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Thomas Annan of Glasgow

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Lionel Gossman

1. Introduction

Texte intégral

  • 3 On Swan, see George Fairfull Smith, “Joseph Swan (1796-1872) Engraver and Publisher,” The Private L (...)

1Victorian Scotland was the site of an astonishing florescence of photography, and Thomas Annan was one of an impressive cohort of Scottish masters of the young medium. Born in 1829 into a farming and flax-spinning family in Dairsie, Fife, in the East of Scotland, he left home at the age of fifteen to join the staff of the local Fife Herald newspaper, based in the nearby county capital of Cupar, as an apprentice lithographic engraver. Having completed his projected seven-year apprenticeship in four years, he moved to the then rapidly expanding and industrializing city of Glasgow in the West of Scotland, where, on the strength of a glowing reference from the Herald, he obtained a position in the large lithographic establishment of Joseph Swan, who had set up in the city in 1818 and developed a thriving business in illustrations for mechanical inventions, maps for street directories, bookplates, and, not least, books on Scottish scenes illustrated by engravings of landscape paintings. Over the next six years Annan honed his engraving skills at Swan’s.3

2In 1855, still in his mid-twenties, Thomas Annan decided to set up in business on his own. By this time, however, the rapid rise of photography on a commercial scale had led to a drop-off in the lithographic trade. In addition, Annan may well have doubted that he could compete in lithography with his former employer’s well-established company. It was probably for both reasons that he decided to switch fields and explore the possibilities of photography.

  • 4 “Talbot’s technique was a two-step system: the picture exposed in camera formed a negative image (b (...)
  • 5 See Margaret Harker, “Scottish Contributions to Photography, 2: The Symposium,” British Journal of (...)

3Despite its huge initial success, especially in Continental Europe and the United States (Britain was the only country where its use was restricted by a patent), Louis Daguerre’s “daguerreotype,” which had been invented around 1835-1837 and publicized in 1839, had begun to give way to a completely different photographic process discovered in 1835 and much improved in 1841 by the Englishman William Henry Fox Talbot. Unlike the daguerreotype, which had no negative and produced only a single image, albeit an extremely precise and detailed one, Talbot’s “calotype” allowed for the production of multiple images from a single negative.4 In addition, some photographers and critics preferred it because they believed it gave more scope to the photographer than the daguerreotype, which in their view was in fact too precise and detailed and thus “could not record the sentiments of the mind”5 (i. e. the daguerreotype left no room for the insights and imagination of the photographer).

  • 6 Cit. Bodo von Dewitz and Karin Schuler-Procopovici, eds., David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson. Von (...)

4Among the earliest practitioners of the calotype, besides Talbot himself (Figs. 1:1-3), was the Scottish team of the respected landscape painter David Octavius Hill (Figs. 1:4-7) and his associate Robert Adamson, a young chemist and engineer from St. Andrews, who together set up a photographic studio in 1843 at Rock House at the southwestern entrance to Calton Hill in Edinburgh. Their international renown was soon such that a succession of notables stopped by the studio to have photographic portraits taken — among them, in 1844, the King of Saxony, Friedrich August II, on a tour of Great Britain with his personal physician, Carl Gustav Carus, a friend of Goethe and a gifted Romantic painter in his own right. “We found a large number of artworks hanging on the walls — landscapes, photographs of buildings, portraits,” Carus reported. “Much of this was entrancing. Ever since, such unmediated imprintings [Abformungen] of nature have given me much to think about.”6 The photographs of Hill and Adamson, mostly taken in the 1840s (Adamson died in 1848 at the young age of 27), are now considered classics of early photography —“the earliest and most brilliant works bearing witness to the young medium,” in the words of a recent German scholar (Figs. 1:8-15).

  • 7 Bodo von Dewitz and Karin Schuler-Procopovici, eds., David Hill & Robert Adamson: “Die Bilder von H (...)

5The two men worked as a team and Hill’s photographic production flagged after Adamson’s premature death, so much so that on his own death many years later, in 1870, as the eminent photographic collector and historian Helmut Gernsheim noted, “neither newspapers nor art journals referred to his photographic work. More surprisingly still, no photographic journal even mentioned his death.” It took James Craig Annan, Thomas Annan’s son and partner, to rescue the man his father admired deeply from oblivion. “Today,” as a result, “David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson are universally accorded first place in the annals of photography,” on account of “the artistic spirit with which their photographs are imbued. [...] It is indeed astonishing that in its very first years the new art should have reached its highest peak in the magnificent achievements of these two Scottish photographers.”7

6Inspired in part by Hill and Adamson, and aided by the fact that, thanks to the intervention of the Principal of St. Andrews University, Sir David Brewster, a physicist, close friend and collaborator of Talbot, the latter’s patents did not apply in Scotland, other Scots took up photography professionally. In 1849, Thomas Rodger, a nineteen-year-old former chemistry assistant to the St. Andrews surgeon John Adamson — himself an accomplished amateur photographer from whom his younger brother Robert, David Octavius Hill’s partner, had received his earliest instruction in the new medium — opened a studio in St. Andrews. A modern plaque outside the building where the studio was located (today the Careers Centre of the University of St. Andrews) reads: “The first professional photographer in St. Andrews, he was taught the calotype process by Dr. John Adamson, who induced him to make it his life’s work. His pictorial record of the town, its people, the fisher folk and eminent visitors, brought him great fame. His favour with visiting royalty gave him journeys to London on Royal Photographic missions. He built this house and in it the first photographic studio in the town. Brewster, the Adamsons, and Rodger made St. Andrews a world centre of photography.” (Figs. 1:16-17)

7After a brief career as a painter of portrait miniatures catering to the wealthy families of the northeast of Scotland, George Washington Wilson set up a studio in Aberdeen in 1852 and ventured into portrait photography. From these early beginnings, aided by technical and commercial acumen, as well as by a contract to photograph the Royal Family while documenting the construction of Balmoral Castle in 1854-1855, Wilson soon established himself as one of Scotland’s premier photographers. In 1863 he took a now iconic photograph of Queen Victoria with her faithful servant John Brown at Balmoral (Fig. 1:18), and in the single year 1864-1865, his company produced 553,331 prints of portraits and landscapes.

