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The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel

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Roger Paulin

Short Biographies1

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  • 1 For details about the images in this section please refer to the List of Illustrations.

1Arndt, Ernst Moritz (1769-1860): patriotic author and historian. Born on the island of Rügen, he studied at the University of Greifswald, where in 1806 he was appointed professor of history. He expressed strongly anti‑Napoleonic views (esp. in his Geist der Zeit, 1806) and attached himself to Blücher, Gneisenau, and notably Friedrich Karl vom Stein (q.v.), whose amanuensis in St Petersburg he became. Appointed a professor at Bonn in 1818, he soon fell foul of the Carlsbad Decrees in 1819 and was suspended until 1840. In 1848, he was a member of the Frankfurt Parliament. He was noted for his Francophobia and anti-Semitism. He died at Bonn.

2Arnim, Bettina von, née Elisabeth Brentano (1785-1859): writer; hagiographer of Goethe. Born Elisabeth Brentano in Frankfurt am Main, the sister of the poet Clemens Brentano, the granddaughter of Sophie von La Roche, the sister-in-law of Karl Friedrich von Savigny and linked by close friendship with the Grimm brothers (q.v.). Her main publications were based on her association with Karoline von Günderrode (Die Günderode, 1840) and with Goethe (Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde, 1835). In 1811, she married Ludwig Achim von Arnim (q.v.). They lived at Wiepersdorf, in Brandenburg, and had seven children. After his death in 1831, she settled in Berlin, where she died.

3Arnim, Ludwig Achim von (1781-1831): Romantic poet, dramatist and novelist. Born at Berlin, he studied at Halle and Göttingen, followed by a grand tour of Italy, France and the British Isles. A close friend of Clemens Brentano and of the Grimm brothers (q.v.), he was in 1805 in Heidelberg, where the first volume of Des Knaben Wunderhorn appeared (I-III, 1806-08). He edited the periodical Zeitung für Einsiedler (1808), to which AWS contributed. After his marriage to Bettina Brentano (q.v.) in 1811, he lived at Wiepersdorf, where he died. He wrote the novels Gräfin Dolores (1810) and Die Kronenwächter (1817), the collection of plays Die Schaubühne (1813) and numerous short stories. Noted for his pronounced anti-Semitic views.

4Baudissin, Wolf Heinrich von (1789-1878): Danish diplomat; translator of Shakespeare into German. Born at Copenhagen of an old Holstein noble family, he was educated by tutors, then at Berlin, where he attended AWS’s lectures. He attended the Universities of Kiel, Göttingen and Heidelberg, then entered the Danish diplomatic service. In 1810 he was posted to Stockholm as legation secretary, where in 1813 he met Madame de Staël and AWS. For refusing to act in a diplomatic mission to further links between Denmark and Napoleon, he was imprisoned at Friedrichsort, near Kiel. After leaving the diplomatic service in 1814, he visited Italy (later, France and Greece) and in 1827 settled in Dresden. He was a close collaborator in the translation of Shakespeare edited by Ludwig Tieck (q.v.), for which he translated thirteen plays. He later translated Ben Jonson and Molière.

5Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste (1763-1844): marshal of the Empire; Prince of Pontecorvo; Prince Royal, later king of Sweden. Born at Pau, in humble circumstances, he joined the royal army as a private soldier. During the Revolutionary Wars, he rose very quickly and by 1794 was a full general. He was briefly the Revolutionary government’s first ambassador to Austria. Although never close to Napoleon, he was prominent at the battles of Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena and Auerstädt, and Wagram, becoming a Marshal of the Empire. Napoleon, although never satisfied with his performance, made him Prince of Pontecorvo in 1806. He was governor of the Hanseatic towns during the French occupation. In 1810, he was approached by a Swedish intermediary as a possible successor to the childless king of Sweden, Charles XIII. As Charles John, he was proclaimed crown prince (Prince Royal) in the same year and assumed command of the Swedish forces. In 1812-13 he negotiated with the Tsar, then with Great Britain, finally breaking with France. AWS was his private secretary during this time. He pursued an anti-Danish policy with the intention of securing a personal union of Sweden and Norway (1814). He led the Swedish forces during the campaigns against Napoleon in 1813-14, in North Germany, Saxony, and the in the west. In 1818 he was crowned King Karl XIV Johan (Charles John) of Sweden and Norway. Died at Stockholm.

6Bernhardi, August Ferdinand (1769-1820): critic and schoolmaster in Berlin; married to Sophie Tieck. Born in Berlin. After studying at university in Halle, he became a schoolmaster at the Friedrichswerder Gymnasium in Berlin (head in 1808), where he was the teacher, then friend of the young Ludwig Tieck (q.v.) and was part of the early Romantic circle. In 1799, he married Sophie Tieck (q.v.); there were two surviving children, Wilhelm and Felix Theodor (q.v.). He was associated with the Schlegel brothers in Berlin in 1801-03. The marriage failed; Sophie left him, taking her sons eventually to Rome and then Munich. Bernhardi obtained custody of Wilhelm after protracted divorce proceedings. He frequented the circle of Varnhagen von Ense in Berlin, was also noted for his writings on linguistics (Sprachlehre, 1801-03; Anfangsgründe der Sprachwissenschaft, 1805). Prominent in Prussian educational reform, he was in 1820 appointed head of the Friedrich- Wilhelms-Gymnasium. He died at Berlin.

7Bernhardi, Felix Theodor (von) (1802-1887): diplomat; writer on military subjects. Born at Berlin, the son of August Ferdinand Bernhardi and Sophie Bernhardi, née Tieck (claims have been made for Karl Gregor von Knorring’s and AWS’s paternity), the nephew of Ludwig and Friedrich Tieck (q.v.). After the collapse of his parents’ marriage, he moved with his mother and Knorring to Rome and Munich. He went in 1812 with Sophie Bernhardi and Knorring to the latter’s estate in Estonia, returning to Germany in 1820-23 to study in Heidelberg. He then entered Russian service (1834-51), finally settling in Germany. He became a prominent writer on military affairs and was ennobled in 1873. He died at Schöpstal in Silesia.

8Böhmer, Auguste (1785-1800): Caroline Schlegel’s (q.v.) daughter by her first marriage with Johann Franz Wilhelm Böhmer; AWS’s step-daughter; the granddaughter of Johann David Michaelis. Born at Claustal in the Harz. After the early death of her father, she moved with her mother to Göttingen, then to Marburg and finally, in 1792, to Mainz. She was with her mother in prison in the Königstein and in Kronberg in the Taunus and accompanied her to Lucka, where her half-brother Wilhelm Julius Crancé was born, then to Gotha and Brunswick. On her mother’s marriage to AWS in 1796, she became his step-daughter and FS’s step-niece. She was a precocious child in the Romantic circle in Jena. She accompanied Caroline and Schelling (q.v.) to Bocklet in 1800 and died after a short illness there. Tieck’s and AWS’s Musen-Almanach auf das Jahr 1802 is partly devoted to her memory, while Friedrich Tieck did a bust of her.

9Boisserée, Melchior (1786-1851) and Boisserée, Sulpiz (1783-1854): Cologne patrician’s sons; protégés of Friedrich Schlegel; important collectors of medieval art. Sulpiz was born at Cologne. In 1803 the brothers attended lectures in Paris given by Friedrich Schlegel, continued in Cologne, and these founded their interest in the Christian art of the Middle Ages. Sulpiz began collecting in 1804; his collection, housed from 1810 in Heidelberg, attracted much attention, especially Goethe’s. He edited the Kunstblatt (to which AWS contributed) and was prominent in the campaign to complete Cologne cathedral. The brothers sold their collection in 1827 to King Ludwig I of Bavaria (q.v.), where it is now part of the Alte Pinakothek. He died at Bonn. Melchior, also born in Cologne, continued the family business and provided the financial basis for their art acquisitions. He died at Bonn.

10Bonstetten, Karl Viktor von (1745-1832): Bernese patrician; administrator; philosopher; member of Coppet circle. Born at Berne, he studied in Leyden, Cambridge and Paris. He was active in the reform of the administration in Berne and was closely associated with Johannes (von) Müller (q.v.). After Napoleon’s seizure of Berne, he was in Copenhagen in the circle of Friederike Brun. He settled at Geneva in 1803 and became a member of Madame de Staël’s circle in Coppet, where he also met AWS. His writings deal with national character (Über Nationalbildung, 1803), and climate and character (L’Homme du Midi et l’homme du Nord, 1824). He died at Geneva.

11Broglie, Albert de, prince, then duke (1821-1901): diplomat, politician and historian. The son of Victor and Albertine de Broglie, and the grandson of Madame de Staël, he was born at Paris. After a brief diplomatic career, he devoted himself to travel and literature. Succeeding his father as duke in 1870, he entered politics and was successively minister of foreign affairs and minister of the interior, and briefly prime minister. He retired from politics in 1885.

12Broglie, Albertine de, duchess, née de Staël-Holstein (1797-1838). The daughter of Madame de Staël and Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, she went on all the journeyings of her mother, to Italy, to Germany, to Russia and Sweden, and to England. On the second journey to Italy (1816), she was married to Victor, duke of Broglie (q.v.), with whom she had two sons and two daughters. Noted for her piety, she kept up a correspondence with AWS during the years of her marriage until her death at the château de Broglie in 1838.

13Broglie, Victor de, duke (1785-1870): French politician and statesman; husband of Albertine de Staël. He was born at Paris. His father was guillotined during the Terror. After a brief exile, he returned to Paris and received a liberal education, entering the diplomatic service under Napoleon. At the Restoration, he became a liberal member of the House of Peers. In 1816, he married Albertine de Staël and alternated between Paris and the Broglie estate in Normandy. Under the July Monarchy, he was minister of education and minister of foreign affairs. He resigned from politics in 1836. Later, he was an implacable opponent of the Second Empire.

14Bürger, Gottfried August (1747-1794): poet and translator, Schlegel’s mentor in Göttingen. Born at Molmerswende, he studied law at the Universities of Halle and Göttingen and was a justice official, first near, then in Göttingen itself. After 1784, he gave lectures on philosophy and aesthetics at the university. He was closely linked with the Göttingen ‘Hainbund’ (Voss, Hölty, Stolberg), wrote ballads in a popular style, and translated Homer’s Iliad and Shakespeare’s Macbeth. He befriended AWS after his arrival in Göttingen and was his mentor in poetic matters. His marital arrangements (two marriages ended in death, the third was dissolved) and his financial disarray compromised his reputation, not least Schiller’s devastating review of the edition of his poems in 1791 (AWS’s review ‘Bürger’ (1801) was written in his defence). He died at Göttingen.

15Buttlar, Auguste von, née Ernst (1796-1857): painter. The daughter of Charlotte Ernst, née Schlegel, and Ludwig Emanuel Ernst, AWS’s and FS’s niece. Born at Pillnitz, she grew up in Dresden. In 1816, she married Baron von Buttlar, an officer in Russian service. After some training in Munich, she entered the studio of Baron Gérard in Paris, largely through the influence of her uncle, AWS. He also helped her with portrait commissions in England and France. She was estranged from him after her conversion to Catholicism in 1827, but they were later reconciled. After her husband’s death, she painted portraits for a living, mainly in Austria. A major beneficiary of AWS’s will, she inherited his Indian miniatures, which she later presented to the royal collections in Dresden. She died at Florence.

