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Measuring the Master Race

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Jon Røyne Kyllingstad

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

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Brachycephalic short skull, dolichocephalic long skull. Image from Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau, Histoire générale des races humains (Paris: A. Hennuyer, 1889), pp. 216-17.

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Ripley’s racial classification scheme. Table from William Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe. A Sociological Study (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. 1899), p. 121.

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Craniometrics: A ‘diptograph’ and a ‘craniophor’ used by Justus Barth to make drawings of skulls. Images from Justus Barth, Norrønaskaller: crania antiqua in parte orientali Norvegiæ meridionalis inventa: En studie fra Universitetets Anatomiske Institut (Christiania: Aschehoug 1896), Figs. 1 and 2.

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Map showing the distribution of skull types in Norway based on Carl Oscar Eugen Arbo’s research, as presented in William Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe, p. 206.

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Otto Ammon’s outlook on society. Graph from Justus Barth, Norrønaskaller, Figs. 1 and 2.

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Two maps showing the distribution of conservative votes in the Parliamentary election of 1897 (right) and the areas with a majority short-skulled population (left). From Andreas M. Hansen, Norsk folkepsykologi: med politisk kart over Skandinavien (Kristiania: Jakob Dybwads Forlag, 1899), p. 1.

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Illustration of the issue of racially-mixed populations. From Rudolf Martin, Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der anthropologischen Methoden (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1914), p. 94.

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Chart of human body proportions from Rudolf Martin, Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, p. 326.

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Measurement of upper arm length as demonstrated in Rudolf Martin’s Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, p. 163.

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Halfdan Bryn at his desk. Undated photo by unknown photographer. © Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet’s library, Trondheim. All rights reserved.

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A graph by Bryn showing the distribution of cephalic indices in an admixed population. From Halfdan Bryn, Møre fylkes antropologi, Skr. D. n. Vidensk. Selsk. MN kl. (Kristiania: I kommission hos J. Dybwad, 1920), p. 70.

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Bryn’s map of areas of anthropological isolation. From Halfdan Bryn, Menneskerasene og deres utviklingshistorie (Oslo: Det Norske studentersamfund, 1925), p. 123.

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Professor of Anatomy Kristian Emil Schreiner, painted by Astri Welhaven Heiberg in 1949. © painter’s estate, all rights reserved.

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Drawing of skull. From Kristian E. Schreiner, Zur Osteologie der Lappen II (Oslo, ISKF/Aschehoug, 1931), p. 75.

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The Tysfjord skull. From Kristian E. Schreiner, Crania Norvegica II (Oslo: ISKF/Aschehoug 1946), p. lxvi.

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Alette Schreiner showing children an animal skull. Undated photograph by unknown photographer. © University of Oslo.

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Family from the Sami community of Tysfjord. From Alette Schreiner, Anthropologische Lokaluntersuchungen in Norge, Hellemo (Tysfjordlappen) (Oslo: ISKF/Aschehoug, 1932), p. xvii.

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‘East Baltic’ women from Norway. From Alette Schreiner, Anthropologische Lokaluntersuchungen in Norge. Valle, Hålandsdal und Eidfjord, Skr. D. n. Vidensk. Akad. MN kl. 1929 (Oslo: I kommisjon hos Dybwad, 1930), pp. 12, 13, 63-65, and taf. vii.

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Form used to survey recruits. From Halfdan Bryn and Kristian E. Schreiner, Die Somatologie der Norweger, Skr. D. n. Vidensk. Akad. MN kl (Oslo: I kommisjon hos Dybwad, 1929), p. 3.

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Various types of calipers for the measurement of various parts of the body. From Rudolf Martin, Anthropometrie (Berlin: Springer, 1929), pp. 4-5, and Adolf Basler, Einführung in die Rassen und Gesellschaftsphysiologie (Stuttgart: Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung, 1925), p. 22.

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‘Alpine racial type’ depicted in Kristian E. Schreiner, Bidrag til Rogalands Antropologi, Skr. D. n. Vidensk. Akad. MN. Kl. (Oslo: I kommisjon hos Dybwad, 1941)

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‘Pure’ or ‘mixed’ racial type? Portrait from Kristian E. Schreiner, Bidrag til Rogalands Antropologi, chart V.

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Martin’s eye colour chart (a) and Fischer’s hair colour palette (b). Image from Rudolf Martin, Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, pp. 212, 218.

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Photograph of a Sami couple in traditional clothes. Image from Alette Schreiner, Anthropologische Lokaluntersuchungen in Norge, Hellemo (Tysfjordlappen) (Oslo: ISKF/Aschehoug, 1932), p. 11 and taf. ii.

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Portrait exemplifying a ‘Nordic-Lapp mixed type’. Image from Jon Alfred Mjøen, Racehygiene (Oslo: Dybwad, 1914), p. 177

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Children of German women and the African soldiers who participated in the French occupation of the Rhineland in 1923. Photograph from Jon Alfred Mjøen, Racehygiene, p. 188.

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Man from the Setesdal valley. Portrait from Alette Schreiner, Anthropologische Lokaluntersuchungen in Norge. Valle, Hålandsdal und Eidfjord, Skr. D. n. Vidensk. Akad. MN kl. 1929 (Oslo: I kommisjon hos Dybwad, 1930), p. 63 and taf. iii.

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