  • 8 On Wilson, see Roger Taylor, George Washington Wilson, Artist and Photographer 1823-93 (Aberdeen: A (...)

8Landscapes in particular were his forte; by the 1880s, the company claimed to offer 10,000 views of Scottish scenes (Figs. 1:19-20).8

  • 9 On Valentine, see Simpson, The Photography of Victorian Scotland, pp 124-28. On nineteenth-century (...)

9Around the same time that Wilson was setting up in Aberdeen (1851), James Valentine opened a photographic portrait studio in his family’s engraving and stationary business in Dundee. By 1855 he claimed to be building one of the largest photographic glasshouses in the kingdom. Though on rare occasions his work came strikingly close to Annan’s images of the slums of Glasgow (Fig. 1:21), Valentine’s reputation rested on his photographs of landscapes and ancient (often ruined) buildings. In 1868 he received an appointment as Royal Photographer and a commission from the Queen to photograph a set of forty views of Highland scenery. The Valentine business ultimately developed into a considerable international operation, occupying a five-story factory building and producing picture postcards of town, countryside, and celebrated buildings not only for the crowds of tourists visiting Scotland in the nineteenth century — the heyday of “Ossian” (James Macpherson), Walter Scott and other Scottish writers, such as James Hogg (the “Ettrick Shepherd”) and Robert Burns — but for travellers in many other parts of the world, such as Norway, Jamaica, Tangiers, Morocco, Madeira and New Zealand, well into the twentieth century. As early as the mid-1870s an elaborate works had already been built in the gardens of two adjoining villas in Dundee. It soon covered the whole site and employed over 100 people. In the British Journal of Photography for 12 March 1886, the Valentine Dundee establishment was described as one of the largest and most comprehensively equipped in the kingdom (Figs. 1:22-23).9

  • 10 On Scottish photographers active outside Scotland, see Simpson, Photography of Victorian Scotland, (...)

10Other Scots who made a name for themselves internationally, often for work executed abroad, include Edinburgh-born John Thomson, known for his photographs of the Far East and for his popular Street Life in London (1876-1877), to which we shall have occasion to refer later; Alexander Gardner, who emigrated to the United States in 1856 at the age of 35 and was responsible for many of the great Civil War photographs (some wrongly attributed to his employer, Matthew Brady) as well as for a number of celebrated and widely reproduced portraits of Lincoln; William Carrick and John MacGregor, classic photographers of mid-to late-nineteenth-century Russia; Robert Macpherson, known for his photographs of ancient and Renaissance Rome and the first photographer permitted to take pictures in the Vatican; William Notman of Paisley, who in the same year that Gardner, also from Paisley, left for the United States, emigrated to Canada and established flourishing professional photographic studios first in Montreal, then in Toronto and Halifax, where he produced well-regarded individual and group portraits for customers of all classes. In 1858 he was commissioned by the Grand Trunk Railway to photograph the construction of Montreal’s Victoria Bridge, and in the 1870s and 80s he sent photographers across Canada to record the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the rise of the western cities, and the life of the Plains and Coastal Indians. On the occasion of the official inauguration of the Victoria Bridge by the Prince of Wales, in 1860, he presented the future Edward VII, then still a student at Christ Church, Oxford, with a handsome album of his photographs, the so-called Maple Box Portfolio. Its acceptance by the Royal Family permitted Notman to describe himself on an advertising pamphlet of 1867 as “Photographer to the Queen.” He subsequently opened studios in a dozen other Canadian cities as well as in Boston and Albany, N. Y. In 1873 alone, his firm created 14,000 images (Figs. 1:24-32).10

  • 11 According to the Honorary Secretary of the Photographic Society Great Britain, H. Baden Pritchard, (...)

11Less well remembered today, but highly successful in their time, were Horatio Ross, from an old landowning family in the North of Scotland, who made a name for himself as a photographer of country sports; John Moffat of Aberdeen, who opened a photographic studio on Princes Street in Edinburgh in 1857 that continued in operation until the 1960s; and Archibald Burns, a landscape photographer who worked from David Octavius Hill’s Rock House on Edinburgh’s Calton Hill, which he shared briefly with the Annan family in 1871. The author of a collection of photographs of old Edinburgh, published in 1868 as Picturesque “Bits” of old Edinburgh, Burns was commissioned in 1871 by the Edinburgh Improvement Trust to take photographs of the old closes between the University and Cowgate that were about to be demolished (Figs. 1:33-35). We shall have occasion to refer to Burns’s work when discussing the photographs of The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, which the Glasgow City Improvement Trust had commissioned Annan to take three years earlier. Even in the then relatively inaccessible small town of Largs, described in The Photographic Studios of Europe (1888) as “a fishing village” and “modest little watering place” on the Firth of Clyde, one John Fergus had set up as a self-described “photo artist” and, despite the remoteness of the location (clients from England had first to travel north to Glasgow, take a train to Wemyss Bay, and then board a steamer for the trip down the Firth of Clyde to Largs), succeeded in attracting a sophisticated clientele from all over Britain for his widely admired portraits (Figs. 1:36-37).11

  • 12 John Hannavy, The Victorian Professional Photographer (Aylesbury: Publications, 1980), p. 6.
  • 13 Her “gentle, yet paradoxically passionate images represent one of the most distinguished contributi (...)
  • 14 On Keith, see Thomas Keith 1827-1895, Surgeon and Photographer: The Bequest, ed. C. S. Minto (Edinb (...)