16Chézy, Antoine-Léonard de (1773-1832): Orientalist. Born at Neuilly. He learned oriental languages, esp. Arabic and Persian, from Antoine-Isaac de Silvestre de Sacy and Louis-Mathieu Langlès, later adding Sanskrit. He married Wilhelmine von Klenke, who after her separation from him continued her writing career as Helmine von Chézy. The first occupant of a chair of Sanskrit in France (1814), he was also one of the founders of the Société asiatique in 1822, later also holding a chair of Persian. AWS visited him in Paris, but their relationship was more correct than cordial. He died at Paris. Yadjinadatta-badha (1814, reviewed by AWS), Théorie du Sloka (1827), La Reconnaissance de Sacountala (1830).

17Colebrooke, Henry Thomas (1765-1837): Indologist. Born at London, he went as a young man to India, rising in the Bengal administration, eventually as judge in the court of appeal. In 1805, he was appointed professor of Hindu law and Sanskrit at the College of Fort William. He returned to England with his family in 1814. He presented his huge collection of Indian material to the Royal Asiatic Society, of which he was a co-founder. He corresponded with AWS from 1820 to 1828 and received him on his visit to London in 1823. His son John lived for nearly a year in AWS’s house in Bonn, while preparing for university. He wrote extensively on Hindu law, on astronomy and mathematics, on religion, and edited a Sanskrit dictionary. He died at London.

18Constant, Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebeque (1767- 1830): political theorist and activist; novelist; lover of Madame de Staël. Born at Lausanne to Protestant parents, he was educated in the Netherlands, then at Edinburgh university. He held a court post in Brunswick until forced to leave by the Revolutionary Wars. In Paris, he met Germaine de Staël and became her lover. After involvement in politics, he was obliged to leave France for Coppet. He accompanied Madame de Staël for part of her first journey to Germany and returned with her and AWS to Coppet. For the next few years, he moved in and out of the Coppet circle. His marriage in 1809 strained his relationship with Staël. He met up with AWS again in Hanover in 1814, returned to Paris and became deeply involved in politics during the Restoration, the Hundred Days, and the Bourbon monarchy. The author of Des Réactions politiques (1797), Wallstein (1809, which AWS reviewed), Adolphe (1816), De la Religion (1824-31).

19Cotta, Johann Friedrich von (1764-1832): publisher. He was born at Stuttgart and studied law in Tübingen. In 1787 he took over his father’s publishing business and extended it to include many of the major figures of the Classical and Romantic period, including Schiller and Goethe, Tieck and AWS. The firm moved to Stuttgart in 1810. Ennobled, he played a prominent role in politics in Württemberg after 1815.

20Eschenburg, Johann Joachim (1743-1820): critic and literary historian. Born at Hamburg, he studied at Leipzig (where he met Goethe) and Göttingen. In 1767 he was appointed tutor, subsequently professor, at the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick. He was a poet and dramatist in his own right and translated widely, esp. English criticism and aesthetics, also producing standard handbooks of rhetoric and literary history, notably his Beispielsammlung (1788-95). He is best known for his complete prose translation of Shakespeare (1775-82) and for his compendium, Ueber W. Shakspeare (1787). In 1792, he used his influence to secure AWS his tutorship in Amsterdam. Died at Brunswick.

21Fauriel, Claude Charles (1772-1844): French literary scholar and professor. Born at St Étienne and educated at Lyon, he served in the Revolutionary army and was involved in politics, making in 1801 the decision to become a private scholar. He was close to Madame de Staël, Constant, Manzoni and Guizot, and was the companion of Madame de Condorcet. He became especially noted for his translation of Greek popular songs (1824-25) and his studies on oriental languages and notably on Provençal. In 1830 he was appointed professor of foreign literature at the Sorbonne. He was associated with AWS during his visits to Paris.

22Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762-1814): philosopher. Born at Rammenau, Saxony, the son of a ribbon weaver, through the good offices of a nobleman, he was able to study at Jena. There followed years as a tutor, including two in Zurich. He secured first prominence with his Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung (1792), which met with Kant’s approval. In 1794, he was appointed professor in Jena, where he was a popular lecturer and developed his system of transcendental idealism (Wissenschaftslehre, 1798-99). He was close to the Romantics, Novalis, AWS and FS, and Schelling. The so-called ‘atheism affair’ led to his dismissal in 1799. He lived first in Berlin, and was briefly a professor in Erlangen. In 1808 he delivered the highly contentious and xenophobic Reden an die deutsche Nation in Berlin. In 1810, he was appointed professor at the newly founded University of Berlin, and was its rector in 1812. He died during a typhus epidemic in Berlin.

23Fiorillo, Johann Domenik (Domenico) (1748-1821): art historian. Born at Hamburg, the son of an Italian composer, he studied art at Bologna and Rome, and was appointed history painter to the court in Brunswick. In 1781 he moved to Göttingen as drawing master. In this capacity he was the mentor to AWS, then to Tieck and Wackenroder. AWS assisted him with the first proofs of his monumental Geschichte der zeichnendnen Künste (1798-1808). He was appointed an assistant professor in 1799 and a full professor in 1813. Died at Göttingen.

24Flaxman, John (1755-1826): neo-classical engraver and sculptor. Born at York, he studied at the Royal Academy. Working for Josiah Wedgwood, he first developed the neo- classical outline forms that secured him European fame with his later engravings for the works of Homer and Dante. He spent 1787-94 in Italy, and was thereafter a much sought- after sculptor in the classical style. AWS reviewed his Homer and Dante engravings in the Athenaeum in 1799, and he visited him in London in 1823. Died at London.

25Forster, Georg (1754-1794): naturalist, explorer, journalist. Born at Nassenhuben, near Danzig, the son of Johann Reinhold Forster, who took Georg with him on journeys in Russia, England and then on James Cook’s second circumnavigation of the world in 1772-75. His English account of Cook’s voyage, A Voyage Round the World in 1777 (German, Reise um die Welt, 1778-80) established his reputation as a botanist and ethnographer. He taught natural history in Kassel, then at the academy in Vilna, before becoming university librarian in Mainz in 1788. Through his marriage to Therese Heyne, he was linked with Caroline Böhmer, later Schlegel (q.v.), and both families lived in Mainz until 1793. His translation into German of Sir William Jones’s version of Śakuntalâ (1791) was a major influence on later writers. In the spring of 1790, Forster and the young Alexander von Humboldt (q.v.) undertook a long journey on the lower Rhine. Forster’s account, Ansichten von Niederrhein (1791-94), is important for its discussion of art and architecture. After the capture of Mainz by the French in 1792, he was involved in the Jacobin club, and was a delegate of the Mainz republic in Paris in 1793. After the capture of Mainz by the coalition forces, he was outlawed and forced to return to Paris, where he died in straitened circumstances.

26Fouqué, Friedrich de la Motte, pseud. Pellegrin (1777-1843): dramatist and novelist. Born at Brandenburg, of Huguenot descent, the son of a Prussian officer and the grandson of one of Fredrick the Great’s generals. After studying at Halle, he became an officer in the Prussian army. Upon his marriage, he settled on his estate at Nennhausen and devoted himself to literature. Publishing under a pseudonym, he attracted AWS’s attention, who then issued his Dramatische Spiele von Pellegrin (1804). It was to Fouqué that AWS wrote the letter calling for more patriotic themes in German poetry. He published his Nibelungen trilogy, Der Held des Nordens, in 1808-10, and continued, with diminishing quality, to produce prose and dramas on popular medieval-inspired themes. He is today best known for his tale Undine (1811). He served in the Wars of Liberation as a comrade-in-arms of Philipp Veit (q.v.).

27Gentz, Friedrich (von) (1764-1832): statesman. Born at Breslau, after study in Königsberg, he entered the Prussian civil service. He first came to prominence with his translation of Edmund Burke’s Reflections (1794), part of his general interest in the English constitution and financial system. He called for press freedom and was an energetic pamphleteer on contemporary issues. He received substantial payments from the British and Austrians, which supported his raffish life-style. He entered Austrian service in 1802, but was first employed in 1809. His anti-Napoleonic stance made him useful to Metternich (q.v.) whose right-hand man and draftsman he became and whose political system he supported in the later part of his career. He heard AWS’s Berlin lectures, met him with Madame de Staël in 1808, and corresponded during AWS’s time with Bernadotte. He died at Vienna.

28Görres, Joseph (von) (1776-1848): Romantic nature philosopher and patriot. Born at Koblenz and educated in a Catholic Latin school, he was initially a supporter of the French Revolution and was a delegate of the Rhine Provinces in Paris. Changing orientation, he moved in 1806 to Heidelberg, where his lectures on natural philosophy attracted much attention and brought him into the circle around Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim (q.v.). He published his Die teutschen Volksbücher in 1807. Returning to Koblenz in 1808, he steeped himself in the Orient and produced his Mythengeschichte der asiatischen Welt in 1810. In 1813, at the outbreak of the Wars of Liberation, he published the strongly anti-Napoleonic periodical Rheinischer Merkur, which was eventually suppressed in 1816. His Teutschland und die Revolution (1819) fell foul of the Carlsbad Decrees; he was forced to flee, first to Strasbourg, then to Switzerland. His interests became more Ultramontane, and in 1827 he was appointed professor of history at the new University of Munich. Die christliche Mystik (1836-42) is his major later work. Died at Munich.

29Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (von) (1749-1832): poet, dramatist, novelist. Born of patrician parentage at Frankfurt am Main. He studied law at Leipzig and Strasbourg, having in Strasbourg a close association with Johann Gottfried Herder. Major works from this period are the drama Götz von Berlichingen (1773) and poetry. In 1773 he was an assessor at the Imperial Chamber Court in Wetzlar, where an unhappy love affair formed the basis of his first novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774), that caused a European-wide sensation. In 1775 he went on his first journey to Switzerland. In 1776, he was appointed companion, later minister of state, by duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar, and remained resident in Weimar thereafter. In this time he showed his first interest in geology and botany. He travelled in Italy during the years 1786-8, followed by the publication of the more restrained Iphigenie auf Tauris (first 1779, revised 1786) and Torquato Tasso (1788), the works reviewed by the young AWS. His association with Schiller in the 1790s was expressed in Die Horen and the Xenien. After the publication of the novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795- 96), his Römische Elegien (1795) and his verse epic Hermann und Dorothea (1798), Goethe was the object of the young Romantics’ devotion, and a close association developed, with Goethe the minister of state when Fichte, Schelling and the Schlegel brothers were at the university in Jena. Differences, however, emerged as Goethe remained true to his neo-classicism, whereas the Romantics favoured more the Catholic Middle Ages. Goethe nevertheless praised Arnim and Brentano’s Wunderhorn, and was a friend of the Boisserée brothers (q.v.). While the first part of Faust (1808) was well received in Romantic circles, the novel Die Wahlverwandtschaften and his memoirs, Dichtung und Wahrheit (1811-14) were read as anti-Romantic in tendency. Despite a common interest in India, AWS’s relations with Goethe in the 1820s became strained, culminating in the publication of Goethe’s correspondence with Schiller (1828-29). His late works, the novel Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre (1829) and the second part of Faust (1832), were little appreciated. After Goethe’s death, the publication of his conversations further accentuated the gulf between him and the Romantic generation.

