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Virgil, Aeneid, 4.1–299



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A. Texts

Mynors, R. A. B. (1969), P. Vergili Maronis Opera (Oxford Classical Texts), Oxford.

The Latin Library: (Plain text)

Perseus Collection: Greek and Roman Material:

[Greek and Roman Material, P. Vergilius Maro].

The website includes: (a) The Latin text as edited by J. B. Greenough (1900), hyperlinked to Lewis & Short Dictionary; (b) Notes by John Conington (1876) [See also below under Commentaries]; (c) Notes by Georgius Thilo (1881) [in Latin]; (d) English Translation by John Dryden (1697); (e) English Translation by Theodore C. Williams (1910).

The Vergil Project at the University of Pennsylvania:

B. Recent Translations

Ahl, F. (2007) The Aeneid, Oxford (Oxford World’s Classics).

In verse; contains an introduction by Elaine Fantham, translator’s note, maps, annotation and index.

Fairclough, H. R. and Goold, G. P. (2001), Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid 1–6, Cambridge, MA (Loeb Classical Library).

West, D. A. (1991), The Aeneid, London (Penguin Classics). For his reflections on the experience of translating the Aeneid see: West, D. (1990), ‘The Aeneid and the Translator’, Greece & Rome, 2nd series, 37.1, 52–64.

C. Modern Commentaries (in chronological order):

Conington, J. (1884), The Works of Virgil, Volume II: Aeneid I–VI, 4th edn rev. by H. Nettleship.

[= Conington’s Virgil, Aeneid Books III–VI. Text and commentary on the Aeneid Books III–VI by John Conington reproduced from Volume II of The Works of Virgil (fourth edition revised by Henry Nettleship), with a new general introduction by Philip Hardie and an introduction to the Aeneid by Anne Rogerson, Bristol Phoenix Press 2008]

Page, T. E. (1894), The Aeneid of Virgil: Books I–VI, London.

Pease, A. S. (1935), Publi Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Quartus, Cambridge, MA.

Austin, R. G. (1963), P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Quartus, Oxford.

Williams, R. D. (1972), Virgil, Aeneid Books I–VI: Edited with Introduction and Notes, Basingstoke and London. (Now published by Bristol Classical Press.)

Maclennan, K. (2007), Virgil, Aeneid IV, edited with introduction, notes & vocabulary, Bristol.

O’Hara, J. J. (2011), Vergil. Aeneid Book 4. Focus Vergil Aeneid commentaries, Newburyport, MA.

D. Introductions

All of the commentaries listed above also include brief introductions with information on the author, the historical background, and the literary tradition. In addition, the following books provide useful first orientation:

Gransden, K. W. (2004), Virgil, The Aeneid: A Student Guide, 2nd edn by S. J. Harrison, Cambridge.

Griffin, J. (1988), Virgil, Oxford [reprinted by Bristol Classical Press, 2001].

Hardie, P. (1998), Virgil, Greece & Rome New Surveys in the Classics, Oxford.

E. Secondary Literature

This section lists all items cited by author and date in the Commentary and the Essays (including items also featured under A–D above) as well as a smattering of other publications of special interest for Aeneid 4. If you would like to supplement your reading of the entire poem with a critical companion, the collection of essays edited by Perkell (1999) may be what you are looking for: it offers one piece of scholarly writing on each of the books of the Aeneid and a couple of generalizing extras.

Anderson, W. S. (1968), ‘Pastor Aeneas: On Pastoral Themes in the Aeneid’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 99, 1–17.

— (2006), ‘Ancient Illustrations of the Aeneid: The Hunts of Books 4 and 7’, Classical World 99.2, 157–65.

Armstrong, R. (2002), ‘Crete in the Aeneid: Recurring Trauma and Alternative Fate’, Classical Quarterly 52, 321–40.

— (2006), Cretan Women: Pasiphae, Ariadne, and Phaedra in Latin Poetry, Oxford.

Austin, R. G. (1963), P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Quartus, Oxford.

— (1971), P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Primus, Oxford.

Barchiesi, A. (1998), ‘The Statue of Athena at Troy and Carthage’, in P. Knox and C. Foss (eds.), Style and Tradition. Studies in Honor of Wendell Clausen, Stuttgart and Leipzig, 130–40.

Beard, M. (1990), ‘Priesthood in the Roman Republic’, in M. Beard and J. North (eds.), Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World, London, pp. 19–48.