12Many amateurs were also drawn to photography, especially in Scotland, where the patents on common photographic processes that had been taken out in England did not apply for a time and where costs were thus somewhat reduced.12 Of these non-professionals, one who still figures in studies of photography was the remarkable Clementina Elphinstone Fleeming (1822-1865), better known by her married name as Clementina, Lady Hawarden. Born and raised at Cumbernauld House near Glasgow, the daughter of a distinguished Scottish father, the Hon. Charles Elphinstone Fleeming, M. P. for Stirlingshire, and a Spanish mother, she produced hundreds of highly original and imaginative images that won silver medals in 1863 and 1864 when they were exhibited at the Photographic Society in London (Figs. 1:36-37).13 Thomas Keith of Aberdeen was best known as a surgeon who pioneered new procedures in ovarian surgery, worked with Sir James Young Simpson to develop anesthetics, and was one of the first to introduce Lister’s antiseptic techniques in his professional work. He made the results of his surgical practice known in several books on “ovariotomy” in the 1860s. However, he was also a keen amateur photographer for several years, between 1852 and 1857, and he produced a number of urban scenes, using Gustave Le Gray’s waxed paper process, that could be said to anticipate those of Burns and Annan (Figs. 1:38-39).14

  • 15 Cit. by Sara Stevenson in her Thomas Annan 1829-1887, Scottish 12 (Edinburgh: National Galleries of (...)

13The success of pioneers like Hill and Adamson and the growing number of contemporaries taking up photography as a viable profession — about thirty studios appear to have opened in Glasgow alone in the 1850s — may well have encouraged Thomas Annan to abandon the engraving business in 1855 and set up in Glasgow, with a partner, as a “collodion calotypist.” It may even be that Hill himself encouraged Annan to make this move — in which he had been preceded in 1852 by one of the earliest Glasgow commercial photographers, John Urie of Paisley, who also started out as an engraver — for it has been speculated that the Annan family, living not far from St. Andrews, may have known the Adamsons and that Thomas Annan could have been aware, when he was still an apprentice engraver in Cupar, of the Hill-Adamson partnership. “My father [...] had an intense admiration and appreciation of Hill as a man and as an artist,” James Craig Annan recalled in a 1945 letter, written toward the end of his life, to Helmut Gernsheim, the celebrated historian of photography.15

14Be that as it may, by 1857 Annan had dissolved his partnership and founded his own firm in Woodlands Road in the fast-developing West End of Glasgow. This practice was soon successful enough to warrant the establishment of a studio at 116 Sauchiehall Street in the heart of the modern city, as well as a photographic printing works in nearby Hamilton, where the air was cleaner and whither in 1859 he also moved his family. Appropriately enough, their new home was given the name Talbot Cottage. Annan quickly made a considerable reputation for himself both as a skilful and meticulous printer from negatives supplied by others and as a fine photographer in his own right. In general, he was quick to adopt the latest technical innovations in photography. Thus by making use of Sir Joseph Wilson Swan’s carbon process, the Scottish rights for which he characteristically had the foresight to purchase in 1866, Annan was able to move into the “permanent” photography that made book illustration a practical proposition. Previous, silver-based processes had had a tendency to discolor and fade. The carbon process ensured stability of the image. To maximize benefits from the acquisition of the rights to the carbon process, an extensive new printing establishment was opened in Lenzie, six miles northeast of Glasgow city center. It was there that Annan printed the negatives for the second set of albums of what is now his best-known work, The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, the first set of which had been produced as albumen prints in 1871. In 1883 he travelled to Austria where, on payment of a considerable sum, he arranged for his son James Craig Annan to learn another “permanent” process, the new technique of photogravure, from its inventor, Karl Klič. He also purchased the British rights to Klič’s invention, which James Craig Annan, who was to achieve greater renown than his father, put to good use in later years, not least in an updated and much expanded photogravure version, published in 350 copies in 1891 under the title University of Glasgow Old and New, of his father’s 1871 Memorials of the Old College of Glasgow. James Craig Annan also issued a revised and somewhat expanded photogravure edition in 1900 of his father’s The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, in a similarly limited number of copies.

  • 16 Photographs exhibited in Britain 1839-1865 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, Occasional papers n (...)
  • 17 Business card reproduced in Margaret F. Harker, “The Annans of Glasgow,” British Journal of Photogr (...)
  • 18 Virginia Woolf, “Jane Austen,” The Common Reader: First Series (York: Harcourt Brace, 1948), p. 197

