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From Dust to Digital

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Maja Kominko

Index

Texte intégral

Acre 377-416
al-Jazzār Mosque 378
al-Jazzār Mosque Library 377-379, 381-382, 396-403

Addis Ababa 92

Adl, Parviz 598

administration
colonial
Andean 227-231, 231-232, 246-247. See also parishes (Andean)
Brazil 280-282
Colombia 261-264, 270-271
Guinea 549-550
India 456-457, 461-462
Northern Nigeria 294-325, 322
Palestine 382-387
Senegal 336
indigenous 227, 246

advertising 334, 346, 365-366, 368, 561, 600

African identity 561, 580

African Muslim identity 136, 348. See also Murid communities

African photography 531-545

African Rock Art Digital Archive 15

Afrikaans 332

afterlife 74, 79, 83-84

agriculture
Andes 227
Northern Nigeria
cash crops 308-312
convict food crops 319
prison experimental centres 309-310
Tadrart Acacus 22, 24-25

aguardente (liquor) 279

Ahom Kingdom 35, 43

Ahom Lexicography project 32, 60. See also Tai Ahom

Aijal (Aizawl) 449

Ai Seng Lau (Tai Ahom) prayer 53-57

Ajami 179, 331-376. See also Wolof:
Ajami (Wolofal) and Swahili: Ajami
advertising 365-366, 368
art 364, 364-365
caractères arabes harmonisés 356-357, 368
genealogy texts 363, 363-364
letters and diacritics 46, 356-358
literacy 332-337, 344, 346, 353-354
manuscripts 139, 153, 156, 167, 169, 171, 179, 343, 346, 352
modified Arabic script 356
poetry 339-340, 344-345, 348, 350-354, 360, 361-362
public announcements 369, 369-370
scholars (Ajamists) 345-350, 352, 354

Aksum 122

al-Aqṣá Mosque Library 377, 379-381, 382-383, 387, 396, 403-412

Alexandria 382

Alexandria, Library of lvii al-Jazzār Mosque Library 377-379, 381-382, 396-403

Amharic 332 amulets 342-343

Anderson, Clare 324

Andes 225-258

anthroponymy 16

aqbas (passageways) 7, 17, 20, 21, 24-25

Arabic
manuscripts 138-161, 164-172, 173-185, 396-412
numerals 342-344
script 342. See also Ajami

Arabisation 349, 356

Aramaic 349

Archaeology
Africa lvii, 3-4, 23
South America 429, 433-434

Architecture
missionary 466-467, 477
Mizo 451-452
photography of 518-521

archives xlix
accessibility of xxxvii-xxxviii, xliiixliv, xlix, l, liv-lv, lvi, lviii-lix, 32-33, 183-185, 280, 288, 382, 566, 613
colonial 264, 271-272, 294-305, 454, 456, 461
contested ownership lvii
cultural bias 300
ecclesiastical 225, 272-276, 279-280, 286-287
Islamic 138-142, 174-180, 378-380, 399-403, 406-412
monastic 89-90, 93
national and state lviii, 200, 205, 295
objectivity of records lv-lvi
periodicals 380, 382-383, 394
photographic 425, 489, 524, 526, 531-533, 542
private collections 36, 73, 174, 175, 181-182, 456, 610-611, 618
sound 549, 565-566, 567-568, 579-580, 611-613, 623, 631
phonogram 619, 621, 623-631
threats to xlvi
civil unrest 174, 264
environmental 95, 178, 264, 279-280, 381, 542
polically motivated destruction 380
vandalism xlvi, 25, 26
wear and tear 71, 381

Argentina 417-444
Buenos Aires 420, 422, 437, 439
Medical-Chirurgical Scientific Italian Commission 418, 427-428. See also Bennati, Guido
Mendoza 418, 427
Museum of La Plata 417, 420, 422-426, 438, 439-440

Arquivo Histórico Waldemar Bispo Duarte, João Pessoa 279-280, 283

Asiatic Order of Universal Morality 426. See also Bennati, Guido

Assam. See Tai Ahom

Assemani, Elias l-li

Assemani, Joseph li

astrology 80, 81-83, 82, 84

Asunción 429

Atrato River 263-264, 266, 269

Australia, aboriginal records lviii-lix authenticité (cultural policy) 552-564, 568

avaz (Persian classical singing) 601, 613

Badawi, Ahmad (Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ Jamal al-Layl) 144

Badi’i, Habibu’llah 588

Bā Kathīr, ʿAbd Allāh 140, 143, 169, 171

Balfour Declaration 388

Ballets Africains, Les 555

Baluev, Ivan Ivanovich 487-526, 492
Diary of the Northern Expedition 489, 503-504, 508
Northern Expedition 496-505
personal history 491-496
photographic collection 509-523
photographic techniques 505-508
publication and exhibitions of images 524-526

Bamba (Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké) 332, 338-342, 345, 350, 363

Banan, Ghulam Hosain 598, 599

Baol 353

Bā Ṣafar, b. Yusallim b. ʿAwaḍ 156-158, 165, 166, 169, 170, 172

Baudo valley 266

Baye Fall 367

Beirut 149, 383

Bembeya Jazz National 555, 557, 559, 561, 575

Bennati, Guido 418-422, 426-439. See also Medical-Chirurgical Scientific Italian Commission
itineraries 420-421

