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From Dust to Digital

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Maja Kominko

Part III. Documentary Archives

12. Digitisation of Islamic manuscripts and periodicals in Jerusalem and Acre1

Qasem Abu Harb

Texte intégral

1This chapter provides an overview of three digitisation projects supported by the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP). The first, EAP119, digitised the collection of historical periodicals in al-Aqṣá Mosque Library in Jerusalem (Al-Quds) in 2007.2 Two subsequent projects recorded manuscripts in al-Jazzār Mosque Library in Acre (ʿAkkā) (EAP399 in 2010) and al-Aqṣá Mosque Library in Jerusalem (EAP521 in 2012).3 After tracing a short history of the two libraries and outlining the development of the early Arabic press in Palestine, this contribution makes the case for the urgency of digitisation and provides a brief account of the digitisation process along with the challenges that the projects had to overcome.

The Mosque Libraries of al-Aqṣá in Jerusalem and al-Jazzār in Acre

  • 4 Houari Touati, L’armoire à sagesse: bibliothèques et collections en Islam (Paris: Aubier, 2003; Ami (...)
  • 5 Dov Schidorsky, “Libraries in Late Ottoman Palestine between the Orient and Occident”, Libraries an (...)

2In Islam, books and book collections have always been seen as a mark of faith, learning and wisdom that lent prestige to their owners. Islamic rulers sought to outdo their predecessors by founding libraries with vast collections of magnificent quality, whilst mosques and madrasahs created impressive book collections in order to enhance their reputation as centres of learning, and scholars achieved fame for their private libraries.4 The late Ottoman Palestine was no different: the mosques and Muslim courthouses contained collections of religious literature and many large private collections were held in the city homes of distinguished families.5

3The older of the two libraries where the digitisation projects supported by the EAP took place is located in the northern city of Acre. Al-Jazzār Mosque Library (al-Aḥmadīyah) is a part of a waqf, a pious foundation of Ahmad al-Jazzār, the eighteenth-century Ottoman governor (pasha) of the provinces of Acre. Al-Jazzār’s waqf was the largest such endowment in the history of Acre. It was the only waqf in this city which was publicly administered under the Ottoman Ministry of Waqf and later, during the British Mandate rule, under the Supreme Muslim Council.

  • 6 Bernhard Dichter, Akko: Sites from the Turkish Period (Haifa: University of Haifa, 2000), p. 108. Y (...)
  • 7 Dichter, Akko, p. 109; and Nathan Schur, A History of Acre (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1990), pp. 173-76.
  • 8 Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Pe (...)

4The waqf was created in May 1786 and the endowment included: a mosque, Jami al-Anwar, “the Mosque of Lights”, an Islamic college with fifty rooms for the lodgings for students from the four schools of Islamic law, a large library, a public fountain, an underground water reservoir, a ritual bath, a sundial, a garden and 29 stores surrounding the mosque courtyard.6 The mosque and adjacent buildings, which were heavily damaged by Napoleon’s bombardment in 1799, underwent renovations in the early nineteenth century.7 Throughout the rest of the century the library attracted many visitors, not only from the Muslim community since — unlike in the case of other mosques — Christians were allowed to enter al-Jazzār Mosque and adjacent buildings.8

  • 9 Thomas Skinner, Adventures During a Journey Overland to India, 1 (London: Richard Bentley, 1837), p (...)

5Al-Jazzār Mosque was one of the many buildings damaged by the Egyptian bombardment of Acre in 1831-1832. The mosque’s library was looted and the Egyptian army used the yard as a camp.9 After the defeat of the Egyptians and the liberation of the city, the library was re-opened and remains open to this day.

  • 10 Joseph Asad Dagher dates the library’s foundation to 1927 and attributes it to the Superior Islamic (...)
  • 11 Mona Hajjar Halaby, “Out of the Public Eye: Adel Jabre’s Long Journey from Ottomanism to Binational (...)
  • 12 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 94; Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern (...)

6The newer of the libraries, al-Aqṣá, is located at the heart of the Old City of Jerusalem, in the southwestern corner of the al-Haram al-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) complex. Founded in 1922 by the Supreme Muslim Council in Palestine under the leadership of the mufti of Palestine, Hajj Amin al-Husseini, the library brought together the books that had been kept in al-Aqṣá and the Dome of the Rock buildings, and gradually also acquired books from private libraries in Jerusalem, in Palestine and even from abroad.10 In 1923, Adel Jabre became the first director of al-Aqṣá Library and, at the same time, the director of the Islamic Museum. The al-Aqṣá archive preserves his correspondence with the intellectuals in the Middle East and Europe he approached for book donations.11 The uniquely revered status of al-Aqṣá had brought it endowments of private book collections and book gifts, including publications on modern science and literature and donations of local journals.12

  • 13 Yusof Natsheh, “Al-Aqṣa Mosque Library of al-Haram as-Sharif”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 13 (2001), 44-4 (...)
  • 14 Gish Amit, “Ownerless Objects? The Story of the Books Palestinians Left Behind in 1948”, Palestine (...)
  • 15 Larry Stillman, “Books: A Palestinian Tale”, Arena, 120 (2012), 35-39; and Amit Gish, “Salvage or P (...)
  • 16 Hannah Mermelstein, “Overdue Books: Returning Palestine’s ‘ Abandoned Property’of 1948”, Jerusalem (...)

7Al-Aqṣá Library was first housed in Qubbat al-Nahwiyyah, a building that lies in the southwestern corner of the Haram al-Sharif compound and was once home to a thirteen-century school of literature. The library was subsequently moved to the sacred compound, and the manuscripts were stored in a building nearby.13 The development of the library was also stifled by the events of 1948 and their aftermath, when Palestinian libraries were closed, suspended or had their holdings divided among other institutions. Between May 1948 and the end of February 1949, the staff of the National Library of Israel and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Library collected some 30,000 books and manuscripts that had been left behind by the Palestinian residents of western Jerusalem.14 Of these, about 24,000 were disposed of because they were considered irrelevant or hostile material.15 The remaining 6000 books have not been returned, despite a clear statement by the 1954 Hague Convention for the Preservation of Cultural Property, and despite the fact that the National Library of Israel — an internationally leading cultural institution and the recipient of many books stolen in the Holocaust — is well-placed to recognise the importance of acts of restorative justice.16

  • 17 Salameh Al-balawi, “Libraries of Al-Quds: from the Ayyubi Conquest to the Zionist Violation”, paper (...)
  • 18 Natsheh, “Al-Aqṣa Mosque Library of al-Haram as-Sharif”, p. 45.
  • 19 For the partial catalogues of the collection see Khader Salameh, Fihris makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Masji (...)

8After a long period of inactivity from 1948 to 1976, the Waqf Administration decided to revive the library in early 1977. The library’s collection was moved from the Islamic Museum to the ground floor of the monumental fifteenth-century Ashrafiyya madrasa.17 In 2000, the library was relocated Digitisation of Islamic manuscript and periodicals 381 again to its current position, the building of “Jami‘ al-Nisa”, or “Women’s Mosque”, between al-Aqṣá Mosque on the east side and the Islamic Museum on the west.18 The most valuable part of the library’s collection consists of approximately 2,000 manuscripts and 74 historical Arabic newspapers and magazines titles from the region.19

The urgency of digitisation

  • 20 Majed Khader, “Challenges and Obstacles in Palestinian Libraries”, in Libraries in the Early 21st C (...)
  • 21 Goldenberg and Hazboun.

9The digitisation of the holdings of al-Aqṣá Mosque Library and al-Jazzār Mosque Library was urgently needed in order to document the collection and preserve its content. The manuscripts and the newspapers have been deteriorating rapidly due to the poor environmental conditions in libraries which lack proper humidity and temperature control. The lack of a preservation programme, and the shortage of staff trained in conservation and preservation methods were also a serious threats.20 This issue has now been addressed by the joint project of UNESCO and the Waqf, Jordan’s Islamic authority, initiated in 2014 to restore al-Aqṣá Library’s manuscripts, old maps, Ottoman population and trade registers and hand-written documents from the Mamluk period.21

  • 22 For a broader discussion of the situation of Palestinian libraries in the early twentyfirst century (...)

10The fragile condition of the documents has been aggravated by scholars and students handling the materials.22 Moreover, because of the unstable political situation in Jerusalem, the location of al-Aqṣá Library in the Old City presents not only a significant threat to the collection, but also makes access difficult. Palestinians from the West Bank or the Gaza Strip have to obtain permits from Israel to enter Jerusalem. Students and scholars are frequently unable to access the library because of the curfews imposed due to political unrest in the Old City.

11Consequently, all three digitisation projects supported by the EAP had a dual aim: to help the preservation of the materials by creating digital surrogates, and to facilitate access to the materials and make them available to scholars and students in Palestine and worldwide. Each of the three projects created digital photographs in TIFF format. One set remains in al-Aqṣá Library and al-Jazzār Mosque Library, while another has been transferred to the British Library and made accessible via the Internet to scholars worldwide.23

Digitising the collection of historical periodicals in al-Aqṣá Mosque Library

  • 24 For a discussion of the digitisation project, see Krystyna K. Matusiak and Qasem Abu Harb, “Digitiz (...)