30Grimm, Jacob (1785-1863): grammarian; editor; lexicographer. Born at Hanau in Hesse, he attended Marburg university. There, he heard lectures by Karl Ludwig von Savigny and followed him to Paris to work on old German texts. In 1808, he was appointed librarian to King Jérôme of Westphalia, in Kassel. After the fall of Napoleon, he was part of the Hessian legation in Paris, then librarian in Kassel. He formed a close friendship with Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim (q.v.). With his brother Wilhelm (q.v.) he published on Germanic subjects, but the Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1812-15) first brought the brothers to a wider readership. AWS savaged their first scholarly collection, Altdeutsche Wälder (1813-15), but was reconciled by the later Deutsche Grammatik (1819) and their writings on the history of the German language. AWS met the Grimm brothers in the 1820s, and a mutual respect developed, although for them AWS lacked the gravitas of the true scholar. They were appointed professors at Göttingen in 1830, but in 1837 fell foul, as members of the ‘Göttingen Seven’, of the Hanoverian king’s reactionary politics. In 1840, both brothers were invited to Berlin, where they embarked on the Academy’s project of a German dictionary (first vol. 1854). He died at Berlin.

31Grimm, Wilhelm (1786-1859): grammarian; editor, lexicographer. Born at Hanau, the younger brother of Jacob (q.v.), from whom he was inseparable all his life and whose biography very closely parallels that of his brother. Wilhelm remained in Germany and became a librarian in Kassel, where he and Jacob worked until 1830. In 1825, Wilhelm married, but continued to live next to Jacob. Wilhelm’s main independent work was Die deutsche Heldensage (1829). He died at Berlin.

32Hardenberg, Friedrich von (known as Novalis) (1772-1801): poet. Born at the family estate of Oberwiederstedt in Thuringia, of a pious aristocratic family (Moravian Brethren), he attended school at Eisleben and studied law at the Universities of Leipzig, Wittenberg and Jena. At Jena he fell under the strong influence of Fichte (q.v.) and in 1794, he met Sophie von Kühn, the ‘child bride’ to whom he became engaged and who after her death in 1797 became an inspiration for his poetry. While at Jena, he also met the Romantic circle, esp. FS and Tieck, but also AWS, Caroline and Schelling (q.v.). In 1797, he attended the mining academy at Freiberg, studying technical subjects, and in 1799 was appointed director of the salt mines at Weissenfels. The Athenaeum published his collection of aphorisms, Blütenstaub (1798) and his mystical Hymnen an die Nacht (1800). He died of tuberculosis at Weissenfels. FS and Tieck published his posthumous works (first 1802), the visionary novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen, and the treatise on nature philosophy, Die Lehrlinge zu Sais. The radical historical essay, Die Christenheit oder Europa, did not come out until 1826.

33Hardenberg, Karl August von, prince (1750-1822): minister of state. Born near Hanover, he studied at Leipzig and Göttingen. After travels in France, the Netherlands and England (where his wife had an affair with the Prince of Wales) he entered the service of the dukedom of Brunswick. In 1791, the Prussian state appointed him administrator of the territories of Ansbach and Bayreuth. In 1797 he was admitted to the cabinet; in 1804 he was foreign minister. He guided Prussian policy during the difficult years leading up to 1806 and after. In 1810, he was appointed chancellor and presided over a series of military, civil and educational reforms. He was able to bring King Frederick William III over into the anti-Napoleon alliance in 1813, and he was Prussia’s representative at the congresses in Vienna, Paris, and Aachen. Now a prince, he approved AWS’s appointment in Bonn and was instrumental in securing him a grant for his Sanskrit studies. He died at Genoa.

34Heine, Heinrich (1797-1856): poet. Born at Düsseldorf, until 1815 under French occupation, he was known as ‘Harry’ until his conversion to Christianity in 1825 (he signed the register of AWS’s lectures in that style). Apprenticed to a banker in Hamburg, he showed no aptitude and embarked on the study of law, first at Bonn (where he attended AWS’s lectures), then Göttingen, and finally Berlin (where he heard Hegel and met Varnhagen and Rahel, q.v.). There followed his journey to the Harz mountains, commemorated in his Reisebilder (I: 1826, II, 1827). He first made a name for himself with his Buch der Lieder (1827). Journeys to England and Italy followed. The third part of his Reisebilder (1829) contained his attack on Count Platen. He moved to Paris in 1831, working as a foreign correspondent. The main works of this period are Der Salon, Französische Zustände, Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland, and Die Romantische Schule (1835) in which he made his unkind remarks on AWS and Madame de Staël, also in Shakespeares Mädchen und Frauen (1838). He became more and more involved in politics and was associated with the so-called Young Germans. His Neue Gedichte appeared in 1844, the satirical verse epics Deutschland. Ein Wintermärchen in 1844 and Atta Troll in 1847, and his final major collection of poetry, Romanzero in 1851. He died at Paris.

35Hemsterhuis, Frans (François) (1721-1790): philosopher. Born at Franeker, Netherlands, he studied at Leyden. He was for most of his active life the secretary of state to the United Provinces. He was close to the Platonist and mystical circle in Münster around Princess Gallitzin and F.H. Jacobi. AWS was influenced by his Platonist aesthetic writings and by his notion of a golden age. Lettre sur la sculpture (1769), Lettre sur l’homme et ses rapports (1772), Alexis (1787). Died at The Hague.

36Herder, Johann Gottfried (von) (1745-1803): theologian, philosopher, critic, poet. Born at Mohrungen, East Prussia, he studied at Königsberg and came under the influence of Kant and Johann Georg Hamann and esp. his idea of ‘origins’. His first publication, Kritische Wälder (1767-68), was a voice advocating new directions in poetry and thought. Ordained a clergyman, he travelled in 1769 from Riga to Nantes, then to Paris. From there, he went through north Germany as chaplain to a prince, and on to Strasbourg, where he met Goethe. There followed his significant essays on Shakespeare, Ossian, the origins of language and the philosophy of history. He took a post as court preacher in Bückeburg in 1771, moving in 1776 at Goethe’s suggestion to Weimar, as ‘General superintent’. Of especial importance were his notions of the organic development of history and of its cultural expression, and their natural forces, as set out in his Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-91), which was especially influential on the young Romantics. He died at Weimar.

37Heyne, Christian Gottlob (1729-1812): classical scholar. Born at Chemnitz, the son of a weaver, he attended university at Leipzig, but lived in penury until appointed to the chair of classics at Göttingen in 1761. He had by now produced editions of Tibullus and Epictetus, and was to edit Virgil and Pindar. As university librarian and director of the classical seminar in Göttingen, he was an important mentor for the young AWS.

38Humboldt, Alexander von (1769-1859): scientist and explorer. Born at Berlin and privately educated. He developed his precocious interests in natural history, esp. botany and mineralogy, at the Universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and Göttingen, then at the mining academy at Freiberg. A journey up the Rhine with Georg Forster quickened his interest in the interrelation of natural phenomena. He travelled extensively in Germany and Austria and was appointed a senior mining official by the Prussian state. Plans to join Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt came to nothing, but in 1799, accompanied by Aimé Bonpland, he was able to persuade the authorities in Madrid to allow him to explore extensively in the Spanish possessions in the New World. Humboldt and Bonpland traversed the area of modern Venezuela and discovered the course of the Orinoco (Voyage aux régions équinoctiales du Nouveau Continent). The explorers proceeded through modern Colombia and Peru, climbing Chimborazo (Vues des Cordillères et monuments des peuples indigènes de l’Amérique, 1810, reviewed 1817 by AWS). Unable to do the planned circumnavigation, they moved to Mexico and Cuba, on which Humboldt wrote important economic and political studies. After a short visit to the United States, he returned in 1804, He lived in Paris, ‘the most famous man in Europe’, writing up the results of his scientific and ethnological studies and laying the foundations of plant geography. Finally returning to Berlin in 1827, he was a courtier and chamberlain under Frederick William III and IV, making one last scientific journey, to Russia, in 1829. The synthesis of his scientific studies is his Kosmos (1845-62). He died at Berlin.

39Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767-1835): classical scholar, linguistician and Prussian minister of state. Born at Potsdam and privately educated. He attended university at Frankfurt an der Oder and Göttingen (where he met AWS), followed by a grand tour which took him to Paris. He entered the Prussian civil service, but soon gave this up for the life of a private scholar. He moved in 1794 to Jena and was close to Schiller (q.v.). From 1797-1801 he was in Paris (meeting Madame de Staël) and Spain, engaged in linguistic studies (Basque). From 1803 to 1808 he was Prussian resident in Rome, where among other things he translated Pindar and Aeschylus. With his classical and liberal humanism, he was the natural choice to be Prussian minister of education, when during 1808-10 he carried out important school and university reforms. He was appointed Prussian minister to Vienna during the congresses, then ambassador in London. His proposals for a liberal constitution in Prussia were rejected, and he was dismissed in 1819. He spent the rest of his life on his estate at Tegel near Berlin, engaged on linguistic studies, including Sanskrit (correspondence with AWS) and the Kâwi langage of Java. He died at Tegel.

40Iffland, August Wilhelm (1759-1814): actor and dramatist. Born at Hanover, he went to Gotha to learn acting from the great director Ekhof, moving to the National Theatre in Mannheim, where he was the first Franz Moor in Schiller’s Die Räuber. He was briefly in Weimar before moving in 1796 to Berlin, where he became director of the state theatres there. He excelled in comic roles, but he was also Hamlet in AWS’s translation, and Xuthus in Ion. He died at Berlin.

41Jean Paul see Richter

42Jones, Sir William (1746-1794): judge in the service of the East India Company; orientalist, linguist. Born at London, he attended Oxford and studied law at the Middle Temple. In 1784 he was appointed a judge at Calcutta. He devoted himself to all aspects of India, laws, astronomy, language, poetry, and founded the Asiatic Society. He is best known for his study of the language family that linked Sanskrit with Persian, Greek, Latin, Germanic and Celtic, that would later be called ‘Indo-European’. He died at Calcutta.

43Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb (1724-1803): poet. Born at Quedlinburg, he attended the Pforta school in Naumburg (with Johann Adolf Schlegel, q.v.) and Jena and Leipzig universities. In Leipzig he gathered round him the group of young writers known as the ‘Bremer Beiträger’, many of them celebrated in his odes ‘Auf meine Freunde’ (Ebert, Gellert, Gärtner, Giseke, J.A. Schlegel) and ‘Der Zürchersee’. He experimented with classical verse forms, adapting them for the needs of German metrics and creating a new poetic language. His great hexameter epic, Der Messias, in twenty cantos (1748-73), was his lasting poetic achievement. In 1750 he visited Bodmer in Zurich. In 1751, he received a pension from King Frederick V of Denmark and lived in Copenhagen until 1770. He returned to Hamburg, where, except for a year at the court of the margrave of Baden in Karlsruhe in 1775, he remained until his death. His views on language were expressed in his Grammatische Gespräche of 1794, the subject of AWS’s Die Sprachen.

44Körner, Josef (1888-1950): Schlegel scholar and editor. Born at Rohatetz in Moravia, he attended the Universities of Vienna and Prague, serving in World War One. He became a Gymnasium professor in Prague, his university career being blocked by anti-Semitic intrigues. He knew Kafka, Stefan Zweig and many other prominent writers. He produced numerous important publications on German Romanticism, esp. on AWS: Romantiker und Klassiker (1924), Die Botschaft der deutschen Romantik an Europa (1929), Briefe von und an August Wilhelm Schlegel (1930) and Krisenjahre der Frühromantik (1936-37, 1958). He was sent to Theresienstadt in 1944; on his release in 1945, he was threatened with deportation by the Czechs as a ‘German’. He died at Prague.

45Koreff, David Ferdinand (1783-1851): physician. Born at Breslau of Jewish parentage, he studied medicine at Halle (taught by Steffens q.v.) and Berlin, qualifying in 1803. He was strongly influenced by theories of animal magnetism and effected a number of cures through magnetic means. He moved to Paris and became a successful doctor there, with links to Saint-Martin and Chateaubriand, Madame de Staël, and AWS, whom he treated. He returned to Germany and lived in Berlin and Vienna. Through Caroline von Humboldt he was introduced to the chancellor Hardenberg (q.v.), whose personal physician he became. He was entrusted with the organization of medical services in the new Rhine provinces, and was then called to the Prussian ministry of education under Altenstein, corresponding with AWS over his appointment to Bonn. In Berlin, he was part of the ‘Serapion’ brotherhood around E.T.A. Hoffmann. He fell into disfavour and returned to Paris in 1822 and became a well-known society doctor.

46Kotzebue, August (von) (1761-1819): dramatist. Born at Weimar, he studied law at Jena and Duisburg. He moved to Russia and became secretary to the governor of St Petersburg, was ennobled in 1785, and became a high official in Estonia. Already a prolific writer of prose and plays, he retired to Reval (Tallin) in 1795. In 1800, on his way to St Petersburg, he was arrested as a supposed Jacobin and transported to Siberia. This incident prompted AWS’s satire, Ehrenpforte. He was pardoned and became theatre director in St Petersburg, living thereafter as an independent writer in Berlin. After 1806, he sought safety in Estonia. In 1816, he was appointed to the ministry of foreign affairs in St Petersburg and was sent in that capacity to Germany, being widely accused of acting as a spy. He was immensely successful as a dramatist and was performed all over Europe. His illiberal and anti-Romantic views led to his works being burned at the student rally on the Wartburg in 1817. In 1819, while at Mannheim, he was murdered by a student, Karl Sand. His son, Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846), carried out the first Russian-sponsored circumnavigation of the world.

47Lassen, Christian (1800-1876): orientalist. Born at Bergen, Norway, he studied in Oslo, Heidelberg and Bonn. He became AWS’s star pupil in Bonn and assisted him with his editions of the Râmâyana and Hitopadeśa. The years 1824-26 he spent in London and Paris and collaborated with Eugène Bournouf in the Essai sur le Pali (1826). He became an assistant professor in Bonn in 1830 and a full professor in 1840. His interests extended much father than AWS’s, including Persia, as seen in his Indische Alterthumskunde (1849-61). Died at Bonn.

48Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim (1729-1781): dramatist and critic. Born at Kamenz, Saxony, educated at Meissen, then at Leipzig university. He embarked on a career as a dramatist and critic, noted for his tragedy Miss Sara Sampson (1755), and his Literaturbriefe, which are important for the reception of Shakespeare in Germany. 1760-65 he was the secretary to General von Tauenzien in Breslau. There followed Laokoon (1766), his treatise on the functions of painting and poetry. In 1767 he moved to Hamburg as the critic at the National Theatre. Here he wrote his comedy, Minna von Barnhelm (1767) and his set of reviews, Hamburgische Dramaturgie (1767- 69), which were important in advocating a new approach not beholden to French models. In 1770, he moved to Wolfenbüttel as ducal librarian. He became involved in theological disputes, but also wrote the tragedy Emilia Galotti (1772), and the play on religious tolerance, Nathan der Weise (1779). He died at Brunswick.

49Ludwig, crown prince, later king Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786-1868). Born at Strasbourg, the son of the Count Palatine Maximilian Joseph of Palatinate- Zweibrücken (1799 Elector of Bavaria, 1806 king), he studied at Landshut and Göttingen. He commanded Bavarian forces during the Napoleonic wars, on the French side, until Bavaria changed allegiance in 1813. Succeeding his father as king in 1825, he changed the shape of his royal residence, Munich, lavishly supported the arts (Alte Pinakothek) and built the Walhalla near Regensburg (for which Friedrich Tieck did many of the busts, q.v.). His policies and his affairs led to his abdication in 1848. He died at Nice.

50Mackintosh, Sir James (1765-1832): lawyer and politician. Born at Aldourie near Inverness, he studied at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, where he met Benjamin Constant. He became involved in political journalism and published the main rebuttal of Burke’s Reflections, Vindiciae Gallicae (1791). He was called to the bar in 1795. His defence of a French refugee was translated by Madame de Staël, whose lifelong friend he became. He was appointed chief judge of Bombay (Mumbai) in 1804, staying in India until 1811. He became a member of parliament on the Whig side, supporting liberal causes, including the Reform Bill. From 1818 to 1824 he was professor of law and politics at the East India College at Haileybury. He was a founding member of the Royal Asiatic Society and was one of founders of University College, London. His History of the Revolution in England in 1688 was published in 1834, after his death.

51Metternich, Klemens, count, later prince (1773-1859): Austrian chancellor. Born at Koblenz, he studied (with Benjamin Constant) at Strasbourg, and at Mainz. He entered Austrian service and soon made his mark. He was appointed ambassador to Saxony and then to Prussia, subsequently Austrian envoy to Paris. At the outbreak of war with France in 1809, he became minister of foreign affairs, and it was he who promoted the idea of a marriage between Napoleon and an Austrian archduchess (Marie-Louise). Raised to the rank of prince, he conducted the negotiations for a grand alliance against Napoleon, and he was the most prominent negotiator at the congresses that followed. In 1820 he was appointed chancellor of the Empire and Austrian state chancellor, ensuring the existing state of things by police action and despotic measures. The revolutions of 1848 led to his fall. He died at Vienna.

52Müller, Adam Heinrich (von) (1779-1829): publicist and political theorist. Born at Berlin and studied at Göttingen. He was strongly influenced by Friedrich von Gentz (q.v.) in the direction of a political career. He attended AWS’s lectures in Berlin. After a short period in Prussian service, and foreign travel, he moved to Vienna in 1805 and embraced the Catholic faith. From 1806-09 he was in Dresden as tutor to Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, where he gave lectures on dramatic art and on political science (Die Elemente der Staatskunst, 1809). With Heinrich von Kleist he edited the periodical Phöbus (1808). He entered Austrian service in 1813, first as an envoy, then as a framer of the Carlsbad Decrees. He was a strong advocate of the links between the state and religion, an opponent of free trade and a proponent of the religious basis of economics. He died at Vienna.

53Müller, Johannes (von) (1752-1809): Swiss historian. Born at Schaffhausen, he studied at Göttingen. After teaching at Schaffhausen, encouraged by Karl Viktor von Bonstetten (q.v.), he began his historical studies. He gave lectures on universal history (admired by AWS). In 1786, he accepted a post as librarian to the elector of Mainz, having commenced work on his history of Switzerland, Geschichte der Schweizer, which appeared between 1780 and 1808. Forced to leave Mainz, he became chief imperial librarian in Vienna until 1804, when he accepted a post as academician and historiographer in Berlin. In 1806, he became secretary of state to the kingdom of Westphalia at Kassel. He died at Kassel.

54Necker, Jacques (1732-1804): banker. Born at Geneva, he co-established the bank of Thellusson and Necker in Paris. He married Suzanne Curchod: their only daughter Germaine became Madame de Staël (q.v.). Suzanne’s salon gathered in all the notabilities of Paris. In 1776, Necker was made director- general of finance, an office which he held against mounting difficulties until his dismissal in 1783. He retired to his estate at Coppet, but was recalled in 1788. The outbreak of the Revolution made his position untenable, and he retired in 1790, having lent the French exchequer two million francs of his own. He died at Coppet.

55Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (1776-1831): historian. Born at Copenhagen, the son of the explorer Carsten Niebuhr. He studied at Kiel, then in London and Edinburgh. He entered the Danish state administration in 1800, resigning in 1806 to make a career in the Prussian civil service. 1810-12 he gave lectures on Roman history at the new University of Berlin. His use of historical evidence opened up new fields in historiography. The first two volumes of his Römische Geschichte (1811-12) were savaged by AWS in 1816. He became Prussian ambassador to the papal court in Rome from 1816 to 1823. He retired to Bonn, where he gave lectures on classical archaeology. He died at Bonn.

56Pange, Pauline, comtesse de, née de Broglie (1888-1972): doyenne of Staël studies. Daughter of the fifth duke of Broglie, sister of the Nobel laureates, Maurice and Louis de Broglie, the great-great-granddaughter of Madame de Staël. A grande dame, she was with her husband closely involved in post-war European rapprochements and was a leading Staël scholar (Madame de Staël et la découverte de l’Allemagne, 1929; Auguste-Guillaume Schlegel et Madame de Staël, 1938; edition of De l’Allemagne, 1958-60).

57Paulus, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob (1761-1851): theologian. Born at Leonberg, Württemberg, he attended university at Tübingen. A leading proponent of rational theology, advocating natural explanation for miracles, and an oriental scholar, he became in 1793 professor in Jena. With his wife Caroline he had close contact with Goethe, Schiller and the Romantics. Leaving Jena, he was 1803-08 professor in Würzburg, and from 1811 in Heidelberg (as a colleague of Hegel). After AWS married Sophie Paulus in 1818, Paulus was his father-in-law. Died at Heidelberg. (Philologisch-kritischer und historischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament, 1804-08; Das Leben Jesu, 1828).

58Récamier, Juliette, née Jeanne-Françoise Julie Adélaïde Bernard (Madame Récamier) (1777-1849) : Born at Lyon. A salonnière and famous beauty, her salon in Paris attracted all the notabilities of the time, and most especially Chateaubriand, Constant, Montmorency and Prince August of Prussia. Her anti-Napoleonic stance linked her with Madame de Staël, whose close friend she became (Auguste de Staël falling in love with her). Exiled from Paris, she settled in Naples, returning after the Restoration. She was the subject of paintings by Louis David and François Gérard. Died at Paris.

