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Cicero, On Pompey's Command (De Imperio), 27-49

 | 
Cicero
, 
Ingo Gildenhard
, 
Louise Hodgson

3. Latin text with study questions and vocabulary aid

Texte intégral

27: THE ONLY WAY IS POMPEY

1Satis mihi multa verba fecisse videor, qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium, magnitudine periculosum. Restat ut de imperatore ad id bellum deligendo ac tantis rebus praeficiendo dicendum esse videatur. Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium atque innocentium copiam tantam haberetis, ut haec vobis deliberatio difficilis esset, quemnam potissimum tantis rebus ac tanto bello praeficiendum putaretis! Nunc vero – cum sit unus Cn. Pompeius, qui non modo eorum hominum qui nunc sunt gloriam, sed etiam antiquitatis memoriam virtute superarit – quae res est quae cuiusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit?

2Study Questions:

  • What type of clause does qua re introduce? Why is esset in the imperfect subjunctive?
  • What kind of ablatives are genere ipso and magnitudine?
  • Which word in the ut…videatur clause governs the preposition de?
  • Explain the constructions of deligendo, praeficiendo, and dicendum esse.
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of haberetis.
  • What kind of clause is ut…difficilis esset?
  • What case are tantis rebus and tanto bello? How do they fit into the sentence?
  • putaretis governs an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the infinitive.
  • What is the position of unus in relation to the noun it modifies (Cn. Pompeius)?
  • On what noun does the genitive phrase eorum hominum depend?
  • Parse superarit.
  • What kind of ablative is virtute?
  • quae res est quae ...: explain the uses of quae (2x).
  • Why is possit in the subjunctive?
  • Why does Cicero consider the kind of war under discussion inevitable (necessarium) and its scope perilous (periculosum)? (NB: To answer this question you have to read the speech from the beginning.)
  • Who are the Quirites whom Cicero addresses? What is their role in the political system of late republican Rome?
  • In the stretch ut haec ... putaretis! a number of alliterations occur: deliberatio, difficilis; potissimum, praeficiendum, putaretis; tantis, tanto. What (if anything) do they emphasize?

satis (indeclinable)

enough, sufficient

qua re (also: quare)

in what way, why (interrogative or relative adverb)

genus, generis, n.

kind, type

resto, -are, -iti

to remain (to be dealt with)

deligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum

to pick out in preference to the rest, choose

praeficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to put in charge (of), set over

utinam (particle, used to reinforce wishes expressed by the subjunctive)

‘how I wish that’, ‘if only’

fortis, -tis, -te

robust, vigorous, brave, resolute

innocens, -ntis

blameless, upright, virtuous; harmless

copia, -ae, f.

plentiful supply, abundance

quisnam, quaenam, quidnam

[quis + nam] who/what

potissimum (adverb)

especially, above all, preferably

unus, -a, -um

one, a single; (here) only, alone

Cn.

abbreviation of Gnaeus

quisquam, quicquam

any (single) person, anyone (at all)

dubius, -a, -um

uncertain what to do, hesitant

3Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the way in which Cicero positions himself vis-à-vis the audience in this paragraph. You may wish to focus on personal pronouns (mihi, vobis), Cicero’s use of qualifying words or phrases (satis, videor, videatur), his preference for passive or impersonal constructions, as well as rhetorical questions and assertions.

4Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the citizens do not really have a choice: there is only one! Is that (ever) true? And do you think that everyone in Cicero’s original audience would have agreed? Who might have registered a protest?

28: THE PERFECT GENERAL, POMPEY THE KID, AND MR. EXPERIENCE

5Ego enim sic existimo, in summo imperatore quattuor has res inesse oportere: scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Quis igitur hoc homine scientior umquam aut fuit aut esse debuit? qui e ludo atque e pueritiae disciplinis, bello maximo atque acerrimis hostibus, ad patris exercitum atque in militiae disciplinam profectus est; qui extrema pueritia miles in exercitu fuit summi imperatoris, ineunte adulescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator; qui saepius cum hoste conflixit quam quisquam cum inimico concertavit, plura bella gessit quam ceteri legerunt, plures provincias confecit quam alii concupiverunt; cuius adulescentia ad scientiam rei militaris non alienis praeceptis sed suis imperiis, non offensionibus belli sed victoriis, non stipendiis sed triumphis est erudita. Quod denique genus esse belli potest, in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publicae? Civile, Africanum, Transalpinum, Hispaniense, servile, navale bellum, varia et diversa genera et bellorum et hostium, non solum gesta ab hoc uno, sed etiam confecta nullam rem esse declarant in usu positam militari, quae huius viri scientiam fugere possit.

6Study Questions:

  • What kind of construction does existimo govern?
  • Explain how scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem fit into the of the sentence.
  • What kind of ablative is hoc homine?
  • Explain the construction of qui (3x) and cuius.
  • What kind of ablative is extrema pueritia?
  • What construction is ineunte adulescentia?
  • maximi ipse exercitus imperator: which words are in the nominative, which in the genitive?
  • Parse saepius.
  • What is the difference between a hostis and an inimicus?
  • What kind of ablative are alienis praeceptis, suis imperiis, offensionibus, victoriis, stipendiis, and triumphis?
  • What is the subject of the relative clause in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publica? Discuss its placement in the clause.
  • Parse exercuerit and explain the mood.
  • What are the subjects of declarant (the main verb of the last sentence)?
  • declarant introduces an indirect statement: identify the subject accusative and the infinitive.
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quae?
  • Parse possit and explain the mood.

existimo, -are, -avi, -atum

to think, judge, suppose (that)

quattuor (indeclinable)

four

insum, inesse, infui

to be present (in), be possessed (by)

oportet, -êre, -uit

it is proper, right, requisite; it is demanded

scientia, ae f.

knowledge

virtus, -utis, f.

the quality typical of a true man;
excellence, ability; moral excellence, virtue

auctoritas, -atis, f.

commanding influence, authority, prestige

felicitas, -atis, f.

good fortune (as a result of divine favour)

Igitur

in that case, then

debeo, -êre, -ui, -itum

to be under an obligation; should, ought

sciens, -ntis

aware, conscious, knowledgeable

ludus, -i, m.

sport, play, game; place of instruction

pueritia, -ae, f.

childhood, boyhood

disciplina, -ae, f.

teaching, instruction, training

militia, ae, f.

military service; warfare

proficiscor, -ci, profectus sum

to set out, leave, depart (from ... to ...)

extremus, -a, -um

situated at the edge; end of

ineo, -ire, -ii/ivi, -itum

to come in, enter upon, begin

adulescentia, -ae, f.

(young) adulthood

confligo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to collide, clash; do battle, fight; argue

concerto, -are, -avi, -atum

to contend, fight, vie with; argue, dispute

lego, -ere, legi, lectum

to pick out; to read

provincia, -ae, f.

1. special function/task assigned to a magistrate
2. a provincial command
3. a territory outside Italy under direct Roman control, a province

conficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to do, perform; make; produce, cause; finish off, complete; overwhelm, undo

concupisco, -iscere, -ivi/ ii, -itum

to conceive a strong desire for, covet

alienus, -a, -um

not one’s own; of/belonging to others

praeceptum, -i, n. (from praecipio)

a piece of advice, teaching; instruction

imperium, -i, n.

the right of command invested in Roman high office

offensio, -onis, f.

the action of striking against; setback, mishap; affront, outrage

stipendium, -ii, n.

a cash payment, esp. to soldiers; a year or season of military service, campaign

erudio, -ire, -ivi/ii, -itum

to instruct, train, educate (ad: in)

exerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to train by practice, exercise; occupy

fortuna, -ae, f.

good or bad fortune; vicissitudes

Fortuna, -ae, f.

the goddess Fortune

Transalpinus, -a, -um

situated in the region beyond the Alps [from the point of view of Rome]

Hispaniensis, -is, -e

of or concerning Spain and its people

servilis, -is, -e

of, belonging to, involving slaves

usus, -us, m.
in usu
in usu poni/esse

application, use; practical experience
in one’s experience
to be in common use

fugio, fugere, fugi

to run away, flee from, escape

7Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to convey a sense of Pompey’s comprehensive knowledge of military matters?

