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Friedrich Schiller

Notable Names

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1Altringer. Johann Aldringen of Lorraine (1588–1634); after 1632 count and field marshal. Brother-in-law to Gallasso and, like him, active in Wallenstein’s fall.

2Arnheim. Johann Georg von Arnim (1581–1641). Lieutenant general in the Saxon army.

3Arquebusiers. Cavalry armed with a gun supported by a hook (Dutch hake) during firing.

4Bernhard. Prince Bernhard von Saxe-Weimar (1604–1639). General on the Swedish side.

5Buttler. Walter Butler (d. 1634), an Old Irish aristocrat. Commander of a regiment of Irish dragoons given him shortly after Wallenstein’s death, when he was also made count.

6Carabiniers. Cavalry armed with short rifles called carbines.

7Countess. Historically, Maria Maximiliana née von Harrach, 1608–1662.

8Croats. Light cavalry recruited largely from southeast Europe, though not necessarily Croatian nationals. They enjoyed no great esteem.

9Cuirassiers. Heavy cavalry protected by the cuirass, originally a strong leather armor. An esteemed arm.

10Deveroux and Macdonald. Walter Deveroux (d. 1639) and Dionysius Macdaniel (d. ca. 1639), both Irishmen and, here, captains in Buttler’s regiment of dragoons. Deveroux is credited with delivering the blow of the halberd that killed Wallenstein.

11Dragoons. Cavalry armed with short muskets.

12Duchess. Isabella Katharina née von Harrach (1601–1656). She was Wallenstein’s second wife and elder sister of the Countess Terzky.

13Eger. Border town with a fortress, about 100 kilometers northwest of Pilsen. Here Wallenstein was murdered, February 1634.

14Eggenberg. Johann Ulrich von Eggenberg (1568–1634). Imperial prince and Duke of Krumau. President of the court chamber (Hofkammer) and privy counselor.

15Ferdinand. 1. Ferdinand II of Habsburg (1578–1637), Holy Roman Emperor after 1619. 2. Ferdinand III of Habsburg (1608–1657), eldest surviving son of Ferdinand II. Elected King of Hungary, 1627; successor to Wallenstein, 1634. With Gallasso, he defeated the Swedes at Nördlingen, 1634, and signed the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years’ War, 1648.

16Frauenberg. Marradas’s seat in southern Bohemia and gathering point for Wallenstein’s opponents.

17Friedrich. Frederick V, Count Palatine, prince-elector. He was crowned King of Bohemia in the uprising that began in 1618, then defeated in the battle of White Mountain in 1620. Called the Winter King for his brief reign.

18Gallas. Matthias Gallasso (1584–1647), made Count of Campo, 1632, and lieutenant general, 1633. Schiller seems to have appropriated some of the traits of the historical Gallasso to the construction of the figure of Octavio.

19Gitschin. Wallenstein’s holding in northeast Bohemia, intended as his residence; where his body was interred.

20Gordon. John Gordon (d. 1649), a Scot. As lieutenant colonel in one of Terzky’s regiments he was commandant at Eger.

21Gustav Adolf (1594–1632). King of Sweden. Champion of the Protestant forces in the Thirty Years’ War and one of the great field marshals of all time. He defeated Wallenstein at Lützen, then died of wounds he received in that battle.

22Illo. Christian von Ilow (ca. 1585–1634) of the New Mark. He acquired properties in Bohemia, was made baron, 1631, and field marshal, 1633.

23Isolani. Johann Ludwig Hektor, Baron Isolani (1586–1640), of north Italian nobility settled on the Italian-Croatian border. After 1632, commander of all Croats of the imperial army. Raised to the rank of count after Wallenstein’s death.

24Kinsky. Wilhelm, Count Kinsky (1574–1634). Bohemian nobleman, Terzky’s brother-in-law, contact to the Bohemian emigration. A diplomat and not a soldier.

25Lamormain. Wilhelm Lamormain (1570–1648), Jesuit priest and, after 1624, confessor to the Kaiser.

26League. The Catholic League, an alliance of the estates of the Empire led by the Duke of Bavaria. Its army, under Tilly, fought beside the imperial army.

27Leslie. Walter Leslie (1606–1667), a Scot in imperial service who served under John Gordon and had a part in the assassination of Wallenstein.

28Lichtenstein. Gundakar von Lichtenstein (1580–1658). Imperial prince and lord steward of the Viennese court.

29Lützen. Town near Leipzig, in Saxony-Anhalt, where Gustavus Adolphus defeated Wallenstein, then died of his wounds, November 1632.

30Mansfeld. Peter Ernst, Count Mansfeld (1580–1626), whom Wallenstein defeated at the Dessau bridge in April 1626 and pursued as far as Hungary.

31Maradas. Don Baltasar Marradas (ca. 1560–1638) of Spanish nobility. His castle at Frauenberg in southern Bohemia became a gathering place for Wallenstein’s opponents.

32Martinitz. Jaroslaw Bořita von Martinitz (1582–1649), Bohemian nobleman and member of Wilhelm Slavata’s governorship of Bohemia. Defenestrated 1618.

