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Mr. Emerson's Revolution

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Jean McClure Mudge

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

1Map, “Emerson in Cambridge, 1817-1871,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. iv

2Map, “Changes in Boston, 1810-1870,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. v

31.1 View of Boston, 1810, line engraving and watercolor, John L. Boqueta de Woiseri. Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, all rights reserved. 5

41.2 First Congregational Church, 1843, Chauncy Place, print, the Boston Almanac, reproduced in Homan’s Sketches of Boston, Past and Present, 1851. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 6

51.3 Ruth Haskins and William Emerson, Emerson’s parents, prints, [n. d.], photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 7

61.4 Mary Moody Emerson, silhouette, [n. d.]. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 11

71.5 Old Manse, Concord, c. 1890-1895, photograph Alfred W. Hosmer. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 12

81.6 Boston Public Boys’ Latin School, 1812-1844, print (founded 1635), second schoolhouse, south side of School Street. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 16

91.7 Sarah Alden Bradford Ripley, crayon on paper, [n. d.]. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 18

101.8 Rebus letter, 1814, p. 1, Emerson to brother William, 10 November 1814 (bMS Am 1280.226, 2012). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 19

111.9 Rebus letter, 1814, p. 2, Emerson to brother William, 10 November 1814 (bMS Am 1280.226, 2012). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 20

121.10 Harvard College, Old Quad, North Side, 1828. Courtesy of Harvard University Archives, all rights reserved, see http://library.harvard.edu/​university-archives/​using-the-collections/​permissions 23

131.11 Emerson at 14 (painted 1845), watercolor on porcelain, artist Caroline N. Hildreth (dated by Ellen Tucker Emerson), photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 24

141.12 Hollis Hall with Rebellion Tree, 1875. Courtesy of Harvard University Archives, all rights reserved, see http://library.harvard.edu/​university-archives/​using-the-collections/​permissions 25

151.13 Room 15, Hollis Hall, 1822, Emerson watercolor, Wide World 1, 14 August 1822 (MS Am 1280 H10). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 26

161.14 Early Emerson signature as “Waldo,” 1821, letter to Mary Moody Emerson, 7 April 1821 (MS AM 1280.226 (1967). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 28

171.15 “Roman Phantasies of imagination and bad dreams,” 1820, Emerson watercolor, Wide World 1, 25 July 1820, p. 29 (MS Am 1280 H, No. 7). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 28

181.16 Martin Gay, 1820, Emerson sketch, Wide World 1, 1 November 1820, p. 10 (MS Am 1280 H, No. 7). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 29

191.17 “Unfruitful land” of “Loggle,” 1820, Emerson watercolor, Wide World 1, 25 January 1820, p. 28 (MS Am 1280 H, No. 7). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 30

201.18 “Tnamurya,” Emerson’s anagram for “Aunt Mary,” 1821, Journal, XVIII, 1820-1822, p. 122 (MS Am 1280.16.1). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 33

211.19 Title page, Emerson’s Wideworld 2, 11 July 1822, Journal No. 7 (MS Am 1280 H, 10). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 42

221.20 William Ellery Channing, 1857, oil on canvas, by Henry Cheever Pratt, Brown University Portrait Collection, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:William_Ellery_Channing_by_Henry_Cheever_Pratt_1857.jpg 45

231.21 Divinity School, Harvard, 1840. Courtesy of Harvard University Archives, all rights reserved, see http://library.harvard.edu/​university-archives/​using-the-collections/​permissions 46

241.22 Achille Murat (1801-1847), Napoleon’s nephew, slaveowner, mayor of Tallahassee, [n. d.], Florida Memory Project (RC28510), Wikimedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Prince_Achille_Murat#mediaviewer/​File:Prince_Achille_Murat.jpg 52

251.23 Ellen Louisa Tucker at 18, 1829, watercolor on ivory, by Sarah Goodridge. Courtesy of Concord Museum, http://www.concordmuseum.org, all rights reserved. 54