15Like most professional photographers, Annan practiced all the genres for which there was a market: photographic reproductions of paintings, which the public increasingly preferred to engravings; portraits, including the popular and relatively inexpensive new carte-de-visite (2⅛ x 3½ inches) and cabinet (4½ x 6½ inches) formats; landscapes, much in demand in Scotland as waves of tourists swept over the country to view the sites made famous by the novels and poems of Walter Scott; photographs of buildings and public works, usually commissioned by well-to-do property owners or local authorities — the field of activity for which Annan is best remembered and by which he is chiefly represented in Princeton’s collections; as well as photographs of machinery and the modern triumphs of industry and engineering. The work he displayed at exhibitions in Edinburgh (1858 and 1864), Glasgow (1859), London (1861, 1863, 1864) and Dublin (1865) included samples from all those fields — numerous photographs of paintings, sculptures and buildings of note, portraits (sometimes photographed from paintings), countless landscapes, several images of machinery and one (displayed, appropriately enough, in the Glasgow show of 1859) of the Clyde-built S. S. “United Kingdom,” launched in 1857 to inaugurate the Anchor Line of Glasgow’s transatlantic service to Montreal.16 On his business card in 1861 Annan listed among the kinds of work his firm was equipped to undertake “photographs of engravings and architectural drawings,” of “ships taken when on the stocks or when launched or from paintings,” of “engines and machinery,” together with “‘Cartes de Visite’and large portraits,” and photographs of “groups taken out of doors, volunteers, cricket clubs, & c, views of gentlemen’s seats and every variety of landscape subjects.”17 An important point, to which we shall return, is that, for the more than twenty books and albums in which his photographs appear, Annan was always commissioned to provide illustrations — and nothing more. He himself virtually never contextualized his own photographs. There is usually a text — though not in at least one crucial case — but it is always the work of somebody else: the person or persons who had the idea for the book in the first place, or a representative of the agency that commissioned the photographs, or the author whose work the publisher engaged Annan to illustrate. As we shall see, this can have the liberating effect of placing the modern viewer in the position of directly interpreting the images without having to take the photographer’s own expressed understanding of them into account. What Virginia Woolf once wrote of Jane Austen’s novels —“she stimulates us to supply what is not there”18 — might well be said of the photographs that were brought together and published as The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow.

16In the following pages, I aim to provide an overview of Annan’s work, taking account of the holdings in the Graphic Arts Collection of Princeton’s Firestone Library, but not limiting myself to them. For the sake of convenience, I shall survey in turn the four major genres in which he was active: photographs of paintings, portraits, landscapes, and the built environment. My choice of category may at times seem arbitrary: Annan’s Views on the Line of the Loch Katrine Water Works (1859), for instance, could have been discussed under “The Built Environment” instead of under “Landscapes,” since the photographer’s subject was a major engineering work in a celebrated landscape. A category comprising “Art Works” would have accommodated many photographs of ancient buildings and sculptures that do not fit the category of “Paintings” and are included here instead in the chapters on “Landscapes” and “The Built Environment.” In addition, certain categories, notably “Portraits,” are dealt with quite briefly, while others, such as “The Built Environment,” are discussed at considerable length. However, I believe my treatment of the different categories reflects the significance of Annan’s work in and contribution to each. A final section of the book, longer than the others, is devoted to the photographer’s most widely recognized achievement, the album known as The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow.

17While my primary aim in this short study is to offer a broad presentation of Annan’s activity as a photographer, his involvement in the life of the city where he set up his studio and printing works was so considerable that it has proved impossible to separate his work from the extraordinary history of Glasgow in the nineteenth century. It is my earnest hope that the photographer and the city are as connected in what follows as they were in Thomas Annan’s career.

1:1 William Henry Fox Talbot, “The Open Door,” from The Pencil of Nature (London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1844), Plate VI. Salted paper print. Rare Book Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.

1:2 William Henry Fox Talbot, “Haystack,” from The Pencil of Nature, Plate X. Salted paper print. Rare Book Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.

1:3 William Henry Fox Talbot (attributed to), “The Fruit Sellers.” 1844. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gilman Collection, Purchase, Harriette and Noel Levine Gift, 2005, Accession Number 2005.100.607. © Metropolitan Museum.

1:4 David Octavius Hill, “Dunstaffnage,” from The Poetical Works of the Ettrick Shepherd. With an autobiography; and illustrative engravings, chiefly from original drawings by D.O. Hill. R. S. A, vol. 3 (Glasgow, Edinburgh and London: Blackie and Son, [1838]). Frontispiece. Princeton University Library.

1:5 D.O. Hill, “Loch Lomond,” from The Land of Burns. A Series of Landscapes and Portraits Illustrative of the Life and Writings of the Scottish Poet. The landscapes made expressly for the work by D.O. Hill, Esq., R.S.A, vol. 2 (Glasgow: Blackie and Son, 1840), facing p. 45. Princeton University Library.

1:6 D.O. Hill, “Scene on the Girvan,” from The Land of Burns, vol. 1, facing p. 66. Princeton University Library.

1:7 D.O. Hill, “Feu de joie-Taymouth Castle.” 1835. Oil on panel. Courtesy of Perth Museum & Art Gallery, Perth & Kinross Council.

1:8 D.O. Hill and Robert Adamson, “Edinburgh Ale: James Ballantine, Dr. George William Bell and David Octavius Hill.” ca. 1844. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.

1:9 Hill and Adamson, “Presbytery of Dumbarton.” 1843-1847. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Mrs. Pirie MacDonald and Mr. and Mrs. Everett Tutchings, 1943, Accession Number 43.10.49. © Metropolitan Museum.

1:10 Hill and Adamson, “Newhaven Fishermen.” 1845. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937, Accession Number: 37.98.1.78. © Metropolitan Museum.

1:11 Hill and Adamson, “Newhaven Fisher Girls.” 1843-1847. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.

1:12 Hill and Adamson, “A Newhaven Pilot.” Ca. 1845. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.

1:13 Hill and Adamson, “Willie Liston: Redding the Line.” 1845. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.

1:14 Hill and Adamson, “His Faither’s Breeks.” 1844. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.

1:15 Hill and Adamson, “Lady Ruthven.” Ca. 1845. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Rubel Collection, Purchase, Manfred Heiting and Lila Acheson Wallace Gifts, 1997, Accession Number 1997.382.18. © Metropolitan Museum.

1:16 Thomas Rodger, “Four Generations of Rodger.” 1856. Collage of four photographic portraits. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, ALB-49-56. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.

1:17 Thomas Rodger, “Thomas Rodger senior playing the bellows with Hungarian violinist Eduard Remeny.” In album. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, ALB-49-12. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.