Berlin phonogram archives 619, 624

Bernal, Natalio 418, 433, 438

Bernault, Florence 324

Ber, Théodore 433, 436

Bethlehem 384

Bhutan lx, 67-88

Bible
Codex Sinaiticus li
Gospel of John 218, 467, 473
Mizo Bible Women 469
New Testament 467, 469
Old Testament 194
Polyglot Bibles l

bilingual texts 7, 42, 139, 335, 339, 613

Bloch, Marc lvi

Bolivia 261, 417-444
Cochabamba 420, 430, 431
La Paz 431-432, 438
Medical-Chirurgical Scientific Italian Commission 430-433
Santa Cruz de la Sierra 430-431
Tiahuanaco ruins, La Paz 433-440

bóngthíngs (shamans) 73, 74

bozales (African slaves) 263

Brazil lxii, 185, 259-292, 420. See also parishes (Andean)
Corumbá 429 Paraíba 276-283, 286-287
Portuguese colonists and slavery 276-288

British colonists. See Northern Nigeria and India

British Library xl, xliii-xlvi
Lepcha manuscripts 72
sound archives 611

Buddhism 43-44, 56
and Lepcha 68, 74, 83-84

Buenaventura (Notary of) 264

Buenos Aires 420, 422, 437, 439

Bulgaria 189-224. See also Roma State Archives 200, 205

Buraq Uprising 384, 388, 389

Cairo 145, 146, 149, 382

Camel phase (rock art) 24

Cameras
for digitising 33, 73, 403, 544
ubiquity of 448

Cameroon
identity cards 534, 539
photographic studio archive project 531-545

Canta 226, 237, 240, 242-254

Carcas 247, 250

Carhua 246

Carirí Indians 277

Cartagena 260-261, 270, 272

cartes-de-visite 417-419, 420-422, 427-429, 430, 431, 433, 438, 440

Caruavilca, don Francisco Pizarro 252

Cavalcantes Indians 286

Ceará 276

censorship 201, 382-386, 563, 564-565, 594, 595, 598

çeribaşi (Roma chiefs) 191, 192

Challiana 462-464

Champhai 462

chanting 346, 351, 353, 354
Lepcha 70, 76, 83

chicken bone augury 35, 42, 44-45

Chippindale, Christopher 17

Chocó, Colombia, slavery in 262-269

Christ
Isua Krista 453
Jesus 109, 217, 453, 456, 467
Lal Isua 456

Christelow, Alan 293

Christianity. See also missionaries
Baptism records 275, 276, 286-287
Catholic Church in South America 227-228, 230, 274-275
church building 233-234
communion 280, 454-455
conversion to 227, 230, 232, 233
Eastern Christianity l-liii
Roma evangelical churches 217-218

Chuksung Lepcha 73

church archives. See ecclesiastical archives

Chwaka 138

Cochabamba 420, 430, 431

Codex Sinaiticus li

Cole, H. W. G. 462

Colombia lxii, 259-292, 420. See also parishes (Andean)

Cartagena 260-261, 270, 272
Chocó 262-269
Córdoba 264, 272, 274-276
ecclesiastical archives 272-276
Montería 274
notary records 264-268, 271-272
Quibdó 263-268
Riohacha 269-270, 272
slavery 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 268, 269-272, 274
Spanish colonists 260-265, 270-271, 274, 276

Colonialism
administration
Andean 227-232, 246-247. See also parishes (Andean)
Brazil 280-282
Colombia 261-264, 270-271
Guinea 549-550
India 456-457, 461-462
Northern Nigeria 294-325
Palestine 382-387
Senegal 336
bureaucracy 456-457
“civilising mission” 335

colour, saturated 447-448

commerce
Ajami business records 333, 344
Bennati’s pamphlets 431
Colombia and Caribbean 264, 270-271
India 454-455
trade routes 25, 119, 148, 180
trans-Saharan trade 173, 180

Comoro Islands 135, 142

compadrazgo (godparentage) 275

Conakry 551, 553, 563, 571

convict labour
colonial public works 312-319
colonial records project 293-300, 324-325
information recorded 299-304
in pre-colonial Sokoto Caliphate 305-308
under colonial rule 308-312, 319-323

Cook, Allen 294

Coptic manuscripts 109, 118, 120

copyists. See scribes copyright 541

Córdoba
San Jerónimo (earlier Gerónimo) de Buenavista 272, 274-276
Santa Cruz de Lorica 272
Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó “Diego Luis Córdoba” 264

Corrège, Clemente E. 418

corruption 212-213, 461-462, 565, 567
Iranian National Radio 598

Corumbá 429

Cultural Revolution (Guinea) 554-564

Däbrä Libanos Monastery 90
dance
Les Ballets Africains (Guinea) 555
Mizo 476

Danish National Archives lviii

Dar-es-Salaam 138

Darjeeling 67

dastgah (Persian musical mode) 613

Deir al-Surian Monastery l-li, lii-liii

Dendrúp Adyenmú Lepcha 73

Diakhaté, Mbaye 342, 345, 350, 351, 352, 360

dictionaries 33, 41, 60-62, 75, 471, 474, 621

digitisation 32-34, 36-39, 105, 544
benefits xxxvii-xxxviii, lvii, 184, 280, 288, 381-382
digital repatriation 532
digital unification liii
early efforts liii
equipment 92-93, 181, 403
location challenges 91-94
methodologies 95-96, 181, 396
opposition to 32-33, 91-92
selection criteria 295, 298, 387

Diourbel 333, 354, 365-366, 368

discrimination 203-204

Djenné lxi, 173-188
manuscript ownership 175-176

Djenné Manuscript Library 173-185, 175

doctrinas (Indian parishes) 228. See also parishes (Andean)

dogarai (native police) 315

Dolgikh, Boris Osipovich (Iosovich) 496, 497, 499, 500, 502-503

Dome of the Rock 379

Ecclesiastical and Secular Sources for Slave Societies Digital Archive 288

ecclesiastical archives 225. See also parishes (Andean)
Colombia 272-276
Paraíba, Brazil 279-280, 286-287

