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World of Walls

Said Saddiki


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1Abouddahab, Zakaria. “Le Mur de Défense du Sahara Occidental à L’épreuve du Droit International et de la Réalité”, paper presented at the International Conference on “Fences and Walls in International Relations”, University of Quebec, Montreal, Canada (29–30 October 2009).

2“Afghanistan-Pakistan: Focus on Bilateral Border Dispute”, IRIN (30 October 2003),​report.aspx?reportid=20801

3Akhmadov, Erkin. “Uzbekistan-Kyrgyzstan: Building a Wall”, The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute — Bi-Weekly Briefing, Vol. 11, No. 13 (2009), pp. 16–17.

4Alatout, Samer. “Walls as Technologies of Government: The Double Construction of Geographies of Peace and Conflict in Israeli Politics, 2002-Present”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 99, No. 5 (2009), pp. 956–68,:​wp-content/​uploads/​sites/​30/​2013/​08/​The-Israeli-Separation-Wall-and-Technologies-of-Government-the-Double-Construction-of-Geographies-of-Peace-and-Conflict.pdf,​10.1080/​00045600903260473

5Aldrich, Robert and John Connell. The Last Colonies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998,​10.1017/​cbo9780511598920

6Algazy, Joseph. “Soiled Hands, spoiled Lands”, Haaretz (24 December 1999).

7Almog, Doron. “Lessons of the Gaza Security Fence for the West Bank”, Jerusalem Issue Brief, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 4, No. 12 (2004).

8Alscher, Stefan. “Knocking at the Doors of ‘Fortress Europe’: Immigration and Border Control in Southern Spain and Eastern Poland”, working paper No. 126, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany (November 2005).

9Andreas, Peter. Border Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 2000.

10Andreas, Peter. “Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-first Century”, International Security, Vol. 28, No. 2 (2003), pp. 78–111,​10.1162/​016228803322761973

11“Annual Report 2007–2008 of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs”. New Delhi: Government of India, 2008,​sites/​upload_files/​mha/​files/​pdf/​ar0708-Eng.Pdf

12Ashkar, Riad. “The Syrian and Egyptian Campaigns”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1974), pp. 15–33,​10.2307/​2535797

13Aung, Thin Thin and Soe Myint. “India-Burma relations”, Challenges to Democratization in Burma. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001, pp. 87–96.

14Avnery, Uri. “First of All — the Wall Must Fall”, Gush Shalom (30 August 2003),​articles/​AVN309A.html

15Babacan, Nuray. “Turkey builds 700 kilometer long wall on Syrian border”, Hurriyet Daily News (15 June 2017),​turkey-builds-700-kilometer-long-wall-on-syrian-border.aspx?PageID=238&NID=114336&NewsCatID=341

16Benmelech, Efraim and Claude Berrebi. “Human Capital and the Productivity of Suicide Bombers”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2007), pp. 223–38,​10.1257/​jep.21.3.223

17Bhattarai, Chandra Moni. “India-Bangladesh Border Fencing and Community Responses”, conference paper, Annual International Studies Convention 2013, Delhi, India (10–12 December 2013).

18Birse, Robert. “Pakistan’s Afghan Border Fence Plan ‘Impractical’”, Reuters (27 December 2006),​article/​us-pakistan-afghanborder-idUSSP15690820061227

19“Border Fencing Upsets Village Life in Moreh”, The Sangai Express (9 May 2011),​GP.asp?src=3..100511.may11

20Boswell, Christian. “The ‘External Dimension’ of EU Immigration and Asylum Policy”, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3 (2003), pp. 619–38,​10.1111/​1468-2346.00326

21“Burma-India Boundary”, International Boundary Study, No. 80 (May 1968), United States State Department, Bureau of Intelligence and Research,​collection/​LimitsinSeas/​IBS080.Pdf

22Calavita, Kitty. “Immigration, Law, and Marginalization in a Global Economy: Notes from Spain”, Law & Society Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1998), pp. 529–66,​10.2307/​827756

23Calavita, Kitty. Immigration at the Margins: Law, Race and Exclusion in Southern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005,​10.1017/​cbo9780511493942

24Carling, Jørgen. “Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders”, International Migration Review, Vol. 41, No. 2 (2007), pp. 316–43,​10.1111/​j.1747-7379.2007.00070.x

25Carol, Steven. Middle East Rules of Thumb: Understanding the Complexities of the Middle East. New York: iUniverse, 2008.

