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Tolerance

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Caroline Warman

26. Three aphorisms from Diderot, Philosophical Thoughts; Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), On Crimes and Punishments, 1786; and Rousseau, The Social Contract1

Texte intégral

  • 1 Denis Diderot, Pensées philosophiques, in his Œuvres philosophiques et dramatiques de M. Diderot, A (...)

1Everywhere I hear loud accusations of heresy. The Christian is heretical in Asia, the Muslim in Europe, the Papist in London, the Calvinist in Paris, the Jansenist at the top of the rue St Jacques, the Molinist at the bottom of the faubourg Saint-Médard. What is a heretic? Is everyone heretical, or nobody?
Diderot

2Freedom disappears the instant laws make it possible in certain circumstances for man to stop being a person and become a thing.
Beccaria

3If we try to find out what exactly constitutes the greatest good of all, which must be the ultimate aim of any system of legislation, we will find that it can be reduced to two main principles, liberty and equality. Liberty, because any amount of dependency on the State means that the State loses that same amount of strength. Equality, because liberty cannot survive without it.
Rousseau

Read online the free original text (facsimile) of Diderot’s Œuvres Philosophiques et Dramatiques, 1772 edition: https://books.google.co.uk/​books?id=zDgHAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA1-PA42

Read the free original text online (facsimile) of Beccaria’s Dei delitti e delle pene, 1786 edition, p. 106: https://books.google.fr/​books?id=Zb5CAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA101

Read the free original text online (facsimile) of Rousseau’s Du contrat social, 1766 edition: https://books.google.co.uk/​books?id=xmEHAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1

Notes

1 Denis Diderot, Pensées philosophiques, in his Œuvres philosophiques et dramatiques de M. Diderot, Amsterdam: 1772, III, pp. 1-82; Cesare Beccaria, Dei delitti e delle pene, Paris: Cazin, 1786, p. 106; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Du contrat social, 1762, Book II, ch. 11: ‘Des Divers systèmes de législation’, Geneva: chez Marc-Michel Bousquet, 1766, p. 88.