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OpenEdition Books

From Dust to Digital

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Maja Kominko

List of illustrations

Texte intégral

1.1

Map of the Tadrart Acacus and the central Saharan massifs. First published in Stefano Biagetti, Ali Ait Kaci, Lucia Mori and Savino di Lernia, “Writing the Desert: The ‘Tifinagh’ Rock Inscriptions of the Tadrart Acacus (South-West Libya)”, Azania, 47.2 (2012), 153-74 (p. 170).

2

1.2

Map of the Tadrart Acacus with the sites recorded for the Endangered Archives Programme sorted by significance (adapted from Biagetti et al., 2012).

14

1.3

An example of Tifinagh inscription, site 09/87B (EAP265/1/87B). Photo by R. Ceccacci, CC BY.

15

1.4

The Basmala inscription from site 09/67.

16

1.5

Site 09/73 features the toponym of Teshuinat (TŠWNT).

17

1.6

Graph illustrating the significance and context of Tifinagh sites.

20

1.7

3D view of the aqba of wadi Tasba on the western escarpment of the Tadrart Acacus (map from Google Earth).

21

1.8

Site 09/74, close to the guelta of wadi Bubu (EAP265/1/74). Photo by R. Ceccacci, CC BY.

22

1.9

Etaghas Ti-n-Lalan (map from Google Earth, adapted from di Lernia et al., 2012).

23

1.10

Site 09/73, Ti-n-Anneuin, vandalised in 2009 (EAP265/1/73). Photo by R. Ceccacci, CC BY.

26

2.1

Iftiqar Rahman photographing the Phe Lung Phe Ban paper manuscript belonging to Hara Phukan. Photo by Poppy Gogoi, CC BY.

34

2.2

The Phe Lung Phe Ban cloth manuscript belonging to Tileshwar Mohan (EAP373), CC BY.

37

2.3

The Phe Lung Phe Ban manuscript belonging to Hara Phukan (EAP373), CC BY.

38

2.4

Folio 33r of the Khun Lung Khun Lai manuscript belonging to Tulsi Phukan (EAP373), CC BY.

39

2.5

Folio 9r of the Du Kai Seng manuscript belonging to Tileshwar Mohan (EAP373), CC BY.

44

2.6

A page from one of the Ban Seng manuscripts belonging to Bhim Kanta Phukan (EAP373), CC BY.

45

2.7

Folio 6v of the Ming Mvng Lung Phai manuscript belonging to Tileshwar Mohan (EAP373), CC BY.

51

2.8

Folio 1r of a Sai Kai manuscript belonging to Padma Sangbun Phukan (EAP373), CC BY.

55

2.9

Folio 20v of the Nang Khai manuscript belonging to Baparam Hati Baruah (EAP373), CC BY.

58

2.10

Folio 3v of the Nang Khai manuscript belonging to Baparam Hati Baruah (EAP373), CC BY.

59

2.11

Folio 1v of the Bar Amra manuscript belonging to Junaram Sangbun Phukan (EAP373), CC BY.

61

3.1

Prayers to the Choten. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/9), CC BY.

67

3.2

Worship of Ekádoshi. Tamyong Collection (EAP281/3/1), CC BY.

68

3.3

The Legend of the Goddess Queen. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/20), CC BY.

72

3.4

The Legend of Cenrejú. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/6), CC BY.

77

3.5

The Legend of the Goddess Nángse. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/13), CC BY.

79

3.6

Astrological text. Namchu Collection (EAP281/2/1), CC BY.

80

3.7

Astrological text. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/10), CC BY.

80

3.8

Astrological text. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/14), CC BY.

81

3.9

Parkhó Calculations. Foning Collection (EAP281/1/7), CC BY.

82

3.10

Astrological text. Dendrúp Adyemnu Collection (EAP281/4/3), CC BY.

84

4.1

May Wäyni. Treasury building interior with cased manuscripts on pegs. Photo CC BY-NC.

91

4.2

May Wäyni. Church ambulatory, assembly line set-up. Photo CC BY-NC.

93

4.3

May Wäyni. Preparing manuscripts in the iqabet for preliminary observation. Photo CC BY-NC.

94

4.4

May Wäyni. A monk re-stitches a manuscript binding in the church courtyard. Photo CC BY-NC.

96

4.5

May Wäyni. Particularly vulnerable manuscripts are stored in acid-free cartons. Photo CC BY-NC.

97

4.6

May Wäyni manuscripts. Examples of minimally-prepared parchment showing (a) hairy surface and (b) gelatinisation (EAP526/1/15 and EAP526/1/44), CC BY-NC.

98

4.7

May Wäyni manuscript Sәrᶜatä qәddase [Order of the Mass] showing the structure of the semi-translucent parchment with traces of ruling (EAP526/1/90), CC BY-NC.

99

4.8

May Wäyni manuscript Mälә’әktä Ṗawlos [Letters of Paul] showing extensive water damage (EAP526/1/56), CC BY-NC.

100

4.9

May Wäyni manuscript Ṣälotä ᶜәṭan [The Prayer of Incense] gnawed by rodents (EAP526/1/62), CC BY-NC.

