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Piety in Pieces

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Kathryn M. Rudy

List of illustrations

Texte intégral

11 Folio from a psalter, with a historiated initial showing Christ healing a blind man, Psalm 26. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 17, fol. 20v. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g17%3A020v 18

22 Modular book of hours, opened at the beginning of the Vigil for the Dead. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. I G 54, fol. 32v-33r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 19

33 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the Presentation in the Temple, facing complines of the Hours of the Virgin. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 55v-56r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/106 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/107 21

44 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting Christ as Man of Sorrows among the arma Christi, facing the Seven Penitential Psalms. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 75v-76r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/144 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/145 21

55 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the Mass for the Dead, facing the Vigil for the Dead. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 94v-95r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/182 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/183 21

66 Folio in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting Christ as Man of Sorrows among the arma Christi, facing a prayer to be read before an image of the crucifix. London, British Library, Sloane Ms. 2683, fol. 65v. http://www.bl.uk/​manuscripts/​Viewer.aspx?ref=sloane_ms_2683_fs001r 22

77 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the Face of Christ, facing the prayer “Salve sancta facies.” Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 12v-13r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/30 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/31 23

88 Opening in a book of hours with two blank folios in a row, immediately before the Face of Christ. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 11v-12r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/28 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/29 29

99 Text folio from the Book of Kells, gospels, written and illuminated ca. 800, possibly on Iona. Dublin, Trinity College, Ms. 58, fol. 89r. http://digitalcollections.tcd.ie/​home/​index.php?DRIS_ID=MS58_089r 30

1010 Calendar folio from the Hours of Catherine of Cleves, with painted line endings and beginnings. New York, Morgan Library and Museum, Ms. M. 917, p. 17. Image © The Morgan Library and Museum, all rights reserved. 30

1111 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the Throne of Mercy, facing a prayer to the Trinity. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 10v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/26 31

1212 Folio in a book of hours, the reverse of the Throne of Mercy miniature, with prayer texts added in an English hand of the fifteenth century. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 10r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/25 31

1313 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the personal angel battling a dragon, facing a suffrage to the personal angel, inscribed in Bruges on a singleton. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 14v-15r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/34 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/35 32

1414 Folio in a book of hours, with two prayer texts, written in an English hand of the fifteenth century, added to the blank back of a miniature. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 14r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/33 32

1515 Folio in a book of hours, with birthdays added to the blank back of a miniature in an English sixteenth-century hand. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 33r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/61 32

1616 Folio in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature by the Masters of the Pink Canopies depicting the Annunciation, painted on a singleton. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 33v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/62 32

1717 Opening in a book of hours, with blank space filled with prayers in an English hand. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 15v-16r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/36 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/37 33

1818 Masters of the Pink Canopies, St. George, full-page miniature painted on a singleton. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 22v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/46 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/47 33

1919 Blank space in the book of hours, filled with prayers in an English hand. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 23v-24r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/48 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/49 33

2020 End of the Hours of the Virgin (inscribed in Bruges), and prayer to St. Botolph (added in England). Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 58v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/112 34

2121 Jan Gossaert, Portrait of a Merchant, ca. 1530. Washington, National Gallery of Art. https://www.nga.gov/​collection/​gallery/​gg41/​gg41–50722.html 35

2222 Opening from a “picture bible” or a prefatory cycle from a psalter. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 F 5, fol. 6v-7r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f5%3A006v and http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f5%3A007r 37

2323 Book of hours made in the modular method, unbound. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. I G 50. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 41

2424 Original production (left of the gutter) and an added quire, with incipit of an indulgenced prayer (right of the gutter). Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. I G 54, fol. 64v-65r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 42

2525 Modular method at the convent of St. Ursula. Diagram showing the modules comprising Cambridge, Trinity College, Ms. B. 1.46. Diagram © Author, CC BY 4.0. 44

2626 Modular method at the convent of St. Ursula. Diagram showing the modules comprising Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms. 138. Diagram © Author, CC BY 4.0. 46

2727 Matins of the Hours of the Virgin. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 23v-24r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/47 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/48 51

2828 Lauds of the Hours of the Virgin. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 28v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/58 51

2929 Virgin of the Sun, full-page miniature inserted into a book of hours before the Salve Regina. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 51v-52r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/104 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/105 51

3030 End of the Hours of the Virgin (original scribe) and beginning of a text added in England. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 50r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/101 52

3131 Prayer added to a formerly blank area. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 50v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/102 52

3232 Added prayer to St. Ethelburga (below a prayer to St. Thomas of Canterbury, later crossed out). Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 16v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/34 53

3333 Prayer text added to the formerly blank parchment. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 97v-98r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/196 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/197 53

3434 Christ in Judgment, full-page miniature, formerly blank on the back, inserted before the Seven Penitential Psalms. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 98v-99r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/198 and http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/199 53

3535 Seam between hands. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ff. 6.8, fol. 11r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-FF-00006–00008/23 54

3636 Folio of a child’s ABC, with expunctuation, made in the Southern Netherlands, ca. 1450–1500. New York, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Plimpton Ms. 287, fol. 1r. http://vm133.lib.berkeley.edu:8080/​xtf22/​search?rmode=digscript;smode=basic;text=plimpton287;docsPerPage=1;startDoc=1;fullview=yes 60

3737 Writing over an erasure. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 93r. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/179 60

3838 Folio in a breviary made by the convent of St. Agnes in Delft revealing text painted out and corrected. Delft, Prinsenhof, no number. Image © Author, CC BY 4.0. 60

3939 Folio with decoration and a correction glued on. New York, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, X 096. C286, fol. 1r. http://vm133.lib.berkeley.edu:8080/​xtf22/​search?rmode=digscript;smode=basic;text=X096.C286;docsPerPage=1;startDoc=1;fullview=yes 61

4040 Lamentation, printed engraving, hand-colored with an inscription in Middle Dutch. London, British Museum Department of Prints and Drawings, inv. no. 1846,0709.49. http://www.britishmuseum.org/​research/​collection_online/​collection_object_details/​collection_image_gallery.aspx?partid=1&assetid=48947001&objectid=1361029 62

4141 Reverse of the Lamentation, with hand-written prayer text. London, British Museum Department of Prints and Drawings, inv. no. 1846,0709.49v. http://www.britishmuseum.org/​research/​collection_online/​collection_object_details/​collection_image_gallery.aspx?partid=1&assetid=378290001&objectid=1361029 62

4242 Flyleaf in a book of hours, inscribed with notes of ownership and practice letters. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 140r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 63

4343 Folio in the Missal of the Guild of St. Mary Magdalene at Bruges, showing an iconic Mary Magdalene surrounded by scenes from her Life, made in 1475–76. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 16; inv. no. 285, fol. 201v. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 64