12Al-Aqṣá Library contains more than seventy Arabic language newspaper and journal titles, published in Palestine and other Arab countries as well as a selection of periodicals published by the Arab communities in Europe and North and South America. Copies of the historical Palestinian periodicals and newspapers are extremely rare and for many of the titles, the library holds the only copy available in the region.24

  • 25 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 48; Khalidi, Palestinian Identity, pp. 54-55 and 227 (note 63); and A (...)
  • 26 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 57.
  • 27 Adnan A. Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics at the End of the Ottoman Era”, http://www.bet (...)
  • 28 Ami Ayalon, The Press in the Arab Middle East: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), (...)

13The region’s first privately published journals appeared in Beirut in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. By 1880 new presses opened in Cairo, Alexandria and other Egyptian towns, reaching a total of 627 different newspapers with a circulation of perhaps 100,000 copies by 1908.25 In Palestine, printing was first undertaken by Christian religious institutions, starting with a Franciscan press established in Jerusalem in 1846. The Armenian and Greek churches followed suit, but in all these cases printing was limited to evangelising materials.26 The Arabic periodicals first appeared in Palestine only after the Young Turks rebellion in 1908, when political changes in the Ottoman Empire brought about the abolition of censorship.27 As many as fifteen periodicals appeared in 1908, another twenty were published before the outbreak of World War I, and nearly 180 more before the end of the British Mandate.28

  • 29 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 61
  • 30 Ibid., p. 60.
  • 31 Ibid., p. 52.

14Launching a newspaper was easier than sustaining its publication for long, and the majority of papers started in Palestine and elsewhere in the region turned out to be ephemeral.29 Moreover, the presence of Egyptian and Lebanese publications throughout the region resulted in a weakening of local presses, which found it hard to compete with the quality of the products flowing from Cairo and Beirut.30 In 1936 Zionists attempting to set up an Arabic newspaper to counter anti-Zionist propaganda, acknowledged that it was difficult to compete with the quality of imported Egyptian publications like al-Ahrām [The Pyramids] and al-Jihād [The Struggle].31

  • 32 For a discussion of the role of Zionism in the development of Palestinian identity under the Britis (...)
  • 33 Mary Hanania, “Jurji Habib Hanania History of the Earliest Press in Palestine, 1908-1914”, Jerusale (...)
  • 34 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 66; Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinia (...)

15The Zionist settlement represented an additional incentive for the emergence of Arabic publications, many of them opposed to the new Jewish presence in Palestine.32 The three leading papers of the pre-war period voiced Palestinian Arab emotions and they all were published by the Palestinian Christians. Jurji Habib Hananya’s al-Quds [The Holy, epithet for Jerusalem] was first published in that city from 1908, was moderate.33 Najib Nassar’s al-Karmil [Carmel, after Mount Carmel] which appeared in Haifa in the same year, and the Jaffa paper Filasṭīn [Palestine], established by the cousins Yūsuf al-ʿĪsá and ʿĪsá al-ʿĪsá in 1911, were outspokenly anti-Zionist.34

  • 35 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 97. See also Adnan Musallam, “Turbulent Times in the Life of t (...)
  • 36 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 51.

16With the outbreak of World War I publishing activities in Palestine were suppressed, but re-emerged in 1919 with the establishment of British control over Palestine, and two of the leading pre-war papers, al-Karmil and Filasṭīn, re-opened. Overall, the publication landscape in Palestine during the British Mandate (1917-1948) was more diverse than in the pre-war period. The press increasingly reflected rising national consciousness and different political factions.35 By the mid 1930s, according to one survey, over 250 papers in Arabic and 65 in other languages were in circulation throughout the country.36

  • 37 Ibid., p. 62.
  • 38 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, pp. 96-97; and Zachary F. Foster, “Arabness, Turkey and the Pales (...)

17Most of the newspapers appeared weekly and their print run increased gradually. Rather than the few hundred copies of the pre-war era, individual papers in Palestine of the 1920s typically circulated at 1,000-1,500 copies. Filasṭīn, the most popular publication, reportedly sold circa 3,000 copies per issue towards the end of the decade.37 In the 1920s, some twenty papers were established in Jerusalem, most importantly Mirʾat al-Sharq [Mirror of the East] which Būlus Shihādah, a Christian, founded in September 1919, and al-Jāmiʿ al-ʿArabīyah [Arab Union], the voice of the Supreme Muslim Council, which appeared in December 1927, and was edited by Munif al-Husayni. Around five or six papers were founded in Jaffa in the 1920s in addition to Filasṭīn, and approximately twelve in Haifa, with some in Gaza, Tulkarm and Bethlehem.38

  • 39 Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics”; Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 98; and Qustandi (...)
  • 40 Adnan Abu-Ghazaleh, “Arab Cultural Nationalism in Palestine during the British Mandate”, Journal of (...)

18Although the British adopted the Ottoman Press Law, which required licensing and submitting translations of press extracts to the government authorities, they rarely interfered until 1929.39 The Buraq Uprising of that year, which was followed by violent confrontations between Arabs and Zionists, brought a radicalisation of the Arabic language press. The most outspoken papers established in the 1930s in Jaffa, were al-Difāʿ [Defense], a voice of the Istiqlal Party, and al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah [Islamic Union] (Fig. 12.1) which appeared from 1932 to 1937. Al-Liwāʾ [The Flag] (Fig. 12.2), representing the dominant Arab Party, was established in Jerusalem in 1933.40

Fig. 12.1 Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah [Islamic Union] newspaper, 27 July 1937 (EAP119/1/12/480, image 1), CC BY.

Fig. 12.2 Front page of al-Liwāʾ [The Flag] newspaper, 16 December 1935 (EAP119/1/17/2, image 1), CC BY.

  • 41 See Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, pp. 98-100; and Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics”.
  • 42 Aida al-Najjar, The Arabic Press and Nationalism in Palestine, 1920-1948 (Ph. D. thesis, Syracuse U (...)
  • 43 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 102.

19The attitude of the British authorities to the vociferous Palestinian press was initially benign, as they assessed the public impact of newspapers to be minimal. Nevertheless, as the press’s radicalisation and impact grew, the British authorities responded with increasingly harsh measures. The new Publication Law, issued in January 1933, gave the authorities powers to deny or withdraw publication permits, suspend or close down papers, and punish journalists, was amended and new regulations were introduced which restricted the freedom of the press even further.41 Many major newspapers, Filasṭīn, al-Difāʿ, al-Liwāʾ and al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm among others, were suspended from circulation for extended periods of time in 1937 and 1938.42 With the outbreak of World War II and the introduction of new emergency laws, the British ordered the closure of almost all newspapers. Only Filasṭīn and al-Difāʿ were able to survive by adopting a moderate nationalist tone and publishing closely censored news.43

  • 44 For a list of the circulation of Arabic Newspapers in the region, see Ayalon, Press in the Middle E (...)
  • 45 Weldon Matthews, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politi (...)
  • 46 Matthews, p. 82.

20The periodical collection at al-Aqṣá Mosque Library consists of historical newspapers, journals and magazines in multiple formats. We selected 24 of these (thirteen magazines and eleven journals) for digitisation, on the grounds of their rarity and importance of the events they covered.44 In addition to Filasṭīn, we have digitised such papers as al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah, published by Shaykh Sulayman al-Taji al-Faruqi in Jaffa.45 The newspaper was deemed to be in opposition to the Supreme Islamic Council led by Muhammad Amin al-Husayni. The first issue of the newspaper was published on 16 July 1932, and by the begining of its second year, the newspaper, which had started on 5 July 1933, had reached issue number 297. Al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah continued to publish its eight-pages for a period of two years. At the end of the same year the newspaper closed with the issue 588, at the order of the British Mandate authorities. We have also digitised al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah published in Jerusalem from 20 January 1927.46 The publisher and chief editor was Munif al-Husayni, who worked as a spokesman for the Supreme Islamic Council, which indicates that the Islamic Council was the funder for the newspaper. The slogan of the newspaper, which was written below the title, was a prophetic saying: “If the Arabs are humiliated, then Islam is humiliated (اذا تلذ برعلا لذ ملاسلاا)”. Amil al-Ghuri joined the editorial staff of the newspaper responsible for the foreign affairs section, and Muhammad Tahir al-Fityani for domestic news. The last issue of the newspaper appeared on 22 July 1934.

21The collection of historical newspapers in al-Aqṣá is an important source of information about Palestine, its history, and its people in the first half of the twentieth century. The newspapers constitute important sources on the Arab nationalist movement, Palestinian reactions to Jewish immigration and the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. They cover many important historical events, such as the Balfour Declaration of 1917 (Fig. 12.3), the 1929 Buraq Uprising (Fig. 12.4), the al-Qassam unrest of 1931 (Fig. 12.5). They discuss Palestinians political parties (Fig. 12.6), the Palestinians armed forces, the 1936 strike, the 1936-1939 revolution (Fig. 12.7), British policy against Arab leaders, The British Mandate policy toward Palestinians journalism (Fig. 12.8) and the region’s social, economic and cultural development.