100

4.10

May Wäyni manuscript book boards showing various stages of cover deterioration (a (EAP526/1/4) and b (EAP526/1/1), with sewn repairs to c (EAP526/1/19) and d (EAP526/1/4)), CC BY-NC.

102

4.11

May Wäyni manuscript Arganonä wәddase [The Harp of Praise] by Giyorgis of Sagla showing a variety of threads and cords used to connect the book block to the covers (EAP526/1/23), CC BY-NC.

103

4.12

May Wäyni manuscript Qeddus Gädlä Gäbrä Manfäs Qeddus [The Life of Gäbrä Manfäs Qeddus] showing sewn repairs to the front book board (EAP526/1/30), CC BY-NC.

103

4.13

May Wäyni manuscript Mäzmurä Dawit [Psalms of David] showing loose folios held together by stab-stitching (EAP526/1/61), CC BY-NC.

104

4.14

May Wäyni manuscript Mäshafä Tälmid [The Book of the Disciple] showing the ruptures to the original leather covering around the spine of the volume that provide free access to the lacing holes in the boards, holes made for resewing the book (EAP526/1/45), CC BY-NC.

106

4.15

May Wäyni manuscript Dәrsanä Mikaᵓel [Homily in Honour of the Archangel Michael]. Full-page miniatures (EAP526/1/7), CC BY-NC.

108

4.16

A rare fifteenth-century illumination of the Virgin and Child bound between folios 171 and 172 of a seventeenth-century copy of Täᵓammәrä Maryam [The Miracles of Mary] (EAP526/1/41), CC BY-NC.

108

4.17

Drawing of a combined quire structure.

114

4.18

May Wäyni manuscript Orit [Octateuch] and Mäṣḥafä kufale [The Book of Jubilees] showing low-quality folios used as protective flyleaves (EAP526/1/3), CC BY-NC.

115

4.19

Drawing showing the distribution of flyleaf arrangements in the May Wäyni collection.

116

4.20

May Wäyni manuscript showing straight long stitches on the spine (EAP526/1/89), CC BY-NC.

116

4.21

May Wäyni manuscript Dәrsanä Mikaᵓel [Homily in Honour of the Archangel Michael] showing spine lining with a wide strip of leather (EAP526/1/7), CC BY-NC.

118

4.22

May Wäyni manuscript Dәrsanä arba‘әtu әnsәsa [Homily on the Four Celestial Creatures] showing the endband made of a folded strip of leather (EAP526/1/29), CC BY-NC.

119

4.23

Different types of textiles used as lining for the inner side of the manuscript bindings: (a) Indian plain-weave, shuttle-woven fabric (?) – with “buta” (Persian) or “boteh” (Indian) motif (EAP526/1/18); (b) six narrow strips of plain-weave fabric each with both selvedges (EAP526/1/48); (c) tapestry, plain-weave fabric (EAP526/1/37); (d) Indian Masulipatam plain-weave fabric, block-printed (EAP526/1/43), CC BY-NC.

121

4.24

Set of iron tools for decorating bindings, CC BY-NC.

122

4.25

Tools found on bindings in May Wäyni collection. Straight lines: triple (1-EAP526/1/26), double (2-EAP526/1/37), single (3-EAP526/1/39). Circles: single (4-EAP526/1/4 [Ø≈5 mm]), double (5-EAP526/1/18 [Ø≈5 mm]). Corni-form (6-EAP526/1/4 [18 × 8 mm], 7-EAP526/1/44 [17 × 8 mm). V-form: dotted (8-EAP526/1/11 [5 × 10 mm], triple lines (9-EAP526/1/24 [9 × 12 mm]). Almond form: ‘mother of water’ (10-EAP526/1/4 [7 × 10 mm]), ‘palm shape’ (11-EAP526/1/5 [13 × 6 mm], 12-EAP526/1/49 [12 × 6 mm]). Diagonal cross: 13-EAP526/1/17 [7 × 7 mm], 14-EAP526/1/11 [8 × 8 mm], 15-EAP526/1/5 [10 × 10 mm], 16-EAP526/1/4 [9 × 9 mm], 17-EAP526/1/18 [7 × 7 mm], 18-EAP526/1/87 [9 × 9 mm], 19-EAP526/1/48 [8 × 8 mm], 20-EAP526/1/42 [12 × 12 mm], 21-EAP526/1/11 [8 × 10 mm]. Criss-cross: 22-EAP526/1/7 [4 × 6 mm], 23-EAP526/1/26 [9 × 10 mm], 24-EAP526/1/15 [8 × 8 mm], 25-EAP526/1/18 [9 × 9 mm], 26-EAP526/1/49 [7 × 9 mm], 27-EAP526/1/5 [9 × 10 mm]; 28-EAP526/1/66 [8 × 8 mm]. Grid pattern: 29-EAP526/1/24 [7 × 13 mm], 30-EAP526/1/4 [10 × 15 mm], 31-EAP526/1/41 [12 × 12 mm]. Straight strapwork elements: 32-EAP526/1/3 [5 × 11 mm], 33-EAP526/1/18 [6 × 9 mm]. Wavy lines: 34-EAP526/1/3 [5 × 14 mm], 35-EAP526/1/26 [6 × 15 mm], 36-EAP526/1/1 [4 × 10 mm]. Curve strapwork elements or ‘wave form’: 37-EAP526/1/13 [8 × 10 mm], 38-EAP526/1/15 [6 × 10 mm], 39-EAP526/1/18 [9 × 10 mm], 40-EAP526/1/49 [7 × 10 mm], 41-EAP526/1/22 [9 × 10 mm], 42-EAP526/1/31 [9 × 10 mm], 43-EAP526/1/22 [6 × 10 mm], 44-EAP526/1/41 [7 × 10 mm], 45-EAP526/1/41 [7 × 10 mm]. Rosette motives: 46-EAP526/1/25 [8 × 8 mm], 47-EAP526/1/31 [7 × 7 mm], 48-EAP526/1/46 [7 × 7 mm]. All images CC BY-NC.