4444 Final folio in the Missal of the Guild of St. Mary Magdalene at Bruges, listing the the patrons who paid for the manuscript. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 16; inv. no. 285, fol. 250v. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 64

4545 Folio near the end of a book of hours, with a note of ownership. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 G 10, fol. 163v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 66

4646 Layman with a money bag (the original donor?) and two women in contemporary garb witnessing the elevation of the Eucharist. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 G 10, fol. 123v. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135g10%3A123v 67

4747 Family information added to the end of the calendar of a book of hours made in Enkhuizen. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 79 K 6, fol. 10v-11r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 67

4848 Christ teaching in the temple, Book of hours from Delft, hand-colored prints instead of miniatures. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. IV 142, fol. 47v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 68

4949 Manumission document added to Gospel of Matthew. London, British Library, Royal Ms. 1 B VII, fol. 15v. http://www.bl.uk/​catalogues/​illuminatedmanuscripts/​ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=50424 70

5050 Christ crucified between Mary and John, full-page miniature in a missal. Zutphen, Regionaal Archief, Ms. 7, fol. 144v. Image © Regionaal Archief Zutphen, CC BY 4.0. 71

5151 Formerly blank back of a full-page miniature of Christ crucified, with inscriptions added in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Zutphen, Regionaal Archief, Ms. 7, fol. 144r. Image © Regionaal Archief Zutphen, CC BY 4.0. 72

5252 Grinning waving figure added to a calendar, in a missal for the use of Beauvais, made in the early twelfth century, with the drawing added later. Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève, Ms. 95, fol. 5v-6r. http://initiale.irht.cnrs.fr/​ouvrages/​ouvrages.php?imageInd=5&id=3148 77

5353 Calendar with additions, in a missal made in Utrecht but used on Lopik. Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. 405, fol. 3r. Image © Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 78

5454 Calendar with additions. Glasgow, University Library, Ms. Hunter, H186, fol. 7v-8r. Published by permission of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. 79

5555 Necrology, filled in by various scribes. Utrecht, Museum Catharijneconvent, BMH h 127, fol. 7r. Reproduced with permission from the Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht. 79

5656 Opening in a book of hours, showing a litany with added saints. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. I G 54, fol. 26v-27r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 82

5757 Folio in a book of hours, with morning prayers added as quire filler. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms. 334, fol. 33v-34r. Image © Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, all rights reserved. 82

5858 Dove returning to Noah’s ark with an olive branch, folio with large miniature and added inscription, in a picture bible made ca. 1250. Manchester, Rylands Library, Ms. French 5, fol. 14r. http://luna.manchester.ac.uk/​luna/​servlet/​detail/​Man4MedievalVC~4~4~989875~142711 84

5959 Prayer added before calendar. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 K 17, fol. 1v-2r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 85

6060 Folio from the Hours of the Virgin, with a writing lesson in the margin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 K 17, fol. 112r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 85

6161 Christ before Pilate, full-page miniature with a scribble added before prime. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 K 17, fol. 77v-78r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 86

6262 Folio in a book of hours, with an alphabet added to the otherwise blank area at the end of a quire. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Dd. 15.25, fol. 66v. Image © Cambridge University Library, all rights reserved. 86

6363 Opening in a book of hours, with prayers added by several English scribes. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ee.1.14, fol. 1v-2r. Image © Cambridge University Library, all rights reserved. 89

6464 First opening from a psalter-hours first made in 1275–1280 in Liège. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 35. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 89

6565 The Colnish Pater Noster added after the calendar. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 10, fol. 12v-13r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 91

6666 Trinity, full-page miniature in a book of hours, with an added inscription. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 10, fol. 147v-148r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 92

6767 Adoro te (5-verse version) with more verses added in the margin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 75 G 2, fol. 250v-251r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 92

6868 Opening of the Hours of the Virgin, with a full-page miniature depicting the Annunciation. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 H 30, fol. 16v-17r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_133h30%3A016v_017r 94

6969 End of the Hours of the Virgin, with blank parchment at the end of the quire. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 H 30, fol. 54v-55r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 95

7070 Adoro te, in its Dutch translation, used as quire filler. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 H 30, fol. 55v-56r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 96

7171 A blank opening at the transition between text and image. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 H 30, fol. 56v-57r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 96

7272 Prayer to St. Francis and his stigmata added to the back of the Crucifixion miniature in the Gouda Missal. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, fol. 101r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 97

7373 Feasts added to the end of the Gouda Missal, the first of which is dedicated to the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, fol. 215v-216r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 97

7474 Incipit of the psalter with a border painted in an eastern Netherlandish style. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. V H 26, fol. 1r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 99

7575 Folio with a major psalm division, with an initial S decorated in two campaigns of work. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. V H 26, fol. 64r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 99

7676 Division within psalm 119, with penwork decoration added in North Holland. Special Collections of the Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, Ms. V H 26, fol. 124v. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek van Amsterdam, CC BY 4.0. 100

7777 Hours of Easter, with decoration made in two campaigns of work: penwork from North Holland, and decoration supplemented with painted leaves. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Broxb. 89.10, fol. 193r. http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/​luna/​servlet/​view/​search/​what/​MS.Broxb.89.10?q=broxb.89.10 101

7878 Hours of Christmas, with two campaigns of decoration: penwork from North Holland, and decoration supplemented with painted leaves. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Broxb. 89.10, fol. 169r. http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/​luna/​servlet/​view/​search/​what/​MS.Broxb.89.10?q=broxb.89.10 101

7979 David with his harp, facing the incipit of the psalter, with painted decoration typical of Haarlem. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Broxb. 89.10, fol. 17v-18r. http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/​luna/​servlet/​view/​search/​what/​MS.Broxb.89.10?q=broxb.89.10 102

8080 Annunciation, and incipit of the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 131 G 3, fol. 13v-14r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_131g3%3A013v_014r 103

8181 Christ as Salvator Mundi, and the incipit of the Hours of Eternal Wisdom. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 131 G 3, fol. 79v-80r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_131g3%3A079v_080r 104

8282 Christ carrying the cross, and the incipit of the Hours of the Holy Cross. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 131 G 3, fol. 117v-118r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_131g3%3A117v_118r 104

8383 Christ sitting on the cold stone, and the incipit of prayers to be said for the sacrament. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 131 G 3, fol. 157v-158r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Am imi_131g3%3A157v_158r 104

8484 Folio from a typological Life of Christ in Middle Dutch, with an added marginal painting representing the Annunciation. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 258, fol. 8v. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 105

8585 Folio from a typological Life of Christ in Middle Dutch, with an added marginal painting representing the Nativity. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 258, fol. 14r. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. See also https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/​ (and search for “Ltk 258”). 106