Edison phonograph 620

education. See also schools
Christian 218, 473-474. See also missionaries
Guinean music 553
Islamic 137, 138, 142, 331-332, 350. See also talibés (Quranic school students)
Persian music 601-602

Egypt
Alexandria 382
Cairo 145, 146, 149, 382
Deir al-Surian Monastery l-li, lii-liii
Oxyrhynchus lvii

Embera-Wounaan Indians 266

encomiendas (colonial legal authority) 229-231, 233-235, 249

Endangered Archives Programme (EAP)
focus xxxix-xli
projects
EAP016 487-526
EAP054 531-545
EAP067 189-220, 224
EAP088 609-613
EAP089 617-631
EAP095 417-440
EAP119 377
EAP187 566-568
EAP207 417-440
EAP255 264-268
EAP265 1-26
EAP281 67-88
EAP285 189-220, 224
EAP327 570-571
EAP333 225-255
EAP334 331-370, 375
EAP347 617-631
EAP373 31-64
EAP399 377, 396-412
EAP454 456
EAP466 135-161, 164-172
EAP488 173-185
EAP503 271-272
EAP521 377, 382-396
EAP526 89-131
EAP535 293-325, 328-329
EAP608 571-579
EAP627 279-288
EAP640 272-276
EAP690 184

Endangered Languages
Documentation Programme xxxix-xli

Eritrea 90

Escalante y Mendoza, don Juan de 242-243, 250

Estigarribia, Juan Vicente 430

Estonian Literary Museum 624

etaghas (post-flood farmland) 7, 20, 22, 23, 25

Ethiopia xliii, liii, lx, lxi, 89-134. See also May Wäyni Monastery
Addis Ababa 92
Däbrä Libanos Monastery 90
Mekelle 89, 91

Ethiopian Manuscript Microfilm Library (EMML) 92

Ethiopian manuscripts 89-131

ethnoarchaeology 4, 25

ethnography 5, 503, 621

ethnolinguistics 617-631

ethnomusicology 547-580, 594, 596-597, 601-602, 606, 613

Evenki
language 629

people 496

Evenki National District 494, 495
photographs 511-526

Exile
Baluev, Ivan Ivanovich 493, 502
Bamba (Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké) 340-341
Dolgikh, Boris Osipovich (Iosovich) 502
Perillán y Buxó, Eloy 434

Fakhradini, Farhad 600-601, 604, 609

famines 457, 461, 468

Fanisau 308

al-Faruqi, Shaykh Sulayman al-Taji 387

Fazzan, Libya. See Tadrart Acacus

Febvre, Lucien lvi

Flores, Diego 247

Folklore
Krymchak people 622
Lepcha 70
musical 552
Russian 499, 621, 622, 624-626
Udmurtia 624-627

Foning, Arthur 71, 73, 77

forasteros (foreigners) 247-249, 252

forced labour colonial public works 312-319
colonial records project 293-300, 324-325
information recorded 299-304
in pre-colonial Sokoto Caliphate 305-308
mita (draft labour) 251, 252
under colonial rule 308-312, 319-323

France
Gambian treaty negotiation (French and Ajami text) 335
Imperial Archives xlix
withdrawal from Guinea 549-550

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) 264

Fulani 332, 338-339, 363

Fulbé musicians 572, 578

Fundação Cultural Palmares (FCP) 288

Fuuta Jalon 337

Fuuta Tooro 333, 337

Gabon 340-341, 348, 350

Gait, E. A. 462

Gambia 335, 547. See also Senegambia

Garamantian kingdom 1, 3, 24, 25

Gaza 381, 384

genealogy 16, 142, 143, 179, 286, 363
indigenous Siberians 499-500

geomorphology 7

Gergyovden (St George’s day) 194

Ghat 3, 7

Giyorgis, Qäsäla 90

Global Dimensions of Scholarship and Research Libraries xlv

Golha radio programmes 587-613
archive project and website 609-613
Barg-i sabz 590, 591
Golha-yi javidan 590, 591, 596
Golha-yi rangarang 590, 591, 601, 607
Golha-yi sahra’i 590, 591
Golha-yi taza 604, 606
socio-cultural impact 599-608
Yik shakh-i gol 590, 591

Greeves, J. A. Ley 320, 321

griots 547-548, 558, 561, 563-564, 566-567, 572

Grumbkow, Georges B. von 436-437, 438

gueltas (rock pools) 7, 20, 22, 25

Guinea 333, 337, 547-586
authenticité (cultural policy) 552-564, 568
Bibliothèque Nationale de Guinée 566
Conakry 551, 553, 563, 571
Cultural Revolution 554-564
Fulbé plot 563
independence from France 549-551
Labé 333
Radio Télévision Guinée (RTG) 549, 554, 565-566, 567, 568, 571-572, 578-580

Gujarati traders 119

Gulpayagani, Akbar 601, 602

Gypsy. See Roma

Habib Saleh (Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlawī Jamal al-Layl) 135-138, 144, 156, 159

al-Ḥaddād, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlawī 141

hadith (accounts of the Prophet) 347-348, 406, 407, 409, 410, 412

Ḥaḍramawt 136, 138, 142, 147-148

hagiography 75, 340, 345, 348, 353

Hague Convention for the Preservation of Cultural Property 380

Hajj Amin al-Husseini 379

Harriet Tubman Institute 305

Hausa 179, 180, 332, 333, 336-337, 338-339

Hausaland 337

Haussonville, Joseph d’ lv

hḌas-log 79

health 191, 268, 300, 514. See also Mizo: healing customs
notary records in Colombia 266-269