261.24 Emerson at about 26, c. 1829, ambrotype of a drawing by Sarah Goodridge (MS Am 1280.235.706.1). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 55

271.25 New Brick, or Second Church, Boston, 1843, print, Boston Almanac. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 56

281.26 View of Boston from the South Boston Bridge, c. 1820-1829, lithograph, by Victor Adam, 1801-1866; Laurent Deroy 1797-1886; Jacques Gérard Milbert, 1766-1840. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 58

291.27 Map, “Emerson in Europe and Great Britain, 1832-1833,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 63

301.28 Journal entry: “Here’s for the plain old Adam, the simple genuine Self against the whole world.” 12 March 1833, Journal, Italy (30) (MS Am 1280 H). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 64

311.29 Roman ruins, sepia watercolor by Emerson, Journal, Italy and France (29), begun 20 April 1833, n. p. (MS Am 1280 H). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 65

321.30 Jardin du Roi, Paris, 1820, North-South view (also Jardin des Plantes), designed by Gabriel Thouin, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File%3AJardin_des_plantes.jpg 66

331.31 Jardin des Plantes, National Museum of Natural History, Paris, 2010, South-North view, designed by Spiridon Manoliu, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File%3APlan-MNHN.jpg 67

341.32 Thomas Carlyle in his early 40s, late 1830s, print, hung in Emerson’s dining room. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 68

351.33 Masonic Temple, Boston, 1832, lithograph by Benjamin F. Nutting. Gift of Dorothy Braude Edinburg to the Harry B. and Bessie K. Braude Memorial Collection, the Art Institute of Chicago. Courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago, all rights reserved. 71

361.34 Concord Center, 1839, drawing by John W. Barber, engraved by Downes. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 73

371.35 Lydian Jackson Emerson at 56, 1858, crayon on paper, Samuel W. Rowse, June 1858 (The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Ralph L. Rusk, 6 vols. [New York: Columbia University Press, 1939], 5: 114), photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 75

381.36 Emerson house, “Bush,” Concord, 1875, surrounded by pine trees he planted in 1836, unknown photographer. Courtesy of Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 76

392.1 Nature, Emerson’s first book, 1836 (AC85. Em 345.836n). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 82

402.2 C. P. Cranch, caricature of Emerson’s transparent eyeball, c. 1838-39, from F. DeWolfe Miller, Christopher Pearce Cranch and His Caricature of New England Transcendentalism (MS Am 1506). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 84

412.3 Emerson house, 10 May 1903, east facade from apple orchard, hand-colored glass lantern slide, photo Herbert W. Gleason. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 87

422.4 Map, “Concord and Vicinity,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 88

432.5 Map, “Concord Village and Walden,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 89

442.6 “American Scholar Address,” 1837, An Oration, Delivered Before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, August 31, 1837. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 91

452.7 “Divinity School Address,” 1838, An Address Delivered Before the Senior Class in Divinity College, Cambridge, Sunday Evening, 15 July, 1838 (HEW 5.6.2). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 94

462.8 Walden Pond from Emerson’s Cliff, 1903, view of “my garden,” hand-colored glass lantern slide (possibly 30 May), photo Herbert W. Gleason. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 96

472.9 The Dial, wrapper, No. 1, July 1840. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 98

482.10 Emerson’s four volumes of The Dial, published in Boston and London, 1851. Courtesy of the Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 99

492.11 Emerson house, front hallway looking north, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 101

502.12 Second floor nursery, Emerson house, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 102

512.13 Waldo Emerson, Jr. (30 October 1836-27 January 1841), daguerreotype, 1840 (bMS Am1280.235, 706.17). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 103

522.14 Emerson at 43, May 1846, daguerreotype, Boston, taken for Carlyle. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 109

532.15 Map, “Emerson in Great Britain and France, 1847-1848,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 110

542.16 Emerson’s study, 1972, with desk, books, morocco writing-pad, inkwell, and pince-nez, photograph The Boston Globe, 5 March 1972. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 112