8686 Folio from a typological Life of Christ in Middle Dutch, with an added marginal painting representing the Magi. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 258, fol. 20r. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. See also https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/​ (and search for “Ltk 258”). 106

8787 Blank space on the back of a full-page miniature in a book of hours, with added doodles. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Dd. 15.25, fol. 40r. Image © Cambridge University Library, all rights reserved. 108

8888 Nun praying before a crucifix, pen drawing with prayer, added to a calendar. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 22, fol. 3r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g22%3A003r 108

8989 Opening in the Van der Vlaest Hours from Ghent, at the end of terce and the beginning of sext, with a drawing on parchment sewn onto a blank area. Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. 2750, fol. 55v-56r. Image © Universiteitsbibliotheek Ghent, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. 110

9090 Opening in a book of hours, with a blank folio before vespers that formerly had a rectangular object sewn onto it. Nijmegen, Radboud Universiteit, Ms. 283 fol. 91v-92r. © Radboud Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 111

9191 Opening in a prayer book, with a blank folio before a rubric that formerly had an object glued to it. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 75 G 2, fol. 220v-221r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 111

9292 Opening in a prayerbook that formerly had an object pasted to the verso folio. Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Sal. VII, 4d, fol. 67v-68r. See http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/​diglit/​salVII4d 113

9393 Opening in a prayer book with an added rubrics inscribed on a separate sheet of parchment that has been slipped in behind the quire. Amsterdam Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. I G 35, fol. 37v-38r. Published with permission. 113

9494 Parchment sheets with extra prayers pasted into the back inside cover of the Gouda missal. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, back inside cover. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 113

9595 Folio from a prayerbook that has been heavily worn and trimmed. Tilburg, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. 11 (formerly TFK 10), fol. 48r. Image © Tilburg Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 121

9696 Binding with metal loops for suspending the book, early sixteenth century. Tilburg, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. 11 (formerly TFK 10). Image © Tilburg Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 122

9797 Opening with the beginning of the Hours of All Saints (on the right), and a prayer to one’s personal angel copied on a single, added leaf (on the left). Cambridge, Trinity College, Ms. B. 1.46, fol. 110v-111r. Image © Trinity College Cambridge, CC BY 4.0. 126

9898 Opening revealing the stub from an added text leaf. Cambridge, Trinity College, Ms. B. 1.46, fol. 105v-106r. Image © Trinity College Cambridge, CC BY 4.0. 126

9999 Single leaf with prayers for the feast of St. Anne, with a historiated initial painted by the Masters of the Dark Eyes (South Holland, ca. 1500), inserted into the Fagel missal (Delft, 1459–1460). Dublin, Trinity College, Ms. 81, fol. 186r. Image © Trinity College Library Dublin, all rights reserved. 128

100100 Incipit of the Sanctoral, with prayers for the feast of St. Andrew, with a historiated initial painted by the Master of the Fagel Missal (Delft, 1459–1460). Dublin, Trinity College, Ms. 81, fol. 187r. Image © Trinity College Library Dublin, all rights reserved. 128

101101 Added folio (inserted at the break between two quires), bearing a rubric relevant to the following prayer. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Néerl. 111, fol. 12v-13r. Image © Author, CC BY-NC 4.0. 129

102102 Calendar with a highly abbreviated Cisiojanus. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Néerl. 111, fol. 3r. Image © Author, CC BY-NC 4.0. 130

103103 Opening revealing the blank verso of an added folio (inserted at the break between two quires), and a prayer that’s part of the original campaign of work. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Néerl. 111, fol. 13v-14r. Image © Author, CC BY-NC 4.0. 131

104104 Opening revealing the blank recto of an added folio (inserted at the break between two quires), and the end of a prayer that’s part of the original campaign of work. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Néerl. 111, fol. 22v-23r. Image © Author, CC BY-NC 4.0. 132

105105 Opening revealing an added folio (inserted at the break between two quires), with a textual frame circumscribing a round object (now missing); and the beginning of a prayer that is part of the original campaign of work. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Ms. Néerl. 111, fol. 23v-24r. Image © Author, CC BY-NC 4.0. 132

106106 Folio added in the middle of the Hours of the Cross. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 1, fol. 99v-100r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 134

107107 Christ Carrying the Cross, full-page miniature attributed to the Moerdrecht Masters, inserted into a book of hours. Tilburg, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. KHS 12, fol. 39v-40r. Image © Tilburg Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 137

108108 Masters of the Dark Eyes, Mass of St. Gregory, full-page miniature inserted into a book of hours. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 16, fol. 149v-150r http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g16%3A149v_150r 140

109109 Masters of the Dark Eyes, Opening at the Seven Penitential Psalms, with the Last Judgment on the left side of the opening, and the Psalms beginning with a large decorated initial on the right. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 16, fol. 52v-53r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g16%3A052v_053r 140

110110 Mass of St. Gregory, opposite the incipit of the Adoro te in Middle Dutch. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. IV 410, fol. 45v-46r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 141

111111 The Mass of St. Gregory, facing the incipit of the Verses of St. Gregory. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 E 22, fol. 186v-187r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 142

112112 Souls in the bosom of Abraham, full-page miniature inserted to face the incipit of the Vigil for the Dead. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 E 22, fol. 101v-102r http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_133e22%3A101v_102r 144

113113 Mass of St. Gregory, full-page miniature inserted in a prayerbook. Copenhagen, Royal Library, Ms. Thott. 129 octavo, fol. 49v. Image © Royal Library Copenhagen, CC BY 4.0. 145

114114 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature of the Mass of St. Gregory inserted before the Verses of St. Gregory. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 18, fol. 153v-154r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 145

115115 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature of the Virgin in Sole inserted before the Hours of the Virgin. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 18, fol. 17v-18r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 145

116116 Opening in a book of hours, Southern Netherland or Northern France, ca. 1500, with a full-page image depicting a man being presented by John the Baptist, opposite the Crucifixion. Stockholm, National Library of Sweden, MS, A 233, fol. 56v-57r. Image © National Library of Sweden, CC BY 4.0. 147

117117 Woman in the garb of an Augustinian canoness (Lijsbett van Steengracht?) in prayer before the Virgin and Child, full-page miniature inserted in a prayerbook. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. II 2348, fol. 130v-131r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 148

118118 Coat of arms (overpainted), full-page miniature added to a book of hours. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 E 17, fol. 1v. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_133e17%3A001v 149

119119 Added coat of arms. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ii.6.2, fol. 2v. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/​view/​MS-II-00006–00002/10 149

120120 Annunciation opening in the Hours of Jacobus Johannes IJsbrands. Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. 15 C 5, fol. 15v-16r. Image © Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 150