Hebrew 349

Hebrew University of Jerusalem 380-381

al-Ḥibshī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad 136-138, 144

Hinduism 35, 43

Hogendorn, Jan S. 293, 310

Huacho diocese, Peru 225, 237

al-Husayni, Munif 384, 387

Ibn Battuta 355-356

Ibn Khaldun 355-356

Ibra Fall 367

Ibtehaj, Hushang 590, 605-606

illiteracy 332-334

Imperial Archives of France xlix

impressed labour. See forced labour

indexes (in manuscripts) 156

India 445-486
Assam 35
British Raj 446-447, 449
Darjeeling 67
Kalimpong 73
Khasi Hills 447-448, 449
Lushai Hills 447-448, 455, 456-457
Mizoram 446-447, 456
Northeast India 445-486. See also Mizo; Tai Ahom
Serkawn 449, 463
Sikkim 67, 69, 74. See also Lepcha

Indian Ocean 120, 137, 141

indigenous people 270, 272, 277, 279, 288, 417
administration 227, 246
Christianity 286, 449-477
conversion to 227, 230, 232, 233
culture 5, 74, 513-514, 550-551, 580
faith 74, 85
photography of 417, 487-526, 509
Soviet ethnographic studies 496-497, 503

Institute for Anthropology and Ethnography 627

Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkinskii Dom) 620, 622-623, 627

Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Paraibano (IHGP) 279-280

International Association of Sound Archives (IASA) 623, 631

Iran xl, lxiv, 587-616. See also Golha
radio programmes and Persian music
radio listening 603-604
twentieth-century cultural politics 593-599

Iran Heritage Foundation 612

Iranian National Orchestra 600

Iranian National Radio 587, 590, 593-594, 598-600

ISESCO 356

Ishraq, ‘Abd al-Hamid 608

Islam
conversion to 337
importance of books and book collections 377-378
Islamic sciences 339, 350
Islamisation 332, 356

Islamic education 137, 138, 142, 331-332, 350. See also talibés

Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) 148, 152, 164, 165, 167, 334, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412

Islamic manuscripts 138-161, 164-172, 173-185, 343, 346, 352, 396-412

Israel, National Library of 380-381

Jabre, Adel 379

Jakarta (Batavia) 149, 150

al-Jazzar, Ahmad 378

Jerusalem 377-416
al-Aqṣá Mosque Library 377, 379-381, 381-382, 387, 403-412
Haram al-Sharif 379
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 380-381
National Library of Israel 380-381

Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1900) 619-620

Jihad 337

João Pessoa 277, 278, 279-280

Kairé, Mor 342, 345, 350-351

Kalimpong 73

Ka, Moussa 331, 339, 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350, 351-352, 353, 355, 356

Kano Emirate 293, 300, 306-307, 308

Kasravi, Ahmad 595

Kel Tadrart Tuareg 5, 19-23, 25

Kenya lx, lxi, 135-172. See Riyadha Mosque

Khaliqi, Ruhu’llah 590, 597, 598-599, 601

Khaly Madiakhaté Kala 339

Khamliana 455

Khanty people 626-628

Khasi Hills 447-448, 449

Khasi Hills, India 449

Khudayar 598

Khurram, Humayun 609

Kijuma, Muhammad 159-160

King of Bar 335

Koran. See Quran

Krasnoyarsk 493

Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University 622

Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krai) 489, 494, 625

Krasnoyarsk Territory Regional Museum (KKKM) 488, 493-496, 526

Krymchak people 622

Labé 333

Laborde, Léon de xlix, lv

Labour
coolie (kuli) 457, 461, 462
forced
colonial public works 312-319
colonial records project 293-300, 324-325
information recorded 299-304
in pre-colonial Sokoto Caliphate 305-308
mita (draft labour) 247, 251, 252
under colonial rule 308-312, 319-323

La Guajira Peninsula 270-271

Lakni cycle (calendar) 39-40, 41

Lamu lxi, 135-172. See Riyadha Mosque

Landscape
Baluev’s photography 500, 509-510
geomorphology 7
human relationship 24-25, 227, 234
photography 500, 510
rock inscriptions 17, 20

languages. See also translations
Afghanistan languages and dialects 623
dominant 618, 629-630
endangered 35, 52, 67-68, 617, 618-621
Evenki 629
Finno-Ugric 621, 623, 626-628
holy 342-343, 349
Kerek 622
Nivkh 629-631
Paleo-Siberian 621
revitalisation 625-626, 629-631
Samoyed 621, 622
Shan 47-48, 49, 51-52, 62
Tai 34-35, 46-47
Tajik 622-623
Tungus-Manchu 621
Turkic 621
Udeghe 622
Udmurtia 624-626
Wakhi 622-623

La Paz 431-433, 438

Lat Dior Ngoné Latyr Diop 339

Latin American newspapers 433-434

Layène 338

al-Layl, Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ Jamal (Ahmad Badawi) 144

al-Layl, Ḥasan b. Muḥammad Jamal 140-141, 143

al-Layl, Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlawī Jamal (Habib Saleh) 135-138, 144, 156, 159