1:18 George Washington Wilson, “Queen Victoria on ‘ Fyvie’with John Brown.” 1863. Carte-de-visite. Wikimedia.

1:19 George Washington Wilson, “Castle Urquhart.” 1867. Albumen print. Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery (Aberdeen: Printed by John Duffus, 1866-1868). British Library.

1:20 George Washington Wilson, “Pass of Beal Ach Nam Bo.” 1868. Albumen print. Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery. British Library.

1:21 James Valentine, “In the Vault, Dundee.” 1878. Gelatin dry plate negative. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, JV-916A. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.

1:22 James Valentine, “Jedburgh Abbey, Norman doorway.” 1878. Sepiatype (Vandyke Print). St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, JV-366. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.

1:23 James Valentine, “Newport Arch, Lincoln.” 1865-1880. Albumen print. Wikimedia.

1:24 John Thomson, “Halfpenny Ices,” from J. Thomson, F. R. G. S. and Adolph Smith, Street Life in London (London: Samson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877). Woodburytype. The London School of Economics and Political Science Digital Library, CC BY-NC-SA.

1:25 John Thomson, “The Temperance Sweep,” from Street Life in London. Woodburytype. The London School of Economics and Political Science Digital Library, CC BY-NC-SA.

1:26 John Thomson, “Amoy Boys,” from Illustrations of China and its People, vol. 2 (London: Samson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle, 1873), Plate XIV. Woodburytype. MIT Visualizing Cultures, CC BY-NC-SA.

1:27 Alexander Gardner, “Abraham Lincoln and His Second Son Thomas (Tad).” Albumen print. Wikimedia.

1:28 Alexander Gardner, “Ditch at Antietam.” 1862. Albumen print. Library of Congress, LC-DIG-cwpb-01088.

1:29 Alexander Gardner, “Washington Navy Yard, District of Columbia. Lewis Payne, in sweater, seated and manacled.” 1865. Albumen print. Library of Congress, LC-DIG-cwpb-04212.

1:30 William Carrick, “Knife Grinder.” Russia, 1870. Albumen print. Wikimedia.

1:31 Robert Macpherson, “Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican.” 1872. Albumen print. Wikimedia.

1:32 William Notman, “Jefferson Davis and Mrs Davis.” 1867. Albumen print. McCord Museum, Montreal, QC. © McCord Museum, I-28147.1. CC BY-NC-ND.

1:33 Horatio Ross, “Stag in Cart.” 1858. Albumen print. Metropolitan Museum. Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005, Accession Number 2005.100.16. © Metropolitan Museum.

1:34 John Moffat, “William Henry Fox Talbot.” 1864. Albumen print. Wikimedia.

1:35 Archibald Burns, “Cardinal Beaton’s House, Cowgate, Edinburgh,” from Picturesque “bits” from old Edinburgh: a series of photographs, with descriptive and historical notes by Thomas Henderson (Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1868). Albumen print. Graphic Arts Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.

1:36 Clementina Fleeming, Lady Hawarden, “Studies from Life; Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude, 5 Princes Gardens.” 1863. Albumen print from wet collodion on glass negative. Given by Lady Clementina Tottenham. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, PH267. © Victoria and Albert Museum.

1:37 Clementina Fleeming, Lady Hawarden, Untitled (Clementina and Isabella Grace). 1863-1864. Albumen print. Given by Lady Clementina Tottenham, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, PH266-1947. ©Victoria and Albert Museum.

1:38 Thomas Keith, “Unidentified Close” (probably Reid’s Close). 1854-56. Paper negative. City of Edinburgh Council — Libraries. By kind permission of the City of Edinburgh Council.

1:39 Thomas Keith, “Tower of St Giles from Parliament House, Edinburgh.” Paper negative. City of Edinburgh Council — Libraries. By kind permission of the City of Edinburgh Council.

Notes

3 On Swan, see George Fairfull Smith, “Joseph Swan (1796-1872) Engraver and Publisher,” The Private Library, 4th Series, 10 (Summer 1997), 81-92. Among the richly-illustrated and well-selling books published by Swan are Select Views of Glasgow and its Environs (1828), Select Views on the River Clyde (1830) and Select Views of the Lakes of Scotland (1834). The engravings were based on drawings by Scottish artists (John Fleming, John Knox, Andrew Donaldson), and each engraving was accompanied by a descriptive and historical text by John M. Leighton. Doubtless in order to benefit from tourist interest, the Views of the Lakes was also published in cheaper and handier editions, each one devoted to a different part of the country — Inverness-shire, Argyllshire, Perthshire, Selkirkshire, etc. In addition, Swan was commissioned to illustrate rare plants for the Glasgow Royal Botanic Institution and to supply engraved illustrations of mechanical inventions for The Glasgow Mechanics’Magazine.

4 “Talbot’s technique was a two-step system: the picture exposed in camera formed a negative image (black for white, and vice versa) on a transparent paper base; this negative image was then used as a filter through which a second piece of sensitized paper was exposed to the light, thus reversing the tonal values. Each daguerreotype was unique, but the calotype negative, like the etcher’s plate, could be used to produce an indefinite number of prints. The calotype image was diffused slightly by the texture of the paper through which it was printed and consequently was less sharply detailed than the daguerreotype. But what [David Octavius] Hill had learned from the great dead painters allowed him to compose his pictures broadly and simply, and turn the limitations of the system to his advantage.” (John Szarkowski, Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Collection of the Museum of Modern Art [New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973], p. 16)