124-25

4.26

Decorative tooling on the central panels of the leather covering of four manuscripts from May Wäyni (a (EAP526/1/4), b (EAP526/1/16), c (EAP526/1/7), d (EAP526/1/31)), CC BY-NC.

127

4.27

May Wäyni manuscript Zena Sәlase [Narrative Teaching on the Holy Trinity]. Tooled leather binding (EAP526/1/73), CC BY-NC.

128

4.28

Tooled leather decoration on the spines of manuscripts (from left to right: EAP526/1/31, EAP526/1/22, EAP526/1/44), CC BY-NC.

129

4.29

May Wäyni manuscript Gädlä Ṗeṭros zä-Däbrä Abbay [Acts of Petros of Däbrä Abbay] showing decoration of the inner side of the cover (EAP526/1/65), CC BY-NC.

130

4.30

May Wäyni manuscript showing tooled decoration on the edges of the covers (EAP526/1/52), CC BY-NC.

131

5.1

First page of Sharḥ Tarbiyyat al-aṭfāl by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Qaḥṭānī (d. Zanzibar, 1869). Possibly in the author’s own hand (EAP466/1/38, image 3), CC BY-ND.

139

5.2

Wiṣayāt Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr b. Sumayṭ ilā ʿAbd Allāh BāKathīr. Spiritual testament from the Zanzibari Sufi shaykh Aḥmad b. Sumayṭ (d. 1925) to his friend and disciple ʿAbd Allāh Bā Kathīr (d. 1925), dated 1337H/1918-1919. Possibly in the author’s own hand (EAP466/1/99, image 2), CC BY-ND.

140

5.3

Example of late waqf donation “for the benefit of Muslims”. Notebook with compilation of prayers and adhkār (Sufi texts for recitation) (EAP/1/106, image 2), CC BY-ND.

147

5.4

Al-Fawāʾid al-Saniyya fī dhikr faḍāʾil man yantasibu ilā al-silsila alnabawiyya [The Benefits of Remembering the Virtues of those Belonging to the Prophetic Lineage], by Aḥmad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlawī, d. 1203/1788-1789 in Ḥaḍramawt. The inscriptions show the travelling of this particular manuscript, first given as a gift in 1891-1892 and then again in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1946-1947 (EAP466/1/29, image 4), CC BY-ND.

150

5.5

Al-Fawāʾid al-Saniyya fī dhikr faḍāʾil man yantasibu ilā al-silsila alnabawiyya, by Aḥmad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlawī (d. 1203/1788-1789 in Ḥaḍramawt) (EAP466/1/29, image 6), CC BY-ND.

151

5.6

Example of local copying in the nineteenth century. Alfyya [The One Thousand, verse of 1000 lines] with marginal commentary by Ibn ʿAqīl copied by Shārū b. ʿUthmān b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAlī al-Sūmālī in 1858 (EAP466/1/15, image 574), CC BY-ND.

155

5.7

Diwān al-ʿAdanī [The Collected Poetry of Abū Bakr al-ʿAdanī], copied by Sālim b. Yusallim b. ʿAwaḍ Bā Ṣafar for Habib Saleh in 1927 [1] (EAP466/1/19, image 2), CC BY-ND.

157

5.8

Diwān al-ʿAdanī [The Collected Poetry of Abū Bakr al-ʿAdanī], copied by Sālim b. Yusallim b. ʿAwaḍ Bā Ṣafar for Habib Saleh in 1927 [2] (EAP466/1/19, image 3), CC BY-ND.

158

5.9

Colophon showing the signature of copyist Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr al-Bakrī Kijūma and the date 18 Jumāda II 1352H/8 October 1928. (EAP466/1/58, image 310), CC BY-ND.

160

6.1

Façade of Djenné library. Photo by author, CC BY.

175

6.2

Tārīkh al-Sudan [History of the Sudan] manuscript in the library’s collection. Photo by author, CC BY.

176

6.3

Manuscripts storage chest in one of the houses in Djenné. Photo by author, CC BY.

177

6.4

Prayers to the Prophet from the Maiga family collection. Photo by author, CC BY.

