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What Works in Conservation 2017

 | 
William J. Sutherland
, 
Lynn V. Dicks
, 
Nancy Ockendon
, 
et al.

6. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTROL OF FRESHWATER INVASIVE SPECIES

6.6 Threat: Invasive amphibians

Texte intégral

6.6.1 American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeiana

Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for controlling American bullfrogs?

Likely to be beneficial

● Biological control using native predators
● Direct removal of adults
● Direct removal of juveniles

Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)

● Application of a biocide

No evidence found (no assessment)

● Biological control of co-occurring beneficial species
● Collection of egg clutches
● Draining ponds
● Fencing
● Habitat modification
● Pond destruction
● Public education

Likely to be beneficial

Biological control using native predators

1One replicated, controlled study conducted in northeast Belgium found the introduction of the northern pike led to a strong decline in bullfrog tadpole numbers. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 70%; certainty 40%; harms 0%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1039

Direct removal of adults

2One replicated study in Belgium found catchability of adult bullfrogs in small shallow ponds using a double fyke net to be very low. One small study in the USA found that adult bullfrogs can be captured overnight in a single trap floating on the water surface. One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that bullfrog populations rapidly rebounded following intensive removal of the adults. One study in France found a significant reduction in the number of recorded adults and juveniles following the shooting of metamorphosed individuals before reproduction, when carried out as part of a combination treatment. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 50%; certainty 70%; harms 0%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1045

Direct removal of juveniles

3One replicated study in Belgium found double fyke nets were effective in catching bullfrog tadpoles in small shallow ponds. One study in France found a significant reduction in the number of recorded adults and juveniles following the removal of juveniles by trapping, when carried out as part of a combination treatment. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 70%; certainty 60%; harms 0%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1046

Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)

Application of a biocide

4One replicated, controlled study in the USA reported a number of chemicals killed American bullfrogs, including caffeine (10% solution), chloroxylenol (5% solution), and a combined treatment of Permethrin (4.6% solution) and Rotenone (1% solution). Assessment: unknown effectiveness (effectiveness 50%; certainty 20%; harms 0%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1048

No evidence found (no assessment)

5We have captured no evidence for the following interventions:

  • Biological control of co-occurring beneficial species

  • Collection of egg clutches

  • Draining ponds

  • Fencing

  • Habitat modification

  • Pond destruction

  • Public education

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