— (2007), The Roman Triumph, Cambridge, MA.

—, North, J., Price, S. (1998), Religions of Rome, 2 vols, Cambridge.

Boyle, A. J. (ed.) (1993), Roman Epic, London.

Cairns, F. (1989), Virgil’s Augustan Epic, Cambridge.

Caldwell, L. (2008), ‘Dido’s Deductio: Aeneid 4.127–65’, Classical Philology 103, 423–34.

Clausen, W. V. (1987), Virgil’s Aeneid and the Tradition of Hellenistic Poetry, Berkeley, CA. [Revised and expanded as Virgil’s Aeneid. Decorum, Allusion and Ideology, Munich and Leipzig 2002]

Collard, C. (1975), ‘Medea and Dido’, Prometheus 1, 131–52.

Conington, J. (1884), The Works of Virgil, Volume II: Aeneid I–VI, 4th edn rev. by H. Nettleship.

Cowan, R. (2009), ‘Scanning Iulus: Prosody, Position and Politics in the Aeneid’, Vergilius 55, 3–12.

— (2011), ‘Hopefully Surviving: The Limits of devotio in Virgil and Others’, Proceedings of the Virgil Society 27, 56–98.

Davidson, J. (1998), ‘Domesticating Dido: History and Historicity’, in M. Burden (ed.), A Woman Scorn’d. Responses to the Dido Myth, London, 65–88.

Dionisotti, C. (2007), ‘Ecce’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 50, 75–91.

Dyer, R. R. (1989), ‘Vergil’s Fama: A New Interpretation of Aeneid 4.173ff.’, Greece & Rome 36, 28–32.

Dyson, J. T. (1996), ‘Dido the Epicurean’, Classical Antiquity 15.2, 203–21.

— (1997), ‘Fluctus Irarum, Fluctus Curarum: Lucretian Religio in the Aeneid’, American Journal of Philology 118, 449–57.

Estevez, V. A. (1982), ‘Oculos ad moenia torsit: On Aeneid 4.220’, Classical Philology 77, 22–34.

Feeney, D. C. (1983), ‘The Taciturnity of Aeneas’, Classical Quarterly 33, 204–19 [reprinted in Harrison 1990].

— (1991), The Gods in Epic, Oxford.

— (1998), ‘The Appearance(s) of Mercury and the Motivation of Aeneas’, in M. Burden (ed.), A Woman Scorn’d. Responses to the Dido Myth, London, 105–30.

Flaig, E. (1991), ‘Amnestie und Amnesie in der griechischen Kultur: das vergessene Selbstopfer für den Sieg im athenischen Bürgerkrieg 403 v. Chr.’, Saeculum 42, 129–49.

Flower, H. (1996), Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture, Oxford.

Fowler, D. P. (2000), ‘Deviant Focalisation in Virgil’s Aeneid’ in Roman Constructions: Readings in Postmodern Latin, Oxford, 40–63 [reprinted from Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 36, 1990, 42–63.]

Gibson, R. K. (1999), ‘Aeneas as Hospes in Vergil, Aeneid 1 and 4’, Classical Quarterly 49.1, 184–202.

Gildenhard, I. (2007), ‘Virgil vs. Ennius, or: The Undoing of the Annalist’, in W. Fitzgerald and E. Gowers (eds.), Ennius Perennis: The Annals and Beyond, Cambridge, 73–102.

— (2011), Creative Eloquence: The Construction of Reality in Cicero’s Speeches, Oxford.

Goldberg, S. (1995), Epic in Republican Rome, New York and Oxford.

Goldhill, S. (2004), Love, Sex, and Tragedy: How the Ancient World Shapes Our Lives, Chicago.

Gordon, P. (1998), ‘Dido the Phaeacian: Lost Pleasures of an Epicurean Intertext’, Classical Antiquity 17.2, 188–211.

Gutting, E. (2006), ‘Marriage in the Aeneid: Venus, Vulcan, and Dido’, Classical Philology 101.3, 263–79.

Hall, A. E. W. (2011), ‘” And Cytherea Smiled”: Sappho, Hellenistic Poetry, and Virgil’s Allusive Mechanics’, American Journal of Philology 132, 615–31.

Hardie, P. R. (1986), Virgil’s Aeneid: Cosmos and Imperium, Oxford.

— (1993), The Epic Successors of Virgil, Cambridge.