8Discussion Point: Consider the four qualities that Cicero views as essential attributes of the perfect general: scientia rei militaris, virtus, auctoritas, felicitas. Are they still relevant qualities for military commanders today? Which qualities would your perfect general have?

Fig. 2 Roman statue of Pompey, in Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan).
Photograph by Guido Bertolotti, 2007. Image from Wikimedia.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:PompeoMagno.jpg

29: HIS EXCELLENCE (AND EXCELLENCES)

9Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest oratio par inveniri? Quid est quod quisquam aut illo dignum aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum possit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoriae, quae vulgo existimantur, labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, consilium in providendo; quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt.

10Study Questions:

  • How does the dative virtuti fit into the sentence?
  • What is the subject of the opening question?
  • Identify and explain the mood of possit.
  • Discuss Cicero’s manipulation of the term ‘virtus’ in this paragraph, starting with the switch from singular (virtuti) to plural (virtutes).
  • Parse quae in the sentence quae tanta sunt in hoc uno ... What is its antecedent?
  • Cicero here lists those qualities of a general that are commonly thought of as such, but also claims that there are others: what are they? And how do they compare to labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, and consilium in providendo?
  • Why does Cicero distinguish between imperatores he and his audience have seen (vidimus) and those they have only heard of (audivimus)? Comment on the use of the first person plural verbs (vidimus, audivimus).

11Stylistic Appreciation: What are the lexical and rhetorical devices Cicero uses in this paragraph to elevate Pompey’s claim to virtus above that of everyone else?

12Discussion Point:

  • vir-tus is related to vir (‘man’): its basic meaning is ‘manliness’. What did manliness comprise in late republican Rome? What does ‘being a man’ mean in 21st century Britain? What are the similarities, what the differences?
  • Do you have to be a man to exhibit virtus?

iam

at this point, now - in a transition to a new topic

(often strengthened by vero):

further, besides

par, paris

matching, equal

+ dative

measuring up to, equal to, adequate

invenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to encounter, come upon; discover, learn; to devise

inauditus, -a, -um

unheard (of)

adfero, -rre, attuli, allatum

to bring, fetch; adduce, relate

imperatorius, -a, -um

of or belonging to a commanding officer

vulgo (adv.)

in a way common to all, publicly, commonly

existimo, -are, -avi, -atum

to form or hold an opinion of, judge; to think, suppose (that)

negotium, -(i)i, n.

work, business; (pl.) public affairs

industria, -ae, f.

diligence, application, industry

provideo, -idere, -idi, -isum

to see in advance, see beforehand, to exercise forethought

30: WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH!

13Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam. Testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit. Testis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit. Testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est. Testis est Hispania, quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit. Testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum.

14Study Questions:

  • Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by confessus est.
  • What noun does multis agree with? What noun does magnis agree with? What is the
    rhetorical effect of the placement of multis and magnis in their respective clauses?
  • What kind of ablative are terrore and celeritate?
  • On what noun does eorum ipsorum depend? And what noun does it refer back to?
  • What is the subject of the relative clause per quam legionibus nostris iter in Gallorum internecione patefactum est?
  • Identify and explain the case of legionibus nostris.
  • What kind of genitive is Gallorum? What noun does it depend on?
  • What kind of ablative is ab hoc?
  • Parse saepius.
  • In the sentence quae cum servili bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc absente expetivit, is the cum a preposition or a conjunction?
  • Explain the construction of quod (in the last sentence of the paragraph).
  • Consider the references to ‘blood’ and ‘slaughter’ in this paragraph and sketch out the vision of Roman geopolitics that Cicero endorses here.
  • Is there a logic to the sequence in which Cicero calls up his geographical witnesses?

15Stylistic Appreciation: What rhetorical effect does the repetition of Testis est ... at the beginning of each sentence create?

16Discussion Point: Does it matter that some of the wars to which Cicero here alludes were civil wars? Which ones are they? How does he allude to them?

subsidium, -(i) i, n.

reinforcement, support; assistance, help

confiteor, -fiteri, -fessus sum

to admit, confess

undique (adverb)

from all sides or directions

cingo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to surround, encircle

explico, -are, -avi/-ui, -atum/-itum

to free from, extricate

opprimo, -imere, -essi, -essum

to press on/against, smother, overpower, crush

redundo, -are, -avi, -atum

[re- + undo] to overflow, pour out

iter, itineris, n.

path, road; journey

internecio, -onis, f.

total destruction of life, massacre

patefacio, -facere, -feci, -factum

to make visible, reveal; to open, make accessible

prosterno, -ernere, -ravi, -ratum

to lay low, strike down, defeat utterly

conspicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to catch sight of, see, witness, discern

taeter, -tra, -trum

foul, horrible; morally offensive, vile

expeto, -ere, -ivi/-ii, -itum

to ask for, request, beg; seek after, try to obtain

exspectatio, -onis, f.

the state of waiting in suspense; expectation

attenuo, -are, -avi, -atum

to make thin/slender, weaken, reduce

imminuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to reduce in amount or size, diminish

adventus, -us, m.

arrival

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to raise, lift; remove, take away, get rid of

sepelio, -elire, -elivi/-elii, -ultum

to bury; submerge, overcome

31: PACIFYING THE POND, OR: POMPEY AND THE PIRATES

17Testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum in singulis oris omnes sinus atque portus. quis enim toto mari locus per hos annos aut tam firmum habuit praesidium, ut tutus esset, aut tam fuit abditus, ut lateret? quis navigavit, qui non se aut mortis aut servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret? hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum quis umquam arbitraretur aut ab omnibus imperatoribus uno anno aut omnibus annis ab uno imperatore confici posse?

18Study Questions:

  • Identify all words in the nominative in the opening sentence (testes nunc vero iam ... atque portus). What is the verb of the sentence?
  • Explain the case of toto mari.
  • What kind of ut-clauses are ut tutus esset and ut lateret?
  • Compare and contrast the quis that introduces the second sentence (quis enim toto maris locus ...) with the quis that introduces the third sentence (quis navigavit ...): what is the difference?
  • Explain the tense and mood of committeret.
  • What kind of ablative is hieme?
  • What kind of ablative is referto ... mari?
  • Parse praedonum.
  • What are the subject and the verb of the last sentence (hoc tantum bellum ... confici posse)? What is the rhetorical effect of their placement?
  • Explain the tense and mood of arbitraretur.
  • Identify the subject accusative and the verb of the indirect statement introduced by arbitraretur.
  • What kind of ablative are ab omnibus imperatoribus and ab uno imperatore?
  • What kind of ablative are uno anno and omnibus annis?
  • Parse confici and explain its function in the sentence.
  • In the opening sentence Cicero sketches a notional map of the entire Mediterranean coastline: how much of it was under Roman control at the time of his speech?
  • What does the clause cum aut hieme aut referto praedonum mari navigaret tell us about ancient sea-faring?
  • How and why does the accusative object of the final sentence (hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divisum atque dispersum) rhetorically mirror the subject of the first sentence (testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum universa, tum ... omnes sinus atque portus)?
  • Identify and appreciate the magnificent chiasmus in the final sentence.

vero

moreover, indeed

nunc

(here introducing the final, climactic item in Cicero’s list of witnesses:) as it is

ora, -ae, f.

coast

exter, -era, -erum

foreign

gens, -tis, f.

nation, people, ethnicity; a (Roman) clan

natio, -onis, f.

people, nation, ethnicity

denique

finally, at last

mare, -ris, (ablative: mari), n.

the sea

cum ... tum ...

(correlating two circumstances, with tum indicating the more noteworthy one) both ... and ..., as well as

universus, -a, -um

the whole of, entire

singuli, -ae, -a (plural)

each one of, every single

praesidium, -(i)i, n.

defence, protection, stronghold

abditus, -a, -um

hidden from sight, concealed; remote, secluded

lateo, -ere, -ui

to hide, be concealed, escape notice

committo, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to bring into contact with; expose to

hiems, -mis, f.

winter; winter weather; storm

refertus, -a, -um (here + genitive)

crammed or stuffed full of

praedo, -onis, m.

pirate

turpis, -is, -e

offensive, disgusting, shameful, disgraceful

vetus, -eris

old, veteran, long-standing, chronic

late (adverb)

over a large area, widely

divido, -idere, -isi, -isum

to separate, divide, distribute

dispergo, -gere, -si, -sum

to spread about, scatter, disperse

conficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to do, perform, accomplish; bring to completion

19Stylistic Appreciation: Analyse the rhetorical design of the first sentence (Testis est ... sinus atque portus): how does its form reinforce its theme?