552.17 Emerson’s pocket globe (terrestrial and celestial), photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 113

562.18 Emerson’s penknife, bottle-opener/hook, and scissors, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 114

572.19 Emerson at 45, 1848 (bMS Am1280.235, 706.3B). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 114

582.20 Period Map of U. S. in 1848, railroad timetable, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 115

592.21 Emerson at about 47, c. 1850, daguerreotype, Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes, Boston (bMS Am 1280.235, 706.2). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 116

602.22 Emerson at 45, 1848, oil on panel, artist David Scott, Edinburgh. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 123

612.23 Emerson caricatures, New York Tribune, 6 February 1849. Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, all rights reserved. 124

622.24 Harvard Bicentennial Celebration, 1836, alumni procession from Brattle Street Church to the Pavilion, print, drawn by Eliza Susan Quincy, daughter of Harvard President Josiah Quincy, Jr., engraved by George Girdler Smith, 1840. Courtesy of Harvard University Archives, all rights reserved, see http://library.harvard.edu/​university-archives/​using-the-collections/​permissions 126

632.25 Emerson Dining Room, set with family china and silver, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 126

642.26 Elizabeth Hoar with unidentified child, c. 1850. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 127

652.27 A. Bronson Alcott in his 40s, c. 1840s. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 128

662.28 A. Bronson Alcott in his 70s, c. 1870s (bMS Am 1280.235, 706.29). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 132

672.29 Thoreau’s desk, flute, and sheet music, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Concord Museum, http://www.concordmuseum.org, and by permission of Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House, all rights reserved. 134

682.30 Lidian Jackson Emerson, c. 45, with son Edward Waldo Emerson, c. 3, c. 1847, daguerreotype (MS Am 1280.235, 706.12). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 138

692.31 Henry David Thoreau at 37, 1854, crayon on paper, Samuel W. Rowse. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 138

702.32 Title page, Walden, or Life in the Woods, 1854, Henry David Thoreau, Thoreau’s hut, drawing Sophia Thoreau. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 139

712.33 Henry David Thoreau at 39, 1856, photograph by Benjamin Maxham. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 140

722.34 Margaret Fuller in her late 20s, c. late 1830s-early 1840s, engraving from Chappell oil painting, 1878. Courtesy of the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, public domain. 142

732.35 Emerson at about 50 with son Edward (c. 9) and daughter Ellen (c. 14), c. 1853. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 144

742.36 Samuel Gray Ward, before 1907, photograph, Houghton Portrait File, Houghton Library, Harvard University, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Houghton_Portrait_File_-_Samuel_Gray_Ward.jpg 146

752.37 Endymion, drawing, c. 1830s, artist unknown, after the original in the Capitoline Museum, Rome. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 148

762.38 Emerson Parlor with family tea service, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 151

772.39 Tickets to an Emerson lecture, 1861, with a ticket to the Concord School of Philosophy, 1888, photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 155

782.40 Vesuvius erupting “Distruzione della Torre del Greco nel 1794” (Destruction of Torre del Greco in 1794), oil painting in Emerson’s front hallway, 1794, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 156

792.41 Emerson at 40, silhouette, 1843. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 157

802.42 Margaret Fuller at 36, 1846, original daguerreotype by John Plumbe (now lost), photographer Southworth and Hawes, Boston. Courtesy of the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, public domain.

812.43 Emerson at about 54, c. 1857, full-length in lecture suit, carte de visite, original portrait, James Wallace Black & Co., Boston. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 160

822.44 Emerson at about 54, c. 1857, seated, in same lecture suit as 2.43, possibly taken at same sitting, carte de visite, original portrait, James Wallace Black & Co., Boston. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 161

832.45 The Philosophers’Camp in the Adirondacks, 1858, oil on canvas, William James Stillman. In the center, alone, Emerson faces right. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 163

842.46 Emerson master bedroom, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 164

852.47 Emerson’s house coat (left) and preaching robe (right), in bedroom alcove, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 165

