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Cultural Heritage Ethics

Constantine Sandis

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

11.1 Blue glass sugar bowl inscribed in gilt ‘EAST INDIA SUGAR not made by SLAVES’, Bristol, 1820-30. British Museum. Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:East_India_Sugar_not_made_by_Slaves_Glass_sugar_bowl_BM.jpg 14

21.2 Statue of Edward Colston by John Cassidy, erected in 1895 on Colston Avenue, Bristol. Photograph by William Avery (2006). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Edward_Colston_1895_statue.jpg (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported license). 14

31.3 English Heritage blue plaque for Nancy Astor. Photograph by Simon Harriyott (2010). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Nancy_Astor_(4313985760).jpg (CC BY 2.0 Generic license). 15

45.1 The Parthenon from the north-west. Author’s photograph, 6 October 2013. 69

55.2 The Parthenon from the north-west. Entrance ticket to the Acropolis, issued on 6 October 2013. 69

65.3 The Parthenon from the north-west, c. 1909, before the re-erection of the colonnade in the 1920s. Postcard. Pharazes and Michalopoulos of Athens, date of first publication unknown, but some time before the postcard was posted from Athens on 6 April 1909. Author’s collection. 70

75.4 The Parthenon from the north-west. Photographic print,? 1880s, source uncertain. Author’s collection. 71

85.5 The Parthenon from the north-west, autumn 1839. Aquatint engraving of a daguerreotype made on the spot by Joly de Lotbinière. Author’s collection. 71

95.6 The Parthenon as it appeared in antiquity, as imagined in 1788. Copper engraving. ‘Vue perspective du Parthénon’, engraved by Ambroise Tardieu, plate 18 in the Atlas volume that accompanied the edition of Anacharsis published in Paris by Ledoux in 1821. 72

105.7 The Parthenon from the north-west, c. 1805. Aquatint from a drawing by Edward Dodwell, in his Views in Greece from Drawings (London: Rodwell and Martin, 1821). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Dodwell_Parthenon_1.jpg 73

115.8 The Acropolis south slopes around 1858. Albumen print of a photograph by Felix Bonfils. Author’s collection. 74

125.9 The ancient path on the north side under the caves. Photograph, c. 1910. Ernst Reisinger (ed.), Griechenland, Landschaften und Bauten, Schilderungen Deutscher Reisender (Leipzig: Im Insel Verlag, 1916), 4. 75

135.10 The cave of Pan on the north slope, looking out. Author’s photograph, 2 October 2013. 76

145.11 Greece, invoking Homer and the ruins of ancient Hellas, calls on Europe for help, 1821. Copper engraving. Σάλπισμα πολεμιστήριον [‘A Trumpet Call to War’], a pamphlet by Adamantios Koraes that purports to have been printed ‘In the Peloponnese from the Hellenic Press of Atrometos of Marathon’, but was actually printed in Paris by overseas Greeks, 1821. 80

155.12 Caryatid looking towards Philopappus, 1929. Photograph by Walter Hege. Akropolis aufgenommen von Water Hege, beschrieben von Gerhard Rodenwaldt (Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1930). 81

165.13 North-west corner of the Parthenon, 1923. Photograph by Hans Hold. Hans Hold and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Griechenland-Baukunst, Landschaft, Volksleben (Berlin: Wasmuth, 1923). 82

175.14 Viewing the Acropolis, c. 1898. Woodcut from an original work by A. Kirscher. From an illustration in Das Buch fur Alle, a German journal, c. 1898. 83

185.15 The Acropolis as seen from the centre of Athens, by Edward Dodwell, c. 1805. Coloured aquatint, in Edward Dodwell, Views in Greece from Drawings (London: Rodwell and Martin, 1821). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Athens-dodwell.jpg 84

195.16 The Acropolis as seen from a distance by an arriving traveller, c. 1800. Aquatint by Louis Cassas, in [Cassas and Bence] Grandes Vues Pittoresques des Principales Sites et Monumens de la Grèce, et de la Sicile, et Des Sept Collines de Rome, Dessinées et Gravées a l’eau-forte, au trait, par MM. Cassas et Bence; Accompagnés d’une Explication des Monumens par M. C. P. Landon (Paris and Strasbourg: Treuttel and Würtz, 1813). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Cassas_Louis-Francois_-_View_of_Athens_with_Hadrians_Aqueduct_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg 85

205.17 The Entrance to the Acropolis, Heinrich Hübsch, 1819. Aquatint published in Denmark with description in Danish. Undated and signed only with the name of the engraver ‘J. B. Peterson sculp.’85

215.18 The Muslim cemetery at the entrance to the Acropolis, c. 1805. Copper engraving. Simone Pomardi, Viaggio nella Grecia fatto da Simone Pomardi negli anni 1804, 1805, e 1806 (Rome: Poggioli, 1820), i, opposite 143. 86

225.19 Admission tickets to the Acropolis, mid-1830s. Author’s collection. 87

235.20 A low denomination bronze coin issued in Athens, Roman period, probably first century AD. Copper engraving. Anacharsis, atlas volume, engraved from a coin then in the French Royal collection. Frequently reproduced, and other examples of the coin have been found later, dispelling fears that it was a fake. 88

