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Animals and Medicine

Jack Howard Botting

List of Illustrations

Texte intégral

11.1 Smallpox deaths in Sweden, 1774-1900. 6

21.2 Smallpox deaths in England, 1838-1900. 7

31.3 Smallpox incidence in Indonesia, 1966-1971. 10

41.4 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), microbiologist. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 12

52.1 Study of a rabid dog from an oil painting by J. T. Nettleship. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 17

62.2 Slaying of a rabid dog. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 19

73.1 Incidence of tetanus per 1,000 wounded in the British Army, 1914-1918. 32

84.1 Studies on pertussis immunisation, 1937-1942. 43

94.2 Whooping cough notifications in England and Wales, 1940-1990. 44

104.3 Whooping cough in Fiji, 1950-1980. 44

115.1 Hib meningitis in Helsinki. Actual cases, 1970-1990. 51

125.2 Decline of Hib Meningitis in USA children under 5 years, 1980-1993. 52

136.1 The iron lung before vaccination, 1952? Image in the public domain. 57

146.2 Comparison of infant mortality rates and the incidence of poliomyelitis. 59

156.3 Deaths from poliomyelitis in the USA, 1948-1967. Data from Vital statistics of the USA; US Dept of Health, Educ. & Welfare. 62

166.4 Deaths from poliomyelitis in England and Wales. Data from A. M. Ramsey and R. T. D. Emond, Infectious Diseases, London: Heinemann, 1978. 62

176.5 Polio in Latin America, confirmed cases per year, 1969-1989. Data from Medical & Health Annual, 1991, Chicago: Encycl. Britannica Inc. 63

187.1 1909 photo of Emil von Behring (1854-1917). Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 67

197.2 Effect of antitoxin on case mortality. 68

207.3 Diphtheria death rate in New York, 1920-1930. 71

217.4 Incidence of diphtheria in Birmingham (children 5-14 years), 1920-1935. 72

227.5 Diphtheria death rate in Great Britain, 1925-1955. 73

238.1 Kidney dialysis machine. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 84

249.1 Alexis Carrel, 1912 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 88

259.2 Carrel’s vascular anastamosis. From A. Carrel (1902), ‘La Technique operatoire des anastomoses vasculaire et la transplantation des visceres’, Medecine de Lyon, 98, 859. 89

269.3 Sir Peter Medawar, painting by Sir Roy Calne. All right reserved 92

279.4 The first long-surviving dog, Lollypop, treated with the immunosuppressant azathioprine following a kidney graft. All right reserved 97

289.5 A donor human kidney is perfused with saline prior to transplantation. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 99

299.6 Surgeons performing a kidney transplant operation. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 99

3010.1 The recently transplanted heart of a baby boy, showing the tubing still connecting it to the heart-lung machine. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 107

3110.2 Heart-lung machine. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 108

3210.3 Effect of additives on recovery of rat heart from ischemia. Data from D. Hearse (1988) ‘The protection of the ischaemic myocardium: surgical success v clinical failure?’, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 30, 6, 381. 110

3310.4 Hypothermia and ischaemic injury. Data from Hearse (1988). 111

3411.1 Diagrams from: ‘On Breathlessness, especially in relation to cardiac disease?’ An address given by Lauder Brunton to the Willesden and District Medical Society and published in The Practitioner in June, 1905. Image in the public domain. 116

3511.2 Surgery to replace a mitral valve. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 120

3611.3 Artificial heart valves were successfully developed in animals. 121

3711.4 The tilting disc aortic heart valve, with the tilting action shown in cross sectional profile. Picture courtesy of Medtronic, all rights reserved. 122

3811.5 Tilting disc aortic heart valve. © Science Photo Library, all rights reserved. 122

3912.1 Engravings showing transfusion in the neck and leg of a dog, from animal to man, and from man to man, by J. S. Elsholtz, 1667. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 128

4012.2 Attempt at blood transfusion from lamb to man, depicted in an illustration dating from 1705. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 129

4112.3a Drawing of Blundell’s impellor. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 132

4212.3b Blundell’s apparatus in use. From J. Blundell (1828). ‘Observations on the transfusion of blood’, The Lancet, 2, 321. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 132

4312.4 Today, the storage and transfusion of sterile compatible blood or blood constituents is a routine and life saving procedure. © Science Photo Library. 137

4413.1 Photo of Frederick Banting, Charles Best and the dog Marjory, an early depancreatised dog treated with insulin, 1921. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 146

4513.2 The effect of Collip’s highly-purified extract on the first patient to be successfully treated. Data adapted from F. Banting, C. Best, J. Collip, et al. (1922), ‘The effect produced on diabetes by extracts of pancreas.’ Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 1-11. 147

4613.3 Photographed in 1922, this diabetic girl, aged 13, weighed just 45lb before treatment with insulin. A few months later she had made a dramatic recovery. Wellcome Library London, CC BY. 148

4714.1 Aspirin causes birth defects in rats, but not in people. 158

4815.1 Watercolour of Henry Hickman by Richard Cooper, painted in 1912. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 162

4915.2 Drawing of Sir James Young Simpson and friends by unknown artist, representing Simpson’s discovery of the anaesthetic properties of chloroform in humans. Wellcome Library, London, CC BY. 164

5016.1 Deaths from hypertensive disease. Annual deaths per million population. Data from Paton et al. (1978) Highlights of British Science, Silver Jubilee Exhibition, Royal Society, and Compendium of Health Statistics, 8th edition, 1992 (Office of Health Economics). 171

5116.2 Treatment of malignant hypertension with ganglionic blocking drugs. Comparison between 140 treated and 105 untreated patients, percent surviving against time after diagnosis. Data from Paton et al. (1978). 172

5217.1 Effect of penicillin in normal and germ-free guinea pigs. Figures are number of animals per group. Data from S. B. Formal, G. D. Abrams, H. Schneider, and R. Laundy (1963), ‘Penicillin in germ-free guinea pigs.’ Nature, 198:712. 179

5318.1 Columns represent the monthly incidence in Germany of births of children deformed because of ingestion of thalidomide by the mother. Data from W. Lenz (1988), ‘A short history of thalidomide embryopathy.’ Teratology, 38, 203-15. 190

5419.1 Trends in cancer survival in the USA (male and female white), 1960-1963 and 1983-1988. 200

5519.2 Trends in cancer mortality in England and Wales (males), 1950-1990. 201

5619.3 Trends in survival of children under 15 in the USA, 1960-1963 and 1983-1988. 202


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