863.1 William Lloyd Garrison at 28, 1833, oil on panel, artist Nathaniel Jocelyn, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; bequest of Garrison Norton, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:William-Lloyd-Garrison-by-Jocelyn,-1833.jpg 171

873.2 The Liberator, Friday, March 22, 1844, Wikimedia, CC BY-SA, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File%3AThe_Liberator_exhibit_1.jpeg 172

883.3 Lydian Jackson Emerson, about 55, c. 1840s, daguerreotype, photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 174

893.4 Frederick Douglass at about 29, c. 1847, daguerreotype, photograph c. 1850, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Samuel_J._Miller_-_Frederick_Douglass_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 177

903.5 Emerson at about 47, c. 1850, original ambrotype possibly by Matthew Brady, carte de visite. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 178

913.6 Boston broadside cautioning blacks, 4 April 1851, Boston, Thomas Parker. Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, all rights reserved. 179

923.7 Daniel Webster at 69, 1851, Southworth and Hawes, Boston, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Daniel_Webster_-_circa_1847.jpg 181

933.8 Fugitive slave Anthony Burns, 24, returned to Virginia from Boston in 1854, wood engraving with letterpress, with (clockwise from lower left): the youthful Burns’sale at auction, a whipping post with bales of cotton, his arrest in Boston on May 24, 1854, his escape from Richmond on shipboard, his departure from Boston escorted by federal marshals and troops, Burns’s “address” (to the court?), and Burns in prison; John Andrews engraver, from a Barry drawing of daguerreotype by Whipple and Black, R. M Edwards, printer, Boston, c. 1855, Wikimedia, http://upload.wikimedia.org/​wikipedia/​commons/​5/​53/​Anthony_Burns_1.jpg 184

943.9 Senator Charles Sumner’s caning in the U. S. Senate, 1856, print; signed with monogram of Winslow Homer, WH. On 22 May 1856, Rep. Preston S. Brooks (SC) at right severely beat Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) for insulting his cousin and Sen. Stephen A. Douglas (IL), left of center, where Rep. L. M. Keitt (SC) guards Brooks’s assault with a cane and hidden pistol behind his back. Title from Henry Ward Beecher: “The symbol of the North is the pen; the symbol of the South is a bludgeon.” Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, public domain, http://www.loc.gov/​pictures/​resource/​cph.3g12985/​185

953.10 Emerson at about 51-52, c. 1854-1855, daguerreotype, Southworth and Hawes, Boston. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 187

963.11 Heralds of Freedom, 1857, lithograph by Leo Grozlier, published by C. H. Brainard, Boston, 1857; center: William Lloyd Garrison; from top clockwise: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Wendell Phillips, Joshua Reed Giddings, Theodore Parker, Gerrit Smith, and Samuel Joseph May. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 188

973.12 Emerson at 55, 1858, crayon on paper, artist Samuel W. Rowse, June 1858 (Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 5: 114), photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 189

983.13 John Brown at 59, 1859, bearded, as he appeared on his second visit to Concord, 1859, daguerreotype reproduction attributed to Martin M. Laurence, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington D. C., Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:John_Brown_portrait,_1859-face_crop.jpg 190

993.14 Emerson at 56, 1859, carte de visite, from a photo by Matthew Brady. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 191

1003.15 Boston Music Hall, 1852, “Interior — View of the New Music Hall, Boston,” chromolithography, Gleason’s Pictorial, Winter Street, 1852, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Boston_music_hall.jpg 198

1013.16 Storming Ft. Wagner, 1863, chromolithograph, c. 5 July 1890, Kurz and Allison, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:The_Storming_of_Ft_Wagner-lithograph_by_Kurz_and_Allison_1890.jpg 201

1023.17 Saint-Gauden’s Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, 1884-1897, plaster cast of original, photo © Jarek Tuszynski, Wikimedia CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Robert_Gould_Shaw_Memorial_-_detail.jpg 202

1034.1 Emerson at 64, 1867, seated and full-length, photographers John S. Notman and Co. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum, all rights reserved. 218