— (1997), ‘Virgil and Tragedy’, in C. Martindale (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, Cambridge, 312–26.

— (2006), ‘Virgil’s Ptolemaic Relations’, Journal of Roman Studies 96, 25–41.

— (2009), Lucretian Receptions: History, the Sublime, Knowledge, Cambridge.

— (2012), Rumour and Renown: Representations of Fama in Western Literature, Cambridge.

Harrison, S. J. (ed.) (1990), Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford.

Heinze, R. (1999), Virgil’s Epic Technique, tr. H. and D. Harvey and F. Robertson, 2nd edn, Bristol [from the 3rd edition of the German, 1914].

Hejduk, J. (2009), ‘Jupiter’s Aeneid: Fama and Imperium’, Classical Antiquity 28.2, 279–327.

Henderson, J. (2006), ‘Oxford Reds.’ Classic Commentaries on Latin Classics, London.

Hersch, K. K. (2010), The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity, Cambridge.

Hershkowitz, D. (1998), The Madness of Epic: Reading Insanity from Homer to Statius, Oxford.

Hexter, R. (1992), ‘Sidonian Dido’, in R. Hexter and D. Seldon (eds.), Innovations of Antiquity, New York and London, 332–84.

Horsfall, N. M. (1990), ‘Dido in the Light of History’, in S. J. Harrison (ed.), Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford and New York, 127–44. [Reprint from: Proceedings of the Virgil Society 13, 1973–74, 1–13.]

— (ed.) (1995), A Companion to the Study of Virgil, Leiden, Boston, Cologne. [123–34: ‘Aeneid: Book 4: Love, and ethics’] Jones, P. (2011), Reading Virgil: Aeneid I and II, Cambridge.

Kaster, R. A. (1997), ‘The Shame of the Romans’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 127, 1–19.

— (2005), Emotion, restraint, and community in ancient Rome, New York and Oxford.

Knauer, G. N. (1964), Die Aeneis und Homer: Studien zur poetischen Technik Vergils, mit Listen der Homerzitate in der Aeneis, Göttingen. [‘The Aeneid and Homer: Studies on the poetic technique of Virgil, with a list of citations from Homer in the Aeneid’]

— (1965), ‘Vergil’s Aeneid and Homer’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 5, 61–84. [reprinted in Harrison 1990]

Konstan, D. (1986), ‘Venus’ Enigmatic Smile’, Vergilius 32, 18–25.

Langlands, R. (2006), Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome, Cambridge.

Lord, M. L. (1969), ‘Dido as an Example of Chastity: The Influence of Example Literature’, Harvard Library Bulletin 17.1, 22–44.

Lyne, R. O. A. M. (1987), Further Voices in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford.

— (1989), Words and the Poet: Characteristic Techniques of Style in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford.

— (1994), ‘Vergil’s Aeneid: Subversion by Intertextuality: Catullus 66.39-40 and Other Examples’, Greece & Rome 41, 187–204.

Maclennan, K. (2007), Virgil, Aeneid IV, edited with introduction, notes & vocabulary, Bristol.

McDonnell, M. (2006), Roman Manliness: Virtus and the Roman Republic, Cambridge.

Moles, J. (1984), ‘Aristotle and Dido’s Hamartia’, Greece and Rome 31, 48–54.

— (1987), ‘The Tragedy and Guilt of Dido’, in M. Whitby, P. Hardie, and M. Whitby (eds.), Homo Viator. Classical Essays for John Bramble, Bristol, 153–61.

Monti, R. C. (1981), The Dido Episode and the Aeneid: Roman Social and Political Values in the Epic, Leiden.

Morgan, G. (1994), ‘Dido the Wounded Deer’, Vergilius 40, 67–8.

Morwood, J. (1999), A Latin Grammar, Oxford.

Muecke, F. (1983), ‘Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony in the Story of Dido’, American Journal of Philology 104, 134–55.

Murray, O. (1965), ‘Philodemus on the Good King according to Homer’, Journal of Roman Studies 55, 161–82.

Nelis, D. (2001), Vergil’s Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, Oxford.

Newton, F. (1957), ‘Recurrent Imagery in Aeneid IV’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 88, 31–43.

O’Hara, J. J. (1990), Death and the Optimistic Prophecy in Vergil’s Aeneid, Princeton.