Fig. 12.3 Front page of Miraʾat al-Sharq [The Mirror of the East] newspaper, on the Balfour Declaration, 2 November 1917 (EAP119/1/24/1, image 1), CC BY.

Fig. 12.4 Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Buraq uprising, 16 October 1929 (EAP119/1/13/260, image 1), CC BY.

Fig. 12.5 Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on al-Qassam unrest, 22 November 1935 (EAP119/1/13/1504, image 3), CC BY.

Fig. 12.6 Front page of al-Iqdām [The Courage] newspaper, on political parties, 30 March 1935 (EAP119/1/23/34, image 1), CC BY.

Fig. 12.7 Front page of al-Difāʿ [The Defence] newspaper, on the great strike of 1936, 17 June 1936 (EAP119/1/21/169, image 1), CC BY.

Fig. 12.8 Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Palestinian press under the Mandate, 3 April 1930 (EAP119/1/13/338, image 3), CC BY.

Table 12.1 Selected titles and their publication dates

NO

Transliterated Title

Title in Arabic

Periodical Type

Coverage

1

Majallat Rawḍat al-Maʿārif

لجم ةضور فراعملا

Magazine

1922-1923; 1932; 1934

2

al-Kullīya al-ʿArabīyah

ةيلكلا ةيبرعلا

Magazine

1927-1938

3

al-Ḥuqūq

قوقحلا

Magazine

1923-1928

4

al-Muqtabas

سبتقملا

Magazine

1907-1912

5

al-ʿArab

برعلا

Magazine

1933-1934

6

al-Jinān

نانجلا

Magazine

1874

7

al-Maḥabbah

ةبحملا

Magazine

1901

8

al-Ḥasnāʾ

ءانسحلا

Magazine

1909-1912

9

al-Zahrah

ةرهزلا

Magazine

1922-1926

10

Rawḍat al-Maʿārif

ةضور فراعملا

Magazine

1326-1327 AH

11

al-Fajr

رجفلا

Magazine

1935

12

al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah

ةعماجلا ةيملاسلاا

Newspaper

1932-1938

13

al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah

ةعماجلا ةيبرعلا

Newspaper

1932-1938

14

al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm

طارصلا ميقتسملا

Newspaper

1928-1936

15

Ṣawt al-shaʿb

توص بعشلا

Newspaper

1928-1930; 1934

16

al-Awqāt al-ʿArabīyah

تاقولاا ةيبرعلا

Newspaper

1935

17

al-Liwāʾ

ءاوللا

Newspaper

1935-1937

18

Taṣwīr Afkār

ريوصت راكفا

Newspaper

1909

19

al-Muqtabas

سبتقملا

Newspaper

1908-1912; 1915-1916

20

al-Qabas

سبقلا

Newspaper

1913-1914

21

al-Difāʿ

عافدلا

Newspaper

1934-1951

22

Filasṭīn

نيطسلف

Newspaper

1923-1937; 1947-1951

23

al-Iqdām

مادقلاا

Newspaper

1935-1936

24

Mirʾat al-Sharq

ةأرم قرشلا

Newspaper

1922-1936

Fig. 12.9 Damaged page of Filasṭīn [Palestine] newspaper, 30 December 1947 (EAP119/1/22/1802, image 1), CC BY.

  • 47 See, for example, the State of Michigan’s “Guidelines for Digitizing a Newspaper”, http://www.michi (...)

22Digitisation of newspapers is especially challenging because of the large format, complex page layout, and poor quality of print (Fig. 12.9). This often causes the libraries to outsource the scanning process.47

  • 48 See the EAP’s “Guidelines for Photographing and Scanning Archive Material”, June 2014, http://www.b (...)

23The historical nature of the collection and the location of al-Aqṣá Mosque Library meant outsourcing was not an option and the digitisation had to be performed in-house. It is worth noting that due to this location the project had to overcome problems with environmental conditions as well as restrictions from the police at the al-Aqṣá gates. For the scanning process we have followed the guidelines of the National Digital Newspaper Program.48

Digitisation of manuscripts

  • 49 Mahmoud Attalah, Fihris Makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Aḥmadīyah fi ʿAkkā (Amman: Mujmaʿat al-Lughah al-ʿAra (...)

24In 2010, with the support of the EAP, we initiated the project to digitise the historical manuscript collection in the holdings of al-Jazzār Mosque Library (al-Aḥmadīyah), in Acre. The materials selected for digitisation included a collection of 53 Arabic language manuscripts dating from the fourteenth to the twentieth century. The manuscripts cover aspects of the Islamic religion, but also Arabic literature, the Arabic language, logic, mathematics and Sufism (Figs. 12.10-14). They provide a unique insight into centuries of Arabic culture in Palestine. A catalogue of the manuscripts, published in 1983, documents circa ninety manuscripts in the library.49 The manuscripts are tightly bound and have been damaged through constant use. Due to preservation challenges — and because of their uniqueness and high value — digitisation had to be conducted on the premises of al-Jazzār Mosque Library. The project resulted in the creation of high-quality digital archival copies of 53 rare manuscripts, consisting of 17,965 pages.

Fig. 12.10 Damaged paper of Bāb sharḥ al-shamsīyah, work on logic, 1389 CE (EAP399/1/23, image 4), CC BY.

Fig. 12.11 Ashraf al-Wasāʾil, biography of the Prophet, 1566 CE (EAP39

Fig. 12.12 Khāliṣ al-talkhīṣ, on the Arabic language, seventeenth century CE (EAP399/1/42, image 5), CC BY.

Fig. 12.13 al-Wasīlah fī al-Ḥisāb, on mathematics, 1412 CE (EAP399/1/14, image 18), CC BY.

Fig. 12.14 Taṣrīf al-Šāfiyah, on the Arabic language, 1345 CE (EAP399/1/34, image 85), CC BY.

Table 12.2 List of selected titles (EAP399)

NO

Transliterated
Title

Title in Arabic

Dates of original material

Scope and
Content

Physical condition

1

Sharal-Muallī Matn Jamʿ al-Jawāmiʿ

نتم ىلع يلحملا حرش عماوجلا عمج

1369

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

2

Muʿrib fī al-Naw

وحنلا يف برعم

1706

Grammar

Bad

3

al-Jazāʾīyāt

تايئازجلا

1429

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

4

Mughannīy al-Labīb ʿan Kutub al-Aʿārīb

بتك نع بيبللا ينغم بيراعلاا

1359

Grammar

Fair

5

Sharal-Qur li-Ibn Hishām

ماشه نبلا رطقلا حرش

1359

Grammar

Acceptable

6

Ḥāshiyat al-Bājūrī ʿalá al-Samarqandī

ىلع يروجابلا ةيشاح يدنقرمسلا

1836

Grammar

Good

7

al-Taṣrīḥ fī Sharḥ al-Tawḍīḥ

حرش يف حيرصتلا يناث ءزج– حيضوتلا

1419

Grammar

Good

8

Sharḥ ʿAwāmil al-Jirjānī

حرش لماوع يناجرجلا

1081

Grammar

Good

9

Sharḥ al-Alfīyah li-Ibn Mālik lil-ʿUlāmah Ibn ʿAqīl

حرش ةيفللاا نبلا كلام ةملاعلل نب ليقع

1367

Grammar

Acceptable

10

Kitāb al-Taḥrīr

باتك ريرحتلا

unknown

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

11

Ḥāshiyat al-Bājūrī ʿalá Mawlid al-ʿUlāmah Ibn Ḥajar

ىلع يروجابلا ةيشاح رجح نب ةملاعلا دلوم

1860

Grammar

Good

12

Ashraf al-Wasāʾil ilá Fahm al-Shamāʾil

مهف ىلا لئاسولا فرشا لئامش

1566

Prophet’s biography

Fair

13

Naẓm al-Khalāfīyāt

تايفلاخلا مظن

1142

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

14

al-Wasīlah fī al-Ḥisāb

باسحلا يف ةليسولا

1412

Mathematics

Bad

15

Anwār al-ʿĀšiqīn

نيقشاعلا راونا

1451

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Good

16

Ḥāshiyat al-Malawī wa-al-Bājūrī ʿalá al-Samarqandīyah

يولملا ةيشاح
ىلع يروجابلاو
ةيدنقرمسلا

1768

Arabic

language

Fair

17

Sharḥ al-Waraqāt: Fuṣūl min Uṣūl al-Fiqh

لوصف– تاقرولا حرش هقفلا لوصا نم

1085

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

18

Ḥāshiyat al-Ṣabbān ʿalá al-Sharḥ al-Ashmūnī

ىلع نابصلا ةيشاح ءزج-ينومشلاا حرش يناث

1791

Arabic language

Fair

19

Tuḥfat al-Murīd ʿalá Jawharat al-Tawḥīd

ةفحت ديرملا ىلع ةرهوج ديحوتلا

1860

Arabic language

Acceptable

20

al-Jāmiʿ al-Ṣaghīr

عماجلا ريغصلا

n.d.