20Discussion Point: What does the claim ‘Pompey brought the war against the pirates to an end’imply? How did he do it?

32: THE PIRATES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

21Quam provinciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? quod vectigal vobis tutum fuit? quem socium defendistis? cui praesidio classibus vestris fuistis? quam multas existimatis insulas esse desertas, quam multas aut metu relictas aut a praedonibus captas urbes esse sociorum? Sed quid ego longinqua commemoro? Fuit hoc quondam, fuit proprium populi Romani, longe a domo bellare, et propugnaculis imperii sociorum fortunas, non sua tecta defendere. Sociis ego nostris mare per hos annos clausum fuisse dicam, cum exercitus vestri numquam Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint? Qui ad vos ab exteris nationibus venirent captos querar, cum legati populi Romani redempti sint? Mercatoribus tutum mare non fuisse dicam, cum duodecim secures in praedonum potestatem pervenerint?

22Study Questions:

  • Explain the syntax of liberam.
  • What kind of dative is vobis?
  • What kind of dative is cui?
  • What kind of dative is praesidio?
  • Identify and explain the case of classibus vestris.
  • Explain the difference between the quam in quam provinciam and the quam in quam multas.
  • Identify the components of the indirect statement introduced by existimatis.
  • What kind of ablative is metu?
  • Parse longinqua.
  • What kind of ablative is propugnaculis?
  • Identify and explain the case of sociis ... nostris.
  • What kind of ablative is Brundisio?
  • What kind of ablative is hieme summa?
  • Why is venirent in the imperfect subjunctive?
  • What is the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by querar?
  • legati populi Romani: which noun is in the nominative plural, which in the genitive singular?
  • Try to imagine what an urbs capta entails.
  • Explore the ways in which Cicero plays with ‘centre’ (Rome) and ‘periphery’ in this paragraph.
  • What does Cicero mean when he says that ‘twelve axes’ (duodecim secures) fell into the hands of the pirates?
  • With reference to phrases that refer to aggressive or defensive military measures, try to describe the picture of Rome’s imperial presence in the Mediterranean that Cicero is painting here.

vectigal, -alis, n.

revenue

tutus, -a, -um

safe, secure, protected from danger

praesidium, -(i)i, n.

defence, protection

classis, -is, f.

a naval force, fleet; a class or grade

metus, -us, m. (f.)

fear, alarm, apprehension

longinquus, -a, -um

situated at a distance, far-off, remote

commemoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to recall, mention, relate

quondam (adv.)

formerly, in ancient days; some day

proprius, -a, -um

one’s own, personal, peculiar to, special

bello, -are, -avi, -atum

to wage war, fight

propugnaculum, -i, n.

a bulwark, rampart, defence

fortuna, -ae, f.

fortune, chance, prosperity

in plural:

wealth, property

tectum, -i, n.

roof; house, dwelling

claudo, -dere, -si, -sum

to close, shut; blockade

legatus, -i, m.

an ambassador, envoy; legate

redimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum

to buy back, ransom, rescue

mercator, -oris, m.

merchant, trader

duodecim (indeclinable)

Twelve

securis, -is, f.

an axe

pervenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to come to, arrive at, to pass into the hands of, to come under the control of

23Stylistic Appreciation: The paragraph contains nine rhetorical questions. Can you identify sets and patterns?

24Discussion Point: How would you define the way in which Cicero interacts with his audience in this paragraph?

33: PIRATES ANTE PORTAS!

25Cnidum aut Colophonem aut Samum, nobilissimas urbes, innumerabilesque alias captas esse commemorem, cum vestros portus atque eos portus, quibus vitam et spiritum ducitis, in praedonum fuisse potestate sciatis? An vero ignoratis portum Caietae celeberrimum ac plenissimum navium inspectante praetore a praedonibus esse direptum? ex Miseno autem eius ipsius liberos, qui cum praedonibus antea bellum gesserat, a praedonibus esse sublatos? Nam quid ego Ostiense incommodum atque illam labem atque ignominiam rei publicae querar, cum prope inspectantibus vobis classis ea, cui consul populi Romani praepositus esset, a praedonibus capta atque oppressa est? Pro di immortales! tantamne unius hominis incredibilis ac divina virtus tam brevi tempore lucem adferre rei publicae potuit, ut vos, qui modo ante ostium Tiberinum classem hostium videbatis, nunc nullam intra Oceani ostium praedonum navem esse audiatis?

26Study Questions:

  • Identify and explain the mood of commemorem.
  • Identify the subject accusatives and the infinitives of the indirect statements introduced by commemorem, sciatis, and ignoratis.
  • What does Cicero mean by vitam et spiritum?
  • What construction are inspectante praetore and inspectantibus vobis?
  • Look at the verbs captas esse, esse direptum, esse sublatos, capta (sc. est), oppressa est. What do you notice about their voice? Is there a rationale for Cicero’s ‘choice of voice’ here? How does it change after pro di immortales!?
  • cui consul…praepositus est: what case is cui and why? What is the antecedent?
  • Does Cicero choose his moment for the exclamation pro di immortales well?
  • What noun does tantam(ne) agree with? What is the rhetorical effect of its placement in the sentence?
  • Explore the tension between ‘mortal’ and ‘immortal’ in the phrase unius hominis incredibilis ac divina virtus.
  • What is the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s relentless references to pirates in this paragraph (in praedonum ... potestate; a praedonibus; cum praedonibus; a praedonibus; a praedonibus; nullam ... praedonum navem)?
  • Discuss Cicero’s reference to seeing and spectatorship in this paragraph.
  • Can you place the locations Cicero mentions here (Cnidus, Colophon, Samos, Caieta, Misenum, Ostia, the straits of Gibraltar) on a map? Is there a logic to the order in which they occur?

Cnidus, -i, m.

Cnidus (a town in the extreme South-West of Caria)

Colophon, -onis, m.

Colophon (a city in Ionia)

Samos, -i, f.

Samos (an island off the coast of Asia Minor)

- acc. -um or -on

spiritus, -us, m.

the action of breathing, respiration; breath (of life)

scio, -ire, -ii/-ivi, -itum

to know, be aware of

ignoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to have no knowledge of, be ignorant of

celeber, -bris, -bre

much used, busy, frequented; famed, celebrated, distinguished

inspecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to look at, watch, observe; look on

diripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to pull to pieces, tear to shreds to seize as plunder, loot

liberi, -um (or -orum), m. pl.

sons and daughters, children

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, take away, remove, carry off

Ostiensis, -is, -e

of or belonging to Ostia

incommodum, -i, n.

detriment, harm, disadvantage; misfortune, trouble, set-back

labes, -is, f.

disaster, defect; stain upon honour or reputation, disgrace

ignominia, -ae, f.

disgrace

queror, -ri, -stus

to regret, complain, grumble, protest

Prope

in close proximity, near by; (modifying a hyperbole): almost, pretty well

praepono, -onere, -osui, -ositum

to place in front; to put in charge of

modo (adverb)

only recently

ostium, -(i)i, n.

a door, aperture, opening; mouth

- ostium Oceani

the strait of Gibraltar

27Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero maintain the supernatural colouring he introduces in his discourse with the exclamation pro di immortales! in the subsequent sentence?

28Discussion Point: Why does Cicero refer to the pirates’ attack on Ostia as a national disgrace? What qualifies as a ‘national disgrace’ nowadays?

34: POMPEY’S CRUISE CONTROL (I): ‘I HAVE A FLEET – AND NEED FOR SPEED’

29Atque haec qua celeritate gesta sint, quamquam videtis, tamen a me in dicendo praetereunda non sunt. Quis enim umquam aut obeundi negotii aut consequendi quaestus studio tam brevi tempore tot loca adire, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam celeriter Cn. Pompeio duce tanti belli impetus navigavit? qui nondum tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria subsidia rei publicae firmissimis praesidiis classibusque munivit.