1044.2 Map, “Emerson’s Lecturing Peak, 1865 and 1867,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 222

1054.3 Ellen Tucker Emerson at 21, 1860 (bMS Am 1280.235, 706.29). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 223

1064.4 Emerson at 65-66, c. 1868-1869, with grandson, Ralph Waldo Forbes, and the boy’s paternal grandfather, John Forbes. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 224

1074.5 Emerson at about 73, c. 1876, with son Edward and Edward’s son, Charles L. Emerson (1876-1880). Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 225

1084.6 Redwood “Samoset,” Mariposa Grove, Yosemite, 1871 or after, John Muir drawing, named by Emerson for a Native American chief who befriended the Plymouth Colony settlers. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 226

1094.7 Emerson house leather fire bucket, 1794, from east side stairway, Emerson house, photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 227

1104.8 Map, “Emerson’s Trip to Great Britain, Europe, and Egypt, 1872-1873,” cartographer Darin Jensen, author’s copyright, CC BY. 228

1114.9 The Conduct of Life, title page, revised edition, 1889 (original 1860) (AC85. J2376 22889e). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 233

1124.10 Julia Ward Howe at 42, oil on canvas from a 1861 photograph, artist John Elliott (begun 1910, finished 1925), National Portrait Gallery,, Smithsonian Institution, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:John_Elliott_-_Julia_Ward_Howe_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 250

1134.11 View of Boston, July 4, 1870, lithograph, artist F. Fachs, New England Lithograph Company, publisher John Weik, Philadelphia. Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, all rights reserved. 251

1144.12 Civil War Memorial, Monument Square, Concord, Mass., 1867, inscribed “Faithful Unto Death”, © photographer John Phelan, 12 February 2010, Wikimedia, CC BY, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Concord_Monument_Square-Lexington_Road_Historic_District#mediaviewer/​File:Civil_War_Memorial,_Monument_Square,_Concord_MA.jpg 255

1154.13 Charles Sumner in his 50s, photograph, c. 1860s, photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 256

1164.14 Emma Lazarus at 38, engraving, T. Johnson, The New York Historical Society, Wikimedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Emma_Lazarus#mediaviewer/​File:Emma_Lazarus.jpg 262

1174.15 Emerson at 70, 1873, Monroe daguerreotype. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 265

1184.16 Marble bust of Emerson at 76, 1879, Daniel Chester French, carved 1883-1884 from original clay model of Emerson at 76, 1879, photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 265

1194.17 Emerson at 76 with family on east side of “Bush,” 1879. Lidian on right, Edith on far right, Ellen and Edward on left, and grandchildren, on east steps of house, 1879. Courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved. 268

1205.1 James Russell Lowell at 49, 1868, carte de visite. Courtesy of Harvard University Archives, all rights reserved, see http://library.harvard.edu/​university-archives/​using-the-collections/​permissions 272

1215.2 Emerson’s top hat, [n. d.], photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 272

1225.3 Abraham Lincoln at 45, 27 October 1854, holding anti-slavery German newspaper Staat Zeitung, copy of daguerreotype, Polycarp Von Schneidau, title (English): “Tough Campaigner for the Senate,” Library of Congress, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Abraham_Lincoln_by_Von_Schneidau,_1854.jpg 276

1235.4 Abraham Lincoln at about 56, c. 1865, engraving, bought by Emerson soon after Lincoln’s death, photographer Lewis S. Mudge. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 285

1245.5 Walt Whitman at 34-36, 1853-1855, daguerreotype. Courtesy of the New York Public Library, public domain. 288

1255.6 Walt Whitman at 68, 1887, photo, George C. Cox, restored by Adam Cuerden, Library of Congress, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Walt_Whitman_-_George_Collins_Cox.jpg 292

1265.7 Emily Dickinson at 16, 1846, daguerreotype. Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College, public domain. 293