5 See Margaret Harker, “Scottish Contributions to Photography, 2: The Symposium,” British Journal of Photography, 130 (13 May 1983), 492-93, 502 (p. 492), citing Anna Jameson (1794-1860), a British writer and art critic. On the use of the opposition of daguerreotype and calotype to help establish photography as an artistic medium reflecting the imagination and taste of the photographer and not simply a utilitarian instrument in which technical skill was the only discriminating factor, see also the important articles by Margaret Denton, “Francis Wey and the Discourse of Photography as Art in France in the Early 1850s: ‘Rien n’est beau que le vrai; mais il faut le choisir’,” Art History, 25.5 (November 2002), 622-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8365.00348, and André Gunthert, “L’Institution du photographique: Le roman de la Société héliographique,” Études photographiques, 12 (November 2002), 37-63. For a critique of the common opposition of daguerreotype and calotype as that of accurate mechanical representation and poetic emphasis on form, see Hans Rooseboom, “What’s wrong with Daguerre?” in Tanya Sheehan and Andrés Maria Zervigán, eds., Photography and its Origins (New York and London: Routledge, 2015), 29-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315740096

6 Cit. Bodo von Dewitz and Karin Schuler-Procopovici, eds., David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson. Von den Anfängen der künstlerischen Photographie im 19. Jahrhundert, exhibition catalogue, Museum Ludwig/Agfa Photo-Historama (Göttingen: Steidl, 2000), Introduction, p. 9. The King had been shown some calotypes by Principal David Brewster of St. Andrews University, who was himself keenly interested in photography and a friend of Talbot’s, and he had been encouraged by Talbot to stop off at the Hill and Adamson “atelier.” Carus’s response to photography was decidedly equivocal, however, and he compared it unfavourably with painting, expressing the view, common at the time, that it was a means of mechanically producing copies and thus in no way a true art. Assuredly, “such immediate copies of nature have given me ample materials for reflection.” Still, “it is not easy to get a better idea of how much a real work of art — that is the representation of the idea in the soul of the artist [...]— must of necessity differ from nature than by comparing a really beautiful portrait — Raphael’s Fornarina, for example — with a head copied by this process. The free work of art can and ought indeed to present everywhere less and at the same time more than nature. The mere copy gives the shadow of nature itself and therefore remains soulless, unsatisfying, and rigid. All this, however, does not prevent the neatness, exactness, perfectness, and the peculiar want of style, but at the same time want of affectation, of these latter specimens from possessing a peculiar charm for the artist.” (Carl Gustav Carus, The King of Saxony’s Journey through England and Scotland in the Year 1844, transl. By S. C. Davison [London: Chapman and Hall, 1846], pp. 336-37)

7 Bodo von Dewitz and Karin Schuler-Procopovici, eds., David Hill & Robert Adamson: “Die Bilder von Hill und Adamson nehmen heute unangefochten eine ästhetische und kulturgeschichtliche Spitzenposition in der Photographie des 19. Jahrhunderts ein, als die frühesten und brillantesten Zeugnisse des jungen Mediums. Sie sind Gegenstand ständiger auch noch heute relevanter Erkenntnisinteressen und sie haben durch eine langjährige Rezeption eine bahnbrechende Wirkung auf die jeweiligen künstlerischen Arbeiten mit Photographie gehabt.” [“Today, as the earliest and most brilliant works bearing witness to the young medium, the pictures of Hill and Adamson occupy an undisputed highpoint in 19th-century photography from the point of view of both esthetics and cultural history…”] (Introduction by Bodo von Dewitz, p. 15); Helmut Gernsheim, The History of Photography, rev. ed. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1969 [orig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955]), p. 168. In the same vein Sara Stevenson, Facing the Light: The Photography of Hill and Adamson (Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 2002): “Hill and Adamson […] produced some of the most beautiful and enduring images in the history of photography.” (Foreword, p. 7) See also the no less admiring comments of Paul Strand, himself one of the great modern photographers, in “Photography and the New God,” Broom, 5 (1922), 252-58: “Despite the primitive machine and materials with which [D.O. Hill] was compelled to work, the exposure of five to fifteen minutes in bright sunlight, this series of photographs has victoriously stood the test of comparison with nearly everything done in photography since 1845. They remain the most extraordinary assertion of the possiblity of the utterly personal control of a machine, the camera.” (Reproduced in Nathan Lyons, ed., Photographers on Photography [Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966], 138-44 [p. 140])

8 On Wilson, see Roger Taylor, George Washington Wilson, Artist and Photographer 1823-93 (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1981); also Roddy Simpson, The Photography of Victorian Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), pp. 115-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748654611.001.0001

9 On Valentine, see Simpson, The Photography of Victorian Scotland, pp 124-28. On nineteenth-century Scottish photography, see also James Clement, “Scottish Contributions to Photography, 1: The Exhibitions,” British Journal of Photography, 130 (6 May 1983), 467-68, and Margaret Harker, “Scottish Contributions to Photography, 2: The Symposium,” British Journal of Photography, 130 (13 and 20 May 1983), 492-93, 502, 526-27, 530, 537. Princeton University’s Graphic Arts Collection has 26 early Valentine photographs of landscapes and historical sites in Scotland and England.

10 On Scottish photographers active outside Scotland, see Simpson, Photography of Victorian Scotland, pp. 90-114. On Notman, see http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/notman_doc/pdf/EN/FINAL-NOTMAN-ENG.pdf
http://www.nfb.ca/film/notmans_world
http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio.php?id_nbr=6336
http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio.php?id_nbr=of-william-notman-and-son-studios/
Princeton University’s Graphic Arts Collection has a miniature pamphlet from the Notman firm of 1867-70, in which Notman is described grandly as “Photographer to the Queen and under the patronage of the Emperor of France.”