30Study Questions:

  • What kind of clause does qua introduce?
  • What kind of ablative is a me? What is unusual about it?
  • Explain the construction Cn. Pompeio duce.
  • Explain the syntax of qui (in qui nondum ...).
  • Explain the syntax of navigandum.
  • For most nouns in the fourth declension, the nominative singular, the genitive singular, the nominative plural, and the accusative plural all end in -us. Can you identify the three fourth-declension nouns in the paragraph and their respective cases? (One is in the nominative singular, one in the genitive singular, one in the accusative plural.)

31Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero convey Pompey’s extraordinary speed of operation in his prose?

32Discussion Point: What according to Cicero are Pompey’s priorities?

gero, -rere, -ssi, -stum

to bear, carry, perform, do

praetereo, -ire, -ii/-ivi, -itum

to pass by, go past; omit, pass over

obeo, -ire, -ivi/-ii, -itum

to meet with, visit; to attend

consequor, -qui, -cutus

to come after, follow; pursue; reach, achieve

quaestus, -us, m.

the acquisition of income, production of profit

studium, - (i) i, n.

zeal, enthusiasm, eagerness; pursuit

impetus, -us, m.

force, impetus; charge, assault; vigorous effort

tempestivus, -a, -um

seasonable; ready; suitable, opportune

frumentarius, -a, -um

of or concerned with corn; corn-

subsidium, -(i) i, n.

reserves; a supply kept in reserve

munio, -ire, -ivi/-ii, -itum

to fortify, guard from attack, safeguard

35: POMPEY’S CRUISE CONTROL (II): ‘I HAVE A FLEET – AND NEED FOR SPEED’

33Inde cum se in Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispaniis et Gallia Transalpina praesidiis ac navibus confirmata, missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in Achaiam omnemque Graeciam navibus Italiae duo maria maximis classibus firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit, ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus est, undequinquagesimo die totam ad imperium populi Romani Ciliciam adiunxit: omnes, qui ubique praedones fuerunt, partim capti interfectique sunt, partim unius huius se imperio ac potestati dediderunt. Idem Cretensibus, cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos deprecatoresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsidesque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.

34Study Questions:

  • Identify the various clauses and constructions that make up the first long sentence (Inde cum ... Ciliciam adiunxit): what are the subjects, what the main verbs? How are they linked? How many ablative absolutes can you spot? How many subordinate clauses can you bracket off?
  • Identify and explain the case of Brundisio.
  • Can you explain how the Romans hit upon the verbal monstrosity undequinquagesimus, -a, -um to express ‘49th’?
  • Parse dediderunt and identify its accusative object.
  • Parse idem.
  • Explain the construction obsides imperavit. What other constructions does the verb impero, imperare govern?
  • Analyse the rhetorical design of Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit.
  • What kinds of ablative are extrema hieme, ineunte vere, media aestate?
  • Cicero continues with his geopolitical discourse: can you place all the locations he mentions (including Illyria, Cilicia, and Pamphylia) on a map?

35Stylistic Appreciation: This is the last of several paragraphs that Cicero devotes to Pompey’s campaign against the pirates. What are the rhetorical means by which he generates a sense of closure?

36Discussion Point: Why did the Cretans prefer to surrender to Pompey, who was far away in Pamphylia, rather than to another Roman general in their vicinity?

inde (adverb)

from that place, thence, from there

recipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to admit, receive, acquire, accept

se recipere

to turn back, withdraw, retire; return, get back

item (adverb)

similarly, likewise

adorno, -are, -avi, -atum

to get ready, prepare; equip, furnish; adorn

proficiscor, -icisci, -ectus

to set out, depart

undequinquagesimus, -a, -um

forty-ninth

adiungo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to connect, link, attach; annex, acquire

(here with ad)

ubique (adverb)

in any place whatever, anywhere; everywhere

partim (adverb)

partly

interficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum

to kill, destroy

dedo, -ere, -idi, -itum (reflexive)

to give (oneself) up, surrender

legatus, -i, m.

an ambassador, envoy, delegate; legate

deprecator, -oris, m.

one who pleads for clemency, intercessor

usque (adverb)

all the way to, as far as (with ad or in + acc.)

deditio, -onis, f.

surrender

adimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum

to remove, take away, deny, preclude

obses, -idis, m./(f.)

hostage; surety, pledge, guarantee

apparo, -are, -avi, -atum

to prepare, make ready, organize

ver, -ris, n.

spring

36: ‘THOU ART MORE LOVELY AND MORE TEMPERATE’: POMPEY’S SOFT SIDES

37Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtus imperatoris: quid? ceterae, quas paulo ante commemorare coeperam, quantae atque quam multae sunt! Non enim bellandi virtus solum in summo ac perfecto imperatore quaerenda est, sed multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis. Ac primum quanta innocentia debent esse imperatores! quanta deinde in omnibus rebus temperantia! quanta fide, quanta facilitate, quanto ingenio, quanta humanitate! quae breviter qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio consideremus: summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliorum contentione quam ipsa per sese cognosci atque intellegi possunt.

38Study Questions:

  • What noun has to be supplied with ceterae?
  • Identify and explain the case of paulo.
  • In the sentence multae sunt artes eximiae huius administrae comitesque virtutis, which words are in the nominative plural, which in the genitive singular?
  • What kind of ablative are innocentia, temperantia, fide, facilitate, ingenio and humanitate?
  • What effect does the repetition of quanta generate?
  • Why is the verb of the qualia-clause (sint) in the subjunctive?
  • Identify and explain the mood of consideremus.
  • Parse cognosci and intellegi.

39Stylistic Appreciation: Cicero has reached a pivotal moment in his argument: after discussion of Pompey’s prowess as military leader, he now focuses on his personal qualities more broadly. Discuss the stylistic devices he uses to emphasize their importance.

40Discussion Point: Can you find contemporary parallels for Cicero’s claim that good military leaders ought to possess ‘soft qualities’ of the kind he discusses here, to complement strategic or martial excellence?

paulum, -i, n.

a small amount, little, a little bit

ars, -tis, f.

skill, craftsmanship;
personal characteristic, quality
a systematic body of knowledge

eximius, -a, -um

outstanding, exceptional; special, distinct

administra, -ae, f.

a (female) assistant, ‘hand-maiden’

comes, -itis, m./f.

companion, partner, associate

innocentia, -ae, f.

freedom from guilt, innocence;
uprightness, integrity

temperantia, -ae, f.

self-control, moderation, restraint

fides, -ei, f.

trust, guarantee, promise, assurance; good faith, honesty, honour; trustworthiness, reliability

facilitas, -atis, f.

facility, ease; good nature, indulgence

ingenium, -(i)i, n.

natural disposition, natural abilities, talent

humanitas, -atis, f.

human nature; humane character, kindness

qualis, -is, -e (interrogative)

of what kind or quality

contentio, -onis, f.

exercise, effort; contention, competition;
contrast, comparison

37: SPQR CONFIDENTIAL

41Quem enim imperatorem possumus ullo in numero putare, cuius in exercitu centuriatus veneant atque venierint? quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare, qui pecuniam ex aerario depromptam ad bellum administrandum aut propter cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Romae in quaestu reliquerit? Vestra admurmuratio facit, Quirites, ut agnoscere videamini, qui haec fecerint: ego autem nomino neminem; quare irasci mihi nemo poterit, nisi qui ante de se voluerit confiteri. Itaque propter hanc avaritiam imperatorum quantas calamitates, quocumque ventum est, nostri exercitus ferant, quis ignorat?

42Study Questions:

  • Parse centuriatus.
  • Identify and explain the mood of veneant atque venierint.
  • What is the main verb of the sentence quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare ...? (NB: it needs to be supplied from the previous sentence.) What construction does it govern?
  • Identify and explain the mood of diviserit and reliquerit.
  • What case is Romae?
  • Parse, and explain the syntax of, videamini.
  • Parse voluerit.
  • What weirdo form is ventum est?
  • Identify and explain the mood of ferant.
  • Vestra admurmuratio: how do you explain Cicero’s reference to unrest in the audience? Did he anticipate this murmur of outraged assent when drafting the speech? Did he add this bit after delivery, before disseminating the speech in writing – and how can we be sure that the admurmuratio actually happened? What is the effect of having a gesture to the original performance-context in the written version of the speech?
  • Can you think of contemporary figures that (don’t) live up to Cicero’s injunction that public officials ought to magnum et amplum de re publica cogitare?

