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What Works in Conservation 2017

 | 
William J. Sutherland
, 
Lynn V. Dicks
, 
Nancy Ockendon
, 
et al.

6. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTROL OF FRESHWATER INVASIVE SPECIES

6.2 Threat: Invasive molluscs

Texte intégral

6.2.1 Asian clams

Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for controlling Asian clams?

Beneficial

● Add chemicals to the water
● Change salinity of the water
● Mechanical removal

Likely to be beneficial

● Change temperature of water
● Clean equipment
● Use of gas-impermeable barriers

Unlikely to be beneficial

● Reduce oxygen in water

No evidence found (no assessment)

● Change pH of water
● Drain the invaded waterbody
● Exposure to disease-causing organisms
● Exposure to parasites
● Hand removal
● Public awareness and education

Beneficial

Add chemicals to the water

1Two replicated laboratory studies and one controlled, replicated field study found that chlorine, potassium and copper killed Asian clams. Increasing chemical concentration and water temperature killed more clams in less time. One controlled field trial achieved 80% and 100% mortality of Asian clams using encapsulated control agents (SB1000 and SB2000 respectively) in irrigation systems. Assessment: beneficial (effectiveness 75%; certainty 70%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1118

Change salinity of water

2A controlled, replicated laboratory study from the USA found that exposure to saline water killed all Asian clams. Assessment: beneficial (effectiveness 65%; certainty 68%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1115

Mechanical removal

3A controlled before-and-after study from North America found suction dredging of sediment reduced an Asian clam population by 96%, and these effects persisted for a year. A replicated, controlled, before-and-after field trial in Ireland showed that three types of dredges were effective at removing between 74% and >95% of the Asian clam biomass. Assessment: beneficial (effectiveness 80%; certainty 78%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1120

Likely to be beneficial

Change temperature of water

4A controlled laboratory study from the USA found that exposure to water at temperatures of 37 ° C and 36 ° C killed all Asian clams within 2 and 4 days, respectively. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 60%; certainty 55%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1116

Clean equipment

5A field study from Portugal found that mechanical removal, followed by regular cleaning and maintenance of industrial pipes at a power plant permanently removed an Asian clam population. A field study from Portugal found that adding a sand filter to a water treatment plant reduced an Asian clam population. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 75%; certainty 50%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1119

Use of gas-impermeable barriers

6One controlled study from North America found that placing gas impermeable fabric barriers on a lake bottom (several small and one large area) reduced populations of Asian clams. Assessment: likely to be beneficial (effectiveness 78%; certainty 60%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1117

Unlikely to be beneficial

Reduce oxygen in water

7A controlled laboratory study from the USA found that Asian clams were not susceptible to low oxygen levels in the water. Assessment: unlikely to be beneficial (effectiveness 10%; certainty 50%).
http://www.conservationevidence.com/​actions/​1113

No evidence found (no assessment)

8We have captured no evidence for the following interventions:

  • Change pH of water

  • Drain the invaded waterbody

  • Exposure to disease-causing organisms

  • Exposure to parasites

  • Hand removal

  • Public awareness and education

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