Lazóng (Lepcha orthography) 69-70

Leibniz Institut für Landeskunde (IFL) 436

Leiden University, Netherlands 72

Lemaire, Albert Jean Baptist 597

Lepcha 67
archive project 67-88
astrological texts and horoscopes 81-83
folklore 76-78
funerary texts 83-84
geographical distribution of manuscripts 72-73
language 67-68
manuscripts 71-74
orthography 69-71
popular texts and genres 70-71, 74-79
prayer and ritual ceremonies 74, 76
religious beliefs 68, 74
resurrection texts 79-80

leprosy 266, 268-269

Lewin, T. H. 471

lexicon. See dictionaries

libraries
al-Aqṣá Mosque Library 377, 379-381, 382-383, 387, 396, 403-412
al-Jazzār Mosque Library 377-379, 381-382, 396-403
as a mark of prestige 377
Bibliothèque Nationale de Guinée 566
British Library xl, xliii-xlvi, 72, 611
Djenné Manuscript Library 173-185
Ethiopian Manuscript Microfilm Library (EMML) 92
National Library of Israel 380-381
philosophy and policies 182

Libyan-Italian Archaeological Mission 4

Lima 252

Lima Church Council 233, 235, 242, 249

Limbu script 69

linguistics. See also languages documentation 618, 629-631
Tai Ahom 46-47

literacy
Ajami script 332-333, 344, 346, 353-354
Latin script 332-333
Mizo, India 468-469
music-derived 354
oviet-era Siberia 498, 501
statistics 332, 603
teaching 334, 350

Loccha 246

Lorrain, J. H. (Pu Buanga) 458-460, 463, 474

Louis XVIII 335

Lovejoy, Paul E. 293

Lugard, Frederick 294-295, 320

Lungleh (Lunglei) 457, 470, 478

Lushai Hills 447-448, 455, 456-457

Lybia 1-30

al-Maddī, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf 158-159

Magdalena River 260

Màggal 341, 369, 370

Maghrib/Maghribī 338, 364, 365, 368, 370

Mahjubi, Murtaza 590, 601

Makeba, Miriam 555, 575

Mali lx, lxi, 6, 16, 173-188, 547, 548, 556. See also Djenné Manuscript Library

Mallo 252

Mandé 332, 547, 560, 572. See also Maninka

Mandinka 335, 338, 358

Maninka 547, 572, 577-578. See also Mandé

Manó, Joseph Charles 429-430, 431, 434, 440

manuscripts. See also Ajami:
manuscripts; Arabic:
manuscripts; Codex Sinaiticus; Coptic manuscripts; Ethiopian manuscripts; Islamic manuscripts; Lepcha: manuscripts; Oriental Christian manuscripts; Syriac manuscripts; Tai Ahom: manuscripts
bindings 97, 101, 109-120, 121, 126
tools and tooling 120-130
colophons 71-72, 160
conservation 95, 96-97, 102, 104-106, 131, 381
copying. See scribes
covers 95, 102, 103, 117, 118, 120-121, 128-131
dating of 35, 60, 71, 90, 178
decoration 107-109
digitisation 32-34, 36-39, 73, 95-96, 105, 403
paper 33, 34, 37-38, 71, 114, 117, 160
parchment 89, 97, 98-99, 101, 115
storage xli, lviii, 90, 96-97, 177-178, 183

maraboutage (Islamic form of magic) 173, 177, 179

Mashriqī 365, 368. See also Maghrib/Maghribī

Mason, Michael 293-294, 319

Matam 333

Mauritania 341, 348, 350

Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish 324

May Wäyni Monastery 89-13
book and manuscript construction 106-120
tooled leather decoration 120-130
digitisation project 89-131
manuscripts
decoration 107-109
ownership 92
repairs (traditional) 102-106
storage 96-97

Mbacké, El Hadji 347-348

Mbaye Diakhaté. See Diakhaté, Mbaye

Mbaye Nguirane. See Nguirane, Mbaye

Mbaye, Samba Diarra 342, 345, 350, 351

McKeown, Katie 545

Mecca 16, 138, 142, 143, 146, 147-148, 148, 149

Medical-Chirurgical Scientific Italian Commission 418, 426-427. See also Bennati, Guido medicine 81, 179, 342-343, 346, 454. See also Mizo: healing customs
Bennati, Guido 430-431

Mekelle (Tigray) 89, 91

Mendizábal, Bernabé 418, 419, 426

Mendoza 418, 427

Metadata
manuscripts 45, 52-63, 94, 95
need to understand content 45
open access 32
sound recordings 621, 628

Michelet, Jules lxv

microfilm liii, 92

microhistory lvi-lvii, lxii

missionaries
Baptist missionaries 445, 449
churches of 450, 451-452, 460, 466-467, 477
education 473-474
hygiene rules 457-460
model villages 466
Welsh Calvinistic missionaries 449, 468

Mission Veng Church 450, 465, 467

mita (draft labour) 247, 251, 252

mitayo (draft labourer) 251

Mizo
architecture 451-452
chibai (greeting) 471, 473-475
composers 468
harhna (awakening) 449, 475-477
healing customs 454, 467, 471-472
lal (village headmen) 456, 468
language 467, 471
naming practices 471-473
newspapers 473 people 453, 455-457
salt uses 454-455
spirituality and spirits (ramhuai) 450, 471-472

Mizoram 446-447, 456. See also Lushai Hills

Mizoram Presbyterian Church Synod Archive 450

mobile phones 365, 368, 369, 370

Mogrovejo, Toribio Alfonso de 251

Mombeya, Thierno 337

Montería 272-276

Mu’ayyiri, Rahi 588, 601

Muhammad, Prophet 135, 137, 142, 347-348

Muhammad Reza Pahlavi 594, 595

Mu’iniyan, Nusratu’llah 590, 599, 600

mukhtar (chief) 191-193

múng (evil spirits) 84

mun (shaman) 74, 83

Murid communities
Ajami, use of 337-350
education 354
poets 350-353

Muridiyya Sufi order 332, 338, 340. See also Bamba (Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké)