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

21

Qurʾān Karīm: Muṣḥaf Sharīf ʿUthmānī

فحصم -ميرك نارق ينامثع فيرش

1245

Holy Quran

Fair

22

al-Futūḥāt al-Makkīyah

تاحوتفلا ةيكملا – ءزج يناث

1240

Sufism

Fair

23

Bāb sharḥ al-shamsīyah

باب حرش ةيسمشلا

1389

Mantiq (Logic)

Bad

24

al-Fawāʾid al-Musʿidīyah fī Ḥall al-Muqaddimah al-Jazarīyah

دئاوفلا ةيدعسملا يف لح ةمدقملا ةيرزجلا

n.d.

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Acceptable

25

al-Durrah al-Sanīyah ʿalá Sharḥ al-Alfīyah

ىلع حرش ةردلا ةينسلا

n.d.

Arabic language

Fair

26

Ḥāshiyat al-Amīr ʿalá al-Shudhūr

ةيشاح ريملاا ىلع روذشلا

1761

Arabic language

Fair

27

al-Jāmiʿ al-Kabīr

عماجلا ريبكلا 2ج

n.d.

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

28

Fatḥ al-Bārī bi-Sharḥ al-Bukhārī

حتف يرابلا حرشب-يراخبلا ءزجلا يناثلا

n.d

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Fair

29

Ḥāshiyat al-Amīr ʿalá Matn al-Shudhūr

ةيشاح ريملاا ىلع نتم روذشلا

1359

Arabic language

Good

30

Ḥāshiyat ʿalá Sharḥ al-Alfīyah

ةيشاح ىلع حرش ةيفللاا

17th century

Arabic language

Acceptable

31

Kitāb Adhkār

راكذا باتك

1278

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Bad

32

Ḥāshiyat Fatḥ al-Mujīb wa-al-Qawl al-Mukhtār

بيجملا حتف ةيشاح راتخملا لوقلاو

n.d.

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

33

al-Fawāʾid al-Shanshūrīyah fī Sharḥ al-Manẓūmah al-Raḥbīyah

يف ةيروشنشلا دئاوفلا ةيبحرلا ةموظنملا حرش

1591

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

34

Taṣrīf al-Šāfiyah

ةيفاشلا فيرصت

1345

Arabic language

Good

35

Ḥāshiyat Muḥammad al-Amīr ʿalá al-Samarqandīyah

ريملاا دمحم ةيشاح ةيدنقرمسلا ىلع

n.d.

Arabic language

Good

36

Risālah fī al-Mughārasah

ةسراغملا يف ةلاسر

n.d.

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

37

Ḥāshiyat al-Baqrī ʿalá al-Sabṭ

ةيشاح يرقبلا ىلع طبسلا

1733

Arabic literature

Acceptable

38

Matn al-Manāsik fī al-Ḥajj al-Nawawī

نتم كسانملا يف جحلا – كسانم يوونلا

1278

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

39

Ḥāshiyat al-Baqrī ʿalá al-Sabṭ al-Mārdīnī: Sharḥ al-Manẓūmah al-Raḥbīyah

ةيشاح يرقبلا ىلع طبس ينيدراملا حرش-ةموظنملا ةيبحرلا

n.d.

Arabic literature

Fair

40

Ḥāshiyat al-Zayyāt ʿalá al-Shanshūrīyah

ةيشاح تايزلا ىلع يروشنشلا

n.d.

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

41

Ḥāshiyat al-Sharqāwī ʿalá al-Hudhudī am al-Barahīn

ةيشاح يواقرشلا ىلع يدهدهلا ما نيهاربلا

1194

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

42

Khāliṣ al-Talkhīš

صلاخ صيخلتلا

17th century

Arabic language

Good

43

Thamarat al-Ifhām: Manūmat Kifāyat al-Ghulām

تارمث ماهفلاا - ةموظنم ةيافك ملاغلا

n.d.

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

44

Fatḥ al-Mubīn: Sharḥ Manẓūmat Ibn al-ʿImād fī al-Najāsāt

حتف نيبملا – حرش ةموظنم نب دامعلا يف تاساجنلا

1623

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

45

Tanbīh al-Anām: Shifāʾ al-Asqām wa-Maḥw al-Āthām

هيبنت مانلاا – افش ماقسلاا وحمو ماثلاا

1553

Prophet’s biography

Good

46

Iʿrāb al-Qurʾān al-Karīm

- ميركلا نارقلا بارعا يناث ءزج

949

Arabic language

Acceptable

47

Ḥāshiyat al-Ṣabbān ʿalá Sharḥ al-Ashmūnī ʿalá al-Alfīyah l-Ibn Mālik

ىلع نابصلا ةيشاح ىلع ينومشلاا حرش ءزج– كلام نبلا ةيفللاا 1

1791

Arabic literature

Acceptable

48

al-Mulakhkhaṣ min al-Wāfī bi-Kanz al-Daqāʾiq

صخلملا نم يفاولا زنكب قياقدلا

818

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

49

Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāyah

ةياقولا رصتخم حرش

949

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

50

Kitāb al-Itqān fī ʿUlūm al-Qurʾān

باتك ناقتلاا يف مولع نارقلا

1505

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Acceptable

51

Qiṣṣat al-Miʿrāj

جارعملا ةصق

1576

Prophet’s biography

Acceptable

52

Jamʿ al-Jawāmiʿ

عماوجلا عمج

1370

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Bad

53

al-Tuḥaf al-Kayrīyah ʿalá al-Fawāʾid al-Shanshūrīyah

ىلع ةيريخلا فحتلا ةيروشنشلا دياوفلا

1236

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

  • 50 The EAP specifications consisted of the following devices and software: Device: Atiz BookDrive Pro; (...)
  • 51 File names for digital masters and PDF derivatives were established prior to the scanning process. (...)

25In 2012 the 2012 EAP project digitised a collection of 119 manuscripts in al-Aqṣá Mosque Library, dating from the twelfth to the nineteenth century. The selection includes manuscripts from the collections of well-known Palestinian scholars, such as Fayd Allah al-‘ Alami, the Shaykh Khalil al-Khalidi and from the private collection of Shaykh Muhammad al-Khalili. The digitisation of manuscripts was carried out using the ATIZ BOOK Drive system, with two digital cameras to capture images of manuscripts. The initial output of the ATIZ BookDrive system is in RAW format, which required conversion to TIFF format for archiving purposes.50 The digitisation guidelines for the project assumed a use-neutral approach and are based on digital library standards, best practices, and general principles for building digital collections. The goal of the project was to build a repository of digital master files in TIFF format for archiving purposes and to provide derivative files in PDF format for current use. Digital, high-resolution (minimum 300 dpi) master files were created as a direct result of the scanning process. A consistent file naming convention was established in order to manage the project effectively.51 Derivative files in PDF format were created for access and are available for browsing and reading.

26The project resulted in the creation of high-quality digital archival copies of 119 rare manuscripts ranging in date from the thirteenth to the twentieth century consisting of 33,000 pages (Figs. 12.15-18).

Fig. 12.15 al-Rawḍah, on jurisprudence and matters of doctrine, 1329 CE (EAP521/1/90, image 4), CC BY.

Fig. 12.16 Maʿālim al-Tanzīl, exegesis, 1437 CE (EAP521/1/6, image 3), CC BY.

Fig. 12.17 Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfiʿīyah, on history, 1542 CE (EAP521/1/26, image 33), CC BY.

Fig. 12.18 al-Nawādir al-Sulṭānīyah, on the history and biography of Salaḥ al-Dīn al-Ayyūbī, 1228 CE (EAP521/1/24, image 29), CC BY.

27The physical condition of the manuscripts varies from volume to volume, but a significant number of selected titles are in poor condition.

28Both projects faced a number of challenges due to external factors, such as political upheavals, as well as those related to digitisation. Among the latter were issues such as quality of the original paper, irregular fonts, text density, torn or smudged pages, and a variation in layout. Although they posed many challenges to the digitisation process, we have been successful in overcoming them. We are proud that this important heritage has been preserved and made accessible to scholars.