121121 Coat of arms of Simon de Varie, full-page miniature added to the Hours of Simon de Varie. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 74 G 37a, fol. 1r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_74g37a%3A001r 151

122122 Opening of the Hours of Simon de Varie: Jean Fouquet, Virgin and Child, full-page miniature added to a book of hours with miniatures and marginal figures by artists in Paris. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 74 G 37a, fol. 1v-2r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_74g37a%3A001v_002r 152

123123 Parisian miniaturist, Simon de Varie kneeling in devotion before the Virgin, in the Hours of Simon de Varie. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 74 G 37, fol. 1r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 152

124124 Crucifixion and beginning of the canon, with a printed initial. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, fol. 101v-102r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135h45%3A101v_102r 154

125125 Masters of Otto van Moerdrecht, Crucifixion miniature inserted as a canon image in a missal copied in Delft. Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. Trübner 21, fol. 96v-97r. Image © Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, all rights reserved. 154

126126 Masters of Otto van Moerdrecht, Crucifixion miniature inserted as a canon image in a missal copied in Hulsbergen (near Hattem). Enschede, Rijksmuseum Twenthe, inv. no. 381, fol. 125v-126r (photography James H. Marrow, Princeton University). Image © Rijksmuseum Twenthe, Enschede, CC BY 4.0. 158

127127 Masters of the Delft Grisailles, Virgin and Child, full-page miniature inserted in a book of hours opposite the Obsecro te. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 21696, 116v-117r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 159

128128 Book of hours with text and decoration from Utrecht or the Eastern Netherlands, and a miniature added later depicting St. Andrew, made by the Masters of the Delft Grisailles. Nijmegen, Radboud Universiteit, Ms. 283, fol. 204v-205r. © Radboud Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 160

129129 Book of hours with text and decoration from Utrecht or the Eastern Netherlands, and a miniature added later, inscribed on the back (204r) with a prayer to St. Andrew. Nijmegen, Radboud Universiteit, Ms. 283 fol. 203v-204r. © Radboud Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 160

130130 Opening from the added calendar, revealing St. Hippolytus, patron of Delft, in red. Nijmegen, Radboud Universiteit, Ms. 283 fol. 4v-5r. © Radboud Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 161

131131 End of vespers of the Hours of the Virgin, with penwork border on one side (verso), and beginning of compline with a five-line painted and gilt initial and painted border on three sides (recto). Script and decoration applied in Delft. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 434, fol. 49v-50r. See http://brbl-dl.library.yale.edu/​vufind/​Record/​3592299 163

132132 Opening at the incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with the Adoration of the Magi (full-page miniature executed by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment), and a text folio with script, penwork decoration, and a historiated initial executed in Delft, with borders overpainted to match the facing folio. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 434, fol. 14v-15r. Image in the Public Domain. 164

133133 Opening at the Seven Hours of the Holy Sacrament, with the Adoration of the Host by Angels (full-page miniature executed by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment), and a text folio with script, penwork decoration, and a painted and gilt initial executed in Delft, with borders overpainted to match the facing folio. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 434, fol. 55v-56r. Image in the Public Domain. 164

134134 Opening at the Vigil for the Dead, with the Raising of Lazarus (fullpage miniature executed by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment), and a text folio with script, penwork decoration, and a painted and gilt initial executed in Delft, with borders overpainted to match the facing folio. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 434, fol. 149v-150r. Image in the Public Domain. 165

135135 Opening at the Hours of the Holy Spirit in a book of hours inscribed in Delft, with an added full-page miniature depicting the Mass of St. Gregory. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 F 2, fol. 133v-134r. Image © Meermanno Museum, CC BY 4.0. 167

136136 Opening at an indulgenced prayer to the Virgin in a book of hours inscribed in Delft, with a blank left for an image that was never filled in. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 F 2, fol. 162v-163r. Image © Meermanno Museum, CC BY 4.0. 167

137137 Opening at the Hours of the Virgin, with an added full-page miniature depicting the Annunciation. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 F 2, fol. 14v-15r. Image © Meermanno Museum, CC BY 4.0. 168

138138 Opening before the Hours of the Virgin, revealing two blank folios. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 F 2, fol. 13v-14r. Image © Meermanno Museum, CC BY 4.0. 169

139139 Detail of a blank folio with offsets of round badges. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 F 2, fol. 13v (detail). Image © Meermanno Museum, CC BY 4.0. 169

140140 Mass of the Dead, full-page miniature made in the Netherlands, facing the incipit of the Office of the Dead, copied in Italy. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 15, fol. 65v-66r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_133d15%3A065v_066r 170

141141 Visitation, full-page miniature made in the Netherlands, facing the incipit of prime of the Hours of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 15, fol. 112v-113r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_133d15%3A112v_113r 171

142142 Male saint, full-page miniature inserted as a frontispiece (1400–1450). ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 11, fol. 1r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 171

143143 Descent of the Holy Spirit, historiated initial, 1250–1300, pasted into a book’s back cover. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 E 22. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 171

144144 Folio from the Murthly Hours, with a historiated initial enclosing a female patron kneeling before an altar. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 21000, fol. 149v. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 173

145145 Folio from the Murthly Hours, formerly blank page, with a series of added inscriptions in French and Gaelic. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 21000, fol. Iiv. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 173

146146 Lot’s wife turning into a pillar of salt. English miniature repurposed for a French book of hours used in Scotland (the Murthly Hours). Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 21000, fol. 5r. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 173

147147 Entombment of Christ. English miniature repurposed for a French book of hours used in Scotland, with two curtains sewn to the margins (the Murthly Hours). Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 21000, fol. 21r. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 173

148148 Opening of a book of hours from Haarlem, with an inserted fullpage miniature depicting the Virgin and Child with female donor. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 289, fol. 13v-14r. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 176

149149 Christ before Pilate, full-page miniature, inserted in a book of hours from Haarlem. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 289, fol. 71r. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 176

150150 Note written in the fifteenth century indicating where one can find the text for vespers and compline. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Ltk 289, fol. 112v. Image © Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, CC BY 4.0. 178

151151 Presentation of Christ in the Temple, full-page miniature on parchment, added to a later manuscript on paper. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 3 (inv. no. 301), fol. 4v-5r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 179

152152 Opening of a printed missal (early sixteenth century) revealing a full-page miniature on parchment depicting Christ crucified (twelfth century?) inserted as a canon page. Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève, inc. OE XV 698. http://bvmm.irht.cnrs.fr/​consult/​consult.php?mode=ecran&panier=false&reproductionId=13123&VUE_ID=1347929&carouselThere=false&nbVignettes=4x3&page=1&angle=0&zoom=petit&tailleReelle=180