Murray, C. S. 461, 462-463

Musaddiq crisis (1953) 595

Museum of La Plata 417, 420, 422-426, 438, 439-440

Museums
Estonian Literary Museum, Tartu 624
Krasnoyarsk Territory Regional Museum (KKKM) 488, 493-496, 526
Museum für Völkerkunde, Vienna 72
Museum of La Plata 417, 420, 422-426, 438, 439-440
Soviet-era policies 489

Music
African
Murid Ajami 345, 354
Syliphone archive project 547-580, 585
as political medium 551, 559
censorship 563, 564-565, 594, 595, 598
Guinean 552-564

Mizo 453
orchestras (African) 551
Persian 594, 596-597, 601-602, 606, 613. See also Golha radio programmes
prohibition 594-595

Namchu, Óng Tshering 73

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, Gangtok, India 73, 74

Napier Expedition (1868) 94

Napoleon Bonaparte lv, 378

Napoleon III lv Nash, George 17

National Archives of Nigeria 295

National Archives of the United States lviii

National Iranian Radio and Television (NIRT) 604

National Library of Israel 380-381

Ndong, Moukhtar 346, 359, 360

Nepal lx, 67-88

Newspapers
Latin America 433-434
Mizo 473
Palestine 382-396
press law and censorship 201, 382-386
Roma 199, 200, 203, 205, 212-214, 217, 219

Ngom, Cheikh 353

Nguirane, Mbaye 347

Niang, Mahmoud 340 Niang, Sam 340, 344, 352

Niassène 338

Niger 333

Nigeria lxii, 173, 293-325. See also agriculture; colonialism; National Archives of Nigeria; Northern Nigeria and slavery
banknotes 336-337
Kabba province 309, 320-322
literacy 333
National Archives 295
Northern Region, convict labour 293-325

Nivkh language 629-631

NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs) 501

Northern Expedition (Baluev) 488-490, 496, 524
aims 501
organisation 496-505
political interference 502-504

Northern Nigeria
convict labour 293-325
pre-colonial and early colonial records 294-305
transportation links 312-313

notary records 264-268, 271-272
Paraíba 280-283

numeracy, currency-derived 343-344

numerology 342-343, 359

orality
oral culture 618-619
oral history 305, 548
oral literature 619-621, 622, 627

orchestras (African) 551

Oriental Christian manuscripts l-liv. See also Coptic manuscripts; Ethiopian manuscripts and Syriac manuscripts

Orthography
Lepcha 69-71
Pulaar 356-357
Wolof 356-358

Osorio, don Alonso 253

Ottoman Empire 190-192, 378

Ottoman Press Law 384-385

Oumar Tall 337, 338

Oxyrhynchus lvii

Pahlavi monarchy 604. See also Muhammad Reza Pahlavi and Reza Shah Pahlavi

palenques (maroon communities) 260, 261

Palestine. See also Jerusalem
Bethlehem 384
British Mandate 382-387
newspapers 382-396
political parties 391
Supreme Muslim Council 378, 379, 384

Paraguay 417-444. See also Bennati, Guido
Asunción 429
Medical-Chirurgical Scientific Italian Commission 429-430

Paraíba
ecclesiastical archives 279-280, 286-287
João Pessoa 277, 278, 279-280
maps 277, 278
Nossa Senhora das Neves 277
Nossa Senhora dos Milagres da Ribeira do Cariri (later Nossa Senhora dos Milagres do São João do Cariri) 279, 280, 283, 287
notary records 280-283
Portuguese colonists 276-283
slavery 276, 279, 280, 282, 286-288
Universidade Federal da Paraíba 280

Pariamarca 236, 237-242, 249-250, 253, 255

parishes (Andean) 225-258
boundaries 225, 232, 255
historical records 237-254
pastoral visitations 234, 251

Parti Démocratique du Guinée (PDG) 551, 553-555, 559, 562-565

Pashov, Shakir 195-214, 215, 216

pastoral visitations 234, 251

Payvar, Faramarz 610

Perillán y Buxó, Eloy 434, 436

persecution 214, 563, 595

Persian music 587-613. See also Golha radio programmes

Peru lxii, 225-258, 428. See also parishes (Andean)
Canta 226, 237, 240, 242-254
Carcas 247, 250

Huacho diocese 225, 237
Lima 252
Loccha 246
Mallo 252
Pariamarca 236, 237-242, 249-250, 253, 255
Quivi (Quives) 242, 250, 252

Petrie, William Flinders 418

phonogram archives 619, 621, 623-631

photographic archives 425, 489, 524, 526

photographic studio archive project 531-545

photographic techniques 505-508
image manipulation 487

photography
African 531-545
architecture 518-521

as novelty 448
cartes-de-visite 417-419, 420-422, 427-429, 430, 431, 433, 438, 440
copyright and permissions 539, 541-542
documentary photography 488, 500
ethnographic 488, 500, 509-510
identity photographs 538
landscape 500, 509, 510, 517
maps 516
of manuscripts 32-34, 36-39, 73, 95-96, 105, 403
portraits 500, 507, 509-510, 539-540. See also cartes-de-visite