26“Census Data 2011”, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India,​2011-Common/​CensusData2011.Html

27Ceriani, Pablo, Fernández Bessa Cristina, Manavella Alejandra, Picco Valeria and Rodeiro Luis. “Report on the Situation on the Euro-Mediterranean Borders”, Work package 9, University of Barcelona (27 April 2009),​2014/​03/​2009-report-on-the-situation-onthe-euro-mediterranean-borders.Pdf

28Chandran, D. Suba and P. G. Rajamohan. “Soft, Porous or Rigid? Towards Stable Borders in South Asia”, South Asian Survey, Vol. 14, No. 1 (2007), pp. 117–28,​10.1177/​097152310701400109

29“China Boosts North Korea Border Fence”, The China Post (31 March 2011),​china/​national-news/​2011/​03/​31/​296806/​Chinaboosts.Htm

30“China Erects Massive Fence on N. Korean Border After Test”, The World Tribune (25 October 2006),​worldtribune/​06/​front2454034.086111111.html

31Coleman, Mathew. “Immigration Geopolitics beyond the Mexico-US Border”, Antipode, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2007), pp. 54–76,​10.1111/​j.1467-8330.2007.00506.x

32Convergence and Employment: The Spanish National Reform Program, Spanish Government, Office of the Presidency of the Spanish Government. Madrid: Ministerio de la Presidencia, 2005.

33Daly, Matthew and Alicia A. Caldwell, “Zinke: Border Wall ‘Complex’, Faces Geographic Challenges”, Washington Times (29 March 2017),​news/​2017/​mar/​29/​zinke-border-wall-complex-facesgeographic-challen/​

34Das, Pushpita. “The India-Bangladesh Border: A Problem Area for Tomorrow”, working paper, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi, India (8 December 2006),​idsastrategiccomments/​TheIndiaBangladeshBorder%20AProblemAreaforTomorrow_PDas_081206

35Das, Pushpita. India’s Border Management: Select Documents. New Delhi: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 2010,​system/​files/​book/​book_IndiasBorderManagement.pdf

36Das, Pushpita. “India-Myanmar Border Problems: Fencing Not the Only Solution”. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi, India (15 November 2013),​idsacomments/​IndiaMyanmarBorderProblems_pdas_151113

37Datta, Sreeradha. “Security of India’s Northeast: External Linkages”, Strategic Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 8 (2000), pp. 1495–1516,​10.1080/​09700160008455301

38Davis, Mike. “The Great Wall of Capita”, Border Culture, in Ilan Stavans (Ed.), pp. 27–29. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2009.

39De Pinies, Jaime. La Descolonización del Sáhara: Un Tema sin Concluir. Madrid: Espasa crónica, 1990.

40Diener, Alexander C. and Joshua Hagen. Borderlines and Borderlands: Political Oddities at the Edge of the Nation-State. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.

41Doukouré, Ounia and Helen Oger. “The EC External Migration Policy: The Case of the MENA Countries”, research paper 2007/6, European University Institute, RSCAS (2007),​bitstream/​handle/​1814/​7991/​CARIM-RR _ 2007 _ 06.Pdf

42Drago, Tito. “Spain: From the Berlin Wall to Ceuta and Melilla”, Inter Press Service (5 October 2005),​2005/​10/​spain-from-theberlin-wall-to-ceuta-and-melilla/​

43Drew, Kate. “This is What Trump’s Border Wall Could Cost”, CNBC (26 January, 2017),​2015/​10/​09/​this-is-what-trumps-border-wallcould-cost-us.html

44Durrani, Mahmud Ali. “Enhancing Security through a Cooperative Border Monitoring Experiment: A Proposal for India and Pakistan”, Cooperative Monitoring Center, Occasional Paper (21 July 2001).