1275.8 Emily Dickinson at 29? and unknown friend, 1859?, daguerreotype. The woman at left resembles the known likeness of Dickinson in 5.7, but cannot be positively identified, nor can her companion (see https://www.amherst.edu/​library/​archives/​holdings/​edickinson/​new_daguerreotype). Amherst College Archives & Special Collections. On deposit, public domain. 301

1285.9 William James at 27, 1869, class photo, Harvard Medical School, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:William_James_b1842b.jpg 308

1295.10 William James at 61, 1903, Houghton Library at Harvard University, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:William_James_b1842c.jpg 310

1305.11 Frank Lloyd Wright at 59, c. 1 March 1926, Library of Congress, Wikimedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Frank_Lloyd_Wright#mediaviewer/​File:Frank_Lloyd_Wright_LC-USZ62-36384.jpg 318

1316.1 Plato, copy Silanion portrait, c. 370 BCE, Argentina 1925, photo 2009, Marie-Lan Nguyan, Capitoline Museum, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Plato_Silanion_Musei_Capitolini_MC1377.jpg 326

1326.2 Emanuel Swedenborg, before 1818, painting, Carl Fredrik von Breda, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Emanuel_Swedenborg.PNG 327

1336.3 Michel de Montaigne, [n. d.], Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Michel_de_Montaigne_1.jpg 327

1346.4 William Shakespeare at 46, 1610, oil on canvas, possibly by John Taylor, National Portrait Gallery, London, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Shakespeare.jpg 328

1356.5 Napoleon Bonaparte at 43, 1812, “The Emperor Napoleon at his Study in the Tuileries,” oil on canvas, artist Jacques-Louis David, National Gallery of Art, Washington D. C., Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Jacques-Louis_David_-_The_Emperor_Napoleon_in_His_Study_at_the_Tuileries_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 329

1366.6 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe at 79, 1828, oil on canvas, artist Joseph Karl Stieler, Neue Pinakothek, Wikimedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe 329

1376.7 Dante Alighieri, after 1841, engraving, from a tracing or drawing by Seymour S. Kirkup of a now-lost Dante portrait attributed to Giotto, Luigi Agricola, dis., Ango. Campanella, inc., photographer J. David Bohl. Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 331

1386.8 Jorge Luis Borges at 77, 1976, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Borges_001.JPG 333

1396.9 José Martí at 41, 1894, Mexico, photograph attributed to Gonzola de Quesada, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:José_Mart%C3%AD_retrato_hecho_en_México_1894.jpg 335

1406.10 William Wordsworth at 69, from 1839 watercolor, possibly by Margaret Gillies, reproduced 1873, Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:William_wordsworth.jpg 337

1416.11 Thomas Carlyle in his 60s, c. 1860s, photo Elliot and Fry, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Thomas_Carlyle_lm.jpg 338

1426.12 Oscar Wilde at 28, c. 1882, New York City, photographer Napoleon Sarony, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Napoleon_Sarony_-_Oscar_Wilde.JPG 343

1436.13 Friedrich Nietzsche at about 31, c. 1875, Basel, photographer F. Hartmann, Wikimedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Friedrich_Nietzsche#mediaviewer/​File:Nietzsche187a.jpg 346

1446.14 Adam Mickiewicz at 44, 1842, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Adam_Mickiewicz_według_dagerotypu_paryskiego_z_1842_roku.jpg 355

1456.15 Charles Baudelaire at 41, c. 1862, photo Étienne Carjat, British Library, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Étienne_Carjat,_Portrait_of_Charles_Baudelaire,_circa_1862.jpg 356

1466.16 Henri Bergson at 68, 1927, photographer A. Gershel, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Henri_Bergson.jpg 358

1476.17 Marcel Proust at 21, 1892, oil on canvas, artist Jacques-Emile Blanche, Musée d’Orsay, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:J_E_Blanche_Marcel_Proust_01-01-2013.jpg 359