153153 Evangelist portrait of Matthew, part of the original campaign of work in the Egmond Gospels, executed in the ninth century in Northern France. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 F 1, fol. 16v-17r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f1%3Ans_016v_017r 181

154154 Dedication miniatures, diptych made in Ghent ca. 975 and added to the Egmond Gospels. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 F 1, fol. 214v-215r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f1%3Ans_214v_215r 181

155155 Opening from the Hours of Blanche of Savoy, including a miniature depicting Blanche of Savoy kneeling before the Trinity. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 390, fol. 1v-2r. http://brbl-media.library.yale.edu/images/10507295_quarter.jpg and http://brbl-media.library.yale.edu/​images/​10507296_quarter.jpg 183

156156 Opening from the Hours of Blanche of Savoy, including miniatures depicting Blanche kneeling before St. Louis, and Charles V before St. Anthony. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Ms. 390, fol. 3v-4r. http://brbl-media.library.yale.edu/images/10507299_quarter.jpg and http://brbl-media.library.yale.edu/​images/​10507300_quarter.jpg 184

157157 Original frontispiece from Guiard des Moulins, Grande Bible Historiale Complétée, showing God the Father enthroned in a quatrefoil surrounded by angels, with the four evangelists and their symbols in the corners. Made in Paris in 1371–72. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 B 23, fol. 3r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_mmw_10b23%3A003r 185

158158 Folio from from Guiard des Moulins, Grande Bible Historiale Complétée, with a column miniature depicting the author presenting his work to William, archbishop of Sens. Made in Paris in 1371–72. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 B 23, fol. 4v. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_mmw_10b23%3A004v 185

159159 Opening in Guiard des Moulins, Grande Bible Historiale Complétée, with a dedication of the manuscript by Jean de Vaudetar to King Charles V of France, and a full-page miniature depicting the presentation of the book to the king. The Hague, Meermanno Museum, Ms. 10 B 23, fol. 1v-2r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_mmw_10b23%3A001v_002r 185

160160 Opening in a book of hours that reveals the fissure between two campaigns of work. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ee.1.14, fol. 50v-51r. Image © Cambridge University Library, all rights reserved. 187

161161 Opening showing the end of the calendar, and a formerly blank folio filled with prayers in English and Latin by an early owner. London, British Library, Harley Ms. 2966, fol. 7v-8r. Image in the Public domain, see http://www.bl.uk/​catalogues/​illuminatedmanuscripts/​ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=36071 187

162162 Female patron and St. Mary Magdalene at her hermitage near Baune, devotional diptych added to a book of hours. Stockholm, National Library of Sweden, MS, A 233, fol. 1v-2r. Image © National Library of Sweden, CC BY 4.0. 189

163163 Incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with a historiated initial. Utrecht or Delft, ca. 1420s. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. BPL 3073, fol. 1r. https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/​ (then search for “BPL 3073”). 193

164164 Incipit from the original part of the manuscript, with decoration from Utrecht or Delft. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. BPL 3073, fol. 154v. https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/​ (then search for “BPL 3073”). 193

165165 Beginning of the added bifolium. Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. BPL 3073, fol. 191r. https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/​ (then search for “BPL 3073”). 193

166166 Parchment diptych with the measurements of Christ’s length and side wound, inserted into a French book of hours. Paisley, Renfrew District Museum and Art Gallery, Ms. 1, fol. 13–14 forming a diptych. Image © Author, CC BY 4.0. 194

167167 Monk praying for the release of souls from purgatory, full-page miniature made as part of a diptych and inserted into a book of hours. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 5, fol. 86v-87r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 195

168168 Opening in a book of hours, showing the original parchment and script (on the right side of the gutter) and the replaced incipit folio with text recopied in a different script (on the left side of the gutter). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 5, fol. 87v-88r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 195

169169 The pricking along the outer edge of the bifolium only occurs on the added folios. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 133 D 5, detail of fol. 86–87. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 196

170170 Cistercian breviary, made in the thirteenth century, photographed from the bottom to isolate a quire added in 1491. Perth, St. John’s Kirk, Ms. 3. Image © Author, CC BY 4.0. 197

171171 Opening in a Cistercian breviary, with original thirteenth-century parts script and parchment on the left side of the gutter, and an added fifteenth-century quire on the right side of the gutter. Perth, St. John’s Kirk, Ms. 3. Image © Author, CC BY 4.0. 197

172172 Folio in a Cistercian breviary showing two campaigns of medieval foliation. Perth, St. John’s Kirk, Ms. 3, fol. 155r. Image © Author, CC BY 4.0. 198

173173 First folio of the Gouda Missal (from original part of the manuscript). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, fol. 10r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 200

174174 Te igitur page in the Gouda Missal, with a wood-cut image of the Trinity printed directly on the page. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 H 45, fol. 102r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​show/​images/​135+H+45 201

175175 The patron with St. Jerome, full-page miniature added to the added quire at the beginning of a book of hours. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 G 19, fol. 4v-5r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135g19%3A004v_005r 201

176176 Face of Christ, full-page miniature added to an added quire at the end of a book of hours. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 74 G 35, fol. 161v-162r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_74g35%3A161v_162r 202

177177 So-called Masters of the Delft Grisailles, Angel, full-page miniature inserted before prayer to the personal angel. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 74 G 35, fol. 83v-84r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_74g35%3A083v_084r 202

178178 Opening in a book of hours from Delft, written in Latin but with rubrics in Dutch. The owner has filled the quire with birth dates. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 60v-61r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 204

179179 Opening in a book of hours from Delft, showing an added module with the Hours of the Cross, and a prayer to be read before an image of the Virgin inscribed as a quire filler. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 120v-121r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 204

180180 First folio in an added section of a book of hours whose core was made in Delft, with offsets of small round metal objects. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 1r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 206

181181 Folio in an added section of a book of hours whose core was made in Delft, with a prayer to the Trinity, and needle holes from formerly affixed objects. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 2r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 206

182182 Folio in an added section of a book of hours whose core was made in Delft, with an indulgenced prayer to the arma Christi. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 3r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 206

183183 Opening in an added section of a book of hours whose core was made in Delft, with the continuation of an indulgenced prayer to the arma Christi, revealing dirt and fingerprints from heavy handling. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 3v-4r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 207

184184 Folio in an added section of a book of hours whose core was made in Delft, with an indulgenced prayer to the Virgin in Sole. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 5v-6r. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 207

185185 Folio in a book of hours whose core was made in Delft: a fullpage miniature depicting Christ carrying the cross, painted by a miniaturist in Delft. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. Oct. 89, fol. 44v. Image © Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, CC BY 4.0. 208