45El-Badri, Hassan, Taha El-Magdoub and Mahammed Dia El-Din Zohdy. The Ramadan War. Dunn Loring: T. N. Dupuy Associates, Inc., 1973.

46Eshel, David. “Counter-guerrilla Warfare in South Lebanon”, Marine Corps Gazette, No. 1 (July 1997).

47Eshel, David. “The Israel-Lebanon Border Enigma”, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 4 (2000–2001), pp. 72–83.

48Falk, Richard A. “Toward Authoritativeness: The ICJ Ruling on Israel’s Security Wall”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 99, No. 1 (2005), pp. 42–52,​10.2307/​3246088

49Feigenbaum, Anna. “Concrete Needs No Metaphor: Globalized Fences as Sites of Political Struggle”, Ephemera, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2010), pp. 119–33.

50Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier. “The Spanish-Moroccan Border Complex: Processes of Geopolitical, Functional and Symbolic Rebordering”, Political Geography, Vol. 27, No. 3 (2008), pp. 301–21,​10.1016/​j.polgeo.2007.12.004

51Freeman, Carla and Drew Thompson. “The Real Bridge to Nowhere: China’s Foiled North Korea Strategy”, working paper, United States Institute of Peace (22 April 2009).

52Freudenstein, Roland. “Rio Odra, Rio Buh: Poland, Germany, and the Borders of Twenty-First-Century Europe”, in The Wall Around the West: State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe, Peter Andreas and Timothy Snyder (Eds.). Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

53Frisch, Felix. “Israel Plans: Tax to Be Imposed on Palestinians Who Enter Israel”, Y-net (6 March 2003).

54Furness, Shelagh. “Brave New Borderless State: Illegal Immigration and the External Borders of the EU”, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin (Autumn 2000), pp. 92–103.

55Ganguly, Rajat. “India, Pakistan and the Kashmir Dispute”, working paper, Asian Studies Institute (1998).

56Gavrilis, George. The Dynamics of Interstate Boundaries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

57Gawrych, George W. “The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: The Albatross of Decisive”, Leavenworth Papers, No. 21, U.S. Army Center of Military History, Washington (1996).

58Ghasmilee, Sara. “Iran Builds Security Fence Along Pakistan Border”, Alarabia News (16 April 2011),​articles/​2011/​04/​16/​145643.Html

59Gold, Peter. A Stone in Spain’s Shoe: The Search for the Solution for the Problem of Gibraltar. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994,​10.5949/​upo9781846317262

60Gold, Peter. Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000,​10.5949/​upo9781846313066

61Gonzalez, Lydia E. and Richard M. Bride. “Fortress Europe: Fear of Immigration? Present and Future of Immigration Law and Policy in Spain”, UC Davis Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2000), pp. 153–91.

62Greenberg, Hanan. “Army Building New Gaza Barrier”, Y-net (4 April 2005),​articles/​0,7340,L-3072620,00.Html

63Haas, Hein de. “Irregular Migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union: An Overview of Recent Trends”, Migration Research Series, No. 32, Geneva: International Organization for Migration (2008).

64Haddal, Chad C., Yule Kim, and Michael John Garcia. Border Security: Barriers along the U.S. International Border, RL33659. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service (16 March 2009).

65Harel, Amos. “Cost of Fence Could Rise to NIS 15 Million per Kilometre”, Haaretz (8 April 2004).

66Hartman, Ben. “First Permanent Section of Sinai Border Fence Completed”, The Jerusalem Post (2 June 2011),​Defense/​First-permanentsection-of-Sinai-border-fence-completed

67Harvey, Derek. “The Reagan Doctrine, Morocco, and the Conflict in the Western Sahara: An Appraisal of United States Policy”, PhD Thesis, The University of Utah (1988).