43Stylistic Appreciation: How does Cicero generate an atmosphere of outraged collusion with his audience?

44Discussion Point: What are the mechanisms by which ancient and modern governments ensure the proper use of public funds by elected officials? What laws against bribery and embezzlement existed in ancient Rome – as compared to contemporary Britain?

ullo in numero

of any account/in any esteem

centuriatus, -us, m.

the office of centurion

veneo, -ire, -ii (-itum)

[used as passive of vendo:]
to be sold

Not to be confused with:

venio, venire, veni, ventum

to come

amplus, -a, -um

great, wide, spacious; glorious, magnificent

aerarium, -i, n.

(Rome’s) public treasury

depromo, -ere, -prompsi, -promptum

to draw out/forth, fetch

divido, -ere, -visi, -visum

to separate, divide; distribute, apportion

quaestus, -us, m.

acquisition, profit, advantage

- pecuniam in quaestu relinquere

to let out money at interest

admurmuratio, -onis, f.

a murmuring, murmur (here: of disapproval)

agnosco, -noscere, -novi, -notum

to know well; declare, announce; recognize

nomino, -are, -avi, -atum

to call by name, name; mention, accuse

irascor, irasci, iratus

to be angry (at)
(most frequently, as here, with dative)

confiteor, confiteri, confessus

to acknowledge, confess, avow

38: OF LOCUSTS AND LEECHES

45Itinera, quae per hosce annos in Italia per agros atque oppida civium Romanorum nostri imperatores fecerint, recordamini: tum facilius statuetis, quid apud exteras nationes fieri existimetis. Utrum plures arbitramini per hosce annos militum vestrorum armis hostium urbes an hibernis sociorum civitates esse deletas? Neque enim potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet, neque severus esse in iudicando, qui alios in se severos esse iudices non vult.

46Study Questions:

  • What kind of clause does quae introduce?
  • Parse recordamini and arbitramini.
  • Parse facilius.
  • Identify and explain the tenses and moods (plural!) of statuetis and existimetis.
  • What nouns (plural!) does plures agree with?
  • What do you call the stylistic device on display in in iudicando ... iudices?
  • Why could hosting a Roman winter-quarter prove so disastrous for allied communities? (Compare and contrast with modern-day protests by local communities against the closure of military bases in their region.)
  • What is the timeframe of per hosce annos?

47Stylistic Appreciation: In the utrum ... an ... clause, how do the elements in the utrum-part match up with the elements in the an-part?

48Discussion Point: How does Cicero construe the relationship between ‘army’ and ‘general’ in this paragraph?

  • 1 ‘enclitic’is a linguistic term deriving from the Greek enklinein = ‘to lean on’; it is a that does (...)

iter, itineris, n.

journey, march

-ce (hosce)

a deictic particle, usually ‘enclitic’1

recordor, -ari, -atus

to think over, be mindful of, recollect

statuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to place, fix, stand; to establish, decide, uphold

exter, extera, exterum

outside, external, foreign

existimo, -are, -avi, -atum

to value, esteem; form an opinion, judge; think

utrum ... an ...

(introducing a disjunctive question, the second alternative introduced by an): whether ... or ...

hiberna, -orum, n. pl.

winter encampment, winter quarters

contineo, -inere, -inui, -entum

to hold together, link, connect; keep within; to keep under control

39: POMPEY THE PEACEFUL, OR: IMPERIALISM WITH GLOVES

49Hic miramur hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris, cuius legiones sic in Asiam pervenerint, ut non modo manus tanti exercitus, sed ne vestigium quidem cuiquam pacato nocuisse dicatur? Iam vero quem ad modum milites hibernent cotidie sermones ac litterae perferuntur. Non modo ut sumptum faciat in militem nemini vis adfertur, sed ne cupienti quidem cuiquam permittitur. Hiemis enim, non avaritiae perfugium maiores nostri in sociorum atque amicorum tectis esse voluerunt.

50Study Questions:

  • What is hic? (Hint: it’s not the demonstrative pronoun.)
  • What case, number and gender is cuius? To whom does it refer?
  • Identify and explain the mood of pervenerint.
  • What declension (and what gender) are manus and exercitus? What case is manus in, what case exercitus?
  • What type of clause does ut introduce?
  • What construction does dicatur govern?
  • What kind of clause is quem ad modum milites hibernent?
  • Both hiemis and avaritiae are genitives dependent on refugium: but what type of genitive is hiemis, what type avaritiae?
  • How many indirect statements can you find in this section? Can you identify the verbs introducing them, and find their subject accusatives?

51Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to emphasise the good behaviour of Pompey’s forces in Asia?

52Discussion Point: Cicero ends this section by invoking the normative force of the ancestors. Are ‘older generations’ by definition ethically superior – in ancient Rome and elsewhere in history?

miror, -ari, -atus

to be surprised, amazed, bewildered; marvel

manus, -us, f.

hand; in the plural: band, troop

ne ... quidem

not even [negating the enclosed word]

vestigium, -(i)i, n.

footprint, track

pacatus, -a, -um

tranquil, peaceable, disposed to peace

paco, -are, -avi, -atum

to impose a settlement on, bring under control, subdue

noceo, -ere, -ui, -itum

(regularly with dative): to harm, injure

iam vero

further, now, besides

quem ad modum/quemadmodum

(interrogative) in what way? how? (relative) in the manner in which

hiberno, -are, -avi, -atum

to spend the winter (esp. of troops)

cotidie (adverb)

every day, daily

sermo, -onis, m.

speech, talk; conversation, dialogue; gossip

litterae, -arum, f.

letters

perfero, -rre, pertuli, perlatum

to carry/convey to, deliver; tolerate, endure

sumptus, -us, m.

expenditure, outlay, expense

-sumptum facere

to expend money

hiems/ hiemps, -mis, f.

winter

avaritia, ae, f.

greed, avarice, rapacity

perfugium, -(i)i, n.

a place of refuge, shelter

tectum, -i, n.

roof, ceiling; house, dwelling

40: NO SIGHT-SEEING OR SOUVENIRS FOR THE PERFECT GENERAL

53Age vero ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia, considerate. Unde illam tantam celeritatem et tam incredibilem cursum inventum putatis? Non enim illum eximia vis remigum aut ars inaudita quaedam gubernandi aut venti aliqui novi tam celeriter in ultimas terras pertulerunt, sed eae res, quae ceteros remorari solent, non retardarunt: non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devocavit, non libido ad voluptatem, non amoenitas ad delectationem, non nobilitas urbis ad cognitionem, non denique labor ipse ad quietem; postremo signa et tabulas ceteraque ornamenta Graecorum oppidorum, quae ceteri tollenda esse arbitrantur, ea sibi ille ne visenda quidem existimavit.

54Study Questions:

  • Can you think of any reasons why the imperative form Age is singular whilst considerate (equally imperative) is plural?
  • What kind of clause is ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia?
  • What kind of ablative is qua ... temperantia?
  • What kind of clause does putatis introduce?
  • Parse retardarunt. What is its accusative object?
  • What do you think of Cicero’s use of synonyms such as voluptatem and delectationem? Do they complement each other (and if so how) or do they give the text a bloated wordiness?
  • Identify the subject accusative and infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by arbitrantur.
  • Identify and explain the case of sibi.
  • How does the explanation of Pompey’s speed Cicero gives in this paragraph affect our understanding of his previous praise of Pompey’s speed as a facet of his martial prowess?

55Stylistic Appreciation: Explore the rhetorical effect of negations in the passage.

56Discussion Point: Describe and discuss the Romans’ attitude to Greece that comes through in this paragraph. How does Pompey differ from the ceteri?

age (vero)!

(a call for attention:) come!