59Rehfues, Philipp Joseph (von) (1779-1843): ‘Kurator’ of the University of Bonn. Born at Tübingen, he went as tutor to Italy and was involved in diplomatic negotiations there. In 1806 he became librarian to the king of Württemberg. Entering Prussian service, he was appointed governor of Trier and Koblenz after 1815, then administrator in Bonn, where he supported the founding of the university. In 1818 he became ‘Kurator’ of the new university, an office he held until 1842, being closely associated with AWS during this period. Died at Bonn.

60Reichardt, Johann Friedrich (1752-1814): composer. Born at Königsberg, he studied there and at Leipzig. He gained an early reputation as a keyboard virtuoso and in 1774 was appointed Kapellmeister in Berlin by Frederick the Great. He travelled widely in Italy, France, Austria and England. Through his second marriage, he became Tieck’s brother-in–law, and he was an important influence on the young man. His sympathy for the French Revolution led to his dismissal. He retired to Giebichenstein, near Halle, which became a gathering- place for the Romantic generation. In 1796 he was appointed director of the salt mines there. In 1807, after Giebichenstein had been plundered by French troops, Reichardt accepted King Jérôme’s offer to become theatre director in Kassel, but soon returned to Giebichenstein, where he died. He is important for his Singspiele and for his settings of songs, notably by Goethe.

61Reimer, Georg Andreas (1776-1842): Berlin publisher. Born at Greifswald, he was apprenticed to a Berlin publisher and soon took over the business. In 1800, he gained control of the ‘Realschule’ impress and ran it as the ‘Realschulbuchhandlung’ until 1817, thereafter under his own name. He was the major publisher of the authors of the German Romantic generation, including Tieck, Jean Paul, Hoffmann, Arnim, Arndt, Fichte, the brothers Grimm and AWS. He was a noted liberal and supported progressive causes. His house in the Wilhelmstrasse was a centre of social and intellectual life in Berlin. Died at Berlin.

62Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich (Jean Paul) (1763-1825): the most-read German novelist of his day. Born at Wunsiedel, Franconia. he attended the Gymnasium in Hof and university in Leipzig. His first years, later as a tutor, were spent in straitened circumstances. Choosing the pen name of Jean Paul in honour of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he made his first breakthrough as a novelist with Hesperus in 1795. In 1798 he was in Weimar, where he was lionized (but not by Goethe or Schiller). He finally settled in Bayreuth, supported by a pension from the Prince-Primate Dalberg and then from King Ludwig I of Bavaria. He died at Bayreuth. His other major novels are Die unsichtbare Loge (1793), Siebenkäs (1796-97), Titan (1800-03), Flegeljahre (1804), Der Komet (1820-22). His Vorschule der Ästhetik (1804) and Levana (1807) are important forays, respectively, into aesthetics and education.

63Robinson, Henry Crabb (1775-1867): barrister at law. Born at Bury St Edmunds. As a Unitarian, he was unable to go to university, and was articled to an attorney in Colchester. From 1800 to 1805 he studied in Germany, notably at Jena, meeting everyone of note in Weimar, including Goethe and Schiller. During Madame de Staël’s visit there, he explained to her the rudiments of German philosophy. He was called to the bar in 1813, but went abroad frequently to France and Germany. He was a founder of University College London. As a note-taker, diarist and gossip, he is a great source of information about Germany in the ‘Goethezeit’. Died at London.

64Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph (von) (1775-1854): philosopher. Born at Leonberg in Württemberg, he attended the Tübinger Stift (where he was friendly with Hölderlin and Hegel) and the universites of Tübingen and Leipzig. In Dresden he met up with the Schlegel brothers, Caroline and Novalis (q.v.). Goethe, who found his notion of ‘Weltseele’ attractive, saw him appointed professor extraordinarius at Jena from 1798 to 1803. He became Caroline’s lover, and in 1800 he was involved in the tragedy of Auguste Böhmer’s death (q.v.). In 1803, he married Caroline and moved as professor to Würzburg. In 1806, he accepted posts as secretary to the academy of sciences and the academy of arts, but also gave lectures in Stuttgart (1810) and Erlangen (1820-27). In 1841, as a member of the academy of sciences, he moved to Berlin and gave lectures (attended by Kierkegaard, Burckhardt, Bakunin and Engels) until 1845. He remained in Berlin until his death at Bad Ragatz, Switzerland. Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797), System des transzendentalen Idealismus (1800), Bruno (1802), Philosophie der Kunst (1802-03).

65Schiller, Friedrich (von) (1759-1805): poet, dramatist, philosopher. Born at Marbach, Württemberg, he attended the elite Hohe Karlsschule at Ludwigsburg, then at Stuttgart. He studied medicine and was appointed a army surgeon. A performance of his play, Die Räuber, at Mannheim in 1783 caused a sensation and scandal, and as a result he was forbidden to leave Württemberg. He escaped in disguise to Mannheim, moving to Bauerbach near Meiningen, where he completed his plays, Fiesco and Kabale und Liebe (both 1783). He was appointed dramatist at the Mannheim theatre, but the position was not renewed. He founded the journal, Die Rheinische Thalia in 1784, in which he published his most important stories, including Der Geisterseher. In 1785, he was able to move to Leipzig, then Dresden, where his friend Christian Gottfried Körner supported him. He finished Don Karlos in 1787. He moved to Weimar, then to Jena, in 1788 being appointed to a professorship of history at Jena, with a small pension, and thus able to marry Charlotte von Lengefeld. The Briefe über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen (1795) were the first major product of these years. He made the acquaintance of Fichte and Wilhelm von Humboldt and began his association and friendship with Goethe. He launched his periodical Die Horen (1795-98), securing AWS’s collaboration. His Musenalmanache (1797-99) published the Xenien (with Goethe) and his major elegies and ballads, while Wallenstein (1798-99) was the pinnacle of his dramatic production. In 1799 he settled in Weimar to be nearer Goethe, producing in rapid succession his dramas Maria Stuart (1800), Die Jungfrau von Orleans (1801), Die Braut von Messina (1803) and Wilhelm Tell (1804). His break with AWS in 1797 made him a decided opponent of the Romantics. After many illnesses, and in broken health, he died at Weimar.

66Schlegel, Carl August (1761-1789): AWS’s older brother. As a lieutenant in Hanoverian service he went in 1782 with his regiment to India, seeing action against the French and against Tipu Sultan and being employed in a surveying expedition in the Carnatic. Died at Madras.

67Schlegel, Caroline, née Michaelis (1763-1809): born at Göttingen, the daughter of Johann David Michaelis, the orientalist. In 1784 she married Johann Franz Wilhelm Böhmer (1755-1788) and moved with him to Clausthal in the Harz. There were three children, Auguste (1785-1800), Therese (1787-89) and Wilhelm (1789). Böhmer died in 1788. She lived alternately in Göttingen and Marburg, and from this time date AWS’s first serious attentions. In 1792, she moved to Mainz to be near her friend Therese Huber. A brief liaison with the French officer Crancé left her pregnant. She was arrested and incarcerated after the fall of the Mainz republic. AWS rescued her and brought her back to Brunswick. The child, Julius Crancé (or Kranz) died in 1795. After his return from Amsterdam, AWS married her in 1796 and they moved to Jena. She took a full part in his literary activities, and worked on the Shakespeare translation and the essay, Die Gemälde. An attraction developed for Schelling after his arrival in Jena. On the death of Auguste in 1800, she separated from AWS, divorcing him in 1803 and marrying Schelling. She moved with him to Würzburg and then to Munich. She died at Bad Maulbronn.

68Schlegel, Caroline Sophie Eleutheria von, née Paulus (Sophie) (1791-1847): AWS’s second wife. Born at Jena, the daughter of Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus (q.v.) and Caroline Paulus. She moved with her parents to Würzburg and then to Heidelberg, marrying AWS in 1818 and separating from him in the same year. She died at Heidelberg.

69Schlegel, Christoph (1613-1678): pastor; AWS’s great-great-grandfather. Born at Kmehlen, Saxony, he studied in Leipzig. He was successively tutor, court preacher in Zerbst, then professor and pastor in Breslau. He received a doctorate of theology from Wittenberg in 1645. He moved next to Leutschau (Levoča) in the kingdom of Hungary, where Emperor Ferdinand III ennobled him as ‘Schlegel von Gottleben’. In 1660 he was ‘Superintendent’ in Herzberg, 1662 in Grimma, where he died.

70Schlegel, Dorothea (von), née Brendel Mendelssohn (1764-1839): novelist and translator. Born at Berlin, the daughter of Moses Mendelssohn. In 1783, she married the banker Simon Veit. Their two sons, Philipp and Johannes, became prominent painters of the Nazarene school. A nephew was Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. In 1797, she met FS in Henriette Herz’s salon, and an intensive liaison developed, of which his novel Lucinde (1799) was the expression. She moved with him to Jena during the period of the closest Romantic association, and in 1802 went with him to Paris. Her unfinished novel Florentin appeared in 1801, and in 1807 her translation of Madame de Staël’s Corinne. In 1804, on her conversion to Protestantism, she and FS were married. In 1808, she and FS were received into the Catholic faith in Frankfurt. She moved with FS to Vienna, sharing the vicissitudes of his life there, moving mainly in pious Catholic circles. In 1818-20 she accompanied her artist sons to Rome. After FS’s death, she moved to Frankfurt, where Johannes Veit was director of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut. She died at Frankfurt.

71Schlegel, Johan Frederik Wilhelm (1765-1836) jurist, the son of Johann Heinrich Schlegel, and thus AWS’s first cousin. Born at Copenhagen, he studied at Göttingen 1786-87, then travelled in Holland and England. In 1800, he became professor of law at Copenhagen university, later its rector, and the author of legal textbooks, notably on maritime law, and studies in legal history. Died at Søllerød.

72Schlegel, Johann Adolf (1721-1793): AWS’s father; the son of Johann Friedrich Schlegel. Born at Meissen, he attended the elite Pforta school in Naumburg, at the same time as Klopstock (q.v.), whose friend he became. He studied at Leipzig and was a member of the anti- Gottschedian ‘Bremer Beiträger’ (Gellert, Giseke, Cramer, Ebert, Gärtner etc.). In 1751 he became ‘Diaconus’ at the Pforta, where he married Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe Hübsch, with whom he had nine children. In 1754 he was appointed pastor in Zerbst and professor at the Gymnasium; in 1759 he moved to the Marktkirche in Hanover, in 1775 to the Neustadt Hof- und Marktkirche, becoming ‘Superintendent’ of Hoya in 1782, and of Calenberg in 1787. He died at Hanover. His collected poems, esp. fables, appeared as Vermischte Gedichte in 1787-89, his sermons between 1754 and 1785. He revised the Hanoverian hymnary. He translated Batteux’s Les Beaux-Arts réduits à un même principe (first 1751 and subsequently revised), (with Johann August Schlegel) Banier’s La Mythologie (1754-66) and Leprince de Beaumont’s Éducation (1766-80).