68Hassner, Ron and Jason Wittenberg. “Barriers to Entry: Who Builds Fortified Boundaries and Are They Likely to Work?” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Toronto, Canada (3–6 September 2009).

69Hazarika, Sanjoy. Rites of Passage: Border Crossings, Imagined Homelands, India’s East and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2000.

70Helfont, Tally. “Egypt’s Wall with Gaza and the Emergence of a New Middle East Alignment”, ORBIS, Vol. 54, No. 3 (2010), pp. 426–40,​10.1016/​j.orbis.2010.04.008

71Herzl, Theodore The Jewish State: An Attempt at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question, 6th ed. (New York: Maccabean Publishing Co., 1904).

72Herzl, Theodore. Der Judenstaat (Leipzig and Vienna: M. Breitenstein’s Verlags-Buchhandlung, 1896).

73Heyman, Josiah McC. “Constructing a Virtual Wall: Race and Citizenship in U.S.-Mexico Border Policing”, Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 50, No. 3 (2008), pp. 305–34,​10.1353/​jsw.2008.0010

74Hoefer, Michael, Rytina, Nancy and Bryan C. Baker, “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009”, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (January 2010),​xlibrary/​assets/​statistics/​publications/​ois_ill_pe_2009.Pdf

75“Humanitarian Impact of the West Bank Barrier”, a report to the Humanitarian Emergency Policy Group (HEPG), compiled by the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) in the occupied Palestinian territory, No. 6 (January 2006),​DPA/​DPR/​unispal.nsf/​0/​1FE4606B31BC49748525713900575924

76“Humanitarian Impact of the West Bank Barrier on Palestinian Communities”, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), Report No. 7 (June 2007),​DPA/​DPR/​unispalnsf/​0/​1F E4606B31BC49748525713900575924

77Huntington, Samuel. “The Clash of Civilizations”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3 (1993), pp. 22–49,​10.2307/​20045621

78“IBMS Installed at Pak-Afghan Border”, Dawn News (28 August 2012),​2012/​08/​28/​ibms-installed-at-pak-afghan-border

79“ICJ Advisory Opinion of 16 October 1975, on the Western Sahara”, Individual Opinion of Fouad Ammoun (Vice-President), International Court of Justice, pp. 84/93,​files/​case-related/​61/​6197.Pdf

80“India, Burma to Fence the Border”, Mizzima News (17 May 2003),​TinKyi/​archives/​2003-05/​msg00018.Html

81“Integrated Border Control in the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRNI50)”, United States Office on Drugs and Crime project document.

82International Migration Outlook 2010. Paris: SOPEMI, OECD, 2010,​els/​mig/​internationalmigrationoutlook2010.Htm

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84“Iran Building ‘Anti-terror’ Fence on Pakistan Border” (15 April 2011),​forums/​world-affairs/​103682-iran-building-anti-terrorfence-pakistan-borderhtml “Iran’s Eastern Borders to be Sealed off by 2015 to Prevent Smuggling, Infiltration”, Al-Arabiya News (2 July 2012),​articles/​2011/​07/​02/​155830.html

85“Israel and the Occupied Territories: The issue of Settlements Must be Addressed According to International Law”, Amnesty International (8 September 2003).

86“Israel and the Occupied Territories: The Place of the Fence/Wall in International Law”, Amnesty International (19 February 2004),​en/​documents/​MDE15/​016/​2004/​en/​

87Jamwal, N.S. “Border Management: Dilemma of Guarding the India-Bangladesh Border”, Strategic Analysis, Vol. 28, No. 1 (2004), pp. 5–36,​10.1080/​09700160408450116

88Jaspal, Zafar Nawaz. “Threat of Extremism & Terrorist Syndicate beyond FATA”, Journal of Political Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2010), pp. 19–49.

89Jensen, Eric. Western Sahara: Anatomy of Stalemate. London: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

90Joffe, George. “The International Court of Justice and the Western Sahara Dispute”, in War and Refugees: The Western Sahara Conflict, Richard Lawless and Laila Monahan (Ed.). London: Pinter, 1987, pp. 16–30.