180

6.5

Two manuscript storage boxes made for the library. Photo by author, CC BY.

183

7.1

Stamp of the Egyptian Nation organisation, Public Domain.

193

7.2

Shakir Pashov as a soldier (EAP067/1/2/4, image 4), Public Domain.

196

7.3

Roma youth preparing a sample of the future alphabet (EAP067/8/1/16), Public Domain.

204

7.4

Shakir Pashov (centre) as a Member of Parliament with voters (EAP067/1/1/14), Public Domain.

207

7.5

Shakir Pashov (centre) with participants at the national conference of the Ekhipe (EAP067/1/1/1), Public Domain.

210

7.6

Shakir Pashov with his wife in Rogozina (EAP067/1/1/13), Orphan Work.

214

7.7

Shakir Pashov as an honoured pensioner (EAP067/1/2/5), Orphan Work.

215

7.8

Shakir Pashov’s card identifying him as an “active fighter against fascism and capitalism” (EAP067/1/8), Public Domain.

215

7.9

Obituary commemorating the six-month anniversary of Shakir Pashov’s death (EAP067/1/9, image 2), Public Domain.

216

7.10

Obituary commemorating the first full anniversary of Shakir Pashov’s death (EAP067/1/9, image 3), Public Domain.

216

8.1

Map of the Valley of Canta, Peru, by Évelyne Mesclier, CC BY.

226

8.2

Cover page of the records of the petition to close down the parish of Pariamarca in the corregimiento of Canta, 1650 (EAP333/1/3/11 image 1), Public Domain.

236

8.3

In this letter, Don Gerónimo de Salazar y Salcedo, parish priest of San Antonio de Pariamarca, explains that because of the fire that destroyed the textile mill of Pariamarca, he requested the closing down of the doctrina. Lima, 11 October 1651 (EAP333/1/3/11 image 46), Public Domain.

238

8.4

Register of the inhabitants (men, women and youth) of the doctrina of San Antonio de Pariamarca, 1650 (EAP333/1/3/11 image 23), Public Domain.

239

8.5

In this letter, the protector of the Indians, don Francisco Valençuela, states that the priest of Pariamarca’s salary cannot be paid with the proceeds of the Indians’assets. Lima, c. 1651 (EAP333/1/3/11 image 54), Public Domain.

241

8.6

Sample page of the census conducted in 1653 by Juan de Escalante y Mendoza showing part of the headcount of the ayllu (kin group) Julcan Yumay (EAP333/1/3/11 image 107), Public Domain.

244

8.7

Sample page of the census conducted in 1653 by Juan de Escalante y Mendoza, showing part of the headcount of the ayllu Allauca Pacha (EAP333/1/3/11 image 113), Public Domain.

245

8.8

Sample page of the census conducted in 1653 by Juan de Escalante y Mendoza showing part of the headcount of reservados, adult men and women who because of their occupation, age or health were exempted from paying tribute (EAP333/1/3/11 image 106), Public Domain.

248

8.9

Cultivated fields in Pariamarca, August 2014. Photo by Évelyne Mesclier, CC BY.

250

8.10

A street in Pariamarca, August 2014. Photo by Évelyne Mesclier, CC BY.

253

8.11

A view of the town and valley of Canta, August 2014. Photo by Évelyne Mesclier, CC BY.

254

9.1

Map of Pacific and Caribbean Colombia, by James R. Landers, CC BY-NC-ND.

262

9.2

The Quibdó team examines a notarial register at the EAP workshop. Photo by David LaFevor, CC BY.

265

9.3

Notarial Document from Quibdó (EAP255/2). Photo by Quibdó team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

267

9.4

Project directors and University of Cartagena student team at EAP workshop. Photo by Mabel Vergel, CC BY-NC-ND.

271

9.5

Endangered ecclesiastical records from the Iglesia de Santa Cruz de Lorica, Córdoba. Photo by Cartagena team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

273

9.6

Students learn to film endangered records at Vanderbilt’s digital workshop at the University of Cartagena. Photo by David LaFevor, CC BY.

273

9.7

Cathedral of San Jerónimo de Buenavista, Montería, Córdoba. Photo by Mabel Vergel, CC BY-NC-ND.

274

9.8

Baptism document of Maria Olalla, San Jerónimo de Buenavista Cathedral, Montería, Córdoba (EAP640). Photo by Cartagena team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

275

9.9

Nova et Accurata Brasiliae Totius Tabula made in 1640 by Joan Blaeu. Note the Capitania de Paraiba, highlighted on the northeastern coast. Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil, Public Domain (http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:Blaeu1640.jpg).

277

9.10

Map of Paraíba, highlighting São João do Cariri in the interior and João Pessoa on the coast, created by Courtney J. Campbell, CC BY-NC-ND.

278

9.11

Students from the Universidade Federal da Paraíba filming ecclesiastical records from Nossa Senhora dos Milagres do São João do Cariri (EAP627). Photo by Tara LaFevor, CC BY.

280

9.12

Sesmaria (land grant) document from Paraíba (EAP627). Photo by Courtney J. Campbell, CC BY-NC-ND.