73Schlegel, Johann August (1731-1776): pastor; AWS’s uncle; the son of Johann Friedrich Schlegel (q.v.). Born at Meissen, he attended the St. Afra school there and studied at Leipzig, becoming a member of the ‘Bremer Beiträger’. He assisted JAS with his translation of Banier. In 1759, he moved to Hanover and became pastor at Pattensen, later at Rehburg, where he briefly cared for the young FS.

74Schlegel, Johann August Adolph (1790-1840): classical scholar; Moritz’s son; AWS’s nephew. He studied at Göttingen and was then a teacher of classics at the Johanneum in Hamburg, in Ilfeld and at Verden. He did a scholarly edition of Tacitus’s Agricola (1816). He died in a mental institution in Verden.

75Schlegel, Johann Elias (1664-1718): AWS’s great-grandfather, born in Grimma, he was a lawyer (‘Appellationsrat’) in Wurzen.

76Schlegel, Johann Elias (1719-1749): dramatist, translator and critic. Born at Meissen, the son of Johann Friedrich Schlegel, the brother of Johann Adolf, Johann August and Johann Heinrich. He attended the Pforta school at Naumburg and studied law and philosophy at Leipzig. He came under the influence of Gottsched and wrote dramas in the French style advocated by him, notably the tragedy Hermann and the comedy Die stumme Schönheit (both 1743). His Vergleichung Shakespears und Andreas Gryphs (1741) is the first independent voice in the reception of Shakespeare in Germany. He turned away from Gottsched, contributing to the ‘Bremer Beiträge’ and developing his own theory of imitation (Von der Nachahmung, 1742-45) and of individual national style (Gedanken zur Aufnahme des dänischen Theaters, 1747). In 1743 he became the secretary to the Saxon envoy in Copenhagen. He settled there and was appointed a professor at the Sorø academy in 1748. He died at Sorø.

77Schlegel, Johann Friedrich (1689-1748): jurist; AWS’s grandfather. Born at Wurzen. He became ‘Domherr’ in Meissen, with important legal responsibilities. Removed from office in 1741, he lived at Sörnewitz near Meissen, where he died.

78Schlegel, Johann Heinrich (1726-1780): translator and historian in Copenhagen; AWS’s uncle. Born at Meissen, the son of Johann Friedrich and the brother of Johann Adolf, Johann Elias and Johann August, the father of Johan Frederik Wilhelm (q.v.). He attended the St. Afra school in Meissen, and was befriended by Lessing, then studying at Leipzig and becoming a member of the ‘Bremer Beiträger’. He followed his brother Johann Elias to Copenhagen and was after 1750 a member of Klopstock’s circle. Thereafter he was chancery secretary, then professor of history and royal librarian in Copenhagen. He translated from the English (James Thomson’s Agamemnon, Sophonisba and Coriolanus).

79Schlegel, Johann Karl Fürchtegott (Karl) (1758-1831): jurist; AWS’s older brother. Born at Zerbst, he attended school in Hanover and university in Göttingen. From 1782 he was a lawyer with the church consistory in Hanover (later, ‘Konsistorialrat’). In this capacity he pleaded for an improved status for Jews. Kurhannoversches Kirchenrecht (1801-06), Kirchen- und Reformationsgeschichte Norddeutschlands (1828-32).

80Schlegel, Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe, née Hübsch (1735-1811): the mother of the nine Schlegel children. Born at Naumburg, the daughter of Johann Georg Gotthelf Hübsch, mathematics professor at the Pforta school. In 1751 she married Johann Adolf Schlegel. In the Klopstock circle she was known as ‘Muthchen’. After the death of JAS she lived in straitened circumstances in Hanover, where she died.

81Schlegel, Karl August Moritz (Moritz) (1756-1826): pastor and superintendent; AWS’s older brother. Born at Zerbst, he attended school in Hanover and studied theology at Göttingen. In 1786 he was ordained pastor at Bothfeld; in 1792 he moved to Harburg, then in 1796 to Göttingen, where he became ‘Superintendent’. In 1816 he was appointed ‘Generalsuperintendent’ in Harburg, where he died. His sermons were published as Auswahl einiger Predigten (1814).

82Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (von) (Friedrich) (1772-1829): critic, philosopher; the youngest child of Johann Adolf and Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe Schlegel, and AWS’s younger brother. Born at Hanover, as a child he spent some time with his uncle Johann August, then with his brother Moritz. He had little formal education, being in 1788 apprenticed to a banker in Leipzig. Unsuited to this profession, he spent the years 1788-89 preparing for university. He commenced law studies at Göttingen in 1790, moving in 1791 to Leipzig. At the same time, he made the decision to live as an independent critic. In 1792 he first met Novalis and Schiller (q.v.). In 1793, he helped to look after Caroline and her children. In 1794 he moved to Dresden and produced Von den Schulen der griechischen Poesie. He reviewed for Reichardt’s periodical Deutschland (1796) and moved to Jena. The break with Schiller followed. In 1797 he moved to Berlin and published Die Griechen und Römer and wrote for Reichardt’s Lyceum. In Berlin he met Ludwig Tieck (q.v.), Henriette Herz, and Friedrich Schleiermacher (q.v.) and began his liaison with Dorothea Veit (Lucinde appeared in 1799). He and AWS began the Athenaeum in 1798, FS moving in 1799 to Jena with Dorothea. He lectured on transcendental philosophy in Jena in 1800. He returned to Berlin in 1801 and published Charakteristiken und Kritiken with AWS. In 1802 he moved to Dresden, then to Leipzig. His play Alarcos was premiered in May of that year amid scandal. In July, he and Dorothea arrived in Paris. He gave lectures on literature and philosophy to the brothers Boisserée (q.v.) and Johann Baptist Bertram, edited the periodical Europa (until 1805) and took Sanskrit lessons with Alexander Hamilton. In 1804, he and Dorothea married. October to November 1804 saw him in Coppet with AWS and Madame de Staël. 1805 he and Dorothea moved to Cologne, where he gave lectures on universal history and literature and edited the Poetisches Taschenbuch (1806). The latter part of 1806 he spent at Acosta with AWS. In 1808 apppeared Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier. He and Dorothea converted to Catholicism in Frankfurt in the same year. They moved to Vienna, where he was appointed ‘Hofsekretär’ with the army administration. He edited the Österreichische Zeitung and moved with the army to Hungary after the battles of Wagram and Aspern. Back in Vienna, he gave lectures on history, which appeared in 1811 as Über die neuere Geschichte. In 1812-13 he edited the periodical Deutsches Museum and in 1814 his lectures on literature were published as Geschichte der alten und neuen Literatur. In 1815 he was appointed ‘Legationssekretär’ to the German Federal Diet at Frankfurt and remained there until 1818, AWS visiting him. He returned to Vienna, in 1819 visiting Italy with Emperor Francis and Metternich. His last periodical, Concordia, came out in 1820-23. This, bad debts, and his increasingly Ultramontane views led to a alienation from AWS, culminating in 1827. In 1828-29 he lectured in Vienna on ‘Philosophie des Lebens’ and on history, and in Dresden on language He died suddenly at Dresden.

83Schlegel, Martin(us) (1581-1640): AWS’s great-great-great grandfather. Born at Dippoldswalde, later pastor in Blochwitz and Zabeltitz, then court preacher in Dresden. He died as ‘Superintendent’ in Weissensee, in Thuringia.

84Schlegel, Rebekka, née Wilke (1695-1736): AWS’s grandmother, the mother of Johann Adolf, Johann August, Johann Elias and Johann Heinrich. Through her, the Cranach inheritance entered into the Schlegel family.

85Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst (1768-1834): theologian. Born at Breslau, he attended schools at Breslau and Niesky. In 1785 he entered the Moravian academy at Barby, but left after differences for the University of Halle. There followed years as a tutor until he was appointed preacher at the Charité hospital in Berlin in 1796. In Berlin he was close to FS, Henriette Herz, the brothers Humboldt and Ludwig Tieck (q.v.). The first product of these years was his Über die Religion (1799). In 1802 he became court preacher in Stolp in Pomerania. It was here that he commenced his version of Plato (1804-28) and developed his ideas on translation. In 1804 he became professor of theology in Halle. After the closure of the university he became a member of Wilhelm von Humboldt’s staff in the ministry of education, and in 1810 he was appointed to a chair of theology in the new University of Berlin, where he was several times rector. He was instrumental in the Prussian Union between Lutherans and Reformed. He died at Berlin. Der christliche Glaube (1821-22, 1830-31).

86Schütz, Christoph Gottfried (1747-1832): professor and editor. Born at Dederstedt. He attended university at Halle and in 1777 was a professor there. In 1779 he was appointed professor of poetry and rhetoric in Jena. In 1785 he became editor of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, for which AWS did numerous reviews. He returned to Halle as a professor in 1804. He counts as one of the first supporters of Kant. He died at Halle.

87Sismondi, Jean-Charles-Léonard Simonde de (1773-1842) : Swiss historian. Born at Geneva. The family took refuge in England during the Terror (1793-94), then moved to Italy. He devoted himself to economics (Traité de la richesse commerciale, 1803). He met Madame de Staël and was a close member of her circle (he and AWS were never on good terms). He travelled with her to Italy in 1804-05 and commenced his Histoire des républiques italiennes (1807-18). He was in Vienna in 1808 and attended AWS’s lectures. He was appointed secretary to the chamber of commerce for the department of Léman, returning to Paris in 1813. Through marriage he was linked with Sir James Mackintosh (q.v.) and the Wedgwood family. He spent the latter part of his life in Geneva, dying at Chêne-Bougeries. Littérature du midi de l’Europe (1813), Histoire de la chute de l’Empire romain (1835).

88Staël-Holstein, Albert de (1792-1813). Erik Magnus von Staël-Holstein’s and Germaine de Staël’s younger son, he was born at Coppet. He was left with his grandparents during his mother’s exile in 1792 and subsequently shared her various places of residence. After his father’s death in 1802, Mathieu de Montmorency was his legal guardian. He was left in his grandfather Necker’s charge during the period 1803-04 when Madame de Staël was in France, then in Germany. In 1804 AWS was appointed tutor to the children. He accompanied his mother and siblings and AWS to Italy in 1804-05, then to France (Acosta). Back in Coppet in the summer of 1807, he did a journey on foot with AWS through the Swiss alps. He was with his mother in Vienna, where he was left in a military academy, under the care of FS and Maurice O’Donnell. Late in 1810, he was in Chaumont with the Staël ménage, then back in Coppet, and wth his mother in 1811 during her short sojourn in Aix-les-Bains. With Eugène Uginet, he fled to Vienna in 1812, joining his mother, Auguste and Albertine and AWS there, then as a member of the cavalcade to Russia and Sweden. Albert was made a Swedish cornet of hussars and took part in action in Hamburg under General Tettenborn. He was killed in a duel at Doberan.