33Max. Max Piccolomini is Schiller’s invention. He may owe his name and certain other traits to Joseph Silvio Max Piccolomini, a nephew whom the childless Octavio adopted.

34Neumann. Heinrich Niemann (d. 1634). Doctor of law. He served as private secretary to Wallenstein.

35Nuremberg. In late summer 1632, Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus met in battle at Nuremberg. Gustavus occupied the town, Wallenstein a fortified camp just outside town.

36Octavio. The historical figure was Octavio Piccolomini-Pieri, 1599–1656, of Sienese, not Lombard, nobility, who joined Wallenstein’s bodyguard in 1627. Field marshal after 1634. At the time of the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, he was chief commander of the imperial army; in 1650 he was raised to the rank of prince.

37Oxenstirn. Axel Gustafsson, Count Oxenstierna (1583–1654). Swedish chancellor who effectively governed the Swedish state while Gustavus Adolphus waged war and during the minority of Queen Christina, Gustavus’s successor.

38Palatine. “Of the Palatinate” (in German, Pfalz), west of the Rhine and bordering Lorraine, the land of Princes Frederick IV and V of the Palatinate. The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) lies in southeastern Germany, bordering Bohemia.

39Pappenheim. Gottfried Heinrich, Count Pappenheim (1594–1632). Imperial field marshal. He was mortally wounded while fighting under Wallenstein at Lützen. Max Piccolomini’s succeeding him as commander of his riders is Schiller’s invention.

40Pilsen. City in Bohemia, a borderland between Czech and German territory. Site of Wallenstein’s headquarters, winter 1633–1634.

41Questenberg. Gerhard von Questenberg (before 1585–1646). Entered the war chancellery, 1606, counselor of war (Kriegsrat) after 1626. Historically, he was Wallenstein’s partisan. He rose later to president of the war council.

42Rangers. The German is Jäger. These originally were foot troops recruited from the huntsmen and forest rangers of the great German estates. “Ranger” arose simultaneously for similar foot and mounted infantry in British North America. “Chasseur” became common in the eighteenth century.

43Regensburg. Free city in southeastern Germany, on the Danube and near the Austrian border. Site of the electors’ congress where Wallenstein was removed from command, 1630; taken by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, in Swedish service, November 1633.

44Rhinegrave. Otto Ludwig Wild-und Rheingraf zu Salm in Mörchingen (1597–1634). General in Swedish service and Swedish governor of Alsace. Schiller casts him as commander of the Swedish force in southern Germany.

45Rudolf. Rudolf II (1552–1612), Holy Roman Emperor. Succeeded by Ferdinand II.

46Seni. Giovanni Battista Senno (1602–1656), a Genoese. After 1631, Wallenstein’s astrologer. He was subsequently suspected of secret contact with the Viennese court.

47Sesina. Jaroslaw Sezina Rašin, Knight of Riesenburg (d. 1635). Bohemian emigrant and go-between for Wallenstein’s contacts with the Swedes.

48Silesia. In summer 1633 Wallenstein met the Swedes and Saxons in Silesia; the hostilities ended in a truce and unsuccessful negotiations.

49Slavata. Wilhelm Slavata (1572–1652), Bohemian nobleman and imperial governor of Bohemia. Defenestrated 1618.

50Stralsund. Hanseatic city on the Baltic coast of Germany (Pomerania), allied with Denmark and Sweden and besieged in vain by Wallenstein, summer 1628.

51Terzky. Adam Erdmann Trčka von Lipa (ca. 1599–1634) of the landed Bohemian nobility. At the rank of lieutenant field marshal he commanded seven or eight regiments—a considerable corps.

52The Bavarian. Maximilian I (1573–1651), prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria. Founder of the Catholic League. Wallenstein’s rival and implacable enemy.

53Thekla. Like Max, Schiller’s invention. Wallenstein’s historical daughter was Maria Elisabeth, 1626–1662. Thekla is about nine years older. She is one of a line of courageous and resourceful young women in Schiller’s plays.

54Thurn. Heinrich Mattias, Count Thurn (1580–1640), leader of the Bohemian rising against Viennese rule that touched off the Thirty Years’ War, spokesman of the Bohemian emigration, general in the Swedish army.

55Tiefenbach. Rudolf, Baron Tiefenbach (1582–1653) of Styria. Field marshal. He gave his name, 1619, to an infantry regiment that survived to the end of the Habsburg monarchy.

56Tilly. Johannes Tserklaes, Count Tilly (1599–1632). Commander of the army of the Catholic League and, briefly and with poor success, also of Wallenstein’s army after Wallenstein was removed from command at the Regensburg Electors’ Congress, 1630. He is remembered for the terrible sack of Magdeburg, 1631. He was mortally wounded in a defeat by Gustavus Adolphus at the crossing of the Lech, 1632, after which Wallenstein was restored to his command.

57Uhlans. Light cavalry bearing lances, first recruited among Poles.

58Walloons. French-speaking people of the southern Low Countries, bordering France. In Wallenstein they are particularly well represented among Max’s Pappenheimers.

59Werdenberg. Johann Baptist, Baron Verda, Count Werdenberg (1582–1648). Viennese court chancellor and member of the privy council.


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