281

9.13

Sesmaria document from Paraíba (EAP627). Photo by Paraíba team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

282

9.14

Nossa Senhora dos Milagres do São João do Cariri Church (EAP627). Photo by David LaFevor, CC BY.

283

9.15

Book of Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, 1752-1808, from Paróquia de Nossa Senhora dos Milagres do São João do Cariri Paraíba (EAP627). Photo by Paraíba team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

284

9.16

Book of Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, 1752-1808, from Paróquia de Nossa Senhora dos Milagres do São João do Cariri Paraíba (EAP627). Photo by Paraíba team member, CC BY-NC-ND.

285

10.1

Kitāb tārīkh Zazzau [A History of Zazzu or Zaria Emirate] by B. Ulama-i, 1924. Digitised handwritten Arabic document (EAP535/1/2/3/2, image 2), Public Domain.

296

10.2

Digitised original file description written in English on an Arabic document by Sultan Muhammad Bello, n. d. (probably 1954-1966). The National Archives, Kaduna (EAP535/1/2/3/3, image 2), Public Domain.

296

10.3

A Guide to Understanding Certain Aspects of Islam, by Sultan Muhammad Bello, 1809. The National Archives, Kaduna (EAP535/1/2/3/3, image 3), Public Domain.

297

10.4

Waqar jami-yah by Sheikh Ahmadu ti-la ibn Abdullahi, n.d. (EAP535/1/2/19/20, image 2), Public Domain.

297

10.5

Report on the annual inspection of Zungeru prison by Lieutenant Colonel Hasler, 1906 [1] (EAP535/2/2/5/4, image 7), Public Domain.

301

10.6

Report on the annual inspection of Zungeru prison by Lieutenant Colonel Hasler, 1906 [2] (EAP535/2/2/5/4, image 5), Public Domain.

302

10.7

Report on Bornu Province prisons by W. P. Hewby, 1906 [1] (EAP535/2/2/5/16, image 53), Public Domain.

303

10.8

Report on Bornu Province prisons by W. P. Hewby, 1906 [2] (EAP535/2/2/5/16, image 54), Public Domain.

304

10.9

Document from the Niger Province annual report on cotton production for 1911 by Major W. Hamilton Browne, 1912 (EAP535/2/2/11/18, image 58), Public Domain.

311

10.10

Report on the unsatisfactory conduct of the Maaji of Zaria by the District Officer in charge of the Zaria Emirate, Y. Kirkpatrick, to the Resident of Zaria Province, 1921 [1] (EAP535/2/3/6/18, image 20), Public Domain.

316

10.11

Report on the unsatisfactory conduct of the Maaji of Zaria by the District Officer in charge of the Zaria Emirate, Y. Kirkpatrick, to the Resident of Zaria Province, 1921 [2] (EAP535/2/3/6/18, image 21), Public Domain.

317

10.12

Report on the unsatisfactory conduct of the Maaji of Zaria by the District Officer in charge of the Zaria Emirate, Y. Kirkpatrick, to the Resident of Zaria Province, 1921 [3] (EAP535/2/3/6/18, image 22), Public Domain.

318

10.13

Document from “Report September quarter 1911-Kabba Province” concerning constraints on crop cultivation by J. A. Ley Greeves, 1912 (EAP535/2/2/10/32, image 21), Public Domain.

321

11.1

Picture of Ahmadou Bamba taken during the 2012 Màggal, the yearly celebration of his arrest in 1895. The Arabic verses read as follows: “My intention on this day is to thank You, God; O You, the only one I implore, The Lord of the Throne”.

341

11.2

Mbaye Nguirane reading an Ajami excerpt of one of Moussa Ka’s poems during an interview with Fallou Ngom on 11 June 2011. Born in 1940 in Diourbel, Senegal, Nguirane is a leading specialist in Sufism, a historian and a public speaker.

347

11.3

This image is the last page of Moukhtar Ndong’s Ajami healing and protection manual, Manāfiᶜul Muslim (EAP334/12/2, image 19), CC BY.

359

11.4

“In the Name of Your Quills and Ink” by the master poet and social critic, Mbaye Diakhaté, written between 1902 and 1954 (EAP334/4/2, image 46), CC BY.

360

11.5

A page from Habibou Rassoulou Sy’s Lawtanuk Barka [Flourishing of Baraka], a genealogy book of the family of Boroom Tuubaa (Ahmadou Bamba). Bamba is located in the circle in bold (EAP334/12/1, image 6), CC BY.

363

11.6

A work of Ajami art displaying a key Murid maxim: “Loo yootu jàpp ko (Seize whatever you reach)” in Mbaye Diakhaté’s “Yow miy Murid, Seetal Ayib yi La Wër [You, the Murid, Beware of the Challenges Surrounding You]” (EAP334/8/1, image 29).

364

11.7

Photo of a shopkeeper’s Ajami advertisement in Diourbel, the heartland of Muridiyya, taken in June 2009. The Ajami text reads as follows: “Fii dañu fiy wecciku ay Qasā’id aki band(u) ak kayiti kaamil aki daa” [Poems, audiocassettes, Quran-copying quality paper and ink are sold here]”. The word TIGO refers to a local mobile phone company.