89Staël-Holstein, Auguste de (1790-1827) : Erik Magnus von Staël-Holstein’s and Germaine de Staël’s elder son. Born at Paris (Louis de Narbonne was reputedly the father). Left with his grandparents during his mother’s first exile in England, he was subsequently with her in her various places of residence. He accompanied her to Germany in 1803-4, attending school briefly in Berlin. He went with her, his siblings and AWS to Italy in 1804-05, and was thereafter in France and Coppet. Prepared for entrance to the École polytechnique in Paris, his application was blocked by Napoleon. In December, 1807 he was received by Napoleon himself in Chambéry, where he put to the Emperor the case for the restitution of his grandfather Necker’s loan to the French state (q.v.). Thereafter he was in Chaumont and Coppet. He fled with his mother and Albertine in 1812, but took a different route and arrived independently at Stockholm in 1813. He joined his mother and Albertine to London, where he was employed in the Swedish embassy. He went on his mother’s second Italian journey, and was present at Albertine’s wedding. After his mother’s death, he was occupied with the publication of her works. He accompanied Victor de Broglie to England in 1822 and wrote pamphlets on agronomy. He was a noted opponent of the slave trade and a supporter of bible societies.

90Staël-Holstein. Erik Magnus von (1749-1802): Swedish diplomat. Born at Loddby, Sweden. He was chamberlain to Queen Sophia Magdalena of Sweden and was appointed in 1783 first chargé d’affaires, then in 1785 ambassador to the court of France. In 1786, he married Germaine Necker (q.v.). There were five children, of whom three survived. He was in Stockholm in 1792 at the time of the assassination of King Gustav III. He met up again with his wife and family in Geneva in 1793 and in 1795 was reinstated as ambassador. Dismissed in 1796, he continued to live in France and Switzerland and was separated from Madame de Staël in 1800. He died at Poligny.

91Staël-Holstein, Anne Louise Germaine de, née Necker, baroness (Madame de Staël) (1766-1817). Born at Paris, the daughter of Jacques Necker and Suzanne Curchod, she grew up in the world of the Paris salons. In 1776 she went with her parents to England. In 1786 she married Erik Magnus von Staël-Holstein (q.v.), with whom (or with others, such as Louis de Narbonne, Mathieu de Montmorency, Benjamin Constant) she had five chlldren, of whom Auguste, Albert and Albertine survived (q.v.). Caught up in the French Revolution, she was forced to retreat to Coppet, then to England in 1793. She returned to Switzerland and commenced her long affair with Benjamin Constant (q.v.). She returned to Paris with her husband after the Terror, but was forced back to Switzerland in 1796 after being suspected of Royalist involvement. In 1797 she returned to Paris and was there during Napoleon’s coup d’état. Napoleon was wary of her after this, moving eventually to outright opposition. In 1802 her first novel, Delphine, was published. Banned from Paris in 1803, she went to Germany with Auguste and Albertine and (as far as Weimar) Constant, with sojourns at Gotha, Weimar and Berlin. At Berlin in 1804 she met AWS and appointed him tutor to her children. She was forced to return precipitately to Coppet on the death of her father. In 1804-05 she went on her first Italian journey, taking in Rome and Naples. Thereafter, in 1806, she was permitted to return to France, but not to Paris. After breaking this undertaking, she was obliged to return to Coppet in 1807. Her second novel Corinne, ou l’Italie appeared at the end of 1807. With her children and AWS, she left for Vienna at the end of 1807, staying there until the spring of 1808. There, she had close dealings with Maurice O’Donnell, Prince de Ligne and Gentz. She was back in Coppet until late 1809, where notable visitors were Zacharias Werner and Madame de Krüdener. She returned with her retinue to France (Chaumont sur Loire), to finish her great study of Germany, De l’Allemagne, which was competed in 1810. The book was seized and pulped, and she was ordered to leave for America. Instead, she was allowed back to Coppet, but under strict surveillance. She began her affair with John Rocca, and their son Alphonse was born in 1812. In May, 1812, leaving Alphonse with foster-parents, she and eventually all of her children, Rocca, AWS and Uginet fled Switzerland for Austria, Russia and Sweden. In St Petersburg, she was received by Tsar Alexander I. In Sweden, she used her influence on Bernadotte for an anti-Napoleonic course. She left for London in May 1813. It was there that De l’Allemagne appeared, published by John Murray. After Napoleon’s defeat, she was able to return to Paris, although during the Hundred Days she was forced back to Coppet. In 1815-16 she made her second journey to Italy (Pisa, Florence), where Albertine was married to Victor de Broglie. Back in Coppet, she received Byron. She herself formally married John Rocca in Coppet later that year, returning to Paris at the end of 1816. Early in 1817, she fell ill, dying at Paris. She was interred in the Necker mausoleum in Coppet. Her Dix Années d’exil and Réflexions sur les principaux événements de la Révolution française appeared posthumously in 1818. Lettres sur les ouvrages et le caractère de J.-J. Rousseau (1788), De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales (1800), Réflexions sur le suicide (1813), De l’Esprit des traductions (1816).

92Steffens, Henrik (1773-1845): nature philosopher. Born at Stavanger, Norway (then Danish), he studied natural science at Copenhagen and Kiel, then went to Jena in 1798 to be with Schelling. He continued his mineralogical studies at Freiberg, returning to Denmark to lecture on philosophy. In 1804, he was made a professor at Halle, then at Breslau in 1811. He took part in the Wars of Liberation (as ‘Sekonde- Lieutenant und Professor’). In 1832 he was appointed to a chair in Berlin. Beiträge zur inneren Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801), Grundzüge der philosophischen Naturwissenschaft (1806), Anthropologie (1824), Was ich erlebte (1840-44).

93Stein, Friedrich Karl, Freiherr vom und zum (baron) (1757-1831): Prussian statesman and minister. Born at Nassau, he studied at Göttingen and entered Prussian state service in 1780, working mainly in the administration of mines and commerce. In 1804 he was summoned to take over trade and commerce in Prussia, but, hampered by traditional methods, he resigned in 1807. He was recalled by King Frederick William III to preside over a series of sweeping reforms (‘Stein-Hardenberg’) in all aspects of civil and military organization. Napoleon insisted on his dismissal in 1808. He withdrew, first to Austria, then to St Petersburg (with Arndt as his secretary, and visited by Madame de Staël, q.v.), where he gave support to the cause of a coalition against Napoleon. Disappointed with the outcome of the congresses of Vienna, he retreated into private life. AWS met him at Nassau in 1818. He died at Cappenberg.

94Stein zum Altenstein, Freiherr vom (baron) (1770-1840): Prussian minister of education. Born at Schalkhausen near Ansbach, he studied law at Erlangen, Göttingen and Jena. He entered the Prussian civil service in 1793, where his talents were soon spotted by Hardenberg (q.v.). In 1808 he became Stein’s successor as head of the finance administration. Dismissed in 1810, he was reinstated in 1813, as governor of Silesia. He was with Wilhelm von Humboldt in Paris in 1815. In 1817 he became the first Prussian minister of culture under Hardenberg, reforming the Prussian school system and introducing among other things compulsory schooling. He also played a significant role in the founding of Bonn University in 1818. He died at Berlin.

95Tieck, Dorothea (1799-1841): Ludwig Tieck’s elder daughter; translator. Born at Berlin. After her mother’s conversion, she was brought up a Catholic. She lived with her parents in Berlin and Ziebingen, moving in 1819 with the Tieck family to Dresden. For her father, she translated part of Shakspeare’s Vorschule (1823-29), Shakespeare’s sonnets (1826; the whole set published in 1992), six plays, including Macbeth, for the so-called ‘Schlegel-Tieck’ edition of Shakespeare, the life of Marcos Obregón (1827), Cervantes’s Persiles y Sigismunda (1837); also Jared Sparks’s Life of Washington (1839). She died at Dresden.

96Tieck, Friedrich (1776-1851): sculptor; Ludwig Tieck’s and Sophie Tieck’s brother. Born at Berlin, he attended the Friedrichswerder Gymnasium. In 1789 he was apprenticed to the sculptor Bettkober, from 1794 living with his brother Ludwig (q.v.) and taking part in the salon life in Berlin (Rahel Levin, Wilhelm von Humboldt, q.v.). After journeys to Dresden and Vienna, unable to travel to Italy, he left in 1797 for Paris, where he worked in Louis David’s studio. He returned to Germany and secured the commission to do the reliefs on the Weimar palace, and carried out other work, such as Goethe’s bust. He spent the years 1802-04 in Berlin, where he first met AWS. In 1805, after visits to Coppet and Berlin, he left for Rome and lived there until 1808. He spent six months in 1808-09 at Coppet, and secured commissions from Madame de Staël (Necker monument). In 1809 he was in Munich, where he received work from Crown Prince Ludwig (q.v.). During 1810-11 he was detained in Zurich and Berne by illness. The period 1812-19 was spent in Carrara, executing busts for the Walhalla, with a short interruption in 1815-16 when he joined Madame de Staël and AWS in Pisa and Florence. In 1819 he was appointed professor in Berlin and in 1830 director of the sculpture collection. He died at Berlin.

97Tieck, Ludwig (1773-1853): poet, dramatist, translator. Born at Berlin, he attended the Friedrichswerder Gymnasium. In Berlin he had close contact with Karl Philipp Moritz and Johann Friedrich Reichardt (q.v.) and was linked by friendship with Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. He studied at the Universities of Halle, Göttingen (where he heard lectures on art from Fiorillo, q.v.), and in the summer of 1792 at Erlangen, where he and Wackenroder saw the art treasures of Franconia, esp. Nuremberg. On his return to Berlin in 1794, he embarked on a career as an independent writer, first under the tutelage of Friedrich Nicolai: the main works were William Lovell (1795-96), Straußfedern (1795-98), Peter Lebrecht (1795-96), Volksmährchen (1797). In 1797, he and Wackenroder published the Herzensergießungen, the first expression of Romantic art enthusiasm, followed in 1798 by Tieck’s novel Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen. In Berlin he made the acquaintance of FS and AWS. He and his family joined the Romanrtic circle in Jena, marred by his illness with a rheumatic complaint that persisted throughout his life. 1799-1800 saw the publication of his Romantische Dichtungen (Prinz Zerbino, Genoveva), and 1803 the first fruit of his medieval studies, Minnelieder aus dem Schwäbischen Zeitalter. He withdrew to Berlin, then to Dresden, and finally to Ziebingen in Brandenburg, the estate of his friend Wilhelm von Burgsdorff. Here began the liaison with Henriette von Finckenstein that was to last for the rest of his life. In 1805, after the break-up of his sister Sophie’s marriage, he travelled to Rome and moved in German literary and artistic circles there. He returned to Ziebingen, but left again in 1808 to be with his sister in Munich, where he fell seriously ill. He finally returned to Ziebingen in 1810, to continue his medieval studies and his work on Shakespeare and his contemporaries (Alt-Englisches Theater, 1811; Shakspeare’s Vorschule, 1823-29; Vier Schauspiele von Shakspeare, 1836). The main work of this period is his collection of stories and plays, Phantasus (1812-16). In 1819, he and his family, with Countess Finckenstein, moved to Dresden. He was appointed dramaturge to the royal theatre in 1825 (Dramaturgische Blätter, 1826). 1825-33 he edited the Shakespeare translation commenced by AWS and had it completed by Wolf von Baudissin and his daughter Dorothea (‘Schlegel-Tieck’). He was part of the cultivated circle around Prince John of Saxony (Carus, Baudissin). There is a wide variety of prose works from his Dresden years, notably Der Aufruhr in den Cevennen (1826), Der junge Tischlermeister (1836) and Vittoria Accorombona (1840) and numerous Novellen. After Dorothea’s death, he accepted King Frederick William IV’s invitation to live in Potsdam and Berlin. The performance of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, with music by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, took place under his direction in 1843. He died at Berlin.