Table 12.3 Description of the physical conditions of the manuscripts in EAP521

NO

Transliterated Title

Title in Arabic

Dates of original material

Subject

Physical condition

1

Badāʾiʿ al-Burhān

عئادب ناهربلا

18th century

Qirāʾah (Reciting the Quran)

Good

2

Tartīb Zībā

ابيز بيترت

1713

Quranic Sciences

Acceptable

3

Jāmiʿ al-Kalām fī Rasm Muṣḥaf al-Imām

عماج ملاكلا يف مسر فحصم ماملاا

1650

Quranic Sciences

Bad

4

Aqd al-Durrah al-Muḍīʾah

دقع ةردلا ةئيضملا

1682

Quranic Sciences

Good

5

al-Asrār al-Marfūʿah fī al-Aḥādīth

يف ةعوفرملا رارسلاا ثيداحلاا

1665

Hadith (Prophetic tradititions)

Good

6

Maʿālim al-Tanzīl

ملاعم ليزنتلا

1437

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Good

7

Silsilat al-Khājkān

ةلسلس ناكجاخلا

1769

Sufism

Acceptable

8

al-Tuḥfah al-Marḍīyah bi-al-Arāḍī al-Miṣrīyah

ةفحتلا ةيضرملا يضارلااب ةيرصملا

18th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

9

Ghayth al-Mawāhib

ثيغ بهاوملا

1617

Sufism

Acceptable

10

Jāmiʿ al-Fuṣūlīn fī al-Furūʿ

عماج نيلوصفلا يف عورفلا

1456

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

11

Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar al-Muntahá

ىهتنملا رصتخم حرش

16th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

12

Īdāḥ Kashf al-Dasāʾis

حاضيا فشك سئاسدلا

1466

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

13

Kashf al-Dasāʾis fī Tarmīm al-Kanāʾis

فشك سئاسدلا يف ميمرت سئانكلا

1466

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

14

Raḥmat al-Ummah fī Ikhtilāf al-Aʾimmah

ةمحر ةملاا يف فلاتخا ةمئلاا

1697

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

15

Ghunyat al-Mutamallī

ةينغ يلمتملاا

18th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Acceptable

16

al-Shifāʾ

افشلا

1788

Prophet’s Biography

Good

17

Sharḥ Miftāḥ al-ʿUlūm

مولعلا حاتفم حرش

1454

Arabic Language

Acceptable

18

Ḍawʾ al-Misbāḥ

حابصملا ىلع ءوضلا

17th century

Arabic Language

Fair

19

Ḥāshiyat al-Qalyūbī

ةيشاح يبويلقلا

1712

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

20

Adab al-Kitāb

بتاكلا بدا

1693

Arabic Literature

Acceptable

21

al-Iftitāḥ fī Sharḥ al-Miṣbāḥ

حرش يف حاتتفلاا حابصملا

1443

Arabic Language

Bad

22

al-Shaqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah

قئاقشلا ةينامعنلا

17th century

History & Biography

Acceptable

23

Nashq al-Azhār

راهزلاا قشن

17th century

History & Biography

Fair

24

al-Nawādir al-Sulṭānīyah

رداونلا ةيناطلسلا

1228

History & Biography

Acceptable

25

al-Muṭṭalaʿ

علطملا

1874

Mantiq (Logic)

Fair

26

Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfiʿīyah

تاقبط ةيعفاشلا

1542

History & Biography

good

27

ʿInāyat Ūlī al-Majd

ةيانع يلوا دجملا

1902

History & Biography

good

28

Taḥbīr al-Taysīr

ريسيتلا ريبحت

16th century

Quranic Sciences

Fair

29

Ddah Jonki

يكنوج هدد

1769

Arabic Language

Good

30

Jamīlat Arbāb al-Marāṣid

ةليمج بابرا دصارملا

1566

Quranic Sciences

Fair

31

Sharḥ al-Maṣābīḥ

حرش حيباصملا

1350

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

32

al-Adab al-Mufrad

بدلاا درفملا

19th century

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Good

33

Tafrīd al-Iʿtimād fī Sharḥ al-Tajrīd

يف دامتعلاا ديرفت ديرجتلا حرش

15th century

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

34

Sharḥ al-ʿAqāʾid al-ʿAḍdīyah

ةيدضعلا دئاقعلا حرش

15th century

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Acceptable

35

Sharḥ Qawāʿid al-ʿAqāʾid

دئاقعلا دعاوق حرش

1608

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Bad condition

36

al-Musāmarah fī Sharḥ al-Musāyarah

حرش يف ةرماسملا ةرياسملا

1501

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

37

Taḥqīq al-Zawrāʾ

ءاروزلا قيقحت

1716

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Acceptable

38

al-Madad al-Fāʾid wa-al-Kashf al-ʿĀriḍ

فشكلاو ضئافلا ددملا ضراعلا

1704

Sufism

Good

39

Qūt al-Qulūb

بولقلا توق

1655

Sufism

Good

40

Ḥāshiyah ʿalá al-Talwīḥ

حيولتلا ىلع ةيشاح

1672

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

41

al-Nubdhah al-Alfīyah fī al-Uṣūl

يف ةيفللاا ةذبنلا 1ج لوصلاا

1463

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

42

al-Nubdhah al-Alfīyah

2ج ةيفللاا ةذبنلا

1463

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

43

Sirāj al-Uqūl fī

Minhāj al-Uṣūl

يف لوقعلا جارس لوصلاا جاهنم

1397

Tawhid (On

Monotheism)

Fair

44

Mukhtaṣar

Ghunyat

al-Mutamallī

يلمتملا ةينغ رصتخم

1705

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Fair

45

Khulāṣat

al-Mukhtaṣar

رصتخملا ةصلاخ

14th

century

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Good

46

al-Sharḥ al-Kabīr

ʿalá al-Jāmiʿ

al-Ṣaghīr

ىلع ريبكلا حرشلا

ريغصلا عماجلا

1746

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Fair

47

al-Mubtaghá fī

Furūʿ al-Fiqh

عورف يف ىغتبملا

هقفلا

1464

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Fair

48

al-Furūq fī al-Furūʿ

عورفلا يف قورفلا

1447

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Acceptable

49

Fatāwá al-Sabkī

يكبسلا ىواتف

1347

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

50

Irshād al-Ghāwī ilá

Masālik al-Ḥāwī

ىلا يواغلا داشرا يواحلا كلاسم

1758

Jurisprudence

(Fiqh)

Good

51

Taʾsīs ʿalá al-Bināʾ

سيسأت ىلع ءانبلا

18th century

Arabic Language

Good

52

Sharḥ al-Tuḥfah al-Ḥamawīyah

حرش ةفحتلا ةيومحلا

1640

Arabic Language

Acceptable

53

Taj al-lugha wa sihah al-Arabi’a

حاحصو ةغللا جات ةيبرعلا

1407

Arabic language

Good

54

Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Ibn al-Khaṭṭāb

نبا رصتخم حرش باطحلا

18th century

Falak (Astronomy)

Good

55

ʿUjālat al-Bayān fī Sharḥ al-Mīzān

ةلاجع نايبلا يف حرش نازيملا

1653

Arabic Language

Acceptable

56

al-Ṣāfiyah fī Sharḥ al-Shāfiyah

حرش يف ةيفاصلا

18th century

Arabic Language

Good

57

Sharḥ al-Shāfiyah

ةيفاشلا حرش

1580

Arabic Language

Acceptable

58

Risālah fī al-Khayl

ليخلا يف ةلاسر

1902

Arabic Literature

Good

59

Ḥāshiyat Mīrzā Khān

ناخ ازريم ةيشاح

1715

Mantiq (Logic)

Fair

60

Miftāḥ al-ʿUlūm

حاتفم مولعلا

1347

Arabic Language

Fair

61

al-Dībāj al-Mudhahhab

جابيدلا بهذملا

16th century

History

Acceptable

62

al-Ghunyah li-Ṭālibī Ṭarīq al-Ḥaqq

ةينغلا يبلاطل قيرط قحلا

1500

Sufism

Good

63

Ḍiyāʾ al-Anwār

راونلاا ءايض

1888

History & Biography

Good

64

al-ʿUshāriyāt

تايراشعلا

1461

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

65

Tārīkh Nāẓir

خيرات رظان

1738

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

66

Risālah fī Khalq al-Qurʾān

ةلاسر يف قلخ نارقلا

1617

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Fair

67

Sharḥ Qaṣīdat Badʾ al-Amalī

ءدب ةديصق حرش يلاملاا

19th century

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Good

68

Maljāʾ al-Quḍḍāh

ةاضقلا أجلم

1864

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

69

al-Mawlid al-Sharīf

فيرشلا دلوملا

1847

History & Biography

Good

70

al-Fawāʾid al-Jalīlah

ةليلجلا دئاوفلا

1731

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

71

Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb

حيتافم بيغل

16th century

Sufism

Good

72

al-Fukūk

كوكفلا

16th

century

Sufism

Good

73

Ijāzāt li-ʿUlāmāʾ min ʿĀʾilat al-ʿIlmī

تازاجا ءاملعل نم ةلئاع يملعلا

1600

Ijāzāt (certificates of learning)

Fair

74

al-Arīb fī Maʿná al-Gharīb

بيرلاا يف ىنعم بيرغلا

1174

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Fair

75

Fatḥ al-Raḥmān bi-Kashf mā Yaltabisu fī al-Qurʾān

حتف نمحرلا فشكب ام سبتلي يف نارقلا

1612

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Acceptable

76

al-Intiṣār li-Samāʿ al-Ḥajjār

راصتنلاا عامسل راجحلا

14th century

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

77

al-Thulāthīyāt al-Wāqiʿah fī Musnad Ibn Ḥanbal

تايثلاثلا ةعقاولا يف دنسم نبا لبنح

1728

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Good

78

Fatḥ al-ʿAllām bi-Sharḥ al-Iʿlām

حتف ملاعلا حرشب ملاعلاا

1893

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

79

al-Tanqīḥ li-Alfāẓ al-Jāmiʿ al-Ṣaḥīḥ

حيقنتلا ظافللا عماجلا حيحصلا

1411

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

80

al-Majālis al-Yamānīyah

سلاجملا ةيناميلا

1350

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

81

al-Musnad al-Ṣaḥīḥ

دنسملا حيحصلا

1239

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Fair

82

Lisān al-Ḥukkām fī Maʿrifat al-Aḥkām

يف ماكحلا ناسل ماكحلاا ةفرعم

1681

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Acceptable

83

al-Yawāqīt wa-al-Jawāhir

رهاوجلاو تيقاويلا

1548

Tawhid (On Monotheism)