365

11.8

A mill owner’s advertisement for grinding grains, including peanuts. The Ajami text reads as follows: “Ku bëgg wàllu wàlla soqlu wàlla tigadege wàlla nooflaay; kaay fii la. Waa Kër Xaadimu Rasuul [If you want (your grains) pounded or grinded or peanut butter effortlessly; come here. The People of The Servant of the Prophet (Ahmadou Bamba)]”. Photo taken in Diourbel in June 2009.

366

11.9

Shopping for Ajami materials in Touba, Senegal during the 2012 Màggal.

367

11.10

Shopping for Ajami materials and Murid paraphernalia in Touba, Senegal, 12 July 2014.

367

11.11

An advertisement in Ajami for the mobile phone company Orange in a suburb of the Murid holy city of Touba, 12 July 2014.

368

11.12

A public announcement in Ajami and six foreign languages asking pilgrims who attended the 2011 Màggal to turn off their mobile phones when entering the Great Mosque of Touba where Ahmadou Bamba is buried, 11 January 2011.

369

12.1

Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-Islāmīyah [Islamic Union] newspaper, 27 July 1937 (EAP119/1/12/480, image 1), CC BY.

385

12.2

Front page of al-Liwāʾ [The Flag] newspaper, 16 December 1935 (EAP119/1/17/2, image 1), CC BY.

386

12.3

Front page of Miraʾat al-Sharq [The Mirror of the East] newspaper, on the Balfour Declaration, 2 November 1917 (EAP119/1/24/1, image 1), CC BY.

388

12.4

Front page of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Buraq uprising, 16 October 1929 (EAP119/1/13/260, image 1), CC BY.

389

12.5

Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on al-Qassam unrest, 22 November 1935 (EAP119/1/13/1504, image 3), CC BY.

390

12.6

Front page of al-Iqdām [The Courage] newspaper, on political parties, 30 March 1935 (EAP119/1/23/34, image 1), CC BY.

391

12.7

Front page of al-Difāʿ [The Defence] newspaper, on the great strike of 1936, 17 June 1936 (EAP119/1/21/169, image 1), CC BY.

392

12.8

Page three of al-Jāmiʿah al-ʿArabīyah [The Arab League] newspaper, on the Palestinian press under the Mandate, 3 April 1930 (EAP119/1/13/338, image 3), CC BY.

393

12.9

Damaged page of Filasṭīn [Palestine] newspaper, 30 December 1947 (EAP119/1/22/1802, image 1), CC BY.

395

12.10

Damaged paper of Bāb sharḥ al-shamsīyah, work on logic, 1389 CE (EAP399/1/23, image 4), CC BY.

397

12.11

Ashraf al-Wasāʾil, biography of the Prophet, 1566 CE (EAP399/1/12, image 4), CC BY.

397

12.12

Khāliṣ al-talkhīṣ, on the Arabic language, seventeenth century CE (EAP399/1/42, image 5), CC BY.

398

12.13

al-Wasīlah fī al-Ḥisāb, on mathematics, 1412 CE (EAP399/1/14, image 18), CC BY.

398

12.14

Taṣrīf al-Šāfiyah, on the Arabic language, 1345 CE (EAP399/1/34, image 85), CC BY.

399

12.15

al-Rawḍah, on jurisprudence and matters of doctrine, 1329 CE (EAP521/1/90, image 4), CC BY.

404

12.16

Maʿālim al-Tanzīl, exegesis, 1437 CE (EAP521/1/6, image 3), CC BY.

404

12.17

Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfiʿīyah, on history, 1542 CE (EAP521/1/26, image 33), CC BY.

405

12.18

al-Nawādir al-Sulṭānīyah, on the history and biography of Salaḥ al-Dīn al-Ayyūbī, 1228 CE (EAP521/1/24, image 29), CC BY.

405

13.1

Carte-de-visite from Bernabé Mendizábal to Mr. Comendador Dr. Guido Bennati (EAP207/6/1, images 27 and 28), Public Domain.

419

13.2

Itineraries of Guido Bennati in South America. Map by Samanta Faiad, Dept. Ilustración Científica del Museo de La Plata, CC BY.

421

13.3

Museo de La Plata, c. 1890 (Anales del Museo de La Plata, 1890), Public Domain.

423

13.4

Carte-de-visite from Michel-Aimé Pouget (EAP207/6/1, images 29 and 30), Public Domain.

428

13.5

“Souvenirs of Bolivia” (from La Ilustración Española y Americana, 43 (November 22, 1877), p. 316). © CSIC, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Biblioteca Tomás Navarro Tomás, all rights reserved.

435

13.6

“The Ruins of Pumapungu”, view to the southwest. © Stübel’s Collections, Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, Leipzig, all rights reserved.

436

13.7

“The church of Tiahuanaco”. © Stübel’s Collections, Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, Leipzig, all rights reserved.

437

14.1

Mission Veng Church, c. 1913-1919, Mizoram Presbyterian Church Synod Archive, Aijal, Mizoram, India.