1486.18 Albert Camus at 44, 1957, photograph, United Press International, Library of Congress, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Albert_Camus,_gagnant_de_prix_Nobel,_portrait_en_buste,_posé_au_bureau,_faisant_face_à_gauche,_cigarette_de_tabagisme.jpg 360

1496.19 Gabriele D’Annunzio, early 20th century, Wikimedia, http://it.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​File:D%27Annunzio_2.jpg 362

1506.20 Benito Mussolini at 40 presides over Fascists’ first anniversary celebration, Reproduction # LC-USZ62-99046. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographys Division, public domain, http://www.loc.gov/​pictures/​item/​90706920/​365

1516.21 Leo Tolstoy at 59, 1887, oil on canvas, artist Ilya Repin, Tretyakov Galerrt, Moscow, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Ilya_Efimovich_Repin_(1844-1930)_-_Portrait_of_Leo_Tolstoy_(1887).jpg 368

1526.22 Rudyard Kipling at about 34, c. 1899, Bain News Service, Library of Congress, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Kipling_nd.jpg 370

1536.23 Rammohan Roy at 50, 1822, drawn and engraved by P. Savignhac, Calcutta, Jared Sparks portrait collection, [c. 1600-1850]. Courtesy of the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, public domain, http://lunaprod.library.cornell.edu/​images/​RMC/​Size4/​RMC0106/​RMC2009_0203.jpg 378

1546.24 Victor Cousin, late 50s ‒ early 60s, c. 1850s, photographer Gustave Le Gray, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Victor_Cousin_by_Gustave_Le_Gray,_late_1850s-crop.jpg 379

1556.25 “Ethnical Scriptures, Sayings of Confucius,” The Dial, 1843, 3:493 (AC 85. Em345). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 381

1566.26 Confucius, 551-479 BCE, public domain, http://www.philosophers.co.uk/​confucius.html 382

1576.27 Saadi Shirazi in a rose garden, c. 1645, manuscript of the Gulistan (rose garden), opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper, attributed to Govardhan, India, Mughal dynasty, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Sadi_in_a_Rose_garden.jpg 383

1586.28 Title page, Hafiz of Shiraz, Selections from his Poems, 1875, trans. Herman Bicknell, London: Trubner and Co. Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, all rights reserved. 384

1596.29 Frontispiece to Hafiz of Shiraz, 6.29, chromolithograph from a photograph, “Revellers with Minstrels at Musala,” artist J. Herbert, R. A. Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library, all rights reserved. 384

1606.30 Title page, The Bhagvat-Geeta, translated by Charles Wilkins, New York, printed for George C. Philes, 1867, inscribed by A. Bronson Alcott (AC 85. Al191. ZZ867b). Courtesy of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association deposit, Houghton Library, Harvard University, some rights reserved, see http://hcl.harvard.edu/​libraries/​houghton/​reproductions.cfm#permission 385

1616.31 Swami Vivekananda at 30, September, 1893, Chicago; on left in Vivekananda’s hand, “One infinite pure and holy — beyond thought beyond qualities I bow down to thee,” Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Swami_Vivekananda-1893-09-signed.jpg 391

1626.32 Rabindranath Tagore in his sixties, before 1930 when artist Walther Illner died, Van Ham Kunstauktionen, Wikimedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Walther_Illner_Portr%C3%A4t_Rabindranath_Tagore.jpg 393

1636.33 Mahatma Gandhi in his early 60s, c. late 1930s, Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Portrait_Gandhi.jpg 397

1646.34 Jawaharlal Nehru at 53 with Gandhi at 73, 1942, Bombay, photo Dave Davis, Acme Newspictures Inc., Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Gandhi_and_Nehru_1942.jpg 398

1656.35 Naibu Kanda, c. 21, 1879, photo J. L. Lovell, Amherst, Mass. Courtesy of the Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College, public domain. 400

1666.36 D. T. Suzuki at 90, 1960, New York World-Telegram and Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Reproduction # LC-USZ62-123691. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photograph Division, rights may be reserved, http://www.loc.gov/​pictures/​collection/​cph/​item/​99471697/​ 402

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