98Tieck, Sophie (see also Bernhardi) (1775-1833): writer; sister of Ludwig and Friedrich Tieck. Born at Berlin, she had no formal education, but contributed anonymously to literary collections by her brother and by August Ferdinand Bernhardi (esp. Bambocciaden, 1798-99). She married Bernhardi in 1799. The couple had two surviving children (Wilhelm, Felix Theodor, q.v.). On AWS’s arrival in Berlin in 1800, he stayed with the Bernhardis and a love affair ensued (raising the question of AWS’s alleged paternity of Felix Theodor). Her marriage broke down, and in 1803 she left for Dresden, eventually for Munich and Rome (1805), supported financially by AWS. She had meanwhile begun a relationship with Karl Gregor von Knorring, a Baltic nobleman. She returned via Munich and Vienna. She was divorced from Bernhardi in 1807 and married Knorring in 1810. Bernhardi took custody of Wilhelm and she of Felix Theodor. She had meanwhile published in the Musen-Almanach for 1802 and in Rostorf’s Dichtergarten (1807). She moved with Knorring to Estonia, where, except for a visit to Heidelberg in 1820, she remained until her death. She died at Reval (Tallin). Wunderbilder und Träume (1802), Dramatische Phantasien (1804), Egidio und Isabella (1807), Flore und Blanscheflur (ed. AWS, 1822), St. Evremond (1836, posthumous).

99Unger, Johann Friedrich (1753-1804): printer and publisher. Born at Berlin, he founded his own printing and publishing business in the city. A noted type-founder, he experimented with Roman, and then Fraktur (‘Unger-Fraktur’). He was also a skilled wood engraver. He was publisher to the Berlin academy. Notable works published by Unger were Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister, Tieck’s and Wackenroder’s Herzensergießungen and AWS’s Shakespeare translation. He died at Berlin.

100Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785-1858): diplomat, essayist. Born at Düsseldorf, he studied medicine at Berlin, Halle and Tübingen. As a tutor he met various members of Berlin’s literary scene (Fouqué, q.v., Chamisso) and founded the ‘Nordsternbund’ circle. He was an officer in Austrian and Russian service and was present at the battles of Wagram (1809) and Hamburg (1814). From 1815 to 1819, he was in the Prussian diplomatic service, but was forced to resign because of his ‘democratic’ leanings. In 1814 he married Rahel Levin (q.v.). He settled in Berlin and became an independent writer and biographer, editing Rahel’s works. His letters and diaries are an invaluable source of information and gossip. He died at Berlin. Biographische Denkmale (1824-30), Denkwürdigkeiten (1837-1846), Rahel. Ein Buch des Andenkens (1833-34), Tagebücher (1861-70).

101Varnhagen von Ense, Rahel (née Levin) (1771-1833) : salonnière in Berlin. Born at Berlin. With Henriette Herz, she was the founder of the Berlin salon. She was close to the Mendelssohn sisters, Dorothea and Henriette. Her salon was frequented by men and women of all stations and professions, from Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia to the Tiecks, Schleiermacher, the brothers Humboldt, Gentz, later Heinrich Heine (q.v). She attended the first of AWS’s Berlin lectures. After 1806, she lived away from Berlin. In 1814, after converting to Christianity, she married Karl August Varnhagen von Ense (q.v.), who collected her letters, epigrams and memorabilia.

102Veit, Philipp (1793-1877): painter. Born at Berlin, the son of Simon Veit and Brendel (Dorothea) Mendelssohn later FS’s step-son. He followed his mother to Jena, then to Paris and Cologne; he received his artistic training at Dresden and Vienna. He served 1813-14 in the Wars of Liberation, and went to Rome in 1815. From 1830-43 he was director of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt and from 1853-77 of the gallery in Mainz. Died at Mainz.

103Voss, Johann Heinrich (1751-1826): poet, classical scholar, translator. Born at Sommerstorf in Mecklenburg, the grandson of a freed serf, he attended school at Neubrandenburg and was then a tutor. He came to Göttingen in 1772 and was, with Hölty, Boie and Stolberg, one of the founders of the ‘Hainbund’, also editing the Göttingen Musenalmanach from 1775 to 1800. He moved to Wandsbek, then to Otterndorf on the Elbe as head of the Latin school there. From 1782 to 1802 he was rector of the Gymnasium in Eutin. He gained first prominence as the translator of Homer (1781, 1793) and the author of his popular hexameter poem Luise (1795). He also translated Hesiod, Vergil, Ovid, Tibullus and Propertius. The version of Shakespeare that he undertook with his sons Abraham and Heinrich (1818-29) was the first complete German translation into verse. AWS’s review of his Homer and his treatment in the Athenaeum made Voss an implacable enemy of the Schlegel brothers and of the Romantics in general. He became outspokenly anti-Catholic after Friedrich Stolberg’s conversion in 1800. From 1802 to 1805 he was a private scholar in Jena. He went in 1805 as professor to Heidelberg. Died at Heidelberg.

104Wackenroder, Wilhelm Heinrich (1773-1798): jurist. Born at Berlin, he attended the Friedrichswerder Gymnasium with Ludwig Tieck (q.v.), whose close friend he became. Like Tieck, he was influenced by Karl Philipp Moritz, whose lectures on aesthetics he attended, and by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (q.v.). He studied with Tieck at Erlangen, where they discovered Franconia and Nuremberg, then at Göttingen, where he received lectures on art from Johann Domenik Fiorillo (q.v.). He became an ‘assessor’ in the Prussian legal administration. In 1796 (published date 1797), he co-authored with Tieck the enthusiastic Herzensergießungen. After his death in 1797, Tieck published the Phantasien über die Kunst, very largely by Wackenroder. He died at Berlin.

105Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb (1784-1868): classicist. Born at Grünberg, he studied classics at Giessen. In 1806 he was in Italy as tutor to the family of Wilhelm von Humboldt (q.v.), becoming in 1809 professor of Greek and archaeology in Giessen. He served in the Wars of Liberation. In 1816 he became a professor in Göttingen, and in 1819 in Bonn. His liberal views brought him into conflict with the authorities at the time of the Carlsbad Decrees. AWS valued him as a colleague. Die griechischen Tragödien (1839-41); Griechische Götterlehre (1857-62).

106Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias (1768-1823): dramatist. Born at Königsberg, he studied law and estate management at the university there and also attended Kant’s lectures. He held various posts in the Prussian administration in the Polish provinces, meeting E. T. A. Hoffmann in Warsaw. Transferred to Berlin in 1805, he left Prussian service in 1807 and travelled through Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France. In 1808-09 he stayed twice at Coppet, where his fate tragedy Der vierundzwanzigste Februar was performed by him and AWS. Goethe was initially favourable to him and had his play Wanda staged in Weimar. In 1809 he went to Rome and in 1810 he converted to Catholicism. He was consecrated a priest in 1814 and was a noted preacher in Vienna. He died at Vienna. Die Söhne des Tals (1804-04), Das Kreuz an der Ostsee (1806), Martin Luther (1806), Der vierundzwanzigste Februar (1808), Attila (1809), Wanda (1810), Kunigunde (1815).

107Wieland, Christoph Martin (1733-1813): poet, novelist. Born at Biberach an der Riss, he studied at Tübingen, but was from the beginning a prolific writer, first in a sentimental and religious vein. He spent some months in 1752 in Zurich as a house guest of Bodmer, remaining in Switzerland until 1760. He returned to Biberach in 1760, frequentlng the circle of Count Stadion and coming under the influence of French and English sensualism. The works from this period gained him a reputation for frivolity, ‘light-hearted philosophy’: Don Sylvio von Rosalva (1764), Comische Erzählungen (1765), Agathon (1766-67), Musarion (1768), Der neue Amadis (1771). From 1769 to 1772 he was a professor of philosophy in Erfurt, when he was appointed tutor to the young duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar. He became part of the Weimar circle around duchess Anna Amalia, including Herder and Goethe. His part-translation of Shakespeare in prose (1762-66) marked an important stage in German Shakespearean reception. From 1773 to 1789 he edited the influential periodical Der Teutsche Merkur. His late work Oberon (1780) gained him international fame. He was excoriated by the serious-minded young men of the Göttingen ‘Hainbund’ and by the Jena Romantics. Died at Weimar.

108Winckelmann, Johann Joachim (1717-1768): art historian. Born at Stendal, he attended university at Halle. After tutorships and teaching, and amid great poverty, he became librarian to Count Bünau, at Nöthnitz near Dresden in 1748. It was here that he wrote his famous work, Gedanken über die Nachachmung der griechischen Werke (pub. 1755). After the visit of the papal nuncio, Winckelmann converted to Catholicism; he was given a grant by the Elector of Saxony and enabled to travel to Rome. He arrived in 1755 and became successively librarian to three cardinals, notably Cardinal Albani. His work on the archaeology of Greek antiquity led to his masterpiece, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (1764). In 1768, he decided to make a visit to Germany. He reached Munich and Vienna, but decided to return. He was murdered in an inn at Trieste.

109Windischmann, Karl Joseph Hieronymus (1775-1839): physician and philosopher. Born at Mainz, he studied medicine at Mainz and Würzburg. He was appointed professor at the Gymnasium at Aschaffenburg in 1803 (teacher of Franz Bopp). In 1818 he became professor of medicine and philosophy at Bonn and a colleague of AWS’s. Die Philosophie im Fortgang der Geschichte (1827-34).

110Zimmer, Johann Georg (1777-1853): publisher. Born at Homburg v.d.H., he learned the book trade in Göttingen and Hamburg. In 1805 he set up a publishing house with J. C. B. Mohr in Heidelberg (Mohr und Zimmer, later Mohr und Winter). They published the works of most of the Romantics, Arnim, Brentano, Tieck, Görres, including Des Knaben Wunderhorn and the Zeitung für Einsiedler. They also founded the Heidelberger Jahrbücher and published the works of Heidelberg scholars (Creuzer, Daub, etc.). Zimmer secured AWS’s Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Litteratur. After 1815, he became a full-time Protestant minister. He died at Frankfurt.

Notes

1 For details about the images in this section please refer to the List of Illustrations.

Table des illustrations

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