450

14.2

Challiana, seated second from right, with F. W. Savidge, seated second from left, and others, n. d., British Library (EAP454/16/1), CC BY.

463

14.3

Wedding at Mission Veng Church, n. d., British Library (EAP454/12/1 Pt 2), CC BY.

465

14.4

Church leaders at Mission Veng Church, 1919, British Library (EAP454/13/22), CC BY.

465

14.5

Liangkhaia at Mission Veng Church, 1919, British Library (EAP454/13/22), CC BY.

467

14.6

Suaka Lal, Veli and Chhingtei at Durtlang, 1938, British Library (EAP454/3/3 Pt 2), CC BY.

470

14.7

“Wives of the Soldiers in Lungleh”, c. 1938, loose photo in J. H. Lorrain’s file, BMS Acc. 250, Angus Library and Archive, Regent’s Park College, Oxford.

470

14.8

“Some of the mothers who live in Lungleh”, c. 1938, loose photo in J. H. Lorrain’s file, BMS Acc. 250, Angus Library and Archive, Regent’s Park College, Oxford.

478

14.9

Two Mizo nurses in Serkawn, c. 1924, British Library (EAP454/6/1), CC BY.

478

15.1

Baluev writing in his journal in Dudinka, 1938. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3604), all rights reserved.

492

15.2

Map of the Evenki National District. Photo by I. I. Baluev (EAP016/4/1/223). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

495

15.3

The first camp after crossing the border between Taimyr and Evenkia with all three expedition members: Baluev, Dolgikh and Strulev. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3683), all rights reserved.

497

15.4

Stakhanovite hunter, Stepan N. Pankagir, on the hunt for squirrels. Uchug, Evenki National District, 17 January 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1264). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

504

15.5

Prize-winning hunter Ivan K. Solov’ev (a Yakut) shows his award to his wife. Next to her is V. V. Antsiferov. Kamen’Factory, 7 November 1938 (EAP016/4/1/1913). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

511

15.6

Female hunters. From the left, Mariia L. Mukto and Mariia F. Chapogir hunting for squirrels in the forest. Evenki National District, 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1323). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

512

15.7

Icefishing with reindeer fat. Evenki National District, 1939. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3684), all rights reserved.

513

15.8

Geography lesson in grade seven at the Russian School. Evenkii National District, Tura Settlement, January 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1546). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

515

15.9

The Yakut Nikolai N. Botulu (Katykhinskii) with a polar fox caught in the jaws of a trap. He was from Ezhova, Taimyr National District, but his traps were located in the Evenki National District, 1938 (EAP016/4/1/315). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

516

15.10

Krasnoyarsk krai forest on the border of the Evenki National District, Boguchansk Region, February 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1646). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

517

15.11

Three modes of transport: reindeer, sleigh and truck. Evenki National District, Tura, 1939. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3767), all rights reserved.

519

15.12

Evenki hunter Danil V. Miroshko trading furs. The head of the exchange is Luka Pavlovich Shcherbakov. Tura, January 1939. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3822), all rights reserved.

519

15.13

A reindeer herd with herder from the Reindeer Sovkhoz (state farm), NKZ. Evenki National District, February 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1341). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

520

15.14

Headquarters for the Reindeer Sovkhoz (state farm), NKZ. A chum (conical tent) is in the foreground, a new home for Evenki labourers in the background. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia (KKKM 3706), all rights reserved.

521

15.15

Yakut tent in Tura in the winter. Evenki National District, Tura settlement, January 1939 (EAP016/4/1/1556). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

522

15.16

New Year’s tree celebration at the secondary school. © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, (KKKM 3759), all rights reserved.

523

15.17

Children performing exercises under a portrait of Stalin (a small portrait of the assassinated Bolshevik leader, Sergei Kirov, is behind the teacher’s head) (EAP016/4/1/1246). © Krasnoyarsk Museum, Siberia, all rights reserved.

525

16.1

Jacques Toussele with a plate camera in 1965. © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

532

16.2

Jacques Toussele in 2001. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

533

16.3

The studio in 1973 (EAP054/1/123/56). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

535

16.4

The studio building in 2006. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

535

16.5

A street seller (EAP054/1/54/58). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

536

16.6

Portrait for an ID card (EAP054/1/94/167). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

536

16.7

Portrait of an elderly man with spear and pipe (EAP054/1/68/125). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

537

16.8

Portrait for an ID card (EAP054/1/177/24). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

537

16.9

Portraits for school ID cards. Double exposure on a single negative (EAP054/1/52/144). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

538

16.10

A photocopy of a print of a man standing, showing how the original negative was cropped (EAP054/1/4/145). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

540

16.11

Original negative for the print shown in Fig. 16.10 (EAP054/1/50/562). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

541

16.12

Baptism. Damaged negative (EAP054/1/44/45). © Jacques Toussele, CC BY-NC-ND.