11 According to the Honorary Secretary of the Photographic Society Great Britain, H. Baden Pritchard, “an inspection of a series of these [portraits] proclaims the master. The portraits are simple in pose — soft, and of exceeding brilliancy. Indeed we have rarely seen such brilliant photographs. They are without glaze, but printed, evidently, on very thickly albumenized paper, Mr. Fergus showing a predilection for a surface having a slightly roseate hue. Many of the portraits have plain backgrounds; none of them show elaborate accessories. Much taste is evident in the disposal of drapery, and the flowing robes of a model are marked with harmony and detail to the extreme margins of the picture. Yet it must not be thought that Mr. Fergus strives after effect by means of gorgeous raiment. The most charming study we saw was the simple portrait of a widow lady attired in weeds and crape-trimmed dress. The hair, streaked with silver, and the pale features, were limned with rare taste and delicacy, and in perfect harmony with the white cap and black dress; there was plenty of vigour and yet no violent contrasts.” The design and outfitting of the “light and lofty studios” was also much admired, as was Fergus’s own quiet modesty. (H. Baden Pritchard, The Photographic Studios of Europe [London: Piper and Carter, 1882], pp. 183-87). Fergus must have had a fairly distinguished clientele, for in the 1880s he opened a branch studio in Cannes on the French Riviera. As the author of an article entitled “Glasgow Photographers” in the American journal Wilson’s Photographic Magazine, put it in 1901: “Fergus is one of a small body of men whose work years ago led many wealthy English people to defer visiting a studio until they went north to Scotland. [.. He] must be a photographer of the wealthy. Every picture of his is framed. There is one of the king, colored and brilliant in a frame of gold, and another colored one of a lady in a frame of ornate gilt gesso on an enamelled green flat.” (vol. 31 [1901], p. 381) However, Fergus also made portraits of people distinguished in other ways, such as William Lloyd Garrison, the American abolitionist, Henry Morton Stanley, the explorer, and Lord Kelvin, the renowned scientist and professor at Glasgow University.

12 John Hannavy, The Victorian Professional Photographer (Aylesbury: Publications, 1980), p. 6.

13 Her “gentle, yet paradoxically passionate images represent one of the most distinguished contributions to the development of High Victorian art photography.” (Graham Ovenden, Clementina, Lady Hawarden [London: Academy Editions; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974], p. 5) On Lady Hawarden, see also Julie Lawson, Women in White: Photographs by Clementina, Lady Hawarden (Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1997); Virginia Dodier, Clementina, Lady Hawarden: Studies from Life 1857-1864 ([n. p.]: Aperture, 1999); and Roddy Simpson, The Photography of Victorian Scotland, pp. 157-61.

14 On Keith, see Thomas Keith 1827-1895, Surgeon and Photographer: The Bequest, ed. C. S. Minto (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Corporation Libraries and Museums Committee, 1972); John Hannavy, Thomas Keith’s Scotland: The Work of a Victorian Amateur Photographer 1852-57 (Edinburgh: Canongate, 1981); Roddy Simpson, The Photography of Victorian Scotland, pp. 55-60; and several essays devoted to Keith in Studies in Photography, 2007.

15 Cit. by Sara Stevenson in her Thomas Annan 1829-1887, Scottish 12 (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland, 1990), p. 8. On the growing number of professional photographers in Glasgow alone, see John Urie, Reminiscences of Eighty Years (Paisley: A. Gardner, 1908), pp. 114-29 and David Bruce, Graetrex: Forger and Photographer (Edinburgh: Renaissance Press, 2013), p. 31. For a complete list of Glasgow photographers from the 1840s to the early 1900s, with samples of their work, see http://www.thelows.madasafish.com/main.htm#mid Thirty are listed as being active or having opened in the 1850s alone.

16 Photographs exhibited in Britain 1839-1865 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, Occasional papers no. 5, [2002]), pp. 84-87. This text is also partly viewable online at http://peib.dmu.ac.uk where it is complemented by a convenient searchable database.

17 Business card reproduced in Margaret F. Harker, “The Annans of Glasgow,” British Journal of Photography (12 and 19 October 1973), 932-35, 966-69 (p. 934). See also Rachel Stuhlman, “‘ Let Glasgow Flourish.’Thomas Annan and the Glasgow Corporation Waterworks,” Image, 35 (1992), 38-51 (p. 47). In 1855, while it was still in the stocks, Annan photographed the new all-iron steamship “Persia,” designed by Robert Napier of Glasgow for the Cunard line. It was the largest ship in the world at the time of its launch and the fastest trans-Atlantic liner. (See William Buchanan’s entry on Thomas Annan in John Hannavy, ed., Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, vol. 1 [New York and London: Routledge, 2007], pp. 44-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203941782 and the same author’s “Annans of Glasgow,” Studies in Photography [2006], 20-29 [p. 20]).