91Johnson, Thomas H. and M. Chris Mason. “No Sign until the Burst of Fire: Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier”, International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4 (2008), pp. 41–77,​10.1162/​isec.2008.32.4.41

92Joseph, Jolin and Vishnu Narendran. “Neither Here nor There: An Overview of South-South Migration from both ends of the Bangladesh-India Migration Corridor”, working paper No. 569, Migration Literature Review, No. 1 (October 2013).

93Joshi, Binoo. “India-Pakistan Border Fence Affecting Wildlife”, Indo-Asian News Service (6 February 2008),​node/​78400

94Kanchan, L. “Negotiating Insurgencies”, Faultlines (11 April 2002),​satporgtp/​publication/​faultlines/​volume11/​Article7.Htm

95Kansakar, Vidya Bir Singh. “Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges”, Institute of Foreign Affairs, Kathmandu, Nepal (2001),​aktuell/​focus_interkulturelles/​focus_1/​documents/​19.Pdf

96Karlekar, Hiranmay. Bangladesh: The Next Afghanistan? New Delhi: Sage Publication, 2005.

97Keinon, Herb”. P. M. Sets Summer as Completion Date for Egypt Fence”, Jerusalem Post (15 March 2011),​Defense/​PM-setssummer-2012-as-completion-date-for-Egypt-fence

98Khan, Zahid Ali. “Balochistan Factor in Pak-Iran Relations: Opportunities and Constraints”, South Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1 (2012), pp. 121–40.

99Knickmeyer, Ellen. “Egypt to Bolster Gaza Border” Washington Post (7 January 2008),​wp-dyn/​content/​article/​2008/​01/​06/​AR2008010602055.Html

100Koslowski, Rey. “Immigration Reforms and Border Security Technologies”, Border Battles: The U.S. Immigration Debates. New York: Social Science Research Council, 2006,​Koslowski

101Kuppuswamy, C. S. “Indo-Myanmar Relations — A Review”, working paper No. 2043, South Asia Analysis Group (November 2006).

102Lagerquist, Peter. “Fencing the Last Sky: Excavating Palestine after Israel’s ‘Separation Wall’”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2004), pp. 5–35,​10.1525/​jps.2004.33.2.5

103Laithangbam, Iboyaima. “Fencing along Manipur-Myanmar Border Progressing”, The Hindu (8 September 2010),​news/​national/​article619798.ece

104Lakshmi, Rama. “India’s Border Fence Extended to Kashmir Country Aims to Stop Pakistani Infiltration”, The Washington Post (30 July 2003),​images/​India-30-Jul-03-India_s_Border_Fence_Extended_to_Kashmir.Pdf

105Lein, Yehezkel. “Behind the Barrier: Human Rights Violations As a Result of Israel’s Separation Barrier”, position paper, Trans. Zvi Shulman, B’Tselem (March 2003),​download/​200304_behind_the_barrier_ ng.Pdf

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110Makovsky, David. “How to Build a Fence”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 2 (2004), pp. 50–64,​10.2307/​20033902

111Mara’i, Tayseer and Usama R. Halabi. “Life under Occupation in the Golan Heights”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1 (1992), pp. 78–93,​10.1525/​jps.1992.22.1.00p0166n

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113McDuie-Ra, Duncan. “Tribals, Migrants and Insurgents: Security and Insecurity along the India-Bangladesh Border”, Global Change, Peace & Security, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2012), pp. 165–82,​10.1080/​14781158.2012.641286

114McElroy, Damien. “Tashkent Urged to Allow UN Aid Across Bridge”, The Daily Telegraph (11 November 2001),​news/​worldnews/​asia/​uzbekistan/​1362221/​Tashkent-urged-to-allow-UN-aidacross-bridge.Html

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117Mehrotra-Khanna, Mansi. “Security Challenges to India-Bangladesh Relations”, working paper series 1, Center for Land Warfare Studies (2010).

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