Unde

from which place, whence, where

cursus, -us, m.

the action of running; charge, onrush, motion, movement, speed journey, voyage, passage

invenio, -enire, -eni, -entum

to encounter, meet; to find, discover, come by

eximius, -a, -um

outstanding, exceptional, remarkable

remex, -igis, m.

oarsman, rower

remoror, -ari, -atus

to wait, linger, dally; delay, hold up

retardo, -are, -avi, -atum

to hinder the progress of, hold up, inhibit

devoco, -are, -avi, -atum

to call down; to call away, summon, divert

amoenitas, -atis, f.

allurement, attraction, charm; pleasant spot

delectatio, -onis, f.

pleasure, delight

nobilitas, -atis, f.

renown, celebrity, distinction; nobility

cognitio, -onis, f.

the act of getting to know, study, investigation

quies, -etis, f.

rest, repose, relaxation

signum, -i, n.

sign; (here) statue

tabula, -ae, f.

board, plank, panel of wood; writing-tablet; painting

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, carry off, remove, eliminate

ne ... quidem

not even

viso, -ere, -i

to go and look, view, visit

41: SAINT POMPEY

57Itaque omnes nunc in iis locis Cn. Pompeium sicut aliquem non ex hac urbe missum, sed de caelo delapsum intuentur; nunc denique incipiunt credere, fuisse homines Romanos hac quondam continentia, quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur; nunc imperii vestri splendor illis gentibus lucem adferre coepit; nunc intellegunt non sine causa maiores suos tum, cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus, servire populo Romano quam imperare aliis maluisse. Iam vero ita faciles aditus ad eum privatorum, ita liberae querimoniae de aliorum iniuriis esse dicuntur, ut is qui dignitate principibus excellit, facilitate infimis par esse videatur.

58Study Questions:

  • Parse intuentur.
  • Explain the syntax of the infinitives credere and fuisse.
  • What kind of ablative is hac ... continentia?
  • What is the antecedent of quod?
  • Identify the words in the nominative in the clause quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso memoriae proditum videbatur.
  • Parse falso and memoriae: why can’t falso modify memoriae?
  • Who is the subject implied in intellegunt?
  • Explain the tense of videbatur.
  • In the cum-clause cum ea temperantia magistratus habebamus: who is the subject? What kind of ablative is ea temperantia? What case is magistratus?
  • What kind of ablatives are dignitate and facilitate?
  • What is the significance of the word delapsum? What impression does it give of Pompey?
  • Who are the ancestors of the Eastern people who preferred to be subject to the Romans to ruling others?
  • Discuss the way in which Cicero intertwines Pompey’s dignitas (‘social rank and standing in the community’) and his facilitas (‘accessibility’) in the last sentence of the paragraph: why does he stress facilitas so much?

59Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss how Cicero employs the temporal adverbs quondam, iam and nunc in his argument.

60Discussion Point: Can you think of contemporary public figures who combine dignitas with facilitas?

intueor, -eri, -itus

to look at, watch; observe, see; consider; to look upon, regard as

delabor, -bi, -psus

to fall, drop; descend, glide down; slip

incipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to begin

falsus, -a, -um

erroneous, untrue; incorrect, wrong

prodo, -ere, -idi, -itum

(here) to hand down, transmit

splendor, -oris, m.

brightness, brilliance, radiance; lustre; glory

coepi, -isse, -tum

to begin

malo, -lle, -lui

to wish rather, prefer

aditus, -us, m.

approach, access, right of entry

privatus, -i, m.

one who holds no public office; individual

querimonia, -ae, f.

an expression of grievance, complaint, protest

iniuria, -ae, f.

unlawful conduct, injustice, injury

excello, -ere, -ui

to be pre-eminent, surpass, excel

facilitas, -atis, f.

ease, facility, indulgence

infimus, -a, -um

lowest in position, most undistinguished, humblest

par, paris

matching, equal, similar, like

42: PEACE FOR OUR TIME

61Iam quantum consilio, quantum dicendi gravitate et copia valeat, in quo ipso inest quaedam dignitas imperatoria, vos, Quirites, hoc ipso ex loco saepe cognovistis. Fidem vero eius quantam inter socios existimari putatis, quam hostes omnes omnium generum sanctissimam iudicarint? Humanitate iam tanta est, ut difficile dictu sit, utrum hostes magis virtutem eius pugnantes timuerint an mansuetudinem victi dilexerint. Et quisquam dubitabit quin huic hoc tantum bellum permittendum sit, qui ad omnia nostrae memoriae bella conficienda divino quodam consilio natus esse videatur?

62Study Questions:

  • Why is valeat in the subjunctive?
  • What kind of ablative are consilio, gravitate and copia?
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quam?
  • Parse generum.
  • Parse iudicarint and explain the mood.
  • What kind of ablative is humanitate?
  • What kind of clause is ut difficile dictu sit?
  • Parse dictu.
  • Parse pugnantes.
  • dicendi (in the first sentence) goes with both gravitate and copia; eius (in the penultimate sentence) goes with both virtutem and mansuetudinem. What do you call this phenomenon?
  • Explain the construction governed by the preposition ad (ad omnia nostrae memoriae bella conficienda).
  • Why is videatur in the subjunctive?
  • What does Cicero mean when he says that public oratory comprises quaedam dignitas imperatoria?

63Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the rhetorical effect of Cicero’s use of quantus, -a, -um and tantus, -a, -um.

64Discussion Point: Cicero argues that the secret of Pompey’s ability to bring wars to a successful conclusion derives in large part from his ‘soft qualities’– the reliability of his ‘word’ (fides) and his human kindness (humanitas). Is that a principle that holds true elsewhere in history?

gravitas, -atis, f.

weight, heaviness; dignity, importance, gravity

copia, -ae, f.

abundant power, wealth, riches, fullness, copiousness, multitude, abundance

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be strong; to have power, force, influence to avail, prevail, be strong, effective

insum, inesse, infui

to be in or upon; to be contained in, to be in, to belong to, to appertain to

dignitas, -atis, f.

dignity, greatness, grandeur, authority, rank

imperatorius, -a, -um

of or belonging to a general

cognosco, -ere, cognovi, cognitum

to become thoroughly acquainted with, to perceive, understand

genus, -eris, n.

birth, descent, origin; kind, type, character

sanctus, -a, -um

sacred, inviolable

mansuetudo, -inis, f.

mildness, gentleness, clemency

diligo, -ere, dilexi, dilectum

to value/esteem highly, love

permitto, -ere, permisi, permissum

to let go through; to give up, intrust, surrender, commit; to give leave, let, allow, suffer, grant, permit

quin (conjunction + subjunctive)

that

memoria, -ae, f.

memory, recollection the period of recollection, time

nascor, nasci, natus sum

to be born, to rise, to arise, to spring forth

43: RUMOUR AND RENOWN: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS

65Et quoniam auctoritas quoque in bellis administrandis multum atque in imperio militari valet, certe nemini dubium est quin ea re idem ille imperator plurimum possit. Vehementer autem pertinere ad bella administranda, quid hostes, quid socii de imperatoribus nostris existiment, quis ignorat, cum sciamus homines in tantis rebus, ut aut contemnant aut metuant, aut oderint aut ament, opinione non minus et fama quam aliqua ratione certa commoveri? Quod igitur nomen umquam in orbe terrarum clarius fuit? cuius res gestae pares? de quo homine vos, id quod maxime facit auctoritatem, tanta et tam praeclara iudicia fecistis?

66Study Questions:

  • Explain the grammar and syntax of multum and plurimum.
  • What kind of ablative is ea re?
  • Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by ignorat.
  • Identify and explain the mood of existiment.
  • What kind of clause does ut introduce?
  • What kind of ablative are opinione, fama, and ratione?
  • Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by sciamus.
  • Parse clarius.
  • What verb form has to be supplied in the clause cuius res gestae pares?
  • What is auctoritas? How does it differ from potestas or imperium? Is Cicero right to claim that the reputation/prestige of the general matters in warfare?

67Stylistic Appreciation: In the indirect statement dependent on sciamus Cicero switches into an ‘anthropological register’ with a statement about how humans behave in extreme situations. What is the rhetorical effect of this switch?