18 Virginia Woolf, “Jane Austen,” The Common Reader: First Series (York: Harcourt Brace, 1948), p. 197.

Table des illustrations

Légende 1:1 William Henry Fox Talbot, “The Open Door,” from The Pencil of Nature (London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1844), Plate VI. Salted paper print. Rare Book Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende 1:2 William Henry Fox Talbot, “Haystack,” from The Pencil of Nature, Plate X. Salted paper print. Rare Book Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Légende 1:3 William Henry Fox Talbot (attributed to), “The Fruit Sellers.” 1844. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gilman Collection, Purchase, Harriette and Noel Levine Gift, 2005, Accession Number 2005.100.607. © Metropolitan Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende 1:4 David Octavius Hill, “Dunstaffnage,” from The Poetical Works of the Ettrick Shepherd. With an autobiography; and illustrative engravings, chiefly from original drawings by D.O. Hill. R. S. A, vol. 3 (Glasgow, Edinburgh and London: Blackie and Son, [1838]). Frontispiece. Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende 1:5 D.O. Hill, “Loch Lomond,” from The Land of Burns. A Series of Landscapes and Portraits Illustrative of the Life and Writings of the Scottish Poet. The landscapes made expressly for the work by D.O. Hill, Esq., R.S.A, vol. 2 (Glasgow: Blackie and Son, 1840), facing p. 45. Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:6 D.O. Hill, “Scene on the Girvan,” from The Land of Burns, vol. 1, facing p. 66. Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:7 D.O. Hill, “Feu de joie-Taymouth Castle.” 1835. Oil on panel. Courtesy of Perth Museum & Art Gallery, Perth & Kinross Council.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:8 D.O. Hill and Robert Adamson, “Edinburgh Ale: James Ballantine, Dr. George William Bell and David Octavius Hill.” ca. 1844. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende 1:9 Hill and Adamson, “Presbytery of Dumbarton.” 1843-1847. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Mrs. Pirie MacDonald and Mr. and Mrs. Everett Tutchings, 1943, Accession Number 43.10.49. © Metropolitan Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende 1:10 Hill and Adamson, “Newhaven Fishermen.” 1845. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937, Accession Number: 37.98.1.78. © Metropolitan Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende 1:11 Hill and Adamson, “Newhaven Fisher Girls.” 1843-1847. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Légende 1:12 Hill and Adamson, “A Newhaven Pilot.” Ca. 1845. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:13 Hill and Adamson, “Willie Liston: Redding the Line.” 1845. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:14 Hill and Adamson, “His Faither’s Breeks.” 1844. Salted paper print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:15 Hill and Adamson, “Lady Ruthven.” Ca. 1845. Salted paper print. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Rubel Collection, Purchase, Manfred Heiting and Lila Acheson Wallace Gifts, 1997, Accession Number 1997.382.18. © Metropolitan Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:16 Thomas Rodger, “Four Generations of Rodger.” 1856. Collage of four photographic portraits. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, ALB-49-56. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:17 Thomas Rodger, “Thomas Rodger senior playing the bellows with Hungarian violinist Eduard Remeny.” In album. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, ALB-49-12. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:18 George Washington Wilson, “Queen Victoria on ‘ Fyvie’with John Brown.” 1863. Carte-de-visite. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:19 George Washington Wilson, “Castle Urquhart.” 1867. Albumen print. Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery (Aberdeen: Printed by John Duffus, 1866-1868). British Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:20 George Washington Wilson, “Pass of Beal Ach Nam Bo.” 1868. Albumen print. Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery. British Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:21 James Valentine, “In the Vault, Dundee.” 1878. Gelatin dry plate negative. St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, JV-916A. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:22 James Valentine, “Jedburgh Abbey, Norman doorway.” 1878. Sepiatype (Vandyke Print). St. Andrews University Photographic Collection, JV-366. Courtesy of St. Andrews University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:23 James Valentine, “Newport Arch, Lincoln.” 1865-1880. Albumen print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende 1:24 John Thomson, “Halfpenny Ices,” from J. Thomson, F. R. G. S. and Adolph Smith, Street Life in London (London: Samson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877). Woodburytype. The London School of Economics and Political Science Digital Library, CC BY-NC-SA.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:25 John Thomson, “The Temperance Sweep,” from Street Life in London. Woodburytype. The London School of Economics and Political Science Digital Library, CC BY-NC-SA.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:26 John Thomson, “Amoy Boys,” from Illustrations of China and its People, vol. 2 (London: Samson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle, 1873), Plate XIV. Woodburytype. MIT Visualizing Cultures, CC BY-NC-SA.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:27 Alexander Gardner, “Abraham Lincoln and His Second Son Thomas (Tad).” Albumen print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende 1:28 Alexander Gardner, “Ditch at Antietam.” 1862. Albumen print. Library of Congress, LC-DIG-cwpb-01088.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:29 Alexander Gardner, “Washington Navy Yard, District of Columbia. Lewis Payne, in sweater, seated and manacled.” 1865. Albumen print. Library of Congress, LC-DIG-cwpb-04212.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:30 William Carrick, “Knife Grinder.” Russia, 1870. Albumen print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:31 Robert Macpherson, “Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican.” 1872. Albumen print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:32 William Notman, “Jefferson Davis and Mrs Davis.” 1867. Albumen print. McCord Museum, Montreal, QC. © McCord Museum, I-28147.1. CC BY-NC-ND.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende 1:33 Horatio Ross, “Stag in Cart.” 1858. Albumen print. Metropolitan Museum. Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005, Accession Number 2005.100.16. © Metropolitan Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:34 John Moffat, “William Henry Fox Talbot.” 1864. Albumen print. Wikimedia.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:35 Archibald Burns, “Cardinal Beaton’s House, Cowgate, Edinburgh,” from Picturesque “bits” from old Edinburgh: a series of photographs, with descriptive and historical notes by Thomas Henderson (Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1868). Albumen print. Graphic Arts Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende 1:36 Clementina Fleeming, Lady Hawarden, “Studies from Life; Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude, 5 Princes Gardens.” 1863. Albumen print from wet collodion on glass negative. Given by Lady Clementina Tottenham. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, PH267. © Victoria and Albert Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:37 Clementina Fleeming, Lady Hawarden, Untitled (Clementina and Isabella Grace). 1863-1864. Albumen print. Given by Lady Clementina Tottenham, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, PH266-1947. ©Victoria and Albert Museum.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende 1:38 Thomas Keith, “Unidentified Close” (probably Reid’s Close). 1854-56. Paper negative. City of Edinburgh Council — Libraries. By kind permission of the City of Edinburgh Council.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende 1:39 Thomas Keith, “Tower of St Giles from Parliament House, Edinburgh.” Paper negative. City of Edinburgh Council — Libraries. By kind permission of the City of Edinburgh Council.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2544/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 19k

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