Fair

84

al-Muwaṭṭaʾ

أطوملا

1721

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

85

Ḥādī al-Asrār ilá Dār al-Qarār

يداح رارسلاا ىلا راد رارقلا

1465

Sufism

Acceptable

86

Dhakhāʾir al-Aʿlāq

رئاخذ قلاعلاا

1644

Sufism

Acceptable

87

Qamʿ al-Nufūs wa-al-Raqiyat al-Maʾyūs

عمق سوفنلا ةيقرو سويأملا

1465

Sufism

Fair

88

Ikhtilāf al-Aʾimmah

ةمئلاا فلاتخا

1650

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

89

al-Tamhīd fī Tanzīl al-Furūʿ

ديهمتلا يف ليزنت عورفلا

1450

Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine (Fiqh & Tawḥīd)

Fair

90

al-Rawḍah

ةضورلا

1329

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

91

Sharḥ al-Mughnī

حرش ينغملا

1437

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Bad

92

Fatāwá al-Khalīlī

ىواتف يليلخلا

1740

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

93

Fatāwá al-Shaykh al-Khalīlī

ىواتف خيشلا يليلخلا

1740

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

94

Fatāwá al-Khalīlī (part two)

ىواتف يليلخلا

1740

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Fair

95

Maṭāliʿ al-Madhāhib wa-Jawāmiʿ al-Mawāhib

علاطم بهاذملا عماوجو بهاوملا

1346

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

96

Muʿīn al-Muftī

نيعم يتفملا

1678

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

97

Nukat al-Nabīh ʿalá Aḥkām al-Tanbīh

تكن هيبنلا ىلع ماكحا هيبنتلا

1388

Fiqh & Tawḥīd (Jurisprudence & Matters of Doctrine)

Acceptable

98

Sharḥ Maqāmāt al-Ḥarīrī

حرش تاماقم يريرحلا

1558

Arabic literature

Fair

99

Asmāʾ Ruwāt al-Kutub al-Sittah

ءامسا ةاور بتكلا ةتسلا

1738

History & Biography

Acceptable

100

Nuzūl al-Ghayth

لوزن ثيغلا

1607

Arabic literature

Good

101

Ḥāshiyah ʿalá al-Mawāhib al-Ladunīyah

ةيشاح ىلع بهاوملا ةيندللا

18th century

History & Biography

Good

102

Qiṣṣat Ibn Sīnā

ةصق نبا انيس

1870

History & Biography

Good

103

al-Kawākib al-Durrīyah fī Tarājim al-Ṣūfīyah

يف ةيردلا بكاوكلا ةيفوصلا مجارت

18th century

History & Biography

Bad

104

Murshid al-Zuwwār ilá Qubūr al-Abrār

ىلا راوزلا دشرم راربلاا روبق

1605

History & Biography

Fair

105

Manāqib al-Imām ʿAlī wa-Baqīyat al-ʿAsharah

يلع ماملاا بقانم ةرشعلا ةيقبو

1578

History & Biography

Acceptable

106

Nahj al-Taqdīs ʿan Maʿānī Ibn Idrīs

نع سيدقتلا جهن سيردا نبا يناعم

1552

History & Biography

Fair

107

al-Asbāb wa-al-ʿAlāmāt

تاملاعلاو بابسلاا

17th century

Medicine

Acceptable

108

Kitāb al-Aghdhiyah wa-al-Ashribah

ةيذغلاا باتك ةبرشلااو

1346

Medicine

Acceptable

109

al-Wajīz lil-Ghazālī

يلازغلل زيجولا او

15th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

110

al-Ṣafwah al-Ṭibbīyah wa-al- Siyāsah al-Ṣiḥḥīyah

ةيبطلا ةوفصلا ةيحصلا ةسايسلاو

1679

Medicine

Fair

111

Fī ʿIlāj al-Amrāḍ

ضارملاا جلاع يف

17th century

Medicine

Acceptable

112

al-Wajīz lil-Ghazālī (part two)

2ج يلازغلل زيجولا

15th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Fair

113

Tuḥfat al-Aḥbāb fī ʿIlm al-Ḥisāb

ملع يف بابحلاا ةفحت باسحلا

1686

Arithmetic

Fair

114

al-Tadhhīb fī Sharḥ al-Tahdhīb

حرش يف بيهذتلا بيذهتلا

17th century

Mantiq (Logic)

Fair

115

Sharḥ ʿalá Matn al-Silm

ملسلا نتم ىلع حرش

1866

Mantiq (Logic)

Good

116

al-Ilbās fī Funūn al-Libās

نونف يف سابللاا سابللا

16th century

Clothes

Good

117

Aḥkām al-Awānī

يناولاا ماكحا

18th century

Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Good

118

al-Jāmiʿ fī ʿUlūm al-Qurʾān

مولع يف عماجلا نارقلا

15th century

Tafsir (Quranic exegesis)

Acceptable

119

Mabāriq al-Azhār

راهزلاا قرابم

1718

Hadith (Prophetic traditions)

Acceptable

Bibliographie

References

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Abu-Lughod, Ibrahim, “The Pitfalls of Palestinology”, Arab Studies Quarterly, 3/4 (1981), 404-05.

Aderet, Ofer, “Preserving or Looting Palestinian Books in Jerusalem”, Haaretz, 7 December 2012, http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/preserving-orlooting-palestinian-books-in-jerusalem.premium-1.483352

Al-Abassi, Ali Bey [Domingo Badia Y Leblich], Travels of Ali Bey in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, Between the Years 1803 and 1807 (London: Longman, 1816).

Al-Najjar, Aida, The Arabic Press and Nationalism in Palestine, 1920-1948 (Ph. D. thesis, Syracuse University, 1975).

Attalah, Mahmoud, Fihris Makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Aḥmadīyah fi ʿAkkā (Amman: Mujmaʿat al-Lughah al-ʿArabīyah al-Urdunnī, 1983).

Ayalon, Ami, The Press in the Arab Middle East: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 66.

“Modern Texts and Their Readers in Late Ottoman Palestine”, Middle Eastern Studies, 38/4 (2002), 17-40.
—,
Reading Palestine: Printing and Literacy, 1900-1948 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004).

Bergan, Erling, “Libraries in the West Bank and Gaza: Obstacles and Possibilities”, paper presented at the 66th IFLA Council and General Conference, Jerusalem, 13-18 August 2000.

Dagher, Joseph Asad, Repertoire des bibliothèques du proche et du Moyen Orient (Paris: UNESCO, 1951).

Dichter, Bernhard, Akko: Sites from the Turkish Period (Haifa: University of Haifa, 2000).

Eche, Youssef, Les bibliothèques arabes publiques et semi-publiques en Mesopotamie, en Syrie et en Egypte au Moyen-Age (Damascus: Institute Francais de Damas, 1967).

Foster, Zachary F., “Arabness, Turkey and the Palestinian National Imagination in the Eyes of Mirʾat al Sarq 1919-1926”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 42 (2011), 61-79.

Goldenberg, Tia, and Areej Hazboun, “Old Manuscripts Get Face-Lift at Jerusalem Mosque”, The Big Story, 31 January 2014, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/old-manuscripts-get-face-lift-jerusalem-mosque

Gish, Amit, “Ownerless Objects? The Story of the Books Palestinians Left Behind in 1948”, Palestine Studies, 33 (2008), 7-20, http://www.palestine-studies.org/ar/jq/fulltext/77868
—,“Salvage or Plunder?: Israel’s ‘ Collection’of Private Palestinian Libraries in West Jerusalem”,
Journal of Palestine Studies, 40/4 (2011), 6-23.

Halaby, Mona Hajjar, “Out of the Public Eye: Adel Jabre’s Long Journey from Ottomanism to Binationalism”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 52 (2013), 6-24.

Hanania, Mary, “Jurji Habib Hanania History of the Earliest Press in Palestine, 1908-1914”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 32 (2007), 51-69.

Hogg, Edward, Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem, During the Successful Campaign of Ibrahim Pasha, 2 vols (London: Saunders and Otley, 1835).

Ibn Dohaish, Abdul Latif, “Growth And Development of Islamic Libraries”, Islamic Quarterly, 31 (1987), 217-29.

Irving, Sarah, “‘ Endangered Archives’Program Opens up Priceless Palestinian Heritage”, The Electronic Intifada, 13 May 2014, http://electronicintifada.net/blogs/sarah-irving/endangered-archives-program-opens-priceless-palestinian-heritage

Khader, Majed, “Challenges and Obstacles in Palestinian Libraries”, in Libraries in the Early 21 st Century: An Interntional Perspective, ed. by Ravindra N. Sharma, 2 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012), pp. 425-44.