68Discussion Point: Can you think of figures in your life who are formally invested with power of one sort or another because of their social role or office (= potestas) but have little or no auctoritas (‘commanding respect’) – or, conversely, of individuals who do not possess any formal powers but nevertheless command respect and obedience? How would you explain this?

quoniam

since, seeing that, inasmuch as, because

quoque

in the same way, too, likewise, no less

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be powerful, be well, be potent; to have the ability or power (with infinitive or internal accusative)

dubius, -a, -um

hesitant, undecided, doubtful, uncertain

quin (conjunction + subjunctive)

that

possum, posse, potui

to be able (to); to have power, influence, or importance

vehementer (adverb)

with great force, violently, firmly

pertineo, -ere, -ui

to extend, reach; pertain to, be a concern

contemno, -nere, -psi, -ptum

to regard with contempt, look down on; to disregard

metuo, -ere, -i

to fear, be afraid

odi, -isse

to hate, dislike

opinio, -onis, f.

opinion, belief; fancy, imagination

fama, -ae, f.

news, tidings; rumour, hearsay; public opinion; fame, glory, renown

commoveo, -overe, -ovi, -otum

to move, shake, agitate; to interest, stimulate, prompt, strike

clarus, -a, -um

loud, sonorous; bright, shining; celebrated, famous

par, paris

matching, equal, similar, like

praeclarus, -a, -um

very clear/bright; excellent, famous, celebrated

44: CASE STUDY I: THE SOCIO-ECONOMICS OF POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS

69An vero ullam usquam esse oram tam desertam putatis, quo non illius diei fama pervaserit, cum universus populus Romanus referto foro completisque omnibus templis, ex quibus hic locus conspici potest, unum sibi ad commune omnium gentium bellum Cn. Pompeium imperatorem depoposcit? Itaque, ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem, quantum auctoritas valeat in bello, ab eodem Cn. Pompeio omnium rerum egregiarum exempla sumantur: qui quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator, tanta repente vilitas annonae ex summa inopia et caritate rei frumentariae consecuta est unius hominis spe ac nomine, quantum vix in summa ubertate agrorum diuturna pax efficere potuisset.

70Study Questions:

  • oram: why does Cicero use this particular word as opposed to, say, regionem? What kind of implications does it have?
  • What kind of construction does putatis introduce?
  • Specify and explain the mood of pervaserit.
  • What kind of construction are referto foro and completis omnibus templis?
  • hic locus: what place in Rome is Cicero talking about?
  • What kind of clause is ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem?
  • What kind of clause is quantum auctoritas valeat in bello?
  • Specify and explain the mood of sumantur.
  • Explain the syntax of qui.
  • What kind of ablative is a vobis?
  • On what words does the genitive unius hominis depend and what kinds (! plural intended) of genitive is it?
  • What kind of ablatives are spe and nomine?
  • Parse potuisset and explain the mood.
  • illius diei fama: how does Cicero convey the atmosphere in Rome on this day?

an

introducing direct questions with a notion of surprise/indignation: ‘can it really be that ...?’

usquam

in any place, anywhere

pervado, -dere, -si, -sum

to cross, traverse; pervade, penetrate

refercio, -cire, -si, -tum

to cram or stuff full

forum, -i, n.

the forum

compleo, -ere, -evi, -etum

to fill, to occupy a space, throng

conspicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to see, stare at, watch, discern

deposco, -scere, -posci

to demand (peremptorily), ask for

confirmo, -are, -avi, -atum

to strengthen, corroborate

egregius, -ia, -ium

outstanding, excellent, splendid, pre-eminent

sumo, -mere, -mpsi, -mptum

to take, put on, seize, get, procure

maritimus, -a, -um

relating to the sea, naval

praepono, -onere, -osui, -ositum

to place in front, set in authority over, put in charge of

repente (adverb)

without warning, suddenly; in an instant

vilitas, -atis, f.

lowness of price, cheapness

annona, -ae, f.

(annual) marketable output, produce; the supply of corn; corn, food

inopia, -ae, f.

lack of wealth, poverty; dearth; shortage, scarcity

caritas, -atis, f.

dearness, high price; love, affection, esteem

res frumentaria

the corn-supply

consequor, -qui, -cutus

to go or come after, to follow

vix (adverb)

with difficulty, hardly, barely, just

ubertas, -atis, f.

productiveness, fruitfulness, fertility, abundance

71Stylistic Appreciation: Discuss the ways in which Cicero relates Pompey to the Roman commonwealth (and the world as a whole) with reference to the comprehensive, superlative, and extreme expressions in the paragraph (e.g. ullam ... oram, tam desertam, universus populus Romanus, omnibus templis, ad commune omnium gentium bellum, omnium rerum egregiarum exempla, tanta vilitas, ex summa inopia et caritate, in summa ubertate agrorum, diuturna pax).

72Discussion Point: Explore the correlation between the appointment of Pompey as general in the war against the pirates and the ensuing drop in the price of corn in Rome. Why is this ‘cause-and-effect’ relationship between a political decision and its economic consequences such a brilliant illustration of Pompey’s auctoritas?

45: CASE STUDY II: POMPEY’S AUCTORITAS AND PSYCHO-LOGICAL WARFARE

73Iam accepta in Ponto calamitate ex eo proelio, de quo vos paulo ante invitus admonui, cum socii pertimuissent, hostium opes animique crevissent, satis firmum praesidium provincia non haberet, amisissetis Asiam, Quirites, nisi ad ipsum discrimen eius temporis divinitus Cn. Pompeium ad eas regiones fortuna populi Romani attulisset. Huius adventus et Mithridatem insolita inflatum victoria continuit et Tigranem magnis copiis minitantem Asiae retardavit. Et quisquam dubitabit, quid virtute perfecturus sit, qui tantum auctoritate perfecerit? aut quam facile imperio atque exercitu socios et vectigalia conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit?

74Study Questions:

  • What kind of construction is accepta in Ponto calamitate?
  • What kind of ablative is paulo?
  • Parse pertimuissent, crevissent and haberet
  • Specify and explain the mood and tense of amisissetis and attulisset.
  • What form is divinitus? What is the subject of the nisi-clause?
  • What kind of ablative is magnis copiis?
  • Parse minitantem.
  • What kind of clauses do quid and quam introduce?
  • What forms are perfecturus sit and conservaturus sit?
  • Specify and explain the mood of perfecerit and defenderit.
  • What are the accusative objects of defenderit?
  • Explore how Cicero represents the complementary impact of the virtus and the auctoritas of Pompey.

75Stylistic Appreciation: How does the syntax of the first sentence reinforce Cicero’s themes and rhetorical agenda?

76Discussion Point: What entity/force does Cicero refer to with fortuna populi Romani?

accipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to receive, acquire, get

proelium, -(i)i, n.

battle

paulum, -i, n.

a small amount, little, a little bit

invitus, -a, -um

unwilling, reluctant

admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to give a reminder to, to remind (of or that)

pertimesco, -escere, -ui

to become very scared, take excessive fright

ops, opis, f.

power, ability

plural:

domination, influence, resources

animus, -i, m.

mind; courage, spirit, morale

cresco, -ere, crevi, cretum

to be born, arise; develop, grow, increase

amitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to send away, dismiss; to forfeit, lose

discrimen, -inis, n.

a separating line, a point in which things differ; a decisive stage, critical point, crisis

divinitus (adverb)

by divine agency or inspiration, providentially

insolitus, -a, -um

unusual, unfamiliar

inflo, -are, -avi, -atum

to fill with air, puff out, inflate; cause to swell

minitor, -ari, -atus (+ dative)

to threaten (somebody/something)

retardo, -are, -avi, -atum

to hinder the progress of, inhibit

dubito, -are, -avi, -atum

to be in doubt, be uncertain

vectigal, -alis, n.

revenue

rumor, -oris, m.

noise, rumour, reputation, esteem

46: AUCTORITAS SUPREME

77Age vero illa res quantam declarat eiusdem hominis apud hostes populi Romani auctoritatem, quod ex locis tam longinquis tamque diversis tam brevi tempore omnes huic se uni dediderunt: quod a communi Cretensium legati, cum in eorum insula noster imperator exercitusque esset, ad Cn. Pompeium in ultimas prope terras venerunt eique se omnes Cretensium civitates dedere velle dixerunt! Quid? idem iste Mithridates nonne ad eundem Cn. Pompeium legatum usque in Hispaniam misit? eum quem Pompeius legatum semper iudicavit, ii quibus erat molestum ad eum potissimum esse missum, speculatorem quam legatum iudicari maluerunt. Potestis igitur iam constituere, Quirites, hanc auctoritatem, multis postea rebus gestis magnisque vestris iudiciis amplificatam, quantum apud illos reges, quantum apud exteras nationes valituram esse existimetis.