186186 Folio in the original part of the manuscript, copied and decorated in South Holland. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms. 334, fol. 65r. Image © Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, all rights reserved. 209

187187 Folio from a quire added and decorated around 1500 in the Southern Netherlands. Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, Ms. 334, fol. 183v. Image © Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek, all rights reserved. 209

188188 Opening in a book of hours made in Leiden, with the incipit of the Vigil for the Dead (three-verse version), and a full-page miniature depicting the Mass for the Dead. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 13, fol. 85v-86r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g13%3A085v_086r 210

189189 Beginning of a group of quires added to a book of hours made in Leiden, with a full-page miniature depicting the Mass of St. Gregory (attributed to the Masters of the Suffrages) facing the Verses of St. Gregory. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 13, fol. 98v-99r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g13%3A098v_099r 211

190190 Opening near the end of a book of hours made in Leiden, from an added section, with a full-page miniature depicting the Christ crucified (attributed to the Masters of the Suffrages) facing a prayer to the cross. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 G 13, fol. 105v-106r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76g13%3A105v_106r 211

191191 Beginning of an added section of an enhanced book of hours. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ee.1.14, fol. 103r. Image © Cambridge University Library, all rights reserved. 212

192192 Folio in an enhanced book of hours, with a personalised prayer for “Nicholas,” in which the name has been crossed out by a later user and replaced with the initial R. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. Ee.1.14, fol. 120r. Reproduced by kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library. 212

193193 Master of the Morgan Infancy Cycle, Christ as Man of Sorrows, with the instruments of the passion. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 50005, fol. 133v. http://www.bl.uk/​manuscripts/​Viewer.aspx?ref=add_ms_50005_fs001r 213

194194 Pater Noster, and beginning of the Ave Maria. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 50005, fol. 15v. http://www.bl.uk/​manuscripts/​Viewer. aspx?ref=add_ms_50005_fs001r 214

195195 Verses of St. Gregory (added). London, British Library, Add. Ms. 50005, fol. 168r. http://www.bl.uk/​manuscripts/​Viewer.aspx?ref=add_ms_50005_fs001r 214

196196 Girls learning to read, a full-page miniature facing the alphabet, in a prayerbook probably made for a child. London, British Library, Harley Ms. 3828, fol. 27v-28r. http://www.bl.uk/​catalogues/​illuminatedmanuscripts/​record.asp?MSID=4410 215

197197 Rhyming prayer to Christ’s robe and the dice of the arma Christi, with a miniature depicting these objects, in a prayerbook probably made for a child. London, British Library, Harley Ms. 3828, fol. 65v. http://www.bl.uk/​catalogues/​illuminatedmanuscripts/​record.asp?MSID=4410 215

198198 Folio in the Prayer book of James Brown, with a full-page miniature depicting James Brown presented to the Virgin’s altar. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 10270, fol. 17v. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 216

199199 Folio in the Prayer book of James Brown, with text added to existing parchment near the end of the manuscript. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 10270, fol. 151r. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 217

200200 Folio in the Prayer book of James Brown, with text added to existing parchment near the end of the manuscript. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Ms. 10270, fol. 151v. Image © National Library of Scotland, all rights reserved. 217

201201 Folio in a composite manuscript, with the end of an apotropaic text and te beginning of a versified vernacular Marian prayer in Middle Dutch. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, fol. 68r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 225

202202 Annunciation painted by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls, with the beginning of the Hours of the Virgin in Latin, and a facing page in Middle Dutch in a different hand. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, fol. 29v-30r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 226

203203 Last Judgement painted by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls, prefacing the Penitential Psalms in Latin. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, fol. 84r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 226

204204 Crucifixion painted by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls, facing confession in Middle Dutch, with floral border decoration painted over a vine decoration. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, fol. 13v-14r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 230

205205 Christ as Man of Sorrows painted by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls, full-page miniature with floral border decoration painted over a vine decoration, inserted so that it faces a Dutch text copied decades earlier. Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, fol. 143v-144r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 230

206206 Note of ownership from Yolente Doosterlinck, Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Ms. 19588, inside back cover. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, all rights reserved. 231

207207 Biblia pauperum and psalter, interleaved. Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Pal. germ. 148, fol. 16v-17r. http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/​diglit/​cpg148 234

208208 Composite manuscript prayerbook made in France, fanned open to reveal signs of heavy use. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259). Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 235

209209 An image module comprising two bifolia bound into a manuscript prayerbook compiled in France. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259). Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 235

210210 Opening in a composite prayer book, with added prayers (left side), and a full-page miniature depicting the Mass of St. Gregory (right side). ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 40v-41r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 236

211211 Opening in a composite prayer book, with two full-page miniatures, one depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata, and one depicting the Nativity. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 41v-42r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 236

212212 Inscriptions added by two hands, filling the otherwise blank parchment. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 42v-43r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 237

213213 Flyleaf and inner board of binding. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259). Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 239

214214 Family kneeling before St. John the Baptist [?], ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 147r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 239

215215 Single leaf with prayers added at the end of the calendar. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 12v-13r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 240

216216 A single leaf with prayers, and the incipit of the Passion according to St. John. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 13v-14r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 240

217217 The incipit of an illustrated Passion tract in Latin. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 166v-167r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 241

218218 Opening in a composite prayer book, with a parchment painting depicting the Face of Christ pasted in, opposite the incipit of the Hours of the Virgin. ’s-Heerenberg, The Netherlands, Collection Dr. J. H. van Heek, Huis Bergh Foundation, Ms. 2 (inv. 259), fol. 45v-46r. Image © The Huis Bergh Foundation, CC BY 4.0. 242

219219 Opening in a book of hours at the incipit of the Hours of the Holy Spirit, with penwork from North Holland. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 43r. 244

220220 Folio in a book of hours that falls at the end of a module, which was filled by the original scribe in North Holland for prayers to one’s personal angel and to St. Sebastian. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 70r. 245

221221 Opening in a book of hours with the last six lines of the Hours of the Holy Spirit written by scribe from North Holland, and the rest of fol. 51v and 52r ruled and written by scribe from Delft, to fill the quire. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 51v-52r. 248

222222 Folio in a book of hours inscribed by a Delft scribe, with typical red and blue penwork from Delft. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 53v. 249

223223 Folio in a book of hours with Delft decoration and a catchword, which is a codicological feature associated with manuscripts from the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 E 18, fol. 107v. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​zoom/​BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135e18%3A107v 249

224224 Opening with a catchword in a book of hours whose core was made in North Holland before extensive additions were made in Delft. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 59v-60r. 249

225225 The inside back cover and the last folio of a book of hours (formerly a paste-down), which may have been waste material from the St. Ursula scriptorium in Delft. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Rawlinson Liturgical e.9*, fol. 124v and inside back cover. 250