Pirnia, Davud 587, 588, 590-591, 596, 599-603, 605, 608

Podor 333 Portuguese colonists 276-283

post-colonial theory 479

Potiguar Indians 277

Pouget, Michel-Aimé 427, 428

Pouget, Petrona Sosa de 427

Prayer
Ahom 43, 53-57
Lepcha 76
Riyadha Mosque manuscript collection 141-142

preachers. See also missionaries evangelical Roma 217-218

prejudice (racial) 300, 348, 355-356, 458, 461, 462

primary sources, importance of 189-190

printing presses
effect on manuscript culture liv, 149-152
Murid communities 354-355
Palestine 382

prisons
administration 305-306, 309, 310, 314, 319-322
colonial archives 294-305
forced labour 309-312, 322-323
rehabilitation 308, 324-325
skills training 314-315, 323

Pulaar 337, 344, 356

Pushkinskii Dom 620, 622-623, 627

Pu Vana 445

al-Qaḥṭānī, Muḥyī al-Dīn 139

quackery 422, 426-427, 429

Quibdó 263-268

quilombos (maroon-descended communities) 288

Quivi (Quives) 242, 250, 252

Quran 144, 181, 342. See also schools

racial equality 203-204. See also prejudice (racial)

Radio Tehran. See Iranian National Radio

Radio Télévision Guinée (RTG) 549, 554, 565-566, 567, 568, 571-572, 578-580

Radio-yi Iran 604, 607

al-Raḥmān, Sayyid Manṣab b. ʿAbd 138, 144-145, 159

rancherías (villages) 263, 268

Ranke, Leopold liv-lvi

reducciones (grid settlements) 231-232, 233, 242

Reiss, Wilhelm 436

repartimientos (Iberian forerunner to encomiendas) 229, 233-235

Reza Shah Pahlavi 593-594, 598, 603

ribats (frontier fortresses) 306

ribats (religious schools) 137

Riohacha, slavery 269-270, 272

Riyadha Mosque
foundation 135-138
manuscript collection 138-161, 164-172
aquisitions 149-152
catalogue 138-142
development 142-145, 147-148
provenance 153-159
waqf (pious endowement) donations 145-147

rock art 3, 15, 17, 24

rock inscriptions (Tifinagh) 5, 7, 15-26

Roma 189-224
Communist rule in Bulgaria 200-213
culture and education 208-212
Egyptian Nation 190, 192-195
elsewhere in Europe 218-220
evangelical churches 217-218
importance of primary source research 189-190
Kıpti (Copts) 190, 193-194
newspapers 199, 200, 205, 212-214, 217, 219
organisation
Egyptian Nation 190-195
Ekhipe (United General Cultural Organisation of Gypsy Minorities) 201, 203-206, 208, 209
Istikbal 197-200
Istiklyal 208-209
Society Egypt 197
Pashov’s book manuscript 195-201, 204
religion 194-195
Roma Theatre 209-213

Róngkup, Chong 73

Rostworowski, María 250

RTG (Radio Télévision Guinée) 549, 554, 565-566, 566, 567, 568, 571-572, 578-580

Russia lii, lxiii, lxiv, lxv, 487-530, 617-634. See also schools and Soviet Union

Russian Academy of Sciences 620

Russian Geographical Society 494, 500, 509

Saba, Abu’l-Hasan 598, 601

Sạfī ʿAlī Shāh 592

Safwat, Daryush 597, 610

Sahara xliii, 1-30, 173, 180, 331, 547 archaeological remains 3. See also Tifinagh rock inscriptions
trade 25, 173, 180

Sakhalin, Japanese exodus from 629-630

Salazar, don Gerónimo de 238, 240, 242

Samanid dynasty 604 Samoyed language 621, 622

Sampayo, Antonio 420

sanglyon (funeral rituals) 83

San Juan River 264, 266, 269

Santa Cruz de la Sierra 430-431

Sapienza University of Rome 1, 4

Savidge, F. W. (Sap Upa) 463, 477

School of Oriental and African Studies 72

Schools
Christian 218, 452, 473-474. See also missionaries
knowledge 350
Quranic 173-174, 176, 180, 331, 344, 350, 358
Roma 208, 218
Soviet/Russian 509, 515, 523, 525, 526
vocational 350

Scott, James C. 447

scribes 131, 153-159
Djenné 179
Kijuma, Muhammad 159-160
tradition of copying texts 36-37, 55, 71
Wolof Ajami 346, 351

Seereer 353

Senegal 336, 338, 547
Baol 353

Senegambia 338-340, 352, 354-355

senses, among the Mizo 449
harhna (awakening) 475-477
hearing 449-453
sight 466-475
smell 457-460
taste 453-457
touch 460-466

sensory history 445-479

Serkawn 449, 463

Shaha, Brojo Nath 471

Shahrdar, Mushir Humayun 596, 598

Shajarian, Mohammad-Reza 602, 604, 607

Shakespear, John 461-462, 472

shamanism 69, 74, 622, 627

Shan languages 47-48, 49, 51-52, 62

Sharif, Farhang 602, 609

Sharifian descent 135, 348

al-Shāṭirī, Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar 148

Shihada, Bulus 384

Siberia 487-530
endangered language recordings 619-623, 626-628
folklore 522-523
genealogy 499-500
literacy 498, 501
photographic archives of indigenous peoples 487-526, 530

Sierra Leone 269, 336

Silchar 469

Slavery
Brazil 276-288
Colombia 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 268, 269-272, 274
health and disease 266, 268-269
Northern Nigeria 293-294
records of 264-268, 271-272, 279-288
slaves in prison 305-307
transportation and purchase 260-264