78Study Questions:

  • What word does quantam agree with?
  • Parse communi and legati.
  • Who is the noster imperator?
  • Which words does the -que after ei connect?
  • Parse ei.
  • Explain the syntax of se and omnes ... civitates.
  • Identify the subject accusative and the infinitive of the indirect statement dependent on existimetis.

79Stylistic Appreciation: What are the stylistic devices Cicero uses to highlight Pompey’s auctoritas?

80Discussion Point: If you were a member of one of Rome’s established senatorial families, how would you react to Cicero’s rhetoric in this paragraph?

declaro, -are, -avi, -atum

to make known, declare, tell, reveal; testify to, show

dedo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to yield possession of, give up, surrender

commune, -is, n.

property of rights held in common; commonwealth, state, collective body

usque (ad/ in) (adverb)

all the way (to), right up (to), as far (as)

molestus, -a, -um

troublesome, annoying, vexing

potissimum (adverb)

especially, above all

speculator, -oris, m.

a spy

constituo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to set up, establish, locate; arrange, agree on

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to have strength, be powerful, have weight

47: FELICITAS, OR HOW NOT TO ‘SULL(A)Y’ POMPEY

81Reliquum est ut de felicitate, quam praestare de se ipso nemo potest, meminisse et commemorare de altero possumus, sicut aequum est homines de potestate deorum, timide et pauca dicamus. Ego enim sic existimo, Maximo, Marcello, Scipioni, Mario, et ceteris magnis imperatoribus non solum propter virtutem, sed etiam propter fortunam saepius imperia mandata atque exercitus esse commissos. Fuit enim profecto quibusdam summis viris quaedam ad amplitudinem et ad gloriam et ad res magnas bene gerendas divinitus adiuncta fortuna. De huius autem hominis felicitate, de quo nunc agimus, hac utar moderatione dicendi, non ut in illius potestate fortunam positam esse dicam, sed ut praeterita meminisse, reliqua sperare videamur, ne aut invisa dis immortalibus oratio nostra aut ingrata esse videatur.

82Study Questions:

  • What is the object of meminisse and commemorare?
  • Identify the subject accusative and infinitive of the indirect statement introduced by existimo.
  • What is missing from the clause sicut aequum est homines de potestate deorum and has to be supplied from the surrounding text?
  • Which name is conspicuously absent from Cicero’s list of generals who enjoyed outstanding fortuna?
  • Parse saepius.
  • What noun does quaedam modify? What is the rhetorical effect of its placement in the sentence?

83Stylistic Appreciation: Cicero declares that he wishes to speak about Pompey’s felicitastimide et pauca’. What are the rhetorical ploys by which he puts this principle into practice?

84Discussion Point: felicitas indicates divine support. Can you think of contemporary politicians who appeal to the supernatural sphere as a source of support in governance?

reliquus, -qua, -quum

the rest of, the remaining

reliquum est

for the rest

praesto, -are, -iti (-avi), -atum (-itum)

to be outstanding/superior, excel; to make available, furnish, supply; vouch for

Sicut

in the same way as, just as ... (so)...

timide (adverb)

apprehensively, nervously

propter (preposition + accusative)

because of, on account of, thanks to

mando, -are, -avi, -atum

to hand over, deliver, entrust

committo, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to join, engage; entrust to; bring about

profecto (adverb)

without question, undoubtedly, assuredly

amplitudo, -inis, f.

size, bulk, extent; distinction, eminence, prestige

Divinitus

by divine agency or inspiration

adiungo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to connect, link up, attach to, assign

ago, agere, egi, actum

to drive

agere de

to speak about, treat, discuss

utor, uti, usus + ablative

to use, employ

moderatio, -onis, f.

moderation, restraint

praeteritus, -a, -um

that has occurred, been done; past, bygone

invisus, -a, -um

hateful, odious, disliked, unpopular

ingratus, -a, -um

ungrateful, thankless, unappreciative;

+ dative

unwelcome to, displeasing to, unpopular with

48: THE DARLING OF THE GODS

85itaque non sum praedicaturus, quantas ille res domi militiae, terra marique, quantaque felicitate gesserit, ut eius semper voluntatibus non modo cives adsenserint, socii obtemperarint, hostes oboedierint, sed etiam venti tempestatesque obsecundarint: hoc brevissime dicam, neminem umquam tam impudentem fuisse, qui ab dis immortalibus tot et tantas res tacitus auderet optare, quot et quantas di immortales ad Cn. Pompeium detulerunt: quod ut illi proprium ac perpetuum sit, Quirites, cum communis salutis atque imperii, tum ipsius hominis causa, sicuti facitis, velle et optare debetis.

86Study Questions:

  • non sum praedicaturus ... – What is the technical term for this literary technique, what is the effect of employing it here?
  • Parse domi militiae and terra marique.
  • Identify and explain the mood of gesserit.
  • Parse obtemperarint and obsecundarint.
  • Identify and explain the mood of auderet.
  • How does quod ut illi proprium ac perpetuum sit fit into the syntax of the sentence?

87Stylistic Appreciation: Explore the ways in which Cicero hints at a quasi-divine status for Pompey without actually turning him into a god.

88Discussion Point: What relationship between Pompey and the gods does Cicero posit in this paragraph?

praedico, -are, -avi, -atum

to make known, proclaim, declare

voluntas, -atis, f.

will, intention, disposition

adsentio, -tire, -si, -sum

to agree, assent, approve

obtempero, -are, -avi, -atum

to be submissive to, comply with, obey

oboedio, -ire, -ivi/-ii, -itum

to obey, submit to

obsecundo, -are, -avi, -atum

to act in compliance or support, fall in with

impudens, -ntis

shameless, impudent, brazen

tacitus, -a, -um

silent, quiet, secret

audeo, -ere, -sus

to dare, venture

opto, -are, -avi, -atum

to wish, desire, pray for

defero, -rre, detuli, delatum

to carry, convey, bring; transfer; confer, grant to

proprius, -a, -um

belonging, one’s own, one’s own property

perpetuus, -a, -um

continuous, permanent

causa (preposition + genitive)

because of, on account of

49: SUMMING UP

89Quare cum et bellum sit ita necessarium, ut neglegi non possit, ita magnum, ut accuratissime sit administrandum, et cum ei imperatorem praeficere possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia, singularis virtus, clarissima auctoritas, egregia fortuna, dubitatis, Quirites, quin hoc tantum boni, quod vobis ab dis immortalibus oblatum et datum est, in rem publicam conservandam atque amplificandam conferatis?

90Study Questions:

  • What kind of ut-clause are ut neglegi non possit and ut accuratissime sit administrandum?
  • Parse ei. What does it refer back to?
  • Explain the subjunctive (sit) in the relative clause introduced by in quo.
  • What kind of genitive is boni?

91Stylistic Appreciation: What are the rhetorical devices Cicero uses to render his summing-up both clear and memorable?

92Discussion Point: What relationship does Cicero construe between the gods and the Roman citizens?

neglego, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to disregard, ignore, do nothing about

accuratus, -a, -um

carefully performed or prepared, meticulous

praeficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to put in charge (of), set over

eximius, -a, -um

outstanding, exceptional, remarkable, special

singularis, -is, -e

alone, peculiar, special; remarkable, unusual

clarus, -a, -um

sonorous; bright, shining; celebrated, famous

egregius, -a, -um

outstanding, excellent, splendid

tantum, -i, n. (pronoun)

such a quantity, so much

bonum, -i, n.

any good, boon, advantage, blessing

offero, -rre, obtuli, oblatum

to put in the path of, provide, supply, offer

amplifico, -are, -avi, -atum

to enlarge, increase; extol, exalt, magnify

confero, -rre, contuli, collatum

to carry, convey; direct, aim; confer, bestow; to bring together; compare

Notes

1 ‘enclitic’is a linguistic term deriving from the Greek enklinein = ‘to lean on’; it is a that does not stand on its own so gets attached to (‘leans on’) the preceding one.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 2 Roman statue of Pompey, in Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan).Photograph by Guido Bertolotti, 2007. Image from Wikimedia.http://commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​File:PompeoMagno.jpg
URL http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/2022/img-1.jpg
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