Khalidi, Rashid, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997).
—,
The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood (Boston: Beacon Press, 2007).

Lefebvre-Danset, Françoise, “Libraries in Palestine”, IFLA Journal, 35/4 (2009), 322-34.

Lesch, Ann Mosely, Arab Politics in Palestine: The Frustration of a Nationalist Movement (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979).

Matthews, Weldon, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine (New York: I. B. Tauris, 2007).

Matusiak, Krystyna K., and Qasem Abu Harb, “Digitizing the Historical Periodical Collection at the al-Aqṣa Mosque Library in East Jerusalem”, in Newspapers: Legal Deposit and Research in the Digital Era, ed. by Hartmut Walravens (The Hague: DeGruyter, 2011), pp. 271-91.

Mermelstein, Hannah, “Overdue Books: Returning Palestine’s ‘ Abandoned Property’of 1948”, Jerusalem Quarterly (Autumn 2011), http://thegreatbookrobbery.org/overdue-books-returning-palestine’s-“abandoned-property”-1948-hannahmermelstein

Musallam, Adnan A., “Arab Press, Society and Politics at the End of the Ottoman Era”, http://www.bethlehem-holyland.net/Adnan/publications/EndofTheOttomanEra.htm
—, “Turbulent Times in the Life of the Palestinian Arab Press: The British Era, 1917-1948”,
http://www.bethlehem-holyland.net/Adnan/publications/Turbulent_Times.htm

Natsheh, Yusof, “Al-Aqṣa Mosque Library of al-Haram as-Sharif”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 13 (2001), 44-45, http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/images/Articlespdf/13_Review.pdf

PLO Negotiations Affairs Department, Nakba: The Untold Story of a Cultural Catastrophe, http://www.nad-plo.org/userfiles/file/New%20Publications/NAKBA%20BOOK%202013.pdf

Reiter, Yitzhak, “The Waqf in Israel Since 1965: The Case of Acre Reconsidered”, in Holy Places in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Confrontation and Co-existence, ed. by Marshall J. Breger, Yitzhak Reiter and Leonard Hammer (London: Routledge, 2009), pp. 104-27.

Roper, Geoffrey, World Survey of Islamic Manuscripts (London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1991).

Salameh, Khader, Fihris makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, 1 (Al-Quds: Idārat al-Awqāf al-ʿĀmmah, 1980)
—,
Fihris makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, 2 (Ammān: al-Majma ʿal-Malakī li-Buḥūth al-Ḥaḍārah al-Islāmīyah, 1983).
—,
Fihris makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, 3 (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1996).

Schidorsky, Dov, “Libraries in Late Ottoman Palestine between the Orient and Occident”, Libraries and Culture, 33/3 (1998), 261-76, https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~lcr/archive/fulltext/LandC_33_3_Schidorsky.pdf

Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper, Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordanländer, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten (Berlin: Reimer, 1854).

Shomali, Qustandi, The Arabic Press in Palestine: Bibliography of Literary and Cultural Texts, “Filastin” Newspaper (1911-1967), 2 (Jerusalem: Arab Studies Society, 1990).
—,
Mirʾat al-Sharq: A Critical Study and Chronological Bibliography (Jerusalem: Arab Studies Society, 1992).

Skinner, Thomas, Adventures During a Journey Overland to India, 1 (London: Richard Bentley, 1837).

Stillman, Larry, “Books: A Palestinian Tale”, Arena, 120 (2012), 35-39.

Touati, Houari, L’armoire à sagesse: bibliothèques et collections en Islam (Paris: Aubier, 2013).

Notes

1 The transliteration of Arabic words in this chapter is based on the LOC transliteration system.

2 EAP119: Preservation of historical periodical collections (1900-1950) at the al-Aqṣá

3 Mosque Library in East Jerusalem, http://eap.bl.uk/database/overview_project.a4d?projID=EAP119

EAP399: Historical collections of manuscripts located at al-Jazzār mosque library in Acre, http://eap.bl.uk/database/overview_project.a4d?projID=EAP399 and EAP521: Digitisation of manuscripts at the al-Aqṣá Mosque Library, East Jerusalem, http://eap.bl.uk/database/overview_project.a4d?projID=EAP521

4 Houari Touati, L’armoire à sagesse: bibliothèques et collections en Islam (Paris: Aubier, 2003; Ami Ayalon, Reading Palestine: Printing and Literacy, 1900-1948 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004), pp. 43-44; Youssef Eche, Les bibliothèques arabes publiques et semipubliques en Mesopotamie, en Syrie et en Egypte au Moyen-Age (Damascus: Institute Francais de Damas, 1967); and Abdul Latif Ibn Dohaish, “Growth And Development of Islamic Libraries”, Islamic Quarterly, 31 (1987), 217-29.

5 Dov Schidorsky, “Libraries in Late Ottoman Palestine between the Orient and Occident”, Libraries and Culture, 33.3 (1998), 261-76 (p. 263), https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~lcr/archive/fulltext/LandC_33_3_Schidorsky.pdf; and Ayalon, Reading Palestine, pp. 45-47 and 93-103.

6 Bernhard Dichter, Akko: Sites from the Turkish Period (Haifa: University of Haifa, 2000), p. 108. Yitzhak Reiter, “The Waqf in Israel Since 1965: The Case of Acre Reconsidered”, in Holy Places in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Confrontation and Co-existence, ed. by Marshall J. Breger, Yitzhak Reiter and Leonard Hammer (London: Routledge, 2009), pp. 104-27 (pp. 112-14).

7 Dichter, Akko, p. 109; and Nathan Schur, A History of Acre (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1990), pp. 173-76.

8 Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten (Berlin: Reimer, 1854), pp. 82-83, https://archive.org/details/ulrichjaspersee03seetgoog; and Ali Bey al-Abassi [Domingo Badia Y Leblich], Travels of Ali Bey in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, Between the Years 1803 and 1807 (London: Longman, 1816), https://archive.org/details/travelsalibeyps01beygoog, pp. 249-50.

9 Thomas Skinner, Adventures During a Journey Overland to India, 1 (London: Richard Bentley, 1837), p. 145, https://archive.org/details/adventuresduring01skin; Edward Hogg, Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem, During the Successful Campaign of Ibrahim Pasha, 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1835), 1, pp. 162-63. https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Edward_Hogg_Visit_to_Alexandria_Damascus_and_Jerus?id=g9G3dRviOv0C&hl=en,

10 Joseph Asad Dagher dates the library’s foundation to 1927 and attributes it to the Superior Islamic Council (Majlis al-ʾAwqāf al-ʾIslāmī). See Joseph Asad Dagher, Repertoire des bibliotheques du proche et du Moyen Orient (Paris: UNESO, 1951), p. 68. See also Geoffrey Roper, World Survey of Islamic Manuscripts (London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1991), pp. 574-76; and Tia Goldenberg and Areej Hazboun, “Old Manuscripts Get Face-Lift at Jerusalem Mosque”, The Big Story, 31 January 2014, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/old-manuscripts-get-face-lift-jerusalem-mosque

11 Mona Hajjar Halaby, “Out of the Public Eye: Adel Jabre’s Long Journey from Ottomanism to Binationalism”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 52 (2013), 6-24, http://www.palestine-studies.org/sites/default/files/jq-articles/JQ-52-Hajjar_Halaby_Out_of_the_Public_Eye_4.pdf

12 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 94; Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 54.

13 Yusof Natsheh, “Al-Aqṣa Mosque Library of al-Haram as-Sharif”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 13 (2001), 44-46, http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/images/Articlespdf/13_Review.pdf and Ayalon, Reading Palestine, pp. 94 and 128.

14 Gish Amit, “Ownerless Objects? The Story of the Books Palestinians Left Behind in 1948”, Palestine Studies, 33 (2008), p. 7, http://www.palestine-studies.org/ar/jq/fulltext/77868

15 Larry Stillman, “Books: A Palestinian Tale”, Arena, 120 (2012), 35-39; and Amit Gish, “Salvage or Plunder?: Israel’s ‘Collection’ of Private Palestinian Libraries in West Jerusalem”, Journal of Palestine Studies, 40/4 (2011), 6-23. See The Great Book Robbery project (http://www.thegreatbookrobbery.org) to identify books which had been collected by the prestigious Jewish National and University Library (National Library) in 1948 and stamped as “Alien Property”. See also PLO Negotiations Affairs Department, Nakba: The Untold Story of a Cultural Catastrophe, http://www.nad-plo.org/userfiles/file/New%20Publications/NAKBA%20BOOK%202013.pdf

16 Hannah Mermelstein, “Overdue Books: Returning Palestine’s ‘ Abandoned Property’of 1948”, Jerusalem Quarterly (Autumn 2011), http://thegreatbookrobbery.org/overduebooks-returning-palestine’s-“abandoned-property”-1948-hannah-mermelstein. See also Ofer Aderet, “Preserving or Looting Palestinian Books in Jerusalem”, Haaretz, 7 December 2012, http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/preserving-or-lootingpalestinian-books-in-jerusalem.premium-1.483352

17 Salameh Al-balawi, “Libraries of Al-Quds: from the Ayyubi Conquest to the Zionist Violation”, paper presented at the Twelve AFLI Conference, Al-Sharqa University, 5-8 November 2001.