226226 Opening in a book of hours at the incipit of the Verses of St. Gregory, with two campaigns of work: the script, penwork, and painted initials were executed in the original campaign of work, and the full-page miniature was added later, along with painted decoration around the text folio to make it match. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 83v-84r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 255

227227 Folio in a book of hours, on which a painter applied “Leiden blue acanthus” border decoration over the top of the existing penwork decoration. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 133v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 256

228228 Folio in a book of hours, to which a scribe from the convent of St. Ursula in Delft added a prayer and Delft penwork to the blank parchment at the lower part of the folio. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 50r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 256

229229 Opening in a book of hours. The three and a half lines on the left side of the gutter and all of the script and penwork on the right side are part of the original production (written somewhere in South Holland); an indulgenced prayer with a rubric mentioning Pope Sixtus IV, added as quire filler, was inscribed at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 136v-137r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 258

230230 Opening in a book of hours. The fourteen and a half lines on the left side of the gutter are part of the original production (written somewhere in South Holland). The rubric on fol. 71v-72r, the prayer that follows, and the penwork decoration, were added at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 71v-72r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 258

231231 Opening in a book of hours showing quire fillers added in two campaigns of work: thirteen lines of red text on the left side of the gutter were inscribed in the first campaign of work, somehwere in South Holland; the final three lines on the left, and all of the text on the right side of the gutter (a prayer about the sheddings of Christ’s blood), plus the blue and red penwork, were inscribed later at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 72v-73r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 259

232232 Opening in a book of hours, with original parchment on the left, and the back of an added leaf on the right. The text comprises quire filler added at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft: the end of the sheddings of Christ’s blood, followed by a saying of St. Augustine. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 73v-74r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 259

233233 Opening in a book of hours, with a blank area formerly filled with sewn-on badges. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 124v-125r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 262

234234 Opening in a book of hours at the Verses of St. Gregory, with a diagram showing the arrangement of original and added parchment; the additions transform the prayer from a five-verse version into a nine-verse version with a larger indulgence. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 84r-85v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 262

235235 Opening in a book of hours, with original and added parchment. Fol. 86r is part of the original manuscript (made in South Holland) and has a prayer to the sacrament. Fol. 85 was inscribed at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft and added later. Fol. 85v contains the ninth and final Verse of St. Gregory, and a postscript rubric indicating that reading the previous prayer is worth 92,042 years’ & 80 days’ indulgence. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 85v-86r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 263

236236 Opening in a book of hours, with original and added parchment. Fol. 86 is part of the original manuscript (made in South Holland). The first nine and a half lines, including the red letter A with its few strokes of whispy penwork, were inscribed by the original scribe and are typical of the original production. A scribe at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft filled the rest of fol. 86v with a prayer to the sacrament, added bold red and blue penwork decoration, and extended the existing penwork into the upper margin; she continued the prayer on added parchment (fol. 87), on which she inscribed another prayer to the sacrament. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 86v-87r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 263

237237 Folio in a book of hours from a section added at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. Gaps in the penwork border decoration are for small painted figures, which have not been filled in. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 94r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 266

238238 Opening in a book of hours from an added section, at the division between two added quires, revealing the large catchword typical of production at the convent of St. Ursula in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 101v-102r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 266

239239 Opening in a book of hours from an added section, with one prayer to St. Ursula and one to her 11,000 virginal companions; fol. 104r is decorated with penwork typical of Delft on three sides of the text block. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 132 G 38, fol. 103v-104r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 267

240240 Opening in a lay breviary in Middle Dutch with offices inscribed in Utrecht, where modest penwork decoration was applied in a block around the initials; this penwork was extended into the margins in Delft. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 216v-217r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 270

241241 Opening at the incipit of the psalter in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft. Fol. 35 is from the original manuscript, inscribed in Utrecht, with a historiated initial depicting David playing his harp (painted in Utrecht); fol. 34 is from a section added in Delft. Illuminators in Delft added more border decoration to fol. 35r: block penwork and a painted bird with a scroll. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 34v-35r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 270

242242 Folio at the incipit of the psalter in a lay breviary, with David playing his harp (painted in Utrecht), with Utrecht penwork extended in the margin with Delft penwork. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 35r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 271

243243 Opening in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft. A scribe in Delft has added red and blue penwork to the upper and intercolumnar margins, thereby extending the modest blue penwork originally applied around the letter I in Utrecht. The new penwork extends into the upper and lower margins of fol. 49v but does not fill the space completely, and therefore maintains the hierarchy of decoration dictated by the four-line I. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 49v-50r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 272

244244 Opening in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft, with Delft penwork added to Utrecht penwork. The new penwork extends into the upper and lower margins of fol. 71r but does not fill the space completely, and therefore maintains the hierarchy of decoration dictated by the four-line G. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 70v-71r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 272

245245 Opening in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft, with Delft penwork added to Utrecht penwork. The new penwork fills the upper and lower margins of fol. 132v, and therefore maintains the hierarchy of decoration dictated by the five-line G. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 132v-133r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 273

246246 Opening in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft, in a section of quires added in Delft, with the end of the calendar and the beginning of the Mass of the Purification of the Virgin. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 11v-12r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 279

247247 Opening in a lay breviary made in Utrecht and upgraded in Delft, with Delft penwork added to Utrecht penwork. The new penwork added to four of the initials G fills half of the margin, and therefore maintains the hierarchy of decoration dictated by the three-line initials. The opening also reveals a large catchword inscribed in the manner typical of the Ursula convent in Delft. Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ms. C 517 k, fol. 27v-28r. Image © Uppsala Universitetsbiblioteket, CC BY 4.0. 280

248248 Opening in a prayer book, showing September-October calendar pages inscribed in the Southern Netherlands, with the KL painted and gilt in the Southern Netherlands, and the penwork applied in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 9v-10r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0.