— (1993), ‘Dido as “Interpreting Character” at Aeneid 4.56–66’, Arethusa 26.1, 99–114.

— (1996), True Names. Vergil and the Alexandrian Tradition of Etymological Wordplay, Ann Arbor.

— (1997), ‘Virgil’s Style’, in C. Martindale (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, Cambridge, 241–58.

— (2011), Vergil. Aeneid Book 4. Focus Vergil Aeneid commentaries, Newburyport, MA.

Otis, B. (1964), Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry, Oxford.

Panoussi, V. (2009), Greek Tragedy in Vergil’s Aeneid: Ritual, Empire, and Intertext, Cambridge.

Parry, A. (1963), ‘The Two Voices of Virgil’s Aeneid’, Arion 2, 66–80.

Pease, A. S. (1935), Publi Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Quartus, Cambridge, MA.

Perkell, C. (ed.) (1999), Reading Vergil’s Aeneid: An Interpretive Guide, Norman.

Petrini, M. (1997), The Child and the Hero: Coming of Age in Catullus and Vergil, Ann Arbor.

Pöschl, V. (1962), The Art of Vergil: Image and Symbol in the Aeneid, Ann Arbor.

Powell, J. F. G. (2011), ‘Aeneas the Spin Doctor: Rhetorical Self-Presentation in Aeneid 2’, Vergilius 27, 185–202.

Quinn, K. (1968), Virgil’s Aeneid: A Critical Description, London.

Quint, D. (1993), Epic and Empire: Politics and Generic Form from Virgil to Milton, Princeton.

— (2010), ‘Patterns of Myth and History in Aeneid 1–6’, in B. W. Breed, C. Damon, and A. Rossi (eds.), Citizens of Discord: Rome and Its Civil Wars, Oxford, 133–44.

Reed, J. D. (1995), ‘A Further Note on Supplementum Hellenisticum 949: An Imitation by Vergil?’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 106, 94–5.

— (2006), ‘Ardebat Laena: Aeneid 4.262’, Vergilius 52, 55–75.

Schiesaro, A. (2008), ‘Furthest Voices in Virgil’s Dido’, Studi italiani di filologia classica n. s. 6, 60–109, 194–245.

Segal, C. (2000), ‘Dido’s Hesitation in Aeneid 4’, in S. Quinn (ed.), Why Virgil? A Collection of Interpretations, Wauconda, Illinois, 90–100 [reprinted from Classical World 84.1, 1990, 1-12].

Skulsky, S. (1985), ‘” Inuitus, Regina ...”: Aeneas and the Love of Rome’, American Journal of Philology 106, 447–55.

Smith, C. (2006), The Roman Clan: The Gens from Ancient Ideology to Modern Anthropology, Cambridge.

Spence, S. (1999), ‘Varium et Mutabile: Voices of Authority in Aeneid 4’, in C. Perkell (ed.), Reading Vergil’s Aeneid: An Interpretive Guide, Norman, Oklahoma, 80–95.

— (2002), ‘Pietas and Furor: Motivational Forces in the Aeneid’, in W. S. Anderson and L. N. Quartarone (eds.), Approaches to Teaching Vergil’s Aeneid, New York, 46–52.

Starr, R. J. (2003), ‘Aeneas the Rhetorician: Aeneid IV, 279–95’, Latomus 62, 36–46.

Syed, Y. (2005), Vergil’s Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse, Ann Arbor.

Thomas, R. F. (2001), Virgil and the Augustan Reception, Cambridge.

Treggiari, S. (1991), Roman Marriage. Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian, Oxford.

Weber, C. (2002), ‘The Dionysus in Aeneas’, Classical Philology 97, 322–43.

West, D. (1990), ‘Multiple Correspondence Similes in the Aeneid’, in Harrison (1990), 429–44.

Wills, J. (1998), ‘Divided Allusion: Virgil and the Coma Berenices’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 98, 277–305.

Wlosok, A. (1976/1999), ‘The Dido Tragedy in Virgil: A Contribution to the Question of the Tragic in the Aeneid’, in P. Hardie (ed.), Virgil. Critical Assessments of Classical Authors, vol. 4, London and New York, 158–81 [= ‘Vergils Didotragödie. Ein Beitrag zum Problem des Tragischen in der Aeneis’, in H. Görgemanns and E. A. Schmidt (eds.), Studien zum antiken Epos, Meisenheim am Glan, 228–50].



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