245.21 ‘A View of the Doric Portico at Athens in its present state’, c. 1751. Copper engraving. Published by R. Faulder, New Bond Street, July 1793 in [Bisani, Alessandro] A Picturesque Tour through Europe, Asia, and Africa… with Plates after Designs by James Stuart, Written by an Italian Gentleman (London: Faulder, 1793). The same plates were used in an edition of Pausanias published by Faulder. 89

255.22 Volney’s Ruins. Title page and frontispiece of the English translation. 90

265.23 ‘Byron’s Dream’, 1819. Copper engraving, sold to be bound into copies of his works. A New Series of Twenty-one Plates to Illustrate Lord Byron’s Works. Engraved by Charles Heath, from Drawings by R. Westall, R. A. With a Portrait, engraved by Armstrong, from the original Picture, by T. Phillips, R. A. (1819). 91

275.24 ‘The Ruins of Athens’ Copper engraving. Composed by Konrad Martin Metz, 1789, and frequently re-engraved in standard geographical works over many decades. Metz never visited Athens. 92

285.25 The Parthenon as a symbol of the superiority of the northern white races. Woodcut illustration in Robert Knox, The Races of Men, A Fragment (London: Henshaw, 1850), 396. 93

295.26 The German flag flying over the Acropolis, 1941. Cover of the monthly magazine Deutsches Wollen (‘The German Will’) for July 1941. 94

305.27 ‘Mars Hill, Athens’. Chromolithograph, no date, c. 1840, from a steel engraving by Clarkson Stanfield from a sketch made on the spot by William Page, first published 1835. 95

315.28 The essence of the Athenian Acropolis exported to England. Copper engraving by William Sharp, prepared from Stuart’s design for Ralph Willett, A Description of the Library at Merly in the County of Dorset (1785). 96

325.29 ‘Lord Elgin interrupts his meditations’. Lithograph. Frontispiece to volume 1 of Mazier du Heaume, Hippolyte, Voyage d’un Jeune Grec à Paris (Paris: Fr. Louis, 1824). 97

335.30 Confuting Hellenism. Mosaic on the church of Saint Philip facing the Acropolis. Author’s photograph. 99

345.31 Mosaic of the Villa of Siminius Stephanus in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Photograph by Matthias Kabel (2012). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Mosaic_MAN_Naples_Inv_124545.jpg (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported license). 100

359.1 Count Greven shoots the Buddhist priest. Frame from the film Fear (Furcht, 1917), directed by Robert Wiene. 139

369.2 Count Greven encounters the ghostly face of the priest in his cellar. Frame from Fear. 140

379.3 The spectral image of the Buddhist priest departs with the recovered statuette. Frame from Fear. 141

389.4 Count Greven with the object of his desire. Frames from Fear. 145

3911.1 The Coronation Chair of Edward I, 1296, with the Stone of Destiny. Anonymous engraver, published in A History of England (1855). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Coronation_Chair_and_Stone_of_Scone._Anonymous_Engraver._Published_in_A_History_of_England_%281855%29.jpg 149

4011.2 King Edward’s Chair, Westminster Abbey, England. Photograph by Kjetil Bjørnsrud (2002). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:SanktEdvardsstol_westminster.jpg (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported license). 150

4111.3 The lectern at St Alban’s, Copnor (detail). Photograph by Basher Eyre (2009). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:The_lectern_at_St_Alban%27s, (CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic license). 152

4211.4 Great Bed of Ware. Author unknown, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, December 1877, p. 23. Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Great_Bed_of_Ware_1877.png 153

4311.5 The opening of St Luke’s Gospel in the Lindisfarne Gospels (715). Folio 139 recto. British Library Online Exhibit. Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Lindisfarne_Gospels_folio_139r.jpg 154

4411.6 Chess pieces from Uig, Lewis, now at the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh. Photograph by Mike Peel (, 2013). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Lewis_chessmen,_National_Museum_of_Scotland_1.jpg (CC BY-SA 4.0 International License). 155

4511.7 The Axum Obelisk (also known as the Roman Stele) in Rome, where it stood in front of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s headquarters until 2005. Photograph by Bair175 (1960s). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Ethiopian_obelisk_in_Rome_1960.jpg (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported license).

4611.8 The Axum Obelisk in Axum. Photograph by Ondřej Žváček (2009). Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Rome_Stele.jpg (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported license). 161

4711.9 Basalt stela with a relief of Antiochus I Epiphanes. © Trustees of the British Museum. 162

4811.10 Crown, Ethiopia, 1740. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 164

4911.11 Carved marble head of a child, third century, excavated in 1882. Taken by Sir C. W. Wilson from the so-called ‘Sidamara Sarcophagus’. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 164

5011.12 View of the Acropolis from the interior of the New Acropolis Museum. Wikimedia Commons:​wiki/​File:Acropolis_-_Museum_Interior.JPG 165

5111.13 Chinese Imperial throne, carved lacquer on wood depicting five clawed dragons, Qing dynasty, 1775-80. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 166


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