Sokhna Amy Cheikh 352

Sokhna Mai Kabir 352

Sokhna Mai Sakhir 352

Sokkna Aminatou Cissé 352

Sokoto Caliphate 305-308, 324-325

sound archives 549, 565-566, 567-568, 579-580, 611-613, 623, 631
phonogram 619, 621, 623-631

sound recordings
linguistic 619-631
media
audio cassette 548
Edison phonograph 620
magnetic tapes 549, 621
phonograph cylinders 621
phonograph records 597, 610
vinyl records 548, 566
wax cylinders 597, 620, 626-627
wax discs 620
music 548, 571-578, 573-579. See also Syliphone
radio 565, 567-568, 570, 591, 604. See also Golha radio programmes

soundscape 445, 450-451

Soviet Union 202, 490, 487-530, 502, 620, 626, 628-630
collective farming 499, 501, 509-510
communist ideology 498-499, 514, 595
internal boundaries 514-517
socialist transformation 487, 490-491, 500-501, 503, 505, 510

Spanish colonists
Colombia 259-264
Peru 227-231

spirit calling 35, 47-49

Stalin, Josef 496, 525-526

Steinitz, Wolfgang 626-628

Sternberg, Lev Yakovlevich 629

St Petersburg
Institute for Linguistic Studies 623
Pushkinskii Dom 620, 622-623, 627

Strulev, Mark Sergeevich 496, 497, 499, 503, 520

Stübel, Alphons 436

Sucre 430

Sufism 135-136, 142
mysticism 174
Sufi orders 135-136, 332, 338, 340, 592

Supreme Muslim Council 378, 379, 384

sustainable development 4-5, 25-26

Swahili 136-137, 159, 332
Ajami 139, 153, 156, 167, 169, 171

Sy, Habibou Rassoulou 346, 354, 363, 364

Syli Orchestre National 551, 553, 561, 573

Syliphone 548-549, 555, 556-557, 561-562, 563, 564
EAP projects 566-580

syncretism. See Lepcha

Syriac manuscripts lii-liii

Tabajara Indians 288

Tadrart Acacus 1-30. See also Tifinagh rock inscriptions
archaeological significance 3-5
human geography 24-25
water 7

Tai Ahom 31-66
Assam manuscripts project 31-64
chicken bone augury 35, 42, 44-45
language 34-35, 40, 42-43, 46-47, 62-63
manuscripts
categorisation 40-42
histories (Buranjis) 42-43
mantras and prayers 41, 53-57
predictions and augury 44-45
spirit calling texts 41, 47-51
stories 41, 58-60
chronology 35, 60
storage 36
rituals 35, 53-57
Tai Ahom-Assamese lexicons
Bar Amra 41, 60-62
Loti Amra 41
translation process 47-48, 49-53

Tajvidi, ‘ Ali 587, 589, 598, 609

takhmīs (poetic form) 349

talibés (Quranic school students) 173

talismans 334, 343, 469

Tamyong Lepcha 73

Tantavilca, don Gabriel 243, 246

tarana (popular ballads) 613

tax 178
Andean doctrina 242, 249
collection (Roma) 192
collection (Spanish colonists) 227, 230-231
Mizo chhiah 461

Tehran
Advanced School for Music Studies 597
Centre for the Preservation and Promotion of Music 597
National Conservatory of Music 597
Technical College 597

Thieyène 341

Tiahuanaco ruins 433-440

Tibet
Buddhism 68, 74-75, 83-84
literature 68, 75-76, 78
resurrection texts 79
Tibetan Book of the Dead 83

Tifinagh characters 5, 6

Tifinagh rock inscriptions 5, 7, 15-26
chronology 18, 20, 22-24

Tigray 89, 92, 97-98

Timbuktu 173, 174, 175, 180, 182, 184

Titicaca, Lake and regions 433, 439

Touré, Sékou 550, 561-562, 564, 572

Toussele, Jacques 531-533, 540, 542, 545

trade routes 25, 119, 148, 180. See also commerce

translations
difficulties 5, 7, 40, 42-43, 46-47, 75, 85
methodologies 47-48, 49-53

Trent, Council of 225, 232, 249

Tsigani (Gypsies) 190. See also Roma

Tuareg. See Kel Tadrart Tuareg

Tukulóor 338

Ubah, Chinedu N. 293

Udmurtia, language revitalisation 624-626

Udmurt State University 625

UNESCO
language endangerment 619, 631
literacy rate statistics 332, 603
orthography 356
World Heritage sites 3, 173

Unicode
Ajami exclusions 357-358
Tai Ahom script 60, 62
Wolof Ajami 357

United States
Bureau of Indian Affairs lviii
National Archives lviii

University of Leicester 1

Usman ɗan Fodio 337

Vatican Library l-li

Vaziri, ‘Ali-Naghi 593, 595, 597, 606

Vergara, don Diego de 253-254

Victoria, Queen 455

Vienna
Museum für Völkerkunde 72
phonogram archives 619, 624

Virgin Islands lvii

wadis (valleys) 17, 20

waqf (pious endowment) 150, 151, 152, 161
al-Jazzār Mosque Library 378
Riyadha, Lamu 138, 142, 145-147, 147
Roma 198, 208

Wayúu Indians 270-271

Welsh Calvinistic missionaries 449, 468

Westernisation 463-464

Whipping Act, VI (1865) 462

Wolof 332
Ajami (Wolofal). See also Ajami business records 344
manuscript digitisation project 331-370, 375
manuscript types 334

Wolofisation 363

Women
Ajami poetry 352
exploitation 461, 462-463
Iranian 593
prison labour 314
seers 476
shamans 74
squirrel hunters 512

Worger, William H. 324

Yakut people 496. See also Evenki National District

Yenisei 492, 496

Zanzibar 138, 142, 149 Zionism (and anti-Zionist propaganda) 383-385