249249 Opening in a prayer book, showing text folios inscribed in the Southern Netherlands, with one-, two-, and four-line initials gilt and painted in the Southern Netherlands (probably Bruges), with Delft penwork decoration added later. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 24v-25r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 284

250250 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature painted on a bifolium (fol. 111 & 118) by the Masters of Zweder of Culemborg depicting St. Nicholas; the bifolium has been ruled, inscribed, and incorporated into the prayerbook. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 118v-119r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 285

251251 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature depicting Christ as Man of Sorrows and an angel border on the right, painted by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg, and border decoration around the miniature applied by a painter in the Southern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 138v-139r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 285

252252 Opening in a book of hours, with a full-page miniature depicting the Deposition from the Cross opposite a text page with sorrowing angels, painted by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 79 K 2, pp. 170–171. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/​show/​images/​79+K+2 288

253253 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature depicting the Virgin and Child with St. John, painted on a singleton (fol. 55) by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg, with border decoration around the miniature applied by a painter in the Southern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 55v-56r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 289

254254 Opening in a prayer book, with a long rubric used as a space filler; Delft penwork decoration added to text folios inscribed in the Southern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 54v-55r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 289

255255 Opening in a prayer book, with a suffrage to St. Erasmus (112r), written in the Southern Netherlands on the reverse of the miniature depicting St. Lawrence, painted by the Bressanone Master; later, Delft penwork decoration was added to both text folios. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 111v-112r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 290

256256 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature depicting St. Lawrence painted by the Bressanone Master (112v), and a suffrage to St. Lawrence (113r), with painted border decoration applied in the Southern Netherlands; the suffrage is inscribed on the reverse of a miniature depicting St. Christopher. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 112v-113r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 290

257257 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature depicting St. Christopher painted by the Bressanone Master (113v), and a suffrage to St. Christopher (114r), with painted border decoration applied in the Southern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 113v-114r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 291

258258 Opening in a prayer book, with a full-page miniature depicting St. George, with painted border decoration typical of that executed by the sisters of St. Agnes in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 165v-166r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 291

259259 Folio in a prayer book, embellished by the sisters of St. Agnes with a depiction of a chicken head. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 61v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 294

260260 Full-page penwork decoration added to fill a blank folio. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 77r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 294

261261 Bird with message in beak, a motif typical of the St. Agnes convent in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 33v. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 295

262262 Folio in a book of hours written an illuminated at the convent of St. Agnes in Delft, with border decoration including a bird with scroll in its beak bearing the words “Iste liber scriptus et perfectus est in monasterio vallis iozaphat.” Krakow, Czartoryski, Ms. 2946, fol. 25v. The manuscript is the property of the XX. Czartoryski Foundation in Krakow. Image © XX. Czartoryski Foundation, all rights reserved. 296

263263 Delft penwork decoration added to text folios inscribed in the Southern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 17v-18r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 297

264264 St. James, full-page miniature and suffrage, with border decoration painted by the Sisters of St. Agnes in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 106v-107r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 297

265265 Folio in the Fagel Missal, showing the incipit for the feast of St. Agnes with extra decoration, illuminated by the sisters of St. Agnes in Delft, 1459–60. Dublin, Trinity College, Ms. 81, fol. 192r. Image © Trinity College Library Dublin, all rights reserved. 298

266266 Folio in a Gospel manuscript, showing the opening for the Book of Matthew, with painted decoration executed by the sisters of St. Agnes in Delft, made ca. 1459–60. Copenhagen, Royal Library, Ms. Thott 11 folio, fol. 4r. Image © Royal Library Copenhagen, CC BY 4.0. 299

267267 Opening with short suffrages to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, and a rubric for the suffrage to St. James. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 105v-106r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 300

268268 Opening with painted and penwork border decoration executed by the sisters of St. Agnes in Delft. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 86v-87r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 300

269269 Opening with an extended rubric left of the gutter, and an incipit with a simple blue initial right of the gutter. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 68v-69r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 301

270270 Opening with a Pietà (full-page miniature made by the Bressanone Master, with border decoration executed in the Southern Netherlands), facing a text folio with an initial overpainted in the Northern Netherlands. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 148, fol. 19v-20r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 301

271271 Opening at the incipit of the Hours of the Holy Spirit, with the Coronation of the Virgin (full-page miniature by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment, made ca. 1510), and the Descent of the Holy Spirit (historiated initial painted by the Master of Gijsbrecht van Brederode, made as part of the original campaign of work ca. 1465, with painted border decoration of the same era). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 71v-72r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 308

272272 Opening at the incipit of the Hours of the Virgin, with the Annunciation (full-page miniature by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment, made ca. 1510), and Virgin and Child (historiated initial painted by the Master of Gijsbrecht van Brederode, made as part of the original campaign of work ca. 1465, with painted border decoration of the same era). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 15v-16r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 309

273273 Opening at the incipit of the Vigil for the Dead, with the Raising of Lazarus (full-page miniature by the Masters of the Dark Eyes on added parchment, made ca. 1510), and Mass of the Dead (historiated initial painted by the Master of Gijsbrecht van Brederode, made as part of the original campaign of work ca. 1465, with painted border decoration of the same era). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 141v-142r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 310

274274 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510, with a miniature depicting the Crucifixion and an indulgence. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 65v-66r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 311

275275 The end of a prayer written around 1465 in black on fol. 120v (part of the original parchment of the book), and a rubric added ca. 1510 to the bottom of fol. 120v, which continues on 121r (on added parchment). Note that the back of the miniature has been ruled with the same dimensions as the original text pages. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 120v-121r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 312

276276 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510, with a full-page miniature depicting the Mass of St. Gregory facing the Verses of St. Gregory. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 121v-122r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 312

277277 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510, with a miniature depicting the Virgin in Sole and a prayer with an indulgence for 92,000 years. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH, fol. 124v-125r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 316

278278 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with a miniature depicting the Virgin accompanying an indulgenced prayer. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 125v-126r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 316

279279 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with a miniature depicting the Lactation of St. Bernard. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 128v-129r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 317

280280 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with a miniature depicting Mary and Jesus, to accompany the O intemerata. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 130v-131r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 317

281281 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with a miniature depicting St. Anne, Mary and Jesus, to accompany an indulgenced prayer to St. Anne. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 133v-134r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 318

282282 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with a miniature depicting an angel, to accompany a prayer to the personal angel. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 134v-135r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 318

283283 Opening from a section added by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 with miniatures depicting St. Sebastian and St. Erasmus, to accompany prayers to those saints. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 136v-137r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 319

284284 Opening from an autonomous booklet added to the book of hours; the booklet was made by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 and includes a painting depicting the Virgin of the Seven Sorrows to accompany the booklet-length prayer to the Virgin’s sorrows. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151, fol. 96v-97r. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 321

285285 Opening from an autonomous booklet added to the book of hours; the booklet was made by the Masters of the Dark Eyes ca. 1510 and includes a painting depicting the Virgin of the Seven Sorrows to accompany the booklet-length prayer to the Virgin’s sorrows. Leeds, University Library, Ms. Brotherton 7, fol. 142v-143r. Reproduced with the permission of Special Collection, Leeds University Library. © Leeds University Library, CC BY 4.0. 321

286286 Autonomous booklet with the prayer to the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin, formerly glued into The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. BPH 151. Image © Koninklijke Bibliotheek—the National Library of The Netherlands, CC BY 4.0. 322

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