18 Natsheh, “Al-Aqṣa Mosque Library of al-Haram as-Sharif”, p. 45.

19 For the partial catalogues of the collection see Khader Salameh, Fihris makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, 1 (Al-Quds: Idārat al-Awqāf al-ʿĀmmah, 1980); idem, 2 (Ammān: al-Majmaʿ al-Malakī li-Buḥūth al-Ḥaḍārah al-Islāmīyah, 1983); and idem, 3 (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1996).

20 Majed Khader, “Challenges and Obstacles in Palestinian Libraries”, in Libraries in the Early 21st Century: An Interntional Perspective, ed. by Ravindra N. Sharma, 2 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012), pp. 425-44 (pp. 432-33).

21 Goldenberg and Hazboun.

22 For a broader discussion of the situation of Palestinian libraries in the early twentyfirst century, see Kader, “Challenges and Obstacles in Palestinian Libraries”; Françoise Lefebvre-Danset, “Libraries in Palestine”, IFLA Journal, 35/4 (2009), 322-34; and Erling Bergan, “Libraries in the West Bank and Gaza: Obstacles and Possibilities”, paper presented at the 66th IFLA Council and General Conference, Jerusalem, 13-18 August 2000.

23 See http://eap.bl.uk/database/results.a4d?projID=EAP119, http://eap.bl.uk/database/results.a4d?projID=EAP399 and http://eap.bl.uk/database/results.a4d?projID=EAP521.

24 For a discussion of the digitisation project, see Krystyna K. Matusiak and Qasem Abu Harb, “Digitizing the Historical Periodical Collection at the al-Aqṣa Mosque Library in East Jerusalem”, in Newspapers: Legal Deposit and Research in the Digital Era, ed. by Hartmut Walravens (The Hague: DeGruyter, 2011), pp. 271-91.

25 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 48; Khalidi, Palestinian Identity, pp. 54-55 and 227 (note 63); and Ami Ayalon, “Modern Texts and Their Readers in Late Ottoman Palestine”, Middle Eastern Studies, 38/4 (2002), 17-40.

26 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 57.

27 Adnan A. Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics at the End of the Ottoman Era”, http://www.bethlehem-holyland.net/Adnan/publications/EndofTheOttomanEra.htm

28 Ami Ayalon, The Press in the Arab Middle East: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 66; and idem, Reading Palestine, p. 60.

29 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 61

30 Ibid., p. 60.

31 Ibid., p. 52.

32 For a discussion of the role of Zionism in the development of Palestinian identity under the British Mandate, see Ibrahim Abu-Lughod, “The Pitfalls of Palestinology”, Arab Studies Quarterly, 3/4 (1981), 404-05.

33 Mary Hanania, “Jurji Habib Hanania History of the Earliest Press in Palestine, 1908-1914”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 32 (2007), 51-69.

34 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 66; Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood (Boston: Beacon Press, 2007), pp. 91-95; and Qustandi Shomali, The Arabic Press in Palestine: Bibliography of Literary and Cultural Texts, “Filastin” Newspaper (1911-1967), 2 (Jerusalem: Arab Studies Society, 1990).

35 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 97. See also Adnan Musallam, “Turbulent Times in the Life of the Palestinian Arab Press: The British Era, 1917-1948”, http://www.bethlehemholyland.net/Adnan/publications/Turbulent_Times.htm

36 Ayalon, Reading Palestine, p. 51.

37 Ibid., p. 62.

38 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, pp. 96-97; and Zachary F. Foster, “Arabness, Turkey and the Palestinian National Imagination in the Eyes of Mirʾat al Sarq 1919-1926”, Jerusalem Quarterly, 42 (2011), 61-79.

39 Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics”; Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 98; and Qustandi Shomali, Mirʾat al-Sharq: A Critical Study and Chronological Bibliography (Jerusalem: Arab Studies Society, 1992).

40 Adnan Abu-Ghazaleh, “Arab Cultural Nationalism in Palestine during the British Mandate”, Journal of Palestinian Studies, 1/3 (1972), 37-63; and Ann Mosely Lesch, Arab Politics in Palestine: The Frustration of a Nationalist Movement (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979), pp. 65-67.

41 See Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, pp. 98-100; and Musallam, “Arab Press, Society and Politics”.

42 Aida al-Najjar, The Arabic Press and Nationalism in Palestine, 1920-1948 (Ph. D. thesis, Syracuse University, 1975), ch. 2; and Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 100. See also “Suppression of the Arabic Press During the British Mandate”, Endangered Archives Blog, 18 January 2010, http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/endangeredarchives/2010/01/suppression-of-the-arabic-press-during-the-british-mandate.html#sthash.fUYyVklB.dpuf

43 Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 102.

44 For a list of the circulation of Arabic Newspapers in the region, see Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, pp. 148-51.

45 Weldon Matthews, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine (New York: I. B. Tauris, 2007), pp. 52 and 143; and Ayalon, Press in the Middle East, p. 99.

46 Matthews, p. 82.

47 See, for example, the State of Michigan’s “Guidelines for Digitizing a Newspaper”, http://www.michigan.gov/documents/hal/GuidelinesForDigitizingANewspaper_181557_7.pdf

48 See the EAP’s “Guidelines for Photographing and Scanning Archive Material”, June 2014, http://www.bl.uk/about/policies/endangeredarch/pdf/09guidelines_copying.pdf (accessed 22 October 2014); and the National Digital Newspaper Program’s “Technical Guidelines for Applicants”, 26 September 2014, http://www.loc.gov/ndnp/guidelines/NDNP_201517TechNotes.pdf

49 Mahmoud Attalah, Fihris Makhṭūṭāt Maktabat al-Aḥmadīyah fi ʿAkkā (Amman: Mujmaʿat al-Lughah al-ʿArabīyah al-Urdunnī, 1983).

50 The EAP specifications consisted of the following devices and software: Device: Atiz BookDrive Pro; Cameras: Canon EOS 600D + Lens EF-S18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IS II; Capturing Software: BookDrive Capture; Colour Checker: x-ritecolorchecker Passport; Converting Program: Adobe Photoshop CS6 for converting images from RAW to TIFF; CheckSum: Checksum Tool version 0.7; Storage: External Hard Disk WD My Passport 1TB.

51 File names for digital masters and PDF derivatives were established prior to the scanning process. Each title was assigned a four letter Scan ID. For this digitisation project the following file naming convention has been established: project code_three letter Scan ID +_page numbers (two or three digit page number starting with zero); EAP521_four letter Scan ID + three digit page number starting with zero, for example: EAP521 _ bada _ 01 for the first page of the Badae’ al-burhan manuscript.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 12.1 Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah [Islamic Union] newspaper, 27 July 1937 (EAP119/1/12/480, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Légende Fig. 12.2 Front page of al-Liwāʾ [The Flag] newspaper, 16 December 1935 (EAP119/1/17/2, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-2.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.3 Front page of Miraʾat al-Sharq [The Mirror of the East] newspaper, on the Balfour Declaration, 2 November 1917 (EAP119/1/24/1, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-3.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.4 Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Buraq uprising, 16 October 1929 (EAP119/1/13/260, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-4.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.5 Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on al-Qassam unrest, 22 November 1935 (EAP119/1/13/1504, image 3), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-5.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.6 Front page of al-Iqdām [The Courage] newspaper, on political parties, 30 March 1935 (EAP119/1/23/34, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende Fig. 12.7 Front page of al-Difāʿ [The Defence] newspaper, on the great strike of 1936, 17 June 1936 (EAP119/1/21/169, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-7.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.8 Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Palestinian press under the Mandate, 3 April 1930 (EAP119/1/13/338, image 3), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-8.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.9 Damaged page of Filasṭīn [Palestine] newspaper, 30 December 1947 (EAP119/1/22/1802, image 1), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-9.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.10 Damaged paper of Bāb sharḥ al-shamsīyah, work on logic, 1389 CE (EAP399/1/23, image 4), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-10.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.11 Ashraf al-Wasāʾil, biography of the Prophet, 1566 CE (EAP39
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-11.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.12 Khāliṣ al-talkhīṣ, on the Arabic language, seventeenth century CE (EAP399/1/42, image 5), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-12.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.13 al-Wasīlah fī al-Ḥisāb, on mathematics, 1412 CE (EAP399/1/14, image 18), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-13.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.14 Taṣrīf al-Šāfiyah, on the Arabic language, 1345 CE (EAP399/1/34, image 85), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-14.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.15 al-Rawḍah, on jurisprudence and matters of doctrine, 1329 CE (EAP521/1/90, image 4), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-15.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.16 Maʿālim al-Tanzīl, exegesis, 1437 CE (EAP521/1/6, image 3), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-16.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.17 Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfiʿīyah, on history, 1542 CE (EAP521/1/26, image 33), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-17.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12.18 al-Nawādir al-Sulṭānīyah, on the history and biography of Salaḥ al-Dīn al-Ayyūbī, 1228 CE (EAP521/1/24, image 29), CC BY.
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2250/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k