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Intellectual Property and Public Health in the Developing World

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Monirul Azam

Abbreviations

Texte intégral

ACTA

Anti-counterfeiting Trade Agreement

AMTC

Affordable Medicines and Treatment Campaign

ANVISA

National Health Surveillance Agency (Brazil)

API

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

ARV

Anti-retroviral

BAPI

Bangladesh Association of Pharmaceutical Industries

BIISS

Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies

BIT

Bilateral Investment Treaties

CEO

Chief Executive Officer

CEWG

Consultative Expert Working Group

CIPIH

Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health

CMH

Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

DCC

Drug Control Committee

DCO

Drugs (Control) Ordinance, 1982

DDA

Directorate of Drug Administration

DGDA

Directorate General of Drug Administration

DPDT

Department of Patents, Designs and Trademarks

DRA

Drug Regulatory Authority

DRR

Drugs Registration Regulations

EU

European Union

EVI

Economic Vulnerability Index

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FDI

Foreign Direct Investment

FTA

Free Trade Agreement

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practice

GNI

Gross National Income

GSK

GlaxoSmithKline

HAI

Human Assets Index

HDI

Human Development Index

HFA

Hydro–Fluoro–Alkaline

INPI

National Institute for Industrial Property

IP

Intellectual Property

IPC

Intellectual Property Rights Committee

IPR

Intellectual Property Rights

KEI

Knowledge Ecology International

LDC

Least Developed Countries

MCC

Medicines Control Council

MNC

Multinational Corporation

MNPC

Multinational Pharmaceutical Company

MPP

Medicines Patent Pool

MRDT

Medical Research and Development Treaty

MRP

Maximum Retail Price

MRSCA

Medicines and Related Substances Control Act, 1997 (South Africa)

NCE

New Chemical Entity

NDP

National Drug Policy, 1982 (Bangladesh)

NGO

Non-governmental Organisation

NHS

National Health Strategy

NME

New Molecular Entity

NRA

National Regulatory Authority

OSDD

Open Source Drug Discovery Project

PCT

Patent Cooperation Treaty

PDA

Patents and Designs Act, 1911 (Bangladesh)

PMPRB

Patented Medicine Prices Review Board

R&D

Research and Development

REPS

Regulatory Enforcement Pyramid of Sanctions

RRT

Responsive Regulations Theory

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

SFDA

State Food and Drug Administration

SIAPS

Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services

SIPO

State Intellectual Property Office

SME

Small and Medium-sized Enterprise

TAC

Treatment Access Campaign

TB

Tuberculosis

TIFA

Trade and Investment Framework Agreement

TPP

Trans-Pacific Partnership

TRIPS

Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property

UN

United Nations

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

US

United States of America

VAT

Value-added Tax

WHA

World Health Assembly

WHO

World Health Organization

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization

WTO

World Trade Organization