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Dictionary of the British English Spelling System

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Greg Brooks

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12.1 The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the 24 consonant phonemes of the Received Pronunciation accent of English 15

22.2 The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the 20 vowel phonemes of the Received Pronunciation accent of English, plus/juː/ 16

33.1 Main correspndences of the 11 consonant phonemes with variable spellings, by position in the word 20

43.2 Full list of /r/-linking categories 42

53.3 The distribution of <c, ck, k, x> in spellings of /k, ks /54

63.4 The distribution of <c, s, ss> in initial and medial spellings of /s/other than in/ks/ 74

73.5 The distribution of <c, ce, s, se, ss> in stem-final spellings of /s/ other than in /ks/ (also excluding grammatical suffixes) 76

83.6 The distribution of <ti, ce, ci, si, ssi> as spellings of medial /∫/ 93

93.7 Examples of /w/ represented or not between a stem word ending in/(j)uː, əʊ, aʊ/and a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme 102

103.8 Examples of/j/represented or not between a stem word ending in/aɪ, eɪ, ɔɪ, iː/and a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme 107

114.1 Single and double consonant spellings after short and long vowels 111

124.2 Non-equivalence of sets of consonant phonemes spelt double in two circumstances 120

134.3 Examples and exceptions of the rule that two-syllable words have medial consonant letters written double after a short vowel phoneme written with a single letter 121

144.4 Some cases where stem words ending in /əl/ do or do not retain/ə/before a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme 127

154.5 Examples of the rule that the third syllable from the end of a word rarely ends in a doubled consonant letter, with exceptions not arising from affixation 128

165.1 Main spellings of the 20 vowel phonemes, plus /juː/, by word position 136

175.2 Spellings of /ɒ/ as <a> after /w/ 149

185.3 Spellings of /ɔː/ as <ar> after /w/ 175

195.4 <au, aw, or, ore> as spellings of /ɔː/ 176

205.5 Spellings of /ɪə/ in medial and final positions 187

215.6 <ea, ee, e. e, ie, i. e> as spellings of /iː/ in closed final syllables 202

225.7 Spellings of /əʊ/ in final syllables 212

238.1 All the consonant graphemes of written English, by RP phoneme 255

248.2 All the vowel graphemes of written English, by RP phoneme, plus /juː/ 259

258.3 Alphabetical list of the 89 graphemes of the main system 264

268.4 Alphabetical list of the other 195 graphemes 265

279.1 21 main-system consonant graphemes with only one pronunciation each 272

289.2 20 main-system consonant graphemes with only one frequent pronunciation each 273

299.3 Nine main-system consonant graphemes with two regular pronunciations each 274

309.4 Main-system graphemes beginning with consonant letters, by main-system and minor correspondences and numbers of Oddities 275

319.5 Medial <s> pronounced /z/, with sub-exceptions pronounced /s/ and sub-sub-exceptions pronounced /z/ 315

329.6 /s, z/ as pronunciations of word-final <se> 320

3310.1 Main-system graphemes beginning with vowel letters, by main-system and minor correspondences and numbers of oddities 344

3410.2 Regular correspondences of <a, e, i, o, u, y> (±word-final 437 <e>) in monosyllabic content words 437

3510.3 Open monosyllables with a single vowel letter 438

3610.4 Short and long pronunciations of single-letter vowel graphemes before single and double consonant spellings 439

3711.1 ‘When two vowels go walking, the first does the talking’ 450

3811.2 Pronunciations of vowel letters in words with a single, non-final vowel letter followed by at least one consonant letter other than <r, w, y> 451

3911.3 Reliability of rules for split digraphs or ‘magic <e>’ where the intervening letter is not <r, w, x, y> 453

40B. 1 The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, by RP phoneme, 1: Consonants 477

41B. 2 The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, by RP phoneme, 2: Vowels 479

42B. 3 The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, 3: 2-phoneme sequences frequently spelt with single graphemes 480

43B. 4 The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 1: Single graphemes frequently pronounced as 2-phoneme sequences 481

44B. 5 The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 2: Major correspondences for consonant graphemes 481

45B. 6 The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 3: Minor correspondences for consonant graphemes 483

46B. 7 The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 4: Major correspondences for vowel graphemes 484

47B. 8 The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 5: Minor correspondences for vowel graphemes 485

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