543

16.13

Negatives before scanning. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

543

16.14

The documentary team at work in Mbouda. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

544

17.1

The logo of the Syliphone recording company. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

555

17.2

Bembeya Jazz National, Regard sur le passé (Syliphone, SLP 10, c. 1969). The photo depicts Samory Touré, grandfather of President Sékou Touré, who led the insurgency against French rule in the late nineteenth century. The orchestra’s version of the epic narrative in honour of his life earned them great acclaim; when it was performed at the First Pan-African Cultural Festival, held in Algiers in 1969, it won Guinea a silver medal. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

557

17.3

Ensemble Instrumental de la Radiodiffusion Nationale, Guinée an XI (Syliphone, SLP 16, 1970). Guinea’s premier traditional ensemble displays the prominence of the griot musical tradition, with two koras (first and second rows, centre) and a balafon (second row, far left). © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

558

17.4

The verso cover of a box set of four Syliphone LPs (Syliphone, SLP 10-SLP 13, 1970), released in recognition of the performances of Guinea’s artists at the First Pan-African Cultural Festival, held in Algiers in 1969. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

558

17.5

Bembeya Jazz National/Horoya Band National, Concerts des Orchestres Nationaux (Syliphone, SLP 27, 1971). Political doctrine was reinforced through Syliphone. Here the cover depicts an enemy combatant, his boat blasted, surrendering to the JRDA (Jeunesse de la Révolution Démocratique Africaine, the youth wing of the PDG) and the APRG (Armée Populaire Révolutionnaire de Guinée). © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

559

17.6

Édition spécial de la régie Syliphone. Commémorant le 1er anniversaire de la victoire du peuple de Guinée sur l’Impérialisme International (Syliphone SLPs 26-29, 1971). A box set of four LP discs (“Coffret special agression”) released to celebrate Guinea’s victory over the Portuguese-led forces which invaded the country in 1970. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

559

17.7

Horoya Band National (Syliphone, SLP 41, c. 1973). Many of Guinea’s orchestras featured the band members wearing traditional cloth. Here, an orchestra from Kankan in the north of Guinea wears outfits in the bògòlanfini style associated with Mandé culture. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

560

17.8

Various Artists, Discothèque 70 (Syliphone, SLP 23, 1971). Tradition and modernity: a compilation of music by Guinean orchestras is promoted by images from local cultural traditions. Here, a Fulbé woman is depicted. © Editions Syliphone, Conakry, under license from Syllart Records/Sterns Music, CC BY.

560

17.9

The Radio Télévision Guinée (RTG) offices in Boulbinet, Conakry. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

568

17.10

Audio reels stored in the RTG’s “annexe”. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

569

17.11

Some of the audio reels were in urgent need of preservation. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

569

17.12

Archiving the audio reels and creating digital copies. Photo by author, CC BY-NC-ND.

570

18.1

Davud Pirnia (on the right) and Rahi Mu’ayyiri (on the left) at the radio in Tehran, c. 1950. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

588

18.2

Parviz Yahaqqi (on the right) and Bijan Taraqqi (on the left) composing a song for the Golha programmes. Tehran, late 1950s. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

589

18.3

Rahim Moini-Kermanshahi (on the right) and ‘Ali Tajvidi (on the left) composing a song for the Golha programmes. Tehran, mid-1950s. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

589

18.4

Vigin Derderian, one of the most popular pop singers from the 1950s. He sang several Armenian tunes for the Golha programmes. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

592

18.5

Ali Akbar Shanazi teaching his pupil Pirayeh Pourafar at the Centre for the Preservation and Promotion of Music in Tehran, in 1977. Courtesy of Pirayeh Pourafar, Public Domain.

597

18.6

Ghulam Hosain Banan (on the left) and Navab-Safa (on the right) working on a song for the Golha programmes. Tehran, late 1950s. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

599

18.7

Akbar Golpaygani (on the left) and Farhang Sharif (on the right) in the late 1960s. Courtesy of Alireza Mirnaghabi, Public Domain.

602

18.8

Left to right: Shaf’i Kadkani, Hushang Ebtehaj and Bastani Parizi. They were all poets whose work was featured in the Golha programmes, c. 1970. Courtesy of Alireza Mirnaghibi, Public Domain.

605

18.9

Mohammad Reza Lutfi (on the left) and Hushang Ebtehaj (on the right) in the mid-1970s. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

606

18.10

Text of the Golha-yi javidan and Golha-yi rangarang programmes printed in the Radio-yi Iran journal. Majala-yi Radio, 16-17 (1335 A. Hsh./1956), Public Domain.

607

18.11

Faramarz Payvar (on the left) and Hosain Tehrani (on the right), at the Tomb of Hafiz, Shiraz Arts Festival, c. 1970. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

610

18.12

Left to right: Turaj Nigahban, Gulshan Ibrahimi and Humayun Khuram. Courtesy of Forugh Bahmanpour, Public Domain.

611

19.1

The Pushkinskii Dom in St Petersburg. Photo by V. Denisov, CC BY.

620

19.2

The phonogram collection in St Petersburg. Photo by V. Denisov, CC BY.

621

19.3

The catalogue of sound recordings in the Pushkinskii Dom.

624

19.4

The sound laboratory in Izhevsk. Photo by V. Denisov, CC BY.

625