, 36, 38, 40, 42, 48, 49, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 76, 84, 85, 87, 94, 95, 99, 126, 131, 134, 138, 141, 144, 146, 148, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 180, 182, 188, 196, 197, 200, 208, 211, 213, 214, 218, 219, 222, 231, 240, 243

Strauss, David Friedrich 16
Life of Jesus 16

Stray Dog cabaret 243

St Sophia Church 40

Stupples, Peter 72

St Vladimir Cathedral 20, 37, 51, 53, 54

style moderne 201, 203, 204

stylisation 20, 44, 144, 208, 244, 247

Sudeikin, Sergei 100, 235, 243, 262

Supranaturalism 100, 109, 110, 113

Suprematism 24, 32, 33, 91, 100, 109, 110, 112, 113, 122, 126, 128, 161

Suprematist 52, 91, 111, 112, 125, 128, 161

Svedomsky, Alexander 51

Svedomsky, Pavel 51

Sviatopolk-Chetvertinskaia, Princess 73

Symbolism 21, 23, 24, 56, 62, 70, 83, 84, 91, 93, 96, 100, 103, 104, 110, 112, 113, 235, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 247, 254, 255
in Russia 21, 23, 62, 93, 94, 100, 269, 276

Symbolists 18, 21, 23, 24, 31, 32, 36, 54, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 100, 103, 104, 109, 111, 113, 116, 129, 229, 231, 234, 238, 239, 240, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 254, 255, 258, 259, 260, 262, 263, 268
in France 100, 103, 109
in Russia 23, 32, 92, 109, 238, 243, 244, 246, 276, 281

symbol, sign 27, 28, 30, 33, 52, 60, 67, 73, 74, 84, 85, 99, 104, 105, 111, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 139, 190, 192, 238, 239, 240, 251, 255, 259, 260

synaesthesia 24

Tabidze, Galaktion 240, 241, 242, 244, 246, 254

Tabidze, Titsian 240, 241, 242, 244, 246, 254

Talashkino colony 21, 32, 38, 70, 73, 74, 76, 80, 81, 196, 197, 198, 201, 204, 206
‘The Source’ (Rodnik) 80, 81

Tamar, Queen of Georgia 254, 255, 258

Tarabukin, Nikolai 55, 56

Target exhibition (Mishen’) 28, 124

Tarkovsky, Andrei 13, 26

Tatlin, Vladimir 66, 91, 136, 161, 162, 213, 218, 219, 222, 223

Tbilisi 230, 231, 232, 235, 236, 245, 255, 258

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich 258
Swan Lake 258

Tenisheva, Princess Maria 32, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 196, 197, 206
Enamel and Inlaid Work (Emal′ i inkrustatsiia) 74

Terem Palace 203, 204

Terentev, Igor 235

Tereshchenko, Mikhail 170

tesserae 44, 47, 63

texture (faktura) 99, 138, 217, 222

Thaw period 13, 36

theatre design 19

The International Fellowship of Workers 85, 87, 88

The International Union of Arts and Crafts 84, 88

Theophanes the Greek 113, 118

Theosophy 10, 12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 32, 33, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 76, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 117, 126
Theosophical Society 23, 32, 69, 76, 80, 82, 83, 85, 89

Tibet 24

Tiflis 231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 242

Tolstoy, Leo 18, 24, 62, 160, 176, 243

Tradigo, Alfredo 211

transcendence 111, 112

transcendental 33, 34, 38, 85, 116, 117, 125, 126, 155, 156, 248

translatio imperii (translation of rule) 120

tree of life 85, 107

Tretyakov Gallery 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 29, 45, 46, 57, 58, 59, 61, 103, 109, 128, 136, 139, 146, 188, 200, 202, 204, 217, 244, 258

Trinity Cathedral 204, 208, 211

Triodion (Lenten and Paschal hymns) 104

Trisagion (thrive-holy hymn) 105

Trubetskoi, Evgeny 177, 189

Tsarina’s Golden Chamber 203, 204

Tula 143, 202

Turks 120, 234

Twelfth Exhibition of the Moscow Association of Artists 100

Twentieth Party Congress 227

Ukraine 18, 20, 94, 103, 110, 204, 230, 238

Umansky, Konstantin 161, 162

umilenie (‘tenderness’) icons 168, 180

United States 80, 81, 82

universalism 70, 83, 87, 89, 100

unorthodox 67

UNOVIS (Utverditeli novogo iskusstva, ‘Champions of the New Art’) 100, 111, 113

Ural Mountains 131

Uspensky, Boris 131, 147, 214

Utkin, Petr 21, 94, 244
The Dream 244

utopianism 88, 96

Vasnetsov, Viktor 19, 20, 38, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 146, 147, 197, 201, 204, 206
Holy Trinity 48, 53, 216, 221

Vejdle, Vladimir 186

Victory over the Sun (Pobeda nad solntsem) 126

Village Prose movement 231, 263

Virgin, the 40, 41, 42, 49, 51, 52, 56, 57, 58, 147, 187, 203, 211, 216, 218, 227, 242

visionary 38, 62, 67, 89, 90, 110
‘priest’ of art 110

visionary modernism 38

Vladimir I of Kyiv, Grand Prince 14

Volga, river 173, 202

Volkonsky, Sergei 141

von Sydow, Eckhart 159, 160, 161

Vrubel, Mikhail 20, 21, 28, 31, 32, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 92, 93, 95, 146, 201, 211, 248, 254, 255, 257, 258, 268
Angel 58
Angels’Lamentation 37, 39, 42
Angel with a Sword 62
Annunciation 39, 40, 42, 44
Demon Cast Down 58, 60, 61, 63, 65, 248
Demon Seated 20, 37, 44, 45, 46, 47, 51, 52, 60, 63
Descent of the Holy Ghost (Pentecost) 42, 44
Head of Christ 42, 62
Head of John the Baptist 62, 63
Head of the Prophet 62
Lamentation I 51, 93
Lamentation II 51, 52, 53, 93
Lilacs37
Moses 42, 58, 62
Pan37
Portrait of Savva Mamontov 37, 52
Resurrection 53
Six-Winged Seraphim, The, Azrael, Angel of Death 58, 62, 63, 64, 65
Study of a Head 58
Swan Princess, The 37, 258
Two Angels with Labara 42, 43, 44
Vision of the Prophet Ezekiel, The 62, 65, 66

vsechestvo (‘everythingness’) 144

Vysshie khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie masterskie (Vkhutemas) 236

Vysshii Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskii Institut (Vkhutein) 236

Walden, Herwarth 152
‘For Kandinsky’ (Für Kandinsky) 152

westernisers 26, 131, 134, 145, 146, 182, 183, 218

west, the 124, 183

Whitechapel Gallery 82

Whitman, Walt 86
Leaves of Grass 86

Wölfflin, Heinrich 122

woodcuts 27, 157, 158, 159

World of Art group (Mir iskusstva) 24, 60, 93, 94, 112, 244

Worringer, Wilhelm 34, 154, 155, 156
Abstraction and Empathy 155, 156
Form Problems of the Gothic 155, 156

Wulff, Oskar 123, 183

Yalta 165

Yaroslavl 72, 197, 202, 204

Zagorsk monastery 224

Zakharov, Aleksei 180, 181, 183

Zander, Lev 204, 208

Zhuravleva, Larisa 